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War With Mexico

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					War With Mexico
   “Ivasión Yanqui”

    1846-1848
Causes of War
   Annexation of Texas

   US citizens in Mexico
    make claims against
    the Mexican Gov’t

   Desire to acquire California
Nueces River Dispute

               Texas:
                 Southern Border
                 at the Rio Grande


               Mexico:
                 Northern Border
                 at the Nueces

               ~ 100 miles
                 discrepancy
John Slidell
Diplomat

Goals:
  – boundary adjustments
    in TX (Rio Grande)
  – purchase CA & NM


Refused by Mexico
    James K. Polk
   Bullies a weaker nation
    to extend slavery

   “Polk the Purposeful”
    sets a trap

   Withheld details from
    congress, negotiated
    with Santa Anna
President Polk prepares to take his slice of Mexico's territorial pie.
        Controversial War
       Critics                  Supporters
 An act of aggression       Justified as the
 A strong nation
                              preservation of
                              fundamental beliefs
  attacking a weak one
  to force concessions
                              – “Manifest Destiny”
  unable to be
  negotiated


           Also the question of “who started it?”
      Ultimately, Mexican-American War divided the nation
           Tarnished the US’s international reputation




How are Americans viewed today?
            (Internationally, foreign policy)


How does this war shape the culture of the
 modern Southwest?
            (inter-cultural relations, trust of the government)
Propaganda
Daily newspapers,
  printed on rotary
  presses, gave the
  war a romantic
  appeal.
The Human Toll
The U.S. Army Crosses a Mountain
    The Return of Santa Anna
   1844, ousted as pres.

   Exiled in Cuba

   Polk scheme cooperation

   Went back on his word,
    resumed Mex Presidency

   Commanded an attack on
    Taylor at Buena Vista
      Antonio Lopez De Santa Anna
Circa 1845                     Circa 1858
General Taylor pictured on a white horse at the battle of Buena Vista.
             Zachary Taylor
   General, highly
    successful in war

   Later political success
Zachary Taylor’s Early Success
 Victory, Victory, Victory
 Mexicans fought hard,
  but were poorly led and funded

 Winfield Scott picked up where Taylor left
  off
 More victories
Polk Brings in Winfield Scott
Polk threatened by Taylor’s success & ambition


Winfield Scott
 Mexico City
 Gets the Glory
 Also later political success
Birds-Eye View of the Camp of the
        “Army of Occupation”
  Commanded by General Taylor
             Taylor v. Scott
“Old Fuss and Feathers”
General Winfield Scott, a stickler for propriety and
  order, was widely known as "Old Fuss and
  Feathers."



“Old Rough and Ready”
  General Zachary Taylor, greatly admired for his
  informality and calm courage, succeeded Polk to
  the presidency
“Old Rough
and Ready”
“Old Fuss and
  Feathers”
      War Divides Americans
   Democrats
    – Southern
    – Wanted new slave territories, increased power in
      congress
    – i.e.

   Whigs
    – Northern
    – Anti-slave, many anti-Mexican War
    – i.e. Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, David Crockett,
      Abraham Lincoln
When he questioned the war
 with Mexico and asked if any
 battle had truly been fought
 on American soil, this first-
 term Congressman was
 branded the “Benedict
 Arnold” of his district, and
 denied reelection.


Who is he?


 A young Abraham Lincoln
This former President
 argued, like many
 others, that the
 Mexican War would
 result in the spread
 of slavery.

Who is he?


Congressman John Quincy
  Adams
Recently defeated for the 5th
  time in his campaign for
  the presidency, this
  famous Whig called the
  War with Mexico
  unnatural, unsettled and
  uncertain, “menacing the
  harmony, if not the
  existence of our Union.”


Who is he?

 The Great Compromiser,
   Henry Clay
His objections to the war
  were turned into a classic
  essay on the moral
  responsibilities of citizens.
  He refused to pay pole
  tax to fund a war he did
  not agree with and called
  it Civil Disobedience.

  Who is he?



Transcendentalist Writer,
  Henry David Thoreau
    War Divides Americans
Massachusetts legislator Charles Sumner

 “The lives of Mexicans are sacrificed in this cause; and a
 domestic question, which should be reserved for bloodless
 debate in our own country, is transferred to fields of battle in
 a foreign land.”
    Treaty of Guadalupe - Hidalgo
   Peace treaty, ended the war
   Mexican Cession
    – 55% of Mexico’s pre-war territory went to the US
   US paid $15 million
    – equivalent to $313 million in 2006 USD
   Ensured safety and pre-existing property rights for
    Mexican Citizens in transferred territories
    – US, in many cases, failed to honor this
            Mexican Cession
   The land Mexico ceded
    (gave up) to the US

   Covered what are
    now CA, NV, UT,
    and parts of four
    other states.

             What’s still missing here?
           Gadsden Purchase
   Remainder of AZ & NM

   Purchased by James
    Gadsden
    – sent by President
      Franklin Pierce
Battle of Cerro Gordo
The end of the war              General Scott’s entrance to Mexico
                     What’s going on here?
General Stephen Watts Kearney

            Between the western frontier of
              the US and the coveted
              province of Upper CA lay the
              vast tract known as “Nuevo
              Mexico.”


            Taken virtually without
              bloodshed by Brigadier
              General Stephen Kearney and
              the Army of the West.
On their way to California in the fall of 1846, General Kearney's men
  pass San Felipe Pueblo, New Mexico.
          The Bear Flag Republic
Bear Flag revolt on June 14, 1846 ended Mexican rule over California. Thirty-three American
  adventurers from the Sacramento Valley seized General Vallejo and took over Sonoma.




              Polk tried to Purchase CA from Mexico
         Mexico refused, but when Kearney and Fremont
           arrived from NM, Mexican Troops gave way
Saint Patrick’s Battalion
    “San Patricio”
   Mexico’s Fighting Irish

 Deserters of the US
  troops for abuses and
  prejudice
 Juan, or Jose O’Reilly

                        Unsatisfied about fighting a Catholic country
                        Fed up with the bigotry and mistreatment by
                        their Anglo-Protestant officers
                        Hundreds of Irish immigrant soldiers stood
                        for what they believed in and aided the
                        oppressed Mexico troops.
 Mexico, a “Proving Ground”
                           Robert E. Lee

                           Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson

                           William T. Sherman

                           Ulysses S. Grant



Captain Robert E. Lee
Mexico, a “Proving Ground”
Lieutenant Ulysses S.
  Grant heading off
  to fight in the
  Mexican War
Ornamental Map of the United States and Mexico, 1848- Panoramic View from New
         York to the Pacific Coast by the Contemplated Oregon Railroad

				
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