Environmental Factors

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					Cranes and Hoists

    Auburn University

•   There is a large variety of material handling equipment and
    materials to be handled as well as varied environments that
    materials can be handled in
•   This creates a variety of potential hazards to be aware of

•    Some of the various issues in mechanical material
     – Electrical powered equipment versus other power
            – Mobile versus stationary equipment
    – Varied hazards related to specific materials such as:
       flammable or toxic materials versus grains or metal

– Environmental issues such as lighting, work area, pedestrian
  traffic etc…
– Equipment maintenance level
– Training of personnel in use of various mechanical lifting
• Needless to say, mechanical material handling is an area in
  which attention must be paid to training, equipment and the
  task at hand

•   Hazards in material handling:
     – Failure of lifting equipment
     – Falling loads
     – Material in motion

•   General Material Handling Controls:
     – Planning of operation steps to reduce unnecessary material
     – Select correct handling equipment for the task
     – Use equipment correctly
     – Training of operators and personnel in areas where materials
       will be in motion
     – Control of environmental risk factors
Various Mechanized Material
     Handling Devices

     •   Jacks
     •   Hand operated material handling vehicles
     •   Powered vehicles
     •   Hoisting apparatus
     •   Rigging used to lift loads, Ropes, chains, slings
     •   Conveyors

•   Types:
     – Hydraulic
     – Mechanical
     – Pneumatic

•   Hazards with Jacks:
     – Overloading capacity
          • Ground can not support load, load deforms, jack failure
     – Inherent instability of design and risk of tipping
     – Load slippage: example metal jack with metal load
        increases risk of slippage due to low friction

•   Controls:
     – Verify jack capacity matches load to be lifted
     – Verify jack is placed on solid support surface
     – Verify jack is plumb
     – Stabilize load as appropriate
     – People should be clear of the load
     – Jacks are not intended as load supports…use appropriate
        blocking or support once lifted with jack
Hand Operated Material
  Handling Vehicles

   •   Types:
        – Hand trucks
        – Dollies
        – Carts
        – Wheelbarrows
        – Hand operated powered vehicles
Hand Operated Material
  Handling Vehicles

•   Hazards:
     – Load shifting and tipping or falling
     – Operator striking the handles against a surface and
        injuring the hand while moving a load
     – Tall load may obscure operator’s vision
     – Various risks associated with moving loads, environment
        and traffic…
Hand Operated Material
  Handling Vehicles

•   Controls:
     – Loads should be secure and sized to not interfere with
     – Weights of loads within limits of device and operator
     – Pull loads with tongue and handle long enough to protect
        feet from run over
    Hand Operated Material
      Handling Vehicles

•   Controls;
     – Limit speed to safe amount for operator and device
     – Keep environment clear of obstacles
     – Other features: large flotation type tires for various terrain,
        hand guards, bumpers on device to limit damage or injury in
      Hoisting Apparatus

•   Vertical, lateral or combined material hoisting and positioning
     – Hoists
     – Block and Tackle
     – Winches
     – Cranes
     – Multitude of various configurations, power systems, vehicles,
         and applications of the above
Hoisting Apparatus

• Most include some type of rigging to secure the load
  to the hoisting device
    Hoisting Apparatus

•   Hazards:
     – Falling loads
     – Load limits for stability and risk of tipping when exceeded
     – Visibility may be hampered by loads or transfers
     – Support surface
    Hoisting Apparatus

•   Hazards:
     – Other hazards related to maintenance or condition of the
        equipment, power sources, specific hazards to the
        operation or materials involved
       Hoisting Apparatus

•   Controls:
     – Set up and planning-safe environment, rigging
     – Equipment inspection
     – Verify load limits
     – Operator training in specific apparatus and operation
     – Operator must be aware of environment: people in area etc….
    Hoisting Apparatus

•   Inspection of all rigging material and hooks for serviceability
           General Points

•   Operators are responsible;
     – to inspect the environment- pathways, people, surface
     – be familiar with equipment and load ratings
     – to inspect the equipment and any rigging
     – to be familiar with the operation and various materials