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Reclaimed Water as Alternative Water Supply

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					Reclaimed Water in South Florida

And Its Connection with Hydro(geo)logy

              Rick Nevulis, P.G.
          Water Reuse Coordinator
      Water Supply Department , SFWMD
               February 17, 2010
        South Florida Hydrologic Society
                    Davie, FL
Why am I talking about this?

   Why Me? – I’m the Water Reuse
    Coordinator at the SFWMD
   Why the SFWMD? The SFWMD doesn’t
    regulate reclaimed water, but we do
    actively promote and encourage its usage
    As a hydrogeologist, perhaps I can lend
    that perspective with regard to reclaimed
    water
First, A Glance at Reclaimed
    Water in the SFWMD
              What is
         Reclaimed Water?
Water that has received at least secondary
treatment and basic disinfection and is
reused after flowing out of a domestic
wastewater treatment facility for a beneficial
purpose
Treatment levels to match uses:
          Irrigation (golf courses, residents)
          Groundwater recharge
          Industrial uses (e.g., FPL)
          Environmental enhancement
           (wetlands)
 South Florida Water
 Management District
Ensure adequate water supply for
current & future users & the
environment & protect water quality
    Water Supply Plans
    Water Use Permits
    Minimum Flows & Levels & Reservations
    Fund Alternative Water Supplies
 Florida Department of
Environmental Protection

         Water Quality Issues

       Water body classifications
       Water quality standards
       Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
       Impaired water bodies
     How will the increasing
    demand for water be met?
                                         ASR, 16
                             Reclaimed
                                                   Brackish
                              Water,
                                177                 Water,
                                                      88




   300+ New Water Supply
    Projects identified in                         Surface
    the Water Supply Plans                         Water,
                                                     33
Integrated Water Supply Portfolio
           -Example-
               Ocean
             Desalination    Conservation

                    3%
                             15%
  Imported
    water                                   Recycling
              29%                  14%

  DIVERSITY = RELIABILITY
                            39%


                                    Groundwater
               SFWMD’s Reuse History
      300


      250


      200
mgd




      150


      100


      50


       0
            1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

                                          Volume
 Wastewater Treatment Plant
Flow by SFWMD Planning Area


          82 MGD
                    19 MGD




        83 MGD
                    650 MGD
       SFWMD Wastewater
        Disposal Methods
35% Deep Injection                28% Reuse




                                          2% Surface Water
          35% Ocean Outfall                   & Other


                          Total Wastewater Flow: 851 MGD
                                Reuse Summary by Planning Region
                                1000
                                                    887                                            Wastewater Flow, MGD
                                                                                                   Reuse, MGD
                                800
Million Gallons Per Day (MGD)




                                        642

                                600



                                                          397
                                400




                                200                                      143
                                                                               127                                134 134
                                                                 81 73                                    81 81
                                               69
                                                                                     19     9   29 25

                                  0
                                        2006        2025        2006     2025        2006       2025      2006     2025
                                       Lower East Coast         Lower West Coast     Upper East Coast    Kissimmee Basin
      100%
                        Reuse Across the SFWMD

       100%        46%

        100%                  % of Wastewater
                        73%
                                  Reused
87%   100%
                  29%
                                Reuse System
       76%        5%

                              Number of Systems: ~110
                  6%          Total Reused: ~230 MGD
             4%
                                  MGD = Million Gallons per Day
             Lower East Coast

              Driving Factors
                Regional water availability rule
   Lake
Okeechobee
                Ocean outfall legislation
                Miami-Dade Water Use Permit
                Irrigation based reuse
                More groundwater recharge?




                        Based on 2007 FDEP Inventory
             Lower East Coast
             Successes
              Palm Beach County
             Challenges
   Lake       Highly urbanized
Okeechobee

              No large users; limited irrigation
              Everglades restoration
              Cost / Water Quality / Treatment
              Public education
              Ocean outfall legislation



                      Based on 2007 FDEP Inventory
           Pompano Beach
 Pulls water from Broward County ocean
  outfall pipe
 7.5 MGD capacity
 Irrigation of residential lots, golf course and
  park
 Pilot project to test saline barrier
            Palm Beach County
             Southern Region
   Serves western Delray Beach/Boynton Beach
   Mandatory Reuse Zone
   Irrigation of 3,325 residential lots, 4 golf
    courses, and 2 parks
   150 acres of created wetlands
       Green Cay & Wakodahatchee
    Water Reuse in Everglades
           Restoration
                           Biscayne Bay Coastal
                            Wetlands Rehydration
                               Pilot project in
Bird Drive                      planning phase
                           Bird Drive Recharge
                            Area
                               Postponed
                               Dependent on West
             Biscayne
             Bay                WWTP for reclaimed
                                water
       SFWMD Wastewater
        Disposal Methods
35% Deep Injection           28% Reuse




                                     2% Surface Water
                                         & Other
   35% Ocean Outfall
                     Total Wastewater Flow: 851 MGD
   Lake
Okeechobee                Active Ocean
                        Outfalls in Florida
                            South Central Regional - 13 MGD
                           Boca Raton - 10 MGD
                              Broward Co. North - 37 MGD


                              Hollywood - 40 MGD
                                 Miami-Dade North - 81 MGD

                                 Miami-Dade Central District - 115 MGD



                                   Total = 297 MGD




             *Average daily flow from 2003 through 2007
     Ocean Outfall Legislation
         Requirements
   By the end of 2025 use of the outfalls for
    wastewater disposal will be eliminated

   Requires 60% of outfall facility flows to be reused

   Outfalls may only be
    used after 2025 to
    discharge wet weather
    flows from reuse
    systems during times
    when reclaimed water
    cannot be used
   Lake
Okeechobee
                               Legislated Water
                               Reuse from Outfall
                               Facilities
                  7.7 MGD
                              South Central Regional
                 6.2 MGD
                              Boca Raton
               22.4 MGD      Broward Co. North

               24.1 MGD
                             Hollywood
             48.6 MGD       Miami-Dade North

         68.9 MGD           Miami-Dade Central District

Total = 178 MGD
That’s the quick overview of
 water reuse in the SFWMD
Typical Hydrologic Cycle
        “Urban” Hydrologic Cycle
                  Not a cycle on the local level
                  Fresh water is wasted to the
  Source           ocean or deep injection wells




Supply Well   Water Treatment    Water Use
                                             Wastewater
                                              Disposal
                     Unplanned Reuse




Missouri River
Upper Mississippi River
Ohio River
Arkansas River
Lower Mississippi River
Tennessee River
Unplanned Urban Hydrologic Cycle

                         Water Use
          City #1
                      Wastewater Disposal




                       Water Use
        City #2
                    Wastewater Disposal




                        Water Use
         City #3
                    Wastewater Disposal

           Etc.
       New and Improved Urban
          Hydrologic Cycle

  Source




                                                         X
Supply Well        Water Treatment     Water Use
                                                       Wastewater
                                                        Disposal
           This is where it gets interesting - where
             to reuse/put/store the reclaimed water
            Where will the
         reclaimed water go?
   Land Application (irrigation, perc ponds,
    etc.)
   Ponds, Lakes, Wetlands
   Subsurface
       ASR
       Injection/ Recharge
           Floridan Aquifer
           Surficial Aquifer
    Subsurface injection may be
      an attractive alternative
Some of the reuse surface challenges for south Florida
  utilities are:
   Identifying enough surface recipients
   Identify enough high-volume recipients, especially
    during wet times
   Getting reclaimed water to them (urban pipes = $$)
   In light of these restrictions, subsurface injection may
    be an attractive alternative
      What kind of subsurface
     reuse ideas are out there?
   Saline intrusion barrier (Pompano Beach)
   Floridan aquifer (in Broward County?)
   Surficial aquifer (Pembroke Pines, Miami-
    Dade, others?)
       What issues are driving
        subsurface reuse?
          (as with other reuse options)

   Disposal – you got to put it somewhere
   Health, environmental, water quality
    considerations (FDEP)
   Economics, economics, economics
   Legislation (e.g., ocean outfall legislation)
   Water use permitting – If I’m increasing the
    size of the “water pie”, I would like to reuse it
Example of the complexities


           Miami-Dade
            Metro Zoo
        What are the issues with
        using reclaimed water at
             the Metro Zoo?
         (as with most other potential sites)

   Miami Dade wants to use the water resources
    wisely
   WWTP permits (FDEP)
   SFWMD water use permit
   Mandated in the Ocean Outfall Legislation
   To increase its water allocation from the
    SFWMD
          Example of the complexities
                                              Moat




                                                                    Drainage Canal




             Regional Canal




                          Proposed
                          Biscayne Wells




Note: Locations are conceptual. Intended for discussion purposes only
               What are the challenges?
   Water quality
       Reclaimed water
       Moat
       Wellfield                                          ?
       Canal                          ?
                                                 ?
   Moat or shallow wells?
   SFWMD water use permit
       For an offset:
            recharge wellfield
            recharge regional canal

    Note: Locations are generalized. Intended for discussion purposes only
               In Summary
   People generate wastewater
   Wastewater can be disposed or reused
   If reused, it requires additional treatment
    (maybe RO, nutrient removal, etc.?)
   Subsurface storage and recharge is an
    attractive alternative to traditional reuse
   Reuse increases the size of the “water pie”,
    and reduces stress on other sources
    (groundwater).
   Reclaimed water may not be perfect, but it may
    be better than not having any water, right?
“If water is life…water conservation
and reuse must be our way of life.”




        Use it Again, South Florida!

				
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