Screening is defined as the implementation of simple and rapid procedure to identify and separate the
people who appear healthy, but chances are at risk of disease, from those who may not be affected by
the disease. Screening is done to identify those who allegedly suffered from the disease so that they can
be sent for tests.
Multiphase screening is the use of a combination of diagnostic tests are conducted sequentially by a
technically under the medical direction of a large group of healthy people. Multiphase screening using a
series of screening tests such as prevention efforts to identify the disease or condition in an apparently
1. Early detection of disease without symptoms or with atypical symptoms found in people who look
healthy, but may suffer from the disease (population risk).
2. With the discovery of asymptomatic patients with treatment can be done thoroughly to be cured and
not endanger themselves or their environment and not be a source of infection until the epidemic can
C. Main Target
The main target of test filters are:
CHRONIC disease patients
1. Bacterial infections (leprosy, tuberculosis, etc.)
2. Virus infection (hepatitis)
3. Non-infectious diseases:
b. Diabetus Miletus
c. Heart disease
d. Cervical carcinoma
D. Implementation Process
The filter test consists of two stages:
1. Conduct an examination of population groups considered to have a high risk of suffering from disease
and negative test results when it is considered to serve targeted people without the disease.
2. If a positive result then performed a diagnostic assay
Regular checks are used to test filters can be either laboratory or radiological examinations such as:
1. Examination of blood sugar.
2. Radiology examination of screening tests for tuberculosis
The examination must be done:
1. It can quickly sort out the target for further periksan
2. Not expensive
3. Easily done by health workers
4. No harm is checked and the check
E. Various Kinds Tapestry Test
1. Mass Screening (Mass Screening) That screening involving the whole populasisecara
2. Multiple Filtering
Filtering is done by using several techniques screening test at the same time.
3. Filtering reply. Targeted.
Filtering who performed on the group - the group exposed to a specific exposure. Example: Screening in
factory workers exposed to Lead material.
4. Opportunistic screening
Filtering is performed only limited to patients - Patients who consult a health practitioner.
F. Criteria For Implementing Tapestry Test
1. Nature of Disease
• High prevalence in the preclinical stage
• one long period between the sign - the first sign up to the onset of disease
2. Diagnostic Test
• Sensitive and Specific
• Simple and Cheap
• Safe and Acceptable
• Facilities adekwat
3. Diagnosis and Treatment
• Effective and acceptable
• safe treatment has been available.
G. Location Filter Test
Of screening tests can be done in the field, general hospitals, specialty hospitals, specialty care centers,
1. Field: Test filters TBC
2. RSU: Pap smear
3. SSR: Test filters in the hospital eye glaikoma
4. Yan Khu: heart hospitals, cancer hospitals
In order for the results of measurements of Filtering / Screening is Valid, then it must be measured by
using sensitivity & specificity;
Is the proportion of people - people who really - really sick who are in the screened population,
identified using the screening test as a pain sufferers.
Is the proportion of people - people who really - really healthy, which is also identified using screening
tests for healthy individuals.
H. Evaluation Criteria
1. Validity: is the initial test well to give an indication of where the correct individual
illness and which are not sick. Two components of validity are sensitivity and specificity
2. Reliability: if the test is performed again and again showed consistent results.
3. Yield: is the number of undiagnosed and untreated disease as a result of the screening tests.
I. Program Considerations
1. Disease or condition being screened should be a major medical problem
2. Acceptable treatment must be available for diseased individuals who revealed during the screening
process carried out.
3. Must be available kefasilitas access and health care services for diagnosis and treatment of disease
4. Disease should have a trip that can be identified by the initial state and continued to be identified.
5. Must be available a test or examination is appropriate and effective for the disease.
6. Tests and test process must be accepted by the general public.
7. The natural history of diseases or conditions should be adequately understood, including the regular
phase and the course of the disease with the initial period which can be identified through testing.
8. Policies, procedures and test levels should be determined to determine who should be referred for
examination. Diagnosis and further action.
9. The process should be simple enough so that most groups want to participate.
10. Screening should not be used as an occasional activity, but must be done in a regular and ongoing