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 Review Session 11
Consciousness- History

  Mind and body are two distinct entities that
  Brain and mind are two different things
  Thought and matter
  This gives us free will
  the presumption that mind and body are
   different aspects of the same thing
Levels of Consciousness
 Mere Exposure Effect- we prefer stimuli that we
  have seen before over novel stimuli

 Priming- participants respond more
  quickly/accurately to questions that they have
  seen before, even if they do not remember
  seeing them

 Blind Sight- people who report being blind can
  accurately describe the path of a moving object
  or accurately grasp objects they cannot see
Levels of Consciousness
 Conscious- information you are currently aware
 Nonconscious- body processes controlled by
  our mind we are not usually aware of
 Preconscious- information you are not currently
  thinking about but could be
 Subconscious- information we are not
  consciously aware of but know must exist due to
 Unconscious- psychoanalytic term; events and
  feelings that are unacceptable

When we sleep we are less aware of
 ourselves and our environment
Not the same as being unconscious
Sleep Cycle

Part of our circadian rhythm- the pattern
 that our metabolic and thought processes
 follow (about 25 hours)
Sleep Onset- the period where we are
 falling asleep; stage between wakefulness
 and sleep
  Brain produces alpha waves when we are
   drowsy but awake
  Might experience mild hallucinations
Stages of Sleep
 Stage 1:              Stage 2:
  Muscles relax         Theta waves
  Irregular brain         continue
    waves                Sleep Spindles
  “Just drifting”         begin- short bursts
  Theta waves- high       of rapid brain
    frequency low,         activity
    amplitude            Eyes roll from side
  10 min.                 to side
                         30 min
Stages of Sleep
 Stage 3                     Stage 4
  Large amplitude brain       Deepest of all
   waves every second or       Also includes Delta
   so- Delta waves              waves
  Slower the wave,            Talking out loud, sleep
   deeper the sleep             walking- no trace on
  Delta sleep is very          memory
   important in                Most important
   replenishing chemical       People who sleep only
   supplies and fortifying      a few hours descend
   the immune system            rapidly into stages 3
                                and 4
                               Exercise increases time
                                spent in stages 3 and 4
Stages of Sleep
 REM Sleep/Paradoxical
  After a period of time in delta sleep, our brain waves
   speed up and we go back through stages 3 and 2, but
   enter REM instead of stage 1
  Eyes move rapidly, Twitching, irregular breathing
  Brain waves similar to an actively awake person
  Each REM cycle lasts from 15-45 minutes and gets
   longer with each cycle until you eventually wake up
  REM sleep deprivation interferes with memory
  REM rebound occurs
Brain Waves and Sleep
                Alpha Waves
                  slow waves of a
                   relaxed, awake
                Delta Waves
                  large, slow waves of
                   deep sleep
 Typical Nightly Sleep Stages



             0       1   2   3         4          5   6         7

                                 Hours of sleep
 Typical Nightly Sleep Stages
of                                                  Decreasing
Stage 4   25                                        Stage 4
REM       20

          15                                        Increasing


               1   2   3    4     5     6   7   8

                       Hours of sleep
Sleep Deprivation
   Effects of Sleep Loss
     impaired concentration
     immune suppression
     slowed performance
         • planes
         • autos and trucks
Sleep Disorders
 Insomnia
  Persistent problems in falling or staying asleep
  Affects up to 10% of the population
 Narcolepsy
  Uncontrollable sleep attacks, suddenly fall into REM
  Much rarer
 Sleep Apnea
  cessation of breathing
  often associated with snoring
  repeatedly awakes sufferer
   Night Terrors and Nightmares
Sleep                                              Night Terrors
            Awake                                   occur within 2 or 3
    1                                                hours of falling
                                                     asleep, usually
                                                     during Stage 4
    3                                               high arousal-
    4                                                appearance of being
        0      1    2   3    4     5    6    7
                         Hours of sleep
                                                   Nightmares
                                                    occur towards
                                                    during REM sleep
Dreams- Freud
 Sigmund Freud
  The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
  wish fulfillment- we act out our unconscious
  discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings in the
   form of symbols
 Manifest Content
  remembered story line
 Latent Content
  underlying, uncensored meaning
Other Dream Theories
 Activation Synthesis Theory
   Dreams are nothing more than the brain’s
     interpretations of what is happening physiologically
     during REM sleep
   Dreams have no more meaning than any other
     physiological reflex
 Information-Processing Theory
   Stress during the day increases the number and
     intensity of dreams, dream content often relates to
     daily concerns
   They brain is dealing with daily stress and info
     during REM
   Purpose is to integrate information processed
     into our memories

 One person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the
  subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts or
  behaviors will spontaneously occur
   a relaxed state
 Posthypnotic Amnesia
   supposed inability to recall what one experienced
    during hypnosis
 Posthypnotic Suggestion
   A suggestion that a hypnotized
    person will behave in a certain way
    after brought out of hypnosis
Theories of Hypnosis
 Role Theory
   Not an alternate state of conscious at all, some
    people are more easily hypnotized
   A social phenomenon
   Follow the suggestions b/c that is what is suggested
   Hypnotic Suggestibility
      related to subject’s openness to suggestion
      ability to focus attention inwardly
      ability to become imaginatively absorbed
      These people also have richer fantasy lives,
       follow directions well, and can focus intensely
Theories of Hypnosis

Dissociation Theory
    a split in consciousness
    allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur
     simultaneously with others
  Hidden Observer
    Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s
     awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go
     unreported during hypnosis
How Drugs Change Consciousness

 The molecules that make up psychoactive drugs
  are small enough to pass through the blood-
  brain barrier
 Agonists- work by mimicking neurotransmitters
 Antagonists- work by blocking
  neurotransmitters from using the receptor sites
  on neurons
 All gradually alter the natural level of
  neurotransmitters in the brain
How Drugs Change Consciousness

Tolerance- a physiological change that
 produces a need for more of the same
 drug in order to achieve the same effect,
 will eventually cause…
Withdrawal symptoms- vary from person
 to person
Dependence can be physiological,
 psychological, or both
 Psychoactive Drugs
 Depressants
   drugs that reduce neural activity
   slow body function
   result in euphoria
      alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, anxiolytics (Valium)
 Stimulants
   drugs that excite neural activity
   speed up body function
   result in euphoria
      caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines
Psychoactive Drugs
 Hallucinogens
  psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort
   perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence
   of sensory input
  May remain in the body for weeks, if is ingested again
   new amount is added to lingering amount- reverse
      LSD, marijuana, mushrooms
 Barbiturates
  drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous
   system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and
Psychoactive Drugs

  opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)
  opiates depress neural activity, temporarily
   lessening pain and anxiety
  Agonists for endorphins, powerful painkillers and
   mood enhancers
 Amphetamines
  drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing
   accelerated body functions and associated energy
   and mood changes
Psychoactive Drugs
   lysergic acid diethylamide
   a powerful hallucinogenic drug
   also known as acid
   the major active ingredient in marijuana
   triggers a variety of effects, including mild
    Psychoactive Drugs
Drug       Type         Pleasurable Effects             Adverse Effects
Alcohol    Depressant   Initial high followed by        Depression, memory loss, organ
                        relaxation and disinhibition    damage, impaired reactions

Heroin     Depressant   Rush of euphoria, relief from   Depressed physiology,
                        pain                            agonizing withdrawal

Caffeine   Stimulant    Increased alertness and         Anxiety, restlessness, and
                        wakefulness                     insomnia in high doses;
                                                        uncomfortable withdrawal

Metham- Stimulant       Euphoria, alertness, energy     Irritability, insomnia,
phetamine                                               hypertension, seizures

Cocaine    Stimulant    Rush of euphoria, confidence,   Cardiovascular stress,
                        energy                          suspiciousness, depressive crash

Nicotine   Stimulant    Arousal and relaxation, sense   Heart disease, cancer (from tars)
                        of well-being

Marijuana Mild         Enhanced sensation, pain relief Lowered sex hormones, disrupted
          hallucinogen distortion of time, relaxation  memory, lung damage from smoke
Review Questions
1) Agonists are psychoactive drugs that
  Produce tolerance to the drug without the
   associated withdrawal symptoms
  Mimic and produce the same effect of certain
  Mimic neurotransmitters and block their
   receptor sites
  Enhance the effects of certain opiates like
  Make recovery from physical addiction more
2) Which of the following is the best
 analogy for how psychologists view
  The on/off switch of a computer
  A circuit breaker that controls the power to a
  A fuse that allows electricity to pass through
   until a short circuit occurs
  A dimmer switch for a light fixture
  The ignition switch of a car
3) During a normal night’s sleep, how
 many times do we pass through the
 different stages of sleep?
 4) Which of the following is evidence supporting
  the role theory of hypnosis?
  People with rich fantasy lives are more hypnotizable
  People will not behave under hypnosis in ways they
   would not without hypnosis
  Hilgard’s experiment demonstrated the presence of a
   hidden observer
  Our heart and respiration rates may differ while under
  Some therapists successfully use hypnosis in therapy
5) Which neurotransmitter is affected by