Key challenges facing fisheries management at EU level! What role for local approaches and FLAGs? How can they relate to broader regional and sea basin strategies? The role of local partnerships in developing innovative and sustainable strategies in fisheries areas European Maritime Day Workshop Friday 21 May 2010 Gijon, Spain Jesper Raakjær Professor and Head of Centre IFM Department of Development and Planning THE PRESENT SITUATION • Overfishing has been evident for many years, resulting in a critical resource situation. • Massive overcapacity created by excessive (subsidised) investments. • Poor profitability of the industry. • Fishing communities are struggling for their livelihoods, and the smallest fisheries communities are under severe threat. • Fisheries are loosing their economic importance even in traditional fishing areas. THE FISHERIES SYSTEM Governance system Policy-making Management decision-making Information Intervention Information Axis 4 The natural system Activities in the The socio-economic system fisheries sector Hirtshals Hirtshals Present and future approaches • Strong tendency to apply off-the-peg approaches (one- size-fits-all) – It is particularly problematic that differences between fisheries and fishing communities are not acknowledged; the dynamics in a specific fishery or fishing community need to be captured in order to improve management performance. • Need to differentiate – Fishing communities part of the broader economy – diversification – need for Axis 4 – Small scale fisheries (coastal or inland) – Preparing for integration • Maritime Policy • MPA • Natura 2000 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ECONOMIC STRUCTURE OF THE FISHING SECTOR • The EU fishing industry is fragmented in almost all respects, which implies a fragmented interest structure of the fishing sector – All types of conflicts of interest across member states can be found in relation to the CFP. – It is largely a delusion that there are common interests and objectives among member states within the fisheries domain. – Thus, the CFP has to cope with fragmentation rather than commonalities. Lild strand Skagen MANAGEMENT REGIME CHARACTERISTICS • Problems of implementation drift and lack of enforcement in the member states – National implementation has undermined the performance of the CFP by-passing the intentions of the CFP for political reasons. Management regulations have been subverted due to a lack of enforcement or lack of knowledge of the conditions and factors that influence rule compliance among fishermen. • A clash between the ways administrators and fishermen view the goals and means of the management regime – Often regulations are being endorsed that do not reflect the dynamics in fishing and the fishing communities. What are considered to be good solutions at the administrative level rarely reflect the practical reality at sea or in fishing communities. Hirtshals Skagen PROMISSING SOLUTIONS FOR INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE OF THE CFP • Removal of structural aid Even though removal of structural aid would be the most effective way to restore stocks and to strengthen the economic viability of the European fishing sector in the longer term. It has almost no chance of being accepted. Nevertheless, structural aid should be redirected to “fishing” communities to both support innovative development with in the fishing sector, but also create alternative employment and income outside fishing. Here FLAGs have an important role to play! • Regionalisation of the CFP An institutional framework with the CFP as a suite of de facto eco-region fisheries policies would accommodate many of the present political challenges. This is further in line with the move towards eco-system based management. • Devolution of management responsibilities It is important that user and stakeholder participation is moved beyond the consultative type of co-management and towards an incentive structure that fosters responsible behaviour among participants. The large demands on DG MARE are likely to require some form of devolution. This obvious calls for local approaches to fisheries management and development. Hirtshals THANK YOU FOR THE ATTENTION!