Worker s Compensation by zhangyun

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 58

									Instructor:
Lee Reynolds, Associate Professor
Department of Engineering
Technology
Texas Tech University

                            1
Definitions and Theories
  Sources:
     Harvey F. Thomas, Ph.D., CSP, CHMM
     Industrial Safety and Health, David
      Goetsch, Merrill Publishers, pgs. 29-
      39




                                          2
Learning Objectives
  Know the definitions attendant to safety
  and health management
  Know the basic theories of accident
  causation




                                        3
What is Safety

“Is it safe to go into the trench?

“I’m worried about her
  safety harness”

“He’s not a very safe driver”

“Does that nail gun have a safety latch?”
                                            4
What is safety & health
discipline?

  Multi-faceted

  An ill-defined
  domain
                                                        http://www.colored-diamonds.com/page7.htm


  Multi-discipline




               http://www.life.uiuc.edu/crofts/bc-complex_site/chick-bc-complex.gif
                                                                                         5
    Safety & Health Discipline
    Interactions
                                          Industrial
Environmental    Operations     Medical
                                          Hygiene




Transportation         Safety & Health      Information
                                            Systems



Facilities
                 Test and
                                 Legal     Training
                 evaluation                        6
What does safety mean?
Definition of Terms



 “Safety is the prevention of accidents
 and the mitigation of personal injury or
 property damage which may result from
 accidents.”                 This presentation is an
                                    introduction to concepts
                                    presented in text article,
                                    Landmarks in the History of
                                    Safety, pp.10-15.



                                     Mroz                    7
What does the term
“accident” mean?
 “..An accident is a potentially
 harmful energy flow or
 environmental condition that is
 preceded by planning or operation
 oversight or omissions, resulting in
 conditions or actions that trigger
 the incident…..”

                                    8
Then what is safety relative to an
accident?

  “Safety is a condition or state of being
  resulting from the modification of
  human behavior, and/or design of the
  physical environment to reduce the
  possibility of hazards, thereby reducing
  accidents.”

                          Strasser et al.
                                            9
Incident vs. Accident
Accidental triad
  1. When an unwanted energy flow
     occurs or a hostile environmental
     condition develops.
  2. Barriers or controls << than
     adequate.
  3. Persons or objects are in the energy
     path or exposed to the
     environmental condition…

The accidental triad is complete.
                                        10
Definition of terms
   Approaches to Use of Barriers.

    1. Barriers on the energy source.
    2. Barriers on the targets (person or
       objects).
    3. Barriers between the energy flow
       and the targets.
    4. Separation of the flow and targets
       by time or space.                    11
Definition of Terms

 Incident – an incident is not an
 accident--there have been no losses.
 The worst that has happened is a near
 miss. No persons or objects were in the
 energy flow.

 You can remove the person from the
 energy flow or place a barrier between
 him and the energy flow.               12
Definition of Terms
    We all need energy to do our jobs
    and live our lives.

    Then Safety can be defined as the
    preplanned management of
    energy without damaging or
    harmful energy flows.

    You manage energy flow through
    people and materiel resources.
                                        13
“..the absence of adequate
barriers or controls, causes
losses-injury, damage, or
degraded performance-to the
persons or objects in the path of
the energy flow or exposed to
the environmental conditions..”
                                    14
      “That occurrence in
      a sequence of
      events which usually
      produces
      unintended injury,
      death, or property
      damage”.

National Safety Council

                             15
Definition of Terms

 Hazard – condition or set of conditions
 that have the potential to produce
 injury and/or property damage.

 Risk- probability that a hazard will be
 activated and produce injury or
 property damage and the severity of
 the hazard.                               16
Definition of Terms
  Risk involves two components –

    –(1) likelihood that negative situation
         will occur.

    –(2) severity of injury or damage if the
         hazard is activated.
                                               17
Components of risk –probability
and severity
           Highest
           Risk




             http://www.murtongroup.com/images/riskmatrix.gif   18
Definition of Terms continued…
  Loss control – accident prevention
  achieved through complete safety and
  health hazard control program.

  Hazard control – developing program to
  recognize, evaluate, and eliminate
  destructive effects of hazards.

  Hazards can be either human errors or
  workplace conditions.
                                          19
Definition of Terms
continued…
  Accident prevention-elimination of
  factors and conditions that pose hazard
  and risk.

  Accident mitigation-direct confrontation
  of accident causative factors.



                                        20
  Definition of Terms

Injury – damage or harm to body as
result of violence, infection or other
source.
Illness – environmental stress
resulting in abnormal physiological
condition.
Acute illness – immediate effects
Chronic illness – long term
 effects.                                21
Why do accidents happen?

                           22
Theories of Accident Causation
 Major theories presented include:

  Domino Theory of accident
  causation.

  Human Factors Theory of
  Accident Causation


                                     23
Accident/Incident Theory of
Accident Causation.
Epidemiological Theory of Accident
Causation.
Combination Theory of Accident
Causation.



                                     24
Why do Employees get Hurt on
         the JOB?


 Accident Prone?

 Carelessness?




                               25
Equipment Failure?

Hazardous Work?




                     26
       Theories of Accident
           Causation
 Single Factor Theory

     H. W. Heinrich’s Domino Theory
      (1932)

Study concluded that:

 88% industrial accidents caused by
 fellow workers’ unsafe acts.
                                       27
10% by unsafe conditions.

2% unavoidable.




                            28
Theories of Accident
Causation
Heinrick’s Axioms of
 Industrial Safety

  Injuries result from
  completed series of
  Factors, including injury
  itself.


                              29
Theories of Accident
Causation
Heinrich’s Axioms

  Accident can occur through
  unsafe act or mechanical
  hazard.

  Most accidents due to unsafe
  behavior by people.

                                 30
Unsafe act by person or condition
not always accident ending.

   i.e. near misses.




                                    31
Theories of Accident
Causation
  Select corrective actions by
  identifying cause.

  Severity accidental and accident
  preventable.

  Best quality = best accident
  prevention technique.
                                     32
Theories of Accident
Causation
  Management assume
  responsibility for safety.

  Supervisor key in preventing
  industrial accidents.

  Both direct and indirect costs
  with accidents.

                                   33
Heinrich’s Domino Theory
  Three Phases

     Pre-Contact Phase

     Contact Phase

     Post-Contact Phase

                           34
Heinrich’s Domino Theory
Theory has two central points:

     Injuries caused by action of
      preceding factors.

     Removal of central factor (unsafe
      act/hazardous) negates the action
      of preceding factors.

     Prevents accidents via elimination.
                                            35
Heinrich’s Domino Theory
 Five Factors Influence ALL Accidents
 1) Ancestry & Social Environment
 2) Fault of The Person

 3) Unsafe Act/ Mechanical or Physical

 Hazard
 4) Accident

 5) Injury



                                          36
Human Factors Theory of
Accidents
Chain of events caused by human error.

Three factors lead to human error:

    Overload.

    Inappropriate response.

    Inappropriate activities.
                                         37
                     Overload




Inappropriate                         Inappropriate
                Human errors factor
activities                            response




         Factors that cause human errors
                                                      38
               Human Factors Theory



 Overload           Inappropriate     Inappropriate
                    response          activities
•Environmental     •Detecting a       •Performing
factors            hazard but not     tasks without
•Internal          correcting it.     the requisite
factors                               training
                   •Removing
•Situational       safeguards         •Misjudging
factors                               risks
                   •Ignoring safety




                                                    39
Accident/Incident Theory
     Overload

     Ergonomic Traps

     Decision to Err

     Human Error

     System Failure       40
            Petersen’s Accident/Incident Theory


Overload             Ergonomic Traps    Decision to err.
•Pressure                                •Misjudgment
                     •Incompatible
•Fatigue             workstation         of the risks

•Motivation          •Incompatible       •Unconscious
                     expectations        desire to err
•Drugs, alcohol
                                         •Logical
•Worry                                   decision


                      Human Error
Systems failure
                      Accident
•Responsibility
•Training
                      Injury/damage
•Policy
                                                         41
•Inspection
                        Epidemiological
                        Theory




Predisposition                                   Situational
Characteristics                                  Characteristics

•Perceptions                                   •Risk
                                               assessment by
•Environmental                                 individuals
Factors
                                               •Peer pressure
•Susceptibility of
people                                         •Priorities of the
                                               supervisor
                                               •Attitude



               Can cause or prevent accident
               conditions
                                                                42
                   Collect
Systems Theory   Information
  Person
                  Weigh Risks
  Machine
                  Make Decisions
  Environment
                  Task to be
                 Performed

                                43
   System Theory of Causation
                   Feedback Loop

                            Weigh   Make
                            risks   decision

    Persons
     Persons
Machine
                                               Task to be
   Environment                                 performed
Interaction

              Collect
              information           Stress factors???
                                                            44
System Theory of Causation
Firenzie recommendation factors
before beginning collecting,
weighing,and making decisions.

     Job requirements.

     Worker’s abilities and
      limitations.


                                  45
   Loss if task is attempted but
    fails.

   Loss if task is not attempted.




                                     46
 Energy-Related Accident
    Causation Theory
Accidents can be prevented by
controlling the energy involved or
changing the structures that cause the
damage.




                                     47
Energy-Related Accident
Causation Theory
  Limit the Energy

  Substitute a Safer Form of Energy

  Prevent Energy Build-up




                                      48
Prevent the Release of the Energy

Provide for a Slow Release of the
Energy

Channel the Release Away


                                    49
Energy-Related Accident
Causation Theory
  Place a Barrier on the Energy Source.

  Place a Barrier Between the Energy and
  Person.

  Place a Barrier on the Person.


                                          50
Raise the Injury or Damage Threshold.

Ameliorate the Effects.

Rehabilitate.


                                    51
Combination Theory
  Often cause of accident
  cannot be explained by
  one theory.

  Cause may be due to
  parts of several different
  models to varying
  degrees.

                               52
Behavioral Scientists
  McGregor
  Herzberg
  Likert
  Argyris
  Blake and Mouton
  Skinner


                        53
Theories of Accident Causation
Summary

 The domino theory of accident
 causation was one of the earliest
 developed.

 The human factor theory of
 accident causation attributes
 accidents to a chain of event
 caused by human error.
                                     54
Theories of Accident
Causation




                       55
Theories of Accident
Causation
•Epidemiological theory-models for
epidemiological factors and disease
good for epidemiological factors and
accident.


•Systems theory views accident
situation as combination of person,
machine and environment.
                                       56
• Combination theory claims that no
  one model/theory can explain all
  accident.




                                      57
Questions????




                58

								
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