Reclaimed Water in South Florida And Its Connection with Hydro(geo)logy Rick Nevulis, P.G. Water Reuse Coordinator Water Supply Department , SFWMD February 17, 2010 South Florida Hydrologic Society Davie, FL Why am I talking about this? Why Me? – I’m the Water Reuse Coordinator at the SFWMD Why the SFWMD? The SFWMD doesn’t regulate reclaimed water, but we do actively promote and encourage its usage As a hydrogeologist, perhaps I can lend that perspective with regard to reclaimed water First, A Glance at Reclaimed Water in the SFWMD What is Reclaimed Water? Water that has received at least secondary treatment and basic disinfection and is reused after flowing out of a domestic wastewater treatment facility for a beneficial purpose Treatment levels to match uses: Irrigation (golf courses, residents) Groundwater recharge Industrial uses (e.g., FPL) Environmental enhancement (wetlands) South Florida Water Management District Ensure adequate water supply for current & future users & the environment & protect water quality Water Supply Plans Water Use Permits Minimum Flows & Levels & Reservations Fund Alternative Water Supplies Florida Department of Environmental Protection Water Quality Issues Water body classifications Water quality standards Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Impaired water bodies How will the increasing demand for water be met? ASR, 16 Reclaimed Brackish Water, 177 Water, 88 300+ New Water Supply Projects identified in Surface the Water Supply Plans Water, 33 Integrated Water Supply Portfolio -Example- Ocean Desalination Conservation 3% 15% Imported water Recycling 29% 14% DIVERSITY = RELIABILITY 39% Groundwater SFWMD’s Reuse History 300 250 200 mgd 150 100 50 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Volume Wastewater Treatment Plant Flow by SFWMD Planning Area 82 MGD 19 MGD 83 MGD 650 MGD SFWMD Wastewater Disposal Methods 35% Deep Injection 28% Reuse 2% Surface Water 35% Ocean Outfall & Other Total Wastewater Flow: 851 MGD Reuse Summary by Planning Region 1000 887 Wastewater Flow, MGD Reuse, MGD 800 Million Gallons Per Day (MGD) 642 600 397 400 200 143 127 134 134 81 73 81 81 69 19 9 29 25 0 2006 2025 2006 2025 2006 2025 2006 2025 Lower East Coast Lower West Coast Upper East Coast Kissimmee Basin 100% Reuse Across the SFWMD 100% 46% 100% % of Wastewater 73% Reused 87% 100% 29% Reuse System 76% 5% Number of Systems: ~110 6% Total Reused: ~230 MGD 4% MGD = Million Gallons per Day Lower East Coast Driving Factors Regional water availability rule Lake Okeechobee Ocean outfall legislation Miami-Dade Water Use Permit Irrigation based reuse More groundwater recharge? Based on 2007 FDEP Inventory Lower East Coast Successes Palm Beach County Challenges Lake Highly urbanized Okeechobee No large users; limited irrigation Everglades restoration Cost / Water Quality / Treatment Public education Ocean outfall legislation Based on 2007 FDEP Inventory Pompano Beach Pulls water from Broward County ocean outfall pipe 7.5 MGD capacity Irrigation of residential lots, golf course and park Pilot project to test saline barrier Palm Beach County Southern Region Serves western Delray Beach/Boynton Beach Mandatory Reuse Zone Irrigation of 3,325 residential lots, 4 golf courses, and 2 parks 150 acres of created wetlands Green Cay & Wakodahatchee Water Reuse in Everglades Restoration Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands Rehydration Pilot project in Bird Drive planning phase Bird Drive Recharge Area Postponed Dependent on West Biscayne Bay WWTP for reclaimed water SFWMD Wastewater Disposal Methods 35% Deep Injection 28% Reuse 2% Surface Water & Other 35% Ocean Outfall Total Wastewater Flow: 851 MGD Lake Okeechobee Active Ocean Outfalls in Florida South Central Regional - 13 MGD Boca Raton - 10 MGD Broward Co. North - 37 MGD Hollywood - 40 MGD Miami-Dade North - 81 MGD Miami-Dade Central District - 115 MGD Total = 297 MGD *Average daily flow from 2003 through 2007 Ocean Outfall Legislation Requirements By the end of 2025 use of the outfalls for wastewater disposal will be eliminated Requires 60% of outfall facility flows to be reused Outfalls may only be used after 2025 to discharge wet weather flows from reuse systems during times when reclaimed water cannot be used Lake Okeechobee Legislated Water Reuse from Outfall Facilities 7.7 MGD South Central Regional 6.2 MGD Boca Raton 22.4 MGD Broward Co. North 24.1 MGD Hollywood 48.6 MGD Miami-Dade North 68.9 MGD Miami-Dade Central District Total = 178 MGD That’s the quick overview of water reuse in the SFWMD Typical Hydrologic Cycle “Urban” Hydrologic Cycle Not a cycle on the local level Fresh water is wasted to the Source ocean or deep injection wells Supply Well Water Treatment Water Use Wastewater Disposal Unplanned Reuse Missouri River Upper Mississippi River Ohio River Arkansas River Lower Mississippi River Tennessee River Unplanned Urban Hydrologic Cycle Water Use City #1 Wastewater Disposal Water Use City #2 Wastewater Disposal Water Use City #3 Wastewater Disposal Etc. New and Improved Urban Hydrologic Cycle Source X Supply Well Water Treatment Water Use Wastewater Disposal This is where it gets interesting - where to reuse/put/store the reclaimed water Where will the reclaimed water go? Land Application (irrigation, perc ponds, etc.) Ponds, Lakes, Wetlands Subsurface ASR Injection/ Recharge Floridan Aquifer Surficial Aquifer Subsurface injection may be an attractive alternative Some of the reuse surface challenges for south Florida utilities are: Identifying enough surface recipients Identify enough high-volume recipients, especially during wet times Getting reclaimed water to them (urban pipes = $$) In light of these restrictions, subsurface injection may be an attractive alternative What kind of subsurface reuse ideas are out there? Saline intrusion barrier (Pompano Beach) Floridan aquifer (in Broward County?) Surficial aquifer (Pembroke Pines, Miami- Dade, others?) What issues are driving subsurface reuse? (as with other reuse options) Disposal – you got to put it somewhere Health, environmental, water quality considerations (FDEP) Economics, economics, economics Legislation (e.g., ocean outfall legislation) Water use permitting – If I’m increasing the size of the “water pie”, I would like to reuse it Example of the complexities Miami-Dade Metro Zoo What are the issues with using reclaimed water at the Metro Zoo? (as with most other potential sites) Miami Dade wants to use the water resources wisely WWTP permits (FDEP) SFWMD water use permit Mandated in the Ocean Outfall Legislation To increase its water allocation from the SFWMD Example of the complexities Moat Drainage Canal Regional Canal Proposed Biscayne Wells Note: Locations are conceptual. Intended for discussion purposes only What are the challenges? Water quality Reclaimed water Moat Wellfield ? Canal ? ? Moat or shallow wells? SFWMD water use permit For an offset: recharge wellfield recharge regional canal Note: Locations are generalized. Intended for discussion purposes only In Summary People generate wastewater Wastewater can be disposed or reused If reused, it requires additional treatment (maybe RO, nutrient removal, etc.?) Subsurface storage and recharge is an attractive alternative to traditional reuse Reuse increases the size of the “water pie”, and reduces stress on other sources (groundwater). Reclaimed water may not be perfect, but it may be better than not having any water, right? “If water is life…water conservation and reuse must be our way of life.” Use it Again, South Florida!