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Serra de Tramunatana Volume I

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Serra de Tramunatana Volume I Powered By Docstoc
					    Cultural Landscape
of the Serra de Tramuntana
           Proposal for inscription
    in the World Heritage List (UNESCO)
         Island of Mallorca – Spain
                  Volume I
Management
Ma Lluïsa Dubon i Pretus. Head of the Territorial Department (Consell de Mallorca)

Technical management & coordination
Jaume Mateu i Lladó. Head of Spatial Planning (Consell de Mallorca)
Dr. Joaquim Sabaté Bel. Architect
Margalida Castells Valdivielso. Historian

Technical editorial team
Lluís Alemany Mir. Architect
Tofol Arbona Castanyer. UPC
Gabriel Alomar Garau. Geographic expert
Jose Antonio Guijarro. Biologist
Antoni Bosch Ferragut. Geographic expert
Gabriel Horrach Estarellas. Architect
Carolina Horrach Mora. Architect
Antoni Quetglas Cifre. Historian

Collaborators
Ma Antonia Alcina Sans. Administrative assistant
Margalida Obrador Izara. Geographic expert
Beatriz Cerdà Roig. Law graduate
Antoni Ferragut Llinàs. Forestry engineer
Antoni Font Gelabert. Biologist
Miquel Grimalt Gelabert. Geographic expert
Maria del Mar Llabrés Torres. Geographic expert
Alicia Martínez Serrano. Administrative assistant
Gabriel Ordinas Marcé. Historian
Antoni Reynés Trias. Biologist
Raquel Rodríguez Gomila. Geographic expert
Esther Rullan Bauza. Geographic expert
Jordi Albert Soler Vallespir. Architect
Tomeu Trias Prats. Legal consultant

Photographs
Lluís Alemany Mir
Gabriel Alomar Garau
Jaume Mateu Lladó
Marcos Molina
Jordi Albert Soler Vallespir
Agustí Torres

Translation
Rachel Waters
Luz Vilanova (Tradunet CB)
Index

Volume I nomination format

Serra de Tramuntana Cultural Landscape. Executive Summary 6

1.   Identification of the property 26

2.   Description of property 34
     2.a Description of the property 37
     2.b History and Development 171

3.   Justification for inscription 202
     3.a Criteria under which inscription is proposed
         (and justification for inscription according to these criteria) 203
     3.b Proposed Statement of Outstanding Universal Value 208
     3.c Comparative analysis (including state of conservation
         of similar properties) 209
     3.d Integrity and/or authenticity 223

4.   State of conservation and factors affecting the property 226
     4.a Present state of conservation 227
     4.b Factors affecting the property 236
         I. Pressures due to development 236
         II. Environmental pressures 240
         III. Natural hazards 241
         IV. Visitor / tourism pressures 243
         V. Number of inhabitants within the property and buffer zone 246
5.   protection and management of the nominated property 248
     5.a Ownership 249
     5.b Protective designation 250
     5.c Means of implementing protective measures 259
     5.d Existing plans related to the municipalities and the region
         in which the nominated property is situated 261
     5.e Management plan for the nominated property 263
     5.f Sources and levels of funding 299
     5.g Sources of expertise and training in conservation
         and management techniques 300
     5.h Visitor facilities and statistics 304
     5.i Policies and programmes related to the nominated
         property’s restoration and promotion 319
     5.j Staffing levels (professional, technical, maintenance) 323

6.   Monitoring 324
     6.a Key indicators in measuring states of conservation 325
     6.b Administrative provisions for the monitoring
         of the nominated property 325
     6.c Results of previous reporting exercises 326

7.   Documentation 332
     7.a Photographs, slides, inventory of images,
         photograph authorization form and other audiovisual materials 333
     7.b Texts related to the protective designation,
         copies of management plans of the nominated property
         or documented management systems, and extracts
         of other plans applicable to the property 342
     7.c Form and date of registers or inventories
         of the most recent assets 378
     7.d Address where the inventory, registers and archives can be found 378
     7.e Bibliography 379

8.   Contact information of responsible authorities 394

9.   Signature on behalf of state party 396
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Serra de
Tramuntana
Cultural Landscape.
Executive summary




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                       Se r r a de Tr a m u ntana C ult ur al Landscap e. Ex ecut iv e summar y




State Party

Spain

State, province or region

Self-Governing Region of the Balearic Islands, island of Mallorca

Name of property

Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana

Geographical coordinates of the property

- Geographical coordinates of the central point of the property:
N 39º 43’ 51’’ E 2º 41’ 41’’

- Geographical coordinates of the northern boundary:
N 39º 52’ 17’’ E 2º 58’ 16’’

- Geographical coordinates of the southern boundary:
N 39º 35’ 31’’ E 2º 27’ 34’’

Textual description of the boundaries of the nominated property

The boundaries of the nominated property are included within the
geographical district of the Tramuntana area of Mallorca, consisting
of a mountain range 90 km long and 15 km wide, located on the north-
western coast of the largest island of the Balearic archipelago. For the
delimitation of the property, an analysis of the cultural landscape values
of the area has been carried out using Geographical Information Systems,
based on official topographic cartography (scale 1:5,000) and aerial pho-
tography, with the aim of defining the part where these values are best
represented and preserved.

This analysis has allowed the core area to be defined, the boundaries of
which coincide with geographical elements (valleys, mountain slopes,
stream beds) or administrative ones (municipal boundaries) and it in-
cludes the most characteristic, best-preserved items of the landscape of
the Tramuntana area, from its coastal face to inland areas of the moun-
tain range. In turn, the delimitation of the buffer zone practically coin-
cides with the physical boundaries of the area, the conservation of which
is guaranteed by different protective designations.




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The geographic district of the Serra de Tramuntana covers a total of
83,500 hectares. The surface of the core area of the nominated property is
30,745 hectares, whilst the buffer zone has a total of 78,617 hectares, 25,800
of which correspond to a protected maritime strip.

The literal description of the boundaries of the core area begins at the
southernmost point of the delimitation, illustrated on the annexed map as
point A. Point A starts at the intersection of the municipal boundary that
separates Andratx from Calvià and the southern side of the publicly-owned
property called “Galatzó”. From this point it runs along the boundary of
the said property to the summit of “Puig de s’Esclop”, near which it moves
away from the municipal boundaries of Andratx / Calvià and enters the
municipality of Estellencs, seeking out the coastline. It crosses the second-
ary Ma-10 road at kilometre 98.0 and goes on to reach point B.

From this point on, the boundary coincides with the coastline, running
northwards, crossing the whole municipality of Estellencs and continu-
ing along the coast of the municipality of Banyalbufar until it reaches the
coastal hamlet of “Port des Canonge”. At this point (C), it withdraws in-
land from the coastline, passing through the urban nucleus of the small
port, and 200 metres further north it rejoins the coastline at point D,
which coincides with the coastal edge of the municipality of Vallde-
mossa. Once again the boundary runs northwards along the whole of
the coastline of the municipalities of Valldemossa and Deià, entering the
coastline of the municipality of Sóller and going on to the urban area of
the Port of Sóller at point E, running round “Cap Gros” and the “Far de
Muleta” lighthouse. At this point, the line leaves the coastal area once and
for all and enters the Sóller valley, following the boundary of the “Pictur-
esque Site” legal designation (Decree 984/1972 March 24th, via which the
north-western coast of the island of Mallorca is declared a picturesque
site), which surrounds the Sóller valley following a line at an altitude of
between 100 and 200 metres that runs around the town centre of Sóller
and returns towards the Port of Sóller until it reaches point F, where it co-
incides with the Ma-2124 road in the valley that forms the bed of the “Sa
Figuera” torrent on its way to the sea in the Port of Sóller. At this point
the boundary line continues westwards, surrounding the terraced areas of
the slopes of “Puig de Bàlitx” mountain at an altitude of between 300 and
400 metres, until it coincides with the municipal boundary of Fornalutx
in Bàlitx valley (point G), entering this municipality and leaving the more
rugged areas of the coast behind, crossing Montcaire estate and returning
to the depression of the Sóller valley, gaining in altitude until it reaches
the sides of Puig Major mountain, at a point where it reaches a height of
1,000 metres above sea level at “Coma de n’Arbona” (point H).




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From here, the boundary line runs along the boundary between the mu-
nicipalities of Fornalutx and Escorca, through the “Serra de Son Torrella”
mountains, until it coincides with the Ma-10 road at a small tunnel that
crosses the “Serra de Son Torrella”, at kilometre 37.0 (point I). From this
point, the boundary enters the municipality of Escorca and continues
parallel to the Ma-10 road until reaching the “Son Torrella” estate. It con-
tinues across the southern slopes of Puig Major, coinciding once more
with the Ma-10 road at kilometre 32.8 (point J). The line continues paral-
lel to the Ma-10 road until it reaches “Albarca” valley, where it fans out to
include the whole valley floor. Following along the slopes of “Puig Tomir”
mountain, the boundary line resumes its contact with the Ma-10 road
between kilometre 14 and 12 (point K). A little later, in the municipality of
Pollença, it enters the depression formed by a valley called “De’n Marc”
on its way to the Pollença plain between Puig Tomir and the Ma-10 road.
The boundary runs through this valley until it reaches the northernmost
point of the core area (point L), close to kilometre 5 of the Ma-10 road.

From point L the boundary line returns to “De’n Marc” valley along the
northern face of Puig Tomir, continuing at a height of 200 metres above
sea level until reaching point M which once again coincides with the Pol-
lença / Escorca municipal boundary. From this moment on, the bound-
ary line follows the slopes of Puig Tomir mountain and rises up until it
comes close to its summit at a height of 1,000 m. above sea level, when it
turns south enveloping the whole of the Lluc valley and entering the mu-
nicipality of Selva near “Alcanella” (point N). Once inside the municipal-
ity of Selva, the boundary line runs in a south-westerly direction, passing
north of the village and town of “Binibona” and “Caimari” and crossing
the Inca – Lluc (Ma-2130) road. It continues in a south-westerly direction
to point O, where it crosses over towards the municipality of Mancor de la
Vall, leaving the village to the south, and continues forward until coincid-
ing with the municipal boundary of Lloseta, which runs as far as point P.

From this point the boundary line crosses the municipality of Lloseta
towards the Almadrà valley, following the watercourse on the valley floor
until coinciding with the municipal boundary of Alaró. It then follows said
boundary until it penetrates the heart of the municipality of Alaró via the
southern face of “Puig de s’Alcadena”, continuing towards the slopes of the
mountain where Alaró Castle is located, skirting it and ascending north-
wards to an altitude of 700 m. to coincide with the municipal boundary of
Bunyola (point R). It enters the municipality of Bunyola via the “Orient”
valley, skirting it on the south side parallel to the Ma-2100 road and then
crossing it at kilometre 4, close to “Honor” estate. Continuing parallel to
the “Serra d’Alfàbia” the boundary line gradually descends until it coincides




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with the Ma-11 road close to “S’Alqueria d’Avall” (point S). From this point
on, the boundary line heads northwards towards the “Coll de Sóller”, and
near the pass it begins to coincide with the boundary between the munici-
palities of Sóller and Bunyola (point T), following said limit until the mu-
nicipality of Deià (point U). It then continues along the boundary until the
municipality of Valldemossa (point V). It follows the municipal boundary
of Bunyola / Valldemossa through the “Serra des Cairats”, departing from
it near “Pastoritx” (point W).

At this point the boundary line enters the municipality of Valldemossa,
losing height until it reaches an altitude of 250 m above sea level, where it
crosses the Ma-1110 road and runs along the slopes of “Sa Comuna”, fol-
lowing the southern face of the valley where the village of Valldemossa is
located until it reaches “Son Ferrandell” estate. Near here it crosses the
municipal boundary (point X) and enters the municipality of Esporles.
Skirting around the foothills of “Mola de Son Pacs”, the boundary line
crosses over to the north of the town of Esporles, continuing towards
the Ma-1040 road, which it crosses at kilometre 14.0. Heading south once
more, the boundary line follows the slope of the summit of “Sa Fita del
ram” towards the “Es Verger” area until it reaches the convergence of the
municipal boundaries of Esporles, Palma and Puigpunyent (point Y).
At this point the boundary line coincides with the municipal boundary
of Palma / Puigpunyent for 700 metres until it enters the municipality
of Puigpunyent at an altitude of 250 m above sea level. From this point,
the boundary line goes towards the Ma-1041 road, and crosses it close to
kilometre 12.0, running alongside it until coming close to the municipal
boundary between Puigpunyent and Calvià. It then runs parallel to this
boundary until it comes near to the village of Galilea, where it once again
meets the boundary between the municipalities of Puigpunyent and
Calvià (point Z), right at the point where it enters the municipality of
Calvià, running around the southern boundary of the Galatzó estate. It
follows the boundary of this estate and finally rejoins the southernmost
point of the core area, point A.

Map of the nominated property

A DIN-A4 size map of the proposed boundaries is attached.




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Justification Statement of Outstanding Universal Value

The cultural landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana is an exceptional ex-
ample of a Mediterranean agricultural landscape because of its singular
combination of water supply systems applied to irrigation, of Islamic
origin, and olive and vine growing systems, of Christian origin. Both are
conditioned to a large extent by the scant resources the environment of-
fers in the region, due to its climate, orography and insularity. The result
of this combination is a landscape modelled by man in an extremely in-
tense fashion, and one which bears witness to the continuous interaction
between man and nature over the centuries.

This landscape is characterized by the intense transformation of the origi-
nal natural environment, based on the construction of hillside terraces
on mountain slopes for olive cultivation; the extraction, channelling and
conveyance of water in order to achieve orchards and irrigated areas; and
the consolidation of a whole agricultural system in a mountainous area
founded on the use of dry-stone architecture and intelligent management
of the land.

The landscape of the Tramuntana area is therefore a faithful reflection of
the isolation that the island of Mallorca experienced over the centuries
due to its remoteness from continental lands and because it was a bor-
der region, half way between Africa and Europe, subject to invasion from
both north and south, which led to major cultural interchanges. The
singularity of the landscape is defined by concepts such as insularity, the
orographic layout and climate, water as a means of subsistence and aes-
thetic value in the form of the sea, Islamic and Christian cultural legacies,
admiration on the part of philosophers, travellers, painters, musicians,
poets and writers, and a wealth of legends, traditions and festivities linked
to the Tramuntana area.

Inscription criteria

The Serra de Tramuntana’s nomination as a World Heritage Site, in its
capacity as an essentially evolutionary cultural landscape, is based on the
following criteria:

(ii) It exhibits an important interchange of human values, over a span of
time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architec-
ture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design.




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(iv) It is an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or
technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant
stage(s) in human history.

(v) It is an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-
use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human
interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulner-
able under the impact of irreversible change.

(vi) It is directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions,
with ideas or beliefs, or with artistic and literary works of outstanding
universal significance.

Contact information

Responsible body:

Departament del Territori – Direcció Insular d’Ordenació del Territori
(Spatial Planning Department) – (Mallorca Directorate for Spatial Planning)
Consell de Mallorca

Address and contact information:

C/ General Riera, 113. 07010 Palma (Illes Balears), Spain
Tel. 00 34 971 219921 / Fax 00 34 971 173947

Web address:

www. conselldemallorca.net
www. serradetramuntana.net

E-mail:

serradetramuntana@conselldemallorca.net
jamateu@conselldemallorca.net




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1

Identification
of the Property




26
                                              1 . Ident if icat ion of t he Prop er t y




1.a Country

Spain

1.b State, province or region

Balearic Islands, island of Mallorca

1.c Name of the property

Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana (hereinafter referred to as
the Tramuntana area)

1.d Geographical coordinates to the nearest second

Geographical coordinates of the central point of the property:
N 39º 43’ 51’’ E 2º 41’ 41’’

Geographical coordinates of the northern boundary:
N 39º 52’ 17’’ E 2º 58’ 16’’

Geographical coordinates of the southern boundary:
N 39º 35’ 31’’ E 2º 27’ 34’’

1.e Maps and plans showing the boundaries of the nominated
property and buffer zone

The following maps are attached in the cartographic appendix:

1.  The Tramuntana area in the world
2.  The Tramuntana area in Europe
3.  The Tramuntana area in the Balearic Islands
4.  Delimitation of the nominated property (core area and buffer zone)
5.  Legal designations for the protection of the property
    (Mallorca Spatial Plan)
6. Legal designations for the protection of the property (Environment)
7. Legal designations for the protection of the property (European Natu-
    ra network 2000)
8. Items of heritage catalogued as Items of Cultural Interest
9. Landscape values for the justification of the nominated property
10. Contour map
11. Public property in the core area
12. Geology




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13. Rainfall
14. Map of the hydrographic network
15. Utilization of water
16. Areas of agricultural interest
17. Distribution of terraced areas
18. Location of archaeological sites
19. Mountain paths and trails
20. Items of heritage relating to defensive architecture
21. Dry - stone route and Artà - Lluc route

1.e.1 Justification of the proposed boundaries

For the delimitation of the property, an analysis of its landscape values
has been carried out from which a core area can be defined, where these
values are best represented and preserved. A buffer zone has been added
to this area, coinciding, broadly speaking, with the whole of the geo-
graphical district of the Serra de Tramuntana.

An analysis of the Tramuntana area was carried out in order to determine
the boundaries of the core area, with the aim of identifying the presence
and spatial distribution of the landscape’s features, as well as making a
quantitative assessment of them. This was done by means of fieldwork –
an examination of the terrain and consultation of existing bibliographic
works – as well as a subsequent analysis of the territory consisting of the
utilization of layer superimposition techniques, using Geographical In-
formation Systems. The following variables were used in the analysis:

•	 Presence	of	hillside	terraces.
•	 Presence	of	traditional	water	supply	systems	for	the	collection	and	uti-
   lization of water resources.
•	 Presence	of	popular	systems	of	engineering	for	the	prevention	and	
   control of erosion and floods.
•	 Presence	of	oil	presses	(oil	manufacturing	buildings).
•	 Presence	of	items	of	heritage	related	to	the	sale	of	ice.
•	 Presence	of	holm-oak	woods.
•	 Presence	of	publicly-owned	estates.
•	 Presence	of	public	footpaths,	tracks	and	hiking	routes.
•	 Presence	of	archaeological	sites.
•	 Presence	of	traditional	defensive	architecture	(towers	and	castles).	
•	 Presence	of	historical	gardens.
•	 Presence	of	traditional	rural	estate	houses.




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                                                 1 . Ident if icat ion of t he Prop er t y




After each of these features had been mapped, each of the layers was su-
perimposed in order to pinpoint those areas with the highest density of
cultural landscape features. Where the density is higher, the landscape
and cultural value of the place is higher. In this way, the area or areas that
have the greatest value of this type are defined. These areas are the basis
used initially to define the core area. Later these limits were compared
with the administrative limits and the legal designations for its protec-
tion, with the aim of ensuring effective administration of the whole area.

Subsequently a buffer zone was defined that covers the whole of the phys-
ical district of the Tramuntana area, also based on existing legal designa-
tions for the area’s protection, such as:

1. The delimitation established by the “Picturesque Site” designation, a
   protective status awarded in the year 1972 (Decree 984/1972 March 24th,
   via which the north-western coast of the island of Mallorca is declared
   a Picturesque Site). Subsequently, through Spanish Historic Heritage
   Act 16/1985 of June 25th; Act 4/1989 of March 27th on the conservation
   of natural spaces and wild flora and fauna; and Balearic Historic Herit-
   age Act 12/1998, it came to be considered an Item of Cultural Interest
   within the category of a “Historic Site”.

2. The boundaries for protection established by Balearic Act 1/1991 of
   January 30th governing natural spaces and planning regulations for
   areas of special protection in the Balearic Islands (LEN following its
   Spanish acronym). Preceded by Act 4/1984 governing the regulation
   and protection of natural areas of special interest, the LEN is the first
   act, with regard to the protection of the environment in the Balearic
   Islands, that specifically defines and delimits areas subject to protec-
   tion based on their exceptional ecological, geological and landscape
   values. By way of a novelty it also established planning regulations
   with specific protection for the land lying within these areas. This act
   also defined a large natural area under the term “Natural Areas of the
   Serra de Tramuntana” within the Tramuntana area itself. Three pro-
   tective categories are distinguished for the protection of the said areas,
   all of them subject to restrictive building conditions established by the
   LEN, as well as by modifications to it or by subsequent legislation:

   a Areas called “Natural Areas of Special Interest”, which include and
   protect places that stand out for their singular natural values. The
   LEN defines 8 natural areas of special interest in the Tramuntana area.




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     b Areas called “Rural Areas of Scenic Interest”, in general the result of
     the transformation of the land brought about by traditional activities.
     Their preservation is justified by their scenic interest.
     c “Settlement Areas in a Landscape of Interest”, used to define settle-
     ments of an urban nature that, due to their singular scenic values or
     situation, deserve specific protective treatment.

3. The delimitation determined by Decree 19/2007 of March 16th, via
   which the Plan for the Regulation of Natural Resources in the Tra-
   muntana Area is passed, defined on the basis of Act 5/2006 of May 26th
   governing the conservation of places of environmental value in the
   Balearic Islands. The delimitation responded to landscape conserva-
   tion criteria and the natural and ethnological values existing therein,
   and the application of the ‘Natural Site’ designation to this space.

     At the same time, it has also been deemed appropriate to remove cer-
     tain areas from the delimitation of the nominated property – both
     from the core area and from the buffer zone. These are places that,
     due to their recent urban development or the degradation of some
     of their items of scenic interest, may have a negative influence on the
     main values underlying the proposed nomination. This is the case of
     the coastal tourist towns of the Port of Sóller (Sóller) or Cala de Sant
     Vicenç (Pollença), and also certain periurban coastal and inland areas
     of the municipalities of Pollença, Andratx or Calvià.

     Following this same criterion, in the core area, 4 specific zones have
     been removed from the proposed delimitation:

     1 The coastal area corresponding to the fishing port of Es Canonge, in
     the municipality of Banyalbufar.
     2 The coastal area corresponding to the fishing port of Sa Marina
     de Valldemossa.
     3 The former Shangrila housing estate, also in the municipality
     of Valldemossa.
     4 An isolated quarry covering 6.5 hectares located inside the Historic
     Site of the estates owned by of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria.
     Part of the lands that were included within the boundaries of the “Pic-
     turesque Site” designation in the year 1972, which responded solely to
     administrative criteria but did not follow any criterion for the preser-
     vation of natural or cultural values, has also been excluded, because
     these boundaries contained the entire physical limits of municipalities
     in which values to be protected were located, and protection was ex-
     tended to the very borders of adjoining municipalities. This is the case




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                                                 1 . Ident if icat ion of t he Prop er t y




   of the municipality of Campanet, the whole of which is included with-
   in the boundaries of the aforementioned designated protection area.

1.f Area of nominated property (ha.) and proposed buffer zone (ha.)

Area of nominated property: 30,745 ha.

Buffer zone: 78,617 ha. (On-land area: 52,760 ha / Maritime area: 25,857 ha.)

Total: 109,362 ha.

From an administrative point of view, the area formed by the core area
and buffer zone includes 20 municipalities, 1 of which (Deià) is included
in its entirety and the rest partially: Andratx, Alaró, Pollença, Fornalutx,
Escorca, Sóller, Mancor de la Vall, Deià, Banyalbufar, Puigpunyent,
Estellencs, Esporles, Valldemossa, Bunyola, Palma, Calvià, Santa Maria del
Camí, Lloseta, Selva, and Campanet. This area covers the whole breadth
of the Tramuntana Mountains as well as the island of Dragonera, which
is the natural continuation of the Tramuntana mountain range towards
the south and was declared a Natural Park in January of 1995.

1.f.1 The core area

The core has a surface area of 30,745 ha., constituting the geographi-
cal area in which the values of the cultural landscape become apparent
and are expressed with maximum intensity in spatial terms. Its position,
centred between the northern and southern tips of the mountain range,
has affected the number of municipalities that make it up – a total of
15: Calvià, Estellencs, Banyalbufar, Puigpunyent, Esporles, Valldemossa,
Bunyola, Deià, Sóller, Fornalutx, Escorca, Selva, Mancor de la Vall, Lloseta
and Alaró. Only one of them –Deià– is included in its entirety in the core
area, although the greater part of Puigpunyent, Estellencs, Banyalbufar
and Mancor de la Vall is included.

The core area contains publicly-owned estates that occupy a total of 6,704
hectares, accounting for 21% of the area. The largest of these estates is
Galatzó, with a surface area of 1,354 hectares, followed by La Comuna de
Caimari, which covers 725 hectares.

In total the aforementioned core area contains an estimated resident popu-
lation of 7,958 people, most of them from the urban nuclei that it includes.




                                                                                       31
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




1.f.2. The buffer zone

The central area described above is complemented by the delimitation
of a buffer zone designed to guarantee the protection and integrity of
the property by creating a perimetral cushion. The aim of this zone is to
protect the core area from any possible development pressures and other
potential threats in the immediate surrounding area. Because of this,
the buffer zone surrounds the core area completely up to the northern
and southern boundaries of the Tramuntana area, extending as far as its
southern slopes –which are less abrupt in orographic terms– that is to say,
the slopes that border with the island’s plain.

The buffer zone has a surface area of 52,760 hectares and its boundaries
coincide, broadly speaking, with those of existing areas with protective
designations, established by virtue of Balearic Act 1/1991 governing natu-
ral spaces (LEN): Natural Areas of Special Interest (ANEI) and Rural Area
of Scenic Interest (ARIP), added to which we have the so-called Settlement
Areas in a Landscape of Interest (AAPI).

Furthermore, the island of Dragonera, with a surface area of 271.9 hec-
tares, separated from Mallorca by no more than 900 metres on its closest
side, also forms part of the buffer zone.

The boundaries of the buffer zone are completed with the incorporation
of a protective area that comprises a strip of sea running parallel to the
maritime edge of the Tramuntana area. This stretches perpendicularly
from the coastline to a distance of one nautical mile (1,852 metres) out to
sea. The coastal waters defined in this manner cover a surface of 25,857
hectares, and encircle the core area on its maritime side.




32
1 . Ident if icat ion of t he Prop er t y




                                      33
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




2

Description
of Property




34
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




The Serra de Tramuntana, the main mountain range on the island of
Mallorca, belongs to the Balearic archipelago, situated in the centre of the
Western Mediterranean. The archipelago is one of Spain’s 17 self-govern-
ing regions, and it is comprised of four main islands - Mallorca, Menorca,
Ibiza and Formentera - as well as small islets and lesser islands, particular-
ly those of the sub-archipelago of the National Maritime-Terrestrial Park
of Cabrera, and also the island of Dragonera, which is a natural continua-
tion of the Tramuntana Mountains towards the south.

The Serra de Tramuntana is a mountainous area that runs parallel and
close to the north-western coast of Mallorca. Visually it has a very rugged
appearance. The western slopes actually border on the sea, and the east-
ern ones with the island’s central plain. From a physiographic point of
view, one can differentiate a central sector, where the highest altitudes are
situated; a northern sector, characterized by a succession of narrow val-
leys that alternate with sharp peaks and a profusion of coastal cliffs; and
a southern sector, less abrupt and with broader valleys.

                                                                                          Figure 1. Aerial view of the north
                                                                                          coast of the Tramuntana area,
                                                                                          between the municipalities of Deià
                                                                                          and Sóller




The mountain range is 90 km long and has an average width of 15 km,
and it has a surface area of around 83,500 Ha (835 km2). Its differences in
altitude range from sea level to a maximum height of 1,445 metres above
sea level (Puig Major de Son Torrella), whilst the line of its summits is in
excess of 600 m and ten elevations stand at over 1000 m.

Mallorca’s Serra de Tramuntana mountain range is a good example of a
Mediterranean mountain agricultural landscape, reflecting the trans-
formations brought about by man in unfavourable surroundings. It is
a singular joint work of man and nature, as defined in article 1 of the




                                                                                    35
                                         Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




1
    Convention concerning the            Convention1, characterized by the use of traditional techniques so as to
    protection of the world cultural
    and natural heritage, adopted        temper the harshness of the physical environment and exploit the natural
    in 1972                              resources of surroundings to the full, with the aim of obtaining spaces
                                         that can be used for growing crops, rearing livestock and the utilization
                                         of the forests. It is all marked by a strongly Mediterranean flavour, due to
                                         local climatic features, which allow for the cultivation of olive trees and to
                                         a lesser extent vines, both of which are still operational today, the legacy
                                         of the classic Mediterranean trilogy.

                                         In accordance with the classification system for cultural landscapes pro-
2
    Operational guidelines for           posed by the UNESCO,2 the Serra de Tramuntana mountain range is a
    the implementation of the
    World Heritage Convention.           landscape that has evolved organically (category II), due to social and eco-
    UNESCO, 2008                         nomic needs, changing in an evolutionary manner in response to the nat-
                                         ural environment. Whilst many traditional activities that have conserved
                                         the landscape have gradually been abandoned over time, the agricultural
                                         environment, population and associated customs and treatment of the
                                         land are still maintained in many of the valleys here, so it may be consid-
                                         ered a living landscape.

Figure 2. Hillside terraces are a fine
example of the built landscape of
the Tramuntana Mountains (the
municipality of Banyalbufar)




                                         The Serra de Tramuntana mountain range occupies the whole north coast
                                         of the island of Mallorca, located in the central Western Mediterranean.
                                         The very name bears witness to its northern location, since Tramuntana is
                                         the name in Catalan – the native language of the island of Mallorca – giv-
                                         en to the north wind. The mountain range protects the rest of the island
                                         from this wind.

                                         The cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area is the result of interaction
                                         between man and nature in a place conditioned by a dual remoteness,




                                         36
                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




since this is a mountain region which is also located on an island. Due to
this double insularity, the Tramuntana area was converted into a frontier,
experiencing historical changes in the form of successive cultural differ-
ences that left overlapping marks on its slopes, from the first human set-
tlements created by different cultures between 5000 and 3500 BC through
to contemporary European movements, such as those of the intellectual
artistic heirs of writer Robert Graves in the small village of Deià.

2.a Description of the property

The Tramuntana landscape is the outcome of the application of the cul-
tural know-how of civilisations that succeeded one another there on its
physical and natural environment. In the case of the Tramuntana area,
this natural environment is basically marked by four main characteristics:

1) Abrupt, rugged reliefs, with an altitude of up to 1,450 metres very
   close to the sea, consisting predominantly of extremely hard perme-
   able limestone rock, resulting in a landscape with karstic formations.
   It is criss-crossed by a dense network of streams, dry torrent beds, old
   streambeds, gullies and torrents, as well as aquifers that supply the
   many springs, as part of what is a Mediterranean water system. The
   northern sector consists of a succession of narrow valleys that alter-
   nate with sharp peaks and cliffs, whilst the southern sector is milder
   in orographic terms. Even so, the highest altitudes are to be found in
   the central sector.

2) A climate marked by Mediterranean characteristics, distin-
   guished by dry hot summers and mild winters, and an irregular
   rainfall pattern with peaks in rainfall in autumn and spring and a
   pronounced rainfall gradient oscillating between a wetter central
   mountain area (between 800 and 1400 mm of rainfall per year) and
   progressively drier extreme areas.

3) Mediterranean woodland vegetation with forests of evergreen
   Balearic holm-oaks (Cyclamini-Quercetum ilicis) that represent a climax
   plant community, replaced in areas that are less wet by wild olive mac-
   chia or scrub (Oleo-Ceratonion ass. Cneoro ceratonietum) of a thermophilic
   nature - extremely common in the Mediterranean - which colonizes
   places where holm-oak woods are in a significant state of degradation.
   This macchia is heavily colonized by the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis)
   species. In the Tramuntana area, there are also plant communities that
   make up high Balearic ground cover (Hypericion balearici), an extremely
   low plant formation featuring an outstanding abundance of endemic




                                                                                   37
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




     plants. Most of the plants endemic to the Balearic Islands belong to
     this community.

4) Wild fauna, also abundant in the form of endemic species, marked to a
   large extent by the double insularity entailed by the presence of a moun-
   tain district, in itself already isolated from the rest of the region, within
   an island. The flora and fauna that exist in the Tramuntana area are
   of significant ecological, scenic and natural value due to their diversity
   and the rarity of many species. In the case of flora, the Tramuntana area
   contains 65 of the 97 native species described in the Balearic archipelago,
   and 65 of the 68 plants endemic to the island of Mallorca.

The environmental importance of the Tramuntana area is therefore es-
pecially well known in terms of the singularity of its reliefs – particularly
the karstic landscape -, the originality of its plant communities, presence
of endemic, rare and relict taxonomic groups of flora and fauna, and the
environmental diversity of its habitats and fauna and flora. Moreover,
the Tramuntana area was and still is an important source of resources for
Mallorca’s society, supplying not only agricultural, forestry and livestock
products, but also significant water supplies that are decisive for the rest
of the island.

It is this physical context that has conditioned the lifestyle of the differ-
ent cultures that settled in the region over the centuries, intensified in
unique style by insularity. Isolation gave rise to the need to develop a self-
sufficient farming system in order to obtain resources needed for subsist-
ence, based on the technical knowledge available at each moment in time.
This led to heavy human occupation of the Tramuntana area.

This dense human occupation of the Tramuntana area over the centuries
has given rise to a remarkable succession and diversity of socioeconomic
and cultural imprints and it has also favoured the concentration of a high
number of items of heritage of a cultural nature that have led to the forma-
tion of today’s cultural landscape. This heritage is present both in urban
nuclei and rural areas, including items of ethnological, architectural and
archaeological interest which can be classified in the following groups:

1) Items associated with the hydrological landscape, in the form of
   systems for the collection, extraction, conveyance and storage of water
   in order to supply irrigated areas. These items are fundamental in un-
   derstanding the landscape of the mountain range, and command of
   them is essential in the management of the irregular rainfall so typical
   of Mediterranean climates.




38
                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




2) Items constructed using dry-stone building techniques that help
   overcome orographic obstacles to farming.

3) Estate buildings. Large rural buildings where agricultural farming
   facilities (such as oil presses and mills) co-exist with the residential
   dwellings of their owners. One of the fundamental cornerstones of
   these farms was the cultivation of olive trees, thanks to the natural
   and climatic conditions that favour their growth;

4) Towns and villages, which contain historic features and items of her-
   itage of great interest.

5) Religious centres, such as the Lluc shrine, in Escorca, and numerous
   other shrines and chapels scattered around the area.

6) Maritime heritage, linked to coastal defence (when the latter was a
   potential hazard due to outside attack), sailing and fishing activities.

Furthermore, the way in which each society inhabits a region, works the
land, recalls it, is familiar with it, represents it and narrates it offers an
insight into that community’s emotional perception of the landscape.
The Tramuntana area is singularly rich in cultural expression, evoking an
extensive, complex past. Likewise, it is also rich in contemporary artistic,
pictorial and literary expression, reflecting its landscape values and defin-
ing the singularity of local lifestyles that are inseparable from the land-
scape. Also, the Tramuntana area’s numerous legends and tales constitute
a synthesis of popular wisdom as well as reflecting the character of its
people: a highly valuable intangible source of heritage that offers the keys
to deciphering a unique, ancient culture. This intangible heritage takes
different forms:

1) Traditional lifestyles, connected to the rural society so closely
   linked to the landscape and associated traditional popular techniques
   and know-how needed to control the land.

2) Ethnographical, scientific and technical knowledge.

3) Religious ideas and beliefs linked to the landscape and the seasonal
   rhythms that nature imposes on agricultural tasks.

4) Artistic expression, demonstrated by numerous artists and travellers
   who drew inspiration from the mountain landscape.




                                                                                     39
                                        Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                        5) Customs and traditions, festivities, traditional dances and gastron-
                                           omy. A reflection of influences that have conditioned the Tramuntana
                                           landscape.

                                        6) Oral traditions, as expressed in toponyms, legends, and other forms
                                           of expression passed on from generation to generation.

                                        As proof of the abundance of items of cultural interest within the geo-
                                        graphical scope of the Tramuntana area, it should be noted that the
                                        Department of Culture and Heritage of the Consell de Mallorca has
                                        identified 610 items of real estate that could be declared – and indeed in
                                        many cases have already been declared - Items of Cultural Interest (BIC as
                                        per the Spanish acronym). All these cultural items cover a very extensive
                                        historical period that begins with the Chalcolithic period (2200-1800 BC),
                                        and includes the Bronze Age (1800-1000 BC), Iron Age, Punic and Roman
                                        periods and Middle Ages, through to Modern Times. The Bronze Age,
                                        Iron Age and Medieval times are very well represented in the Tramuntana
                                        area, and all of them are expressed through numerous different examples,
                                        notably small human settlements (16% of the Tramuntana area’s cata-
                                        logue of items of heritage), caves (22%), Moslem water supply networks
                                        (17%), windmills and waterwheels (8%) and talayots (6%). Other finds in-
                                        clude defensive walls, boat-shaped dwellings, settlements, rock shelters,
                                        farms, necropoles, and wells or irrigation channels of great archaeological
                                        significance. In terms of their function, most of these items of heritage
                                        were associated with dwellings, engineering techniques, funereal rites or
                                        defensive or industrial purposes.

Figure 3. Dry-stone walls eventually
form a new biotope, in which species
and communities of substantial bo-
tanical value develop, such as ferns.




                                        40
                                                     2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




2.a.1. Physical and natural features

1) The geological substratum and reliefs

The geological materials that compose the Tramuntana area (GINÉS,
1998) cover a period spanning the end of the Palaeozoic Era (Carbonifer-
ous Period) and the lower Miocene, that is to say a period of time of be-
tween 240 and 15 million years. In general, the mountain range is made up
of sedimentary rocks, predominantly Jurassic limestone (Secondary era),
which give rise to the characteristic greyish colour of the range’s summits
and cliffs. These rocks are formed by sedimentation occurring at the bot-
tom of former sea basins that were subsequently – around 15 million years
ago – affected by what is known as the Alpine orogeny. This was a long
mountain-formation process that took place as a result of the collision
of the African and European continents, causing the slow folding of big
marine sedimentary rock masses that now constitute the Mediterranean’s
most important mountain ranges, such as the Atlas Mountains, Baetic
Mountains, Alps or Pyrenees.




The rocks that today compose the Tramuntana Mountains were therefore                    Figure 4. The pressures to which
                                                                                        the Tramuntana Mountains were
subjected to a process of compression in a north-westerly direction. This               subject during the Alpine orogeny
gave rise to the range’s successive folds and thrusts, aligned in a north-              gave them an abrupt northern
                                                                                        face and a gentler southern face.
easterly/south-westerly direction and stacked towards the northwest.                    The photo shows the Formentor
Consequently the northern face of the range has more energetic reliefs,                 peninsula.

corresponding in general terms to the thrust fronts, whilst the southern
face is gentler in relative terms, since it adapts to the general southeast
inclination of its rocky materials.

This general north-easterly/south-westerly layout of its reliefs is inter-
rupted by perpendicular cuts caused by faults that occurred during the




                                                                                  41
                                      Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                      aforementioned orogeny, but also as a consequence of the expansion
                                      process that took place after it had concluded. This is how the valleys of
                                      Valldemossa, Puigpunyent or Sóller appeared. At other points, these fracture
                                      lines are places where large karstic canyons and gullies have formed, due to
                                      the physical disintegration and chemical dissolving of the limestone rocks.

                                      Another characteristic of the reliefs of the Tramuntana Mountains is the
                                      alternation of large cliffs and summits with valleys and faces that are not
                                      so steep, due fundamentally to lithological differences: the cliffs and mas-
                                      sifs are formed by the hardest limestone rocks, whilst much softer materi-
                                      als have settled at the base, such as clays or calcarenites – materials char-
                                      acteristic of mountain slopes and valley bottoms. This alternance of hard
                                      and clayish materials is also important because it explains the emergence
                                      of water in the form of numerous springs and sources.




Figure 5. On the left, large lime-    On this mainly limestone lithological base, there is an immediate suc-
stone packets from the Jurassic
era are responsible for the greyish   cession of erosive processes that give rise to a distinctive geomorphology,
colour of the summits and cliffs of   since they cause the rupture, transportation and sedimentation of rocks.
the Tramuntana Mountains. On
the right, the mouth of the karstic   In the Tramuntana Mountains four main modelling typologies can be ob-
canyon known as the Torrent de        served: (a) a fluvio-torrential system, associated with gullies and torrents,
Pareis, in Escorca.
                                      (b) a facial system in the form of cliffs and slopes, (c) a coastal system,
                                      typical of the coastal area, presenting morphologies such as coastal cliffs
                                      and coves, and (d) a karstic modelling system, the result of the chemical
                                      action of water dissolving limestone rock: an essential factor in the land-
                                      scape’s singular features.

                                      The f luvio-torrential system is extremely well represented in the
                                      Tramuntana area, through the presence of an extensive network of tor-
                                      rents, gullies, streams, torrent beds and streambeds. In this document,
                                      the concept of a torrent is used to refer to a short watercourse where
                                      water flows intermittently or temporarily along a fixed channel. Its main
                                      characteristic is that it is episodic, and may dry out for part of the year.




                                      42
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




In general terms, the fluvio-torrential system makes use of soft materials
found on the base of the limestone massifs to create broad longitudinal
valleys through which the network of torrents is organized. Even so, it is
frequent in headwater areas to find torrents carved out of limestone pack-
ets, taking advantage of structural fractures or weaknesses, creating deep
cuts in the rock and turning into spectacularly-shaped karstic canyons
whose geomorphological causes correspond more to the karstic model-
ling system than to fluvio-torrential ones.

The watercourses in the Tramuntana Mountains – torrents, as they are
called locally – are for the most part positioned longitudinally, following
the direction of their geological structure, although they are also often
positioned in short crosswise sections that carve out gullies and small
canyons (so-called estrets), such as those of the Ternelles valley, Cúber
plain, connection between the Orient valley and central plain of Mallor-
ca via Es Freu and Coanegra, and the emblematic Valldemossa strait. The
coastal face is made up of extremely steep, brief streams and torrents that
descend almost directly from the line of summits down to the sea. Even
so, there are two individualized basins with large drainage areas: the Torrent
Major basin (54.5 km2) in Sóller and the Torrent de Pareis basin (46.3 km2)
which drains the rainiest part of the island, receiving water from the Al-
mallutx and Lluc/Clot d’Aubarca valleys, although a significant part of
the headwaters is captured by the Gorg Blau reservoir. Of special note on
the southern face of the mountain range are the torrents of Sant Miquel
(which flows into the Bay of Alcúdia in the north of Mallorca) and that
of Sa Riera (which flows into the Bay of Palma, in the south). We should
point out that the island’s most important wetlands, like the Mallorca
Albufera and Pollença Albufereta, depend to a greater or lesser extent on
water from the torrents of the Tramuntana Mountains, as do lesser wet-
lands such as Es Saluet in Andratx and La Gola in Pollença.

The modelling of the facial system encompasses a wide range of processes
and forms caused by the action of meteorization processes on the slopes
and peaks of rocky mountains. Modelling processes related to large falling
boulders are well represented in the mountain range, as is the slow dismem-
bering of slopes, forming small or large areas of scree, due to the accumula-
tion of boulders that have come loose from the sides of the mountains.

Thirdly, the coast is a highly dynamic environment in which modelling
takes place by means of mechanical processes (abrasion caused by wave
movement) and bio-erosive processes caused by the organisms typical of
these environments. The coastal area of the Serra de Tramuntana is almost
entirely made up of rocky cliffs where landslides and falling rocks are fre-




                                                                                    43
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




quent. Notable exceptions to these dynamics are the Port of Sóller, the only
natural coastal harbour in the area, and small coves usually associated with
the mouths of dry streambeds and torrents, with the distinguishing feature
that they are beaches covered in pebbles carried there by watercourses.

Nonetheless, the most interesting system and landscape in geomorpho-
logical terms in the Tramuntuna area is the karstic system. It is an erosive
system typical of carbonate rocks (as indeed limestone rocks are), com-
posed for the most part of calcium carbonate. They are attacked chemi-
cally by water in the presence of carbon dioxide, in a process known as
karstification. These rocks give rise to a wide variety of morphologies
both on their exterior (exokarst) and on their interior (endokarst, which
forms underground galleries, caves and chasms).

In the Tramuntana area, the exokarst is apparent in the form of external
morphologies such as sink holes, karren fields and karstic canyons. The
Torrent de Pareis, in the municipality of Escorca, is an excellent example
of this latter morphology. Karren produces a landscape with a striated ap-
pearance, popularly known as rellar or esquetjar, words that appear repeat-
edly in the Tramuntana toponymy. The most spectacular shapes include
those of the Ses Monges field or Es Pixarells, in the Lluc area (munici-
pality of Escorca). Superficial karst modelling also gives rise to the pres-
ence of closed depressions – sink holes – which dissolving processes have
helped form. These take the form of circular or elongated depressions,
such as that of Cometa des Morts, near Lluc, which has a surface area of
around 12,000 m2 with an underground cavity at its most depressed point
- la Cova de la Cometa des Morts –, one of the main drainage points for this
karstic depression.

Meanwhile, endokarstic signs are also extremely frequent in the mountain
range. There is a remarkable abundance of vertical underground cavities
(chasms or avencs according to popular Catalan terminology), which can
reach depths of up to 100 m. You can also find typical caves, which form a
complex series of cavities through which an underground water drainage
system can be traced. The total number of known and catalogued cavi-
ties in the Tramuntana area is well in excess of 1000, Escorca and Pollença
being the municipalities with most catalogued examples. Cavities close
to the surface were historically occupied by the first human settlers to the
Tramuntana, and they are prime archaeological sites.




44
                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




2) The climate

The main characteristic of the Mediterranean climate is none other than
its summer droughts, since the hot period of the year coincides with a
very low minimum rainfall, so the growth of vegetation is limited to a
large extent by the scarcity of water in the soil. Thus by definition the
Mediterranean climate is characterized by a shortage of summer rains
leading to dry summers, and, on the island of Mallorca, this dry period
peaks during the months of July and August, also preceded by a low rain-
fall in late spring.

In Mallorca, there is a big spatial variation in mean rainfall, with maxi-
mums situated around 1,200-1,400 mm a year in the central sector of the
Tramuntana Mountains, whilst on the southern coast of the island it
amounts to no more than 300-350 mm. This unsymmetrical pattern is
basically due to orographic factors. Winds responsible for the heaviest
precipitation (NE, N and to a lesser extent the SW winds) collide with the
island’s reliefs, increasing the rainfall’s windward direction. Whilst the
aforementioned orographic factor does determine the spatial distribu-
tion of rainfall, some studies of geographical rainfall distribution factors,
using multivariate analysis techniques, point to the influence of factors
such as the presence of mountain barriers in the direction of rainy winds,
latitude, the concavity of the terrain, distance from the sea and irregular-
ity of the reliefs (GUIJARRO, 1986). Thus latitude, for example, causes the
coastal sector of Pollença – the northernmost part of the Tramuntana
area – to be somewhat rainier (700-800 mm) than the southern section
(500-600 mm). This is due, more than anything else, to the increase in
summer rainfall in the north-eastern tip of the mountain range, and the
fact that the Andratx area is sheltered from wet north-easterly winds.

In direct contrast to the plain and also to the island’s eastern mountain
ranges and coastal areas, the Tramuntana Mountains possess all the defin-
ing features, from a climatic point of view, of typical mountains: snow – at
least in winter -, a high level of atmospheric humidity, a comparatively high
rainfall and comparatively low temperatures. It is hostile physical environ-
ment but one with natural resources that offer multiple potential in their
exploitation, fundamentally water (which, in Mediterranean regions with
an absence of permanent watercourses) is a unique trait, and one that
makes all the difference. Not for nothing are the Tramuntana Mountains
the island’s most important area for replenishing water supplies.

Climatic factors play a decisive role here. The influence of large systems
of depressions or low pressure originating in the Atlantic is not very im-




                                                                                   45
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




portant in Mallorca, whereas the influence of locally created aggravated
disturbances are extremely important. The unique conditions of the basin
formed by the Western Mediterranean, surrounded by high reliefs, make
this area particularly prone to cyclogenesis, with the formation or reacti-
vation of disturbances (JANSÀ CLAR, 1995). This means that the Western
Mediterranean is, in fact, the region in the northern hemisphere with
most cyclogenetic activity in the cold season. The points where the forma-
tion of the centre of a depression is most probable are, in this order: the
gulf of the Liguria-Tyrrhenian Sea, the gulf of Leon, the Catalan-Balearic
Sea, the Algerian coast and the Alboran Sea. Peak rainfall in the month of
October reflects the effectiveness of these Mediterranean disturbances.

In spite of the similarity in the rainfall pattern recorded by the island’s
different meteorological observatories, the rainiest sectors can be identi-
fied as the central part of the Tramuntana Mountains, where there is a
second peak in rainfall after the month of October, specifically, in De-
cember. In this case, it is assumed that orographic factors are influential
during a period of the year when the general movement from the west
reaches lower latitudes. Thus, occasionally there are moments of very
heavy rainfall, with downpours producing over 300 mm in 24 hours. The
recurrence of these downpours cannot be considered exceptional, so that
within a period of 25 years one can expect maximums of over 250 mm in
24 hours in the central part of the mountain range.

Snowfall, on the other hand, is currently very unusual in the Balearic Is-
lands, although the presence of snow on the summits of the Tramuntana
Mountains once or several times a year is by no means strange to any
islander. The highest number of recorded snowfalls corresponds to the
central area of the mountain range, and at the observatory of the shrine
at Lluc it is unusual for there to be none at all in any given year. This phe-
nomenon occurs almost exclusively in the winter months, and the syn-
optic circumstances that lead to snow in Mallorca are the same ones that
cause the coldest types of weather in the region, that is to say those usu-
ally linked to meridian advections with a northerly component, especially
those from the NE (RASO, 1985), concentrated in the months of January,
February and December, in order of frequency (highest to lowest).

As for temperatures, they follow the well-known pattern according to
which annual minimums occur in the months of January and Febru-
ary, and maximums in July and August. Whilst most of the island of
Mallorca has an annual average of 16º to 17º C, the Tramuntana area is
singled out as the coldest area, with joint values below 16º C, and under
10º C at certain points in the central sector. This is determined by the




46
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




uneven incidence of solar radiation and the orientation of its mountain
slopes, meaning that its southern slopes enjoy a positive thermal anomaly
with average annual temperatures of around 18º C. Thermal inversions
and frosts are not infrequent in the Tramuntana area, above all in en-
closed areas and the bottom of valley.

3) Flora and vegetation belts

Climatic factors as a whole and the predominantly limy nature of the island’s
soil condition the distribution of vegetation in the Tramuntana area and the
altitude of plant communities. Mountains are a place that favours evolution
and speciation, and a refuge for relict species, which are safeguarded from
new predators and colonizers. In this regard, the Tramuntana Mountains can
be seen as a genetic reservoir. Their varied vegetation responds fundamentally
to their climactic differences, since the higher parts are cold, windy and wet,
whilst the lower parts are drier and warmer. In general terms the mountain
range has four main plant communities:

1) Firstly Balearic holm-oak woods (Cyclamini-Quercetum illicis): This is the
   wooded climax community that would occupy the greater part of the
   area had there been no human intervention. In the Tramuntana area,
   the location of these woods has been drastically reduced, due not only
   to the historic creation of farmland reclaimed from the woods, but
   also to the continued action of tree-felling and other forestry activi-
   ties. There are two sub-groups of holm-oak woods: mountain wood-
   land (Cyclamini-Quercetum illicis Pteridio rhamnesotum), and lowland and
   coastal woods (Cyclamini-Quercetum illicis tipicum). Currently the pres-
   ence of holm oaks in the mountain range is confined to areas where
   the trees were used instead of being ploughed up, and consequently
   a large number of traditional features used as infrastructure in for-
   estry work have been preserved there. These include charcoal-burning
   pits, limekilns, paths, and huts for hunting, all of which evoke the
   anthropic pressure the forest must have been subject to until the sec-
   ond half of the 20th century. This is due mainly to the fact that it was
   the main source of fuel – in the form of firewood and charcoal – for
   the island’s population. Apart from holm oaks themselves (Quercus
   ilex), the most representative species in holm-oak communities are the
   endemic Cyclamen balearicum, Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris, Smilax aspera
   var. balearica and Rubia balearica. The largest expanses of holm-oak
   woods are to be found in the area between Puigpunyent and Sóller and
   also in the central part of the mountain range, around the Massanella
   mountain. This plant community has a notorious affinity with certain
   rocky materials upon which it grows, such as the marl limestone rocks




                                                                                    47
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




     of the Triassic period and sufficiently strong mountain slope deposits.
     By contrast it does not grow well on terrain based on massif limestone
     from the Liassic period.

2) Wild-olive scrubland (Oleo-Ceratonion ass. Cneoro-ceratonietum) bears a
   high similarity to the Provençal macchia found on the European conti-
   nent. This plant formation is typical of warm regions and it can mainly
   be found at lower altitudes of the Tramuntana area, where very dry con-
   ditions do not allow holm-oak woods to grow properly. These are areas
   with annual rainfall rates below 500 and 600 mm. Its capacity for colo-
   nization has enabled it to invade places formerly occupied by holm-oak
   woods after they were ploughed up. The wild olives (Olea europaea var.
   sylvestris) typical of this community are precisely those that have given
   rise to the expansion of genuine olive trees, that is their agricultural
   counterparts, the reproduction of which is achieved through grafting.
   The origins of the olive-tree grafting technique on Mallorca have been
   related to contact between the local Talayotic population and Punic-
   Ibizan merchants. As well as the wild olive mentioned above, other flora
   in this community includes an abundance of mastic (Pistacia lentiscus),
   and other species such as Cneorum tricoccon, Asparagus horridus, Asparagus
   albus, Clematis cirrhosa, Arisarum vulgare, Arum italicum, Rubia peregrina,
   Ephedra fragilis, Euphorbia dendroides and Calicotome spinosa.

3) Calcicole shrubland (Rosmarino-Ericion) includes two characteristic
   shrubs: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mediterranean heather
   (Erica multiflora). Its geographical distribution is not as widespread
   as that of wild-olive scrubland, and it is found in both coastal and
   mountainous areas. The association Loto tetraphylli-Ericetum multiflorae
   is found precisely in mountainous areas, optimally at an altitude of
   around 500 m, where there is a high percentage of Mauritanian vine-
   reed (Ampelodesmos mauritanica) and heather. The interesting native
   species Lotus tetraphyllus is also present. On steeper slopes, where per-
   colation due to heavy rain reduces the limy nature of the soil, species
   with silicicole affinities appear, such as the thorny broom Calicotome
   spinosa (argelaga). Both in the case of this scrubland and Oleo-Cerato-
   nion, the presence of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) cover has been re-
   corded, a cosmopolitan Mediterranean species of no phytosociological
   significance. Whilst not considered an association per se, pine woods
   form their own entity on the Balearic Islands and are actually the most
   extensive tree formation found on them, due to their rapid growth rate
   and opportunism, since pine trees quickly colonize altered wooded ar-
   eas. Both this community and that of wild-olive shrubland are the first
   to colonize abandoned olive groves in the Tramuntana Mountains, the




48
                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




   most significant sign of which is precisely the advance of pine trees on
   mountain slopes that were formerly farmed.

4) Communities in the highest Balearic vegetation belt are those found near
   summits and mountain crags, grouped under the alliance Hypericion
   Balearici, which grows particularly on terrain where the strength of the
   wind or absence of soil – often caused by anthropic pressure exercised by
   years of livestock grazing – prevents the growth of other communities.
   These determining factors can occur at any altitude of the Tramuntana
   Mountains, but the current presence of Hypericion Balearici occurs above
   all in the highest sections of the mountains. It consists of a very low for-
   mation of compact bushes and thorny plants with rounded forms – cush-
   ion-type plants – with a discontinuous incidence and reduced surface cov-
   er. The specific composition of this community is highly original due to
   the profusion of native species, which account for 35% of its composition
   and up to more than 60% of its cover. They include Hypericum balearicum,
   which gives its name to the plant community, and the aforementioned
   thorny cushion plants Teucrium marum subsp. occidentale, Astragalus baleari-
   cus, Smilax aspera sups. Balearica or species typical of rocky walls, such as
   the shrubby horseshoe vetch Hippocrepis balearica.

Other important communities are those formed by Mauritanian vine-
reed scrubland, càrritx in Catalan, (Ampelodesma mauritanica), which at
times occupies large tracts of land, above all on the sunny slopes of the
north-eastern half of the mountain range, both in the lower and the high-
er part. In fact càrritx is a plant aided by grazing activities by sheep and
goats, since the natural vegetation of the area is intentionally burnt with-
out it, however, affecting this plant, which sprouts new shoots afterwards
that serve as food for the livestock.

We should also mention boxwood (Buxus balearica) formations, a plant
that must have been more widespread in the past, as well as being more
tree-sized than bush-sized, as is the case now. The boxwood groves that
existed in the past, detected in toponymic references, were reduced as a
result of charcoal making, as they were used as forest firewood.

It is generally assumed that, in the past, a Mediterranean mesophilous
forest was present on the mountains of Mallorca (IMANOL et al., 1994),
which was replaced by today’s holm-oak woods and shrank considerably
in relation to the surface it must have covered in other climatically wetter
periods. This has been confirmed by polynic analyses of sediments, which
also prove the existence of the common beech (Fagus sylvatica), the com-
mon hazel (Corylus avellana) and oaks (Quercus spp.) in the past.




                                                                                     49
                                         Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 6. The climatic conditions of
the highest Balearic vegetation belt
is reflected in the vegetation typical
of these areas, which takes the form
of woody plants with thorns and
cushion shapes




                                         4) Ecosystems and habitats

                                         The current ecosystems and habitats of the Tramuntana area are the result
                                         of the historical evolution of its ecological systems. Knowledge of this is
                                         partially derived from available paleontological records, above all from
                                         COLOM (1957, 1964, 1975). The arrival of humans to Mallorca, which pre-
                                         sumably occurred between 4000 and 5000 years ago, led to a profound
                                         change in the evolutionary and successive ecological patterns that had
                                         hitherto characterized the island under conditions of geographical isola-
                                         tion. Humans progressively introduced allochthonous fauna, made use of
                                         the land, and self-interestedly selected and promoted the spread of species
                                         of wild flora related to silvopastoral practices, creating conditions under
                                         which the island ecosystems, in general, and those of the Tramuntana
                                         Mountains, in particular, have prospered. Species such as boxwood (Buxus
                                         balearica), Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris or Thymelaea velutina, which grew in up-
                                         per parts of the Mallorcan mountains but were of no interest for livestock,
                                         were displaced to lower altitudes and coastal areas that were unprofitable in
                                         pastoral-productive terms. Thus a slow replacement process of certain wild
                                         species by others that were more beneficial to humans took effect.

                                         The erosion and soil loss that affect higher areas of the Tramuntana
                                         Mountains can be explained by human land use for agricultural and live-
                                         stock purposes. This occurred almost continually from the moment that
                                         mankind arrived in Mallorca, with the implantation of the Talayotic cul-
                                         ture. Nevertheless, the geographical isolation prior to man’s colonization




                                         50
                                                     2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




of the island lasted for around 4.9 million years, enabling certain unique
native species to develop within a more or less stable framework of succes-
sive ecosystems.

It must be added that the natural environment of the Tramuntana area
is directly conditioned by the Mediterranean climate that prevails in this
area of the Western Mediterranean, and also by the terrain and human
domination of the land. This has favoured the existence of a potential
majority of terrestrial woodland ecosystems, in which most woody spe-
cies are evergreens, although there are also winter and summer deciduous
species. As indicated before, holm-oak woods are the main potential plant
formation in a mountainous area with a distinctive rainfall, relatively
deep soil and a fissured rocky substratum, where moisture can be stored
during the long summer drought period.

Holm-oak woods are currently reclaiming certain areas of disused agri-
cultural land within their bioclimatic scope of influence, although the
presumable increase in irregular rainfall patterns and increase in tempera-
ture on a planetary scale, attributed to climate change, might, in the long
term and from a climatic point of view, lead to a reduction in holm-oak
woods, which will slowly be replaced by high wild-olive macchia.

The classification of habitats in the Tramuntana area is based on that
used by Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC, Appendix I, referring to the conser-
vation of natural habitats and wild flora and fauna. At the same time, the
Habitats Directive establishes an ecological network of special conserva-
tion areas called the Natura 2000 Network. This is a coherent European
ecological network of places that accommodate types of natural habitats
and species in areas where they would be naturally found. It is designed
to guarantee the maintenance of habitats or to restore them to a good
state of conservation, as well as species found naturally in them. Natura
2000 also includes Special Protective Areas for Birds (SPAs), designated
in accordance with Directive 79/409/EEC (Birds Directive). Areas in the
Natura 2000 Network include habitats from Annexe I or species from An-
nexe II of the aforementioned Directive.

Thus Natura 2000 describes two types of protected areas of natural inter-
est in the Tramuntana area:

1) Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), following the said areas’ declara-
   tion a Site of Community Importance (SICs).

2) The Special Protection Areas for Birds (SPAs).




                                                                                  51
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




According to the Spanish Ministry for the Environment, Rural and Ma-
rine Affairs, the Habitats Directive distinguishes 127 Sites of Community
Importance and 50 SPAs in the Balearic Islands. In the Tramuntana area,
23 SICs are recognised, 13 of which are caves or underground cavities, and
the 50 SPAs mentioned above.

The five types of ecosystems recognizable in the Tramuntana area – condi-
tioned, as we have said, by the rainfall gradient and uneven geomorphol-
ogy of the mountain range, as well as by soil types – are described below.
The communities listed along with the described habitats are marked
using the code of the Natura 2000 network. Some of these spaces have
subsequently been recognised by the Committee of Experts in Habitats
(Directive 92/43/EEC and subsequent versions), in which case they are
marked with an asterisk in the text.

Coastal marine ecosystems

The coastal systems of the mountain range, and by extension those of the
island of Mallorca, have been formed in a maritime framework without
significant tides and with oligotrophic coastal waters, meaning they are
transparent and poor in nutrients. The annual thermal oscillation of the
sea water stands at 26º–28º C in summer and 13º C or less in winter.

The coastal marine habitats that form part of the aforementioned Habi-
tats Directive include Posidonia (NC:1120*) seagrass meadows, character-
ized by an abundance of the species Posidonia oceanica, an underwater
phanerogam plant with a depth range of between 30 and 40 m. Posidonia
mainly colonizes sandy seabeds, which are infrequent in the Tramuntana
area, or seabeds that are both sandy and rocky. In time the colonies come
to form shields or submerged dunes measuring up to 2 metres in height.
An abundant diversity of organisms grows on and between these plants,
and the remains of these organisms form the bioclastic sand of beaches.

Posidonia oceanica usually tolerates variations in water temperature, and
the currents that are formed, but one of its greatest limitations is a reduc-
tion in salinity, its optimum salinity being between 36 and 39‰ of salt. An
increase in water turbidity may also condition its presence.

On the other hand, the mainly limestone substratum of the Tramuntana
area gives rise to the formation of coastal cavities (CN:8330) in direct con-
tact with the sea or through the phreatic marine layer. These underwater
caves contain an interesting, barely-studied biocenosis due to their diffuse
lighting or lighting reflected off the sandy bottom.




52
                                                     2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




                                                                                        Figure 7 The coastal cliffs are a
                                                                                        refuge for protected species such as
                                                                                        the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) or
                                                                                        Eleonora’s falcon (Falco eleonorae)




Coastal land ecosystems

Two types of substrata should be differentiated here: sandy and rocky
substrata. Sandy substrata are extremely uncommon in the Tramuntana
area, sandy beaches being very small in size. Rocky substrata, on the other
hand, are characteristic of Tramuntana coastal areas, with high coastal
sections where communities (Chritmo-Limonietum) of rock samphire or
limoniums are found. Coastal cliffs with endemic species of Limonium




                                                                                  53
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




(NC:1240) can be found along the rocky coast of the cliffs themselves and
coastal areas of rock where on-land vegetation closest to the sea is.

The fauna in these areas includes tortoises and important coastal birds in
the form of falcons (Falco peregrinus, Falco eleonorae), pigeons (Columba liv-
ida) in rocky areas and open sea caves, and cormorants and seagulls (Pha-
lacrocorax aristotelis, Larus argentatus and Larus audouinii), as well as others.

The lizard Podarcis lifordii has survived on islands and rocky islets of the
Tramuntana area included in these habitats, such as the island of Drago-
nera, after having undergone an interesting speciation process leading to
the formation of subspecies. A large number of invertebrates of signifi-
cant scientific interest co-exist on the islets, which are habitual nesting
places for marine birds.

Macchia and garrigue ecosystems

Broadly speaking, macchia and garrigue habitats include the wild-olive
macchia (CN:9320), non-dunal savine and juniper formations (CN:5210),
euphorbia formations (Euphorbia spp.) close to cliffs (CN:5320, 5330) and
low-lying garrigue scrubs dominated by the Mediterranean fan palm
(Chamaerops humilis) and Mauritanian vine-reed (Ampelodesmos mauritanica)
(CN:5330).

Wild-olive macchias and garrigues are successional formations that domi-
nate thermally warmer, less rainy parts of the island of Mallorca. For this
reason they usually include pine forests, and in flat areas suitable for con-
version into farmland, they are normally turned into plantations of carob,
almond, fig and olive trees. In places of high hydrological stress and not
much soil, the woody formations cannot grow very high, and therefore
a generally low-lying garrigue scrub appears which, tempered in some
places by the influence of the sea, includes the Mediterranean fan palm
(Chamaerops humilis).

Macchia and garrigue vegetation, located in places where the breakage of
the caliche crust (or petrified limestone horizons, locally known as tapiots
or calls) was possible, has been transformed into plantations of almond,
olive and even carob trees. At times a herbaceous floor is conserved in
these plantations, and animals are grazed on it, taking advantage of ag-
ricultural sub-products like olive branches, unripe fruit and leaves from
the almond and carob trees, which were originally for animals used in
transportation. Livestock is a way of maintaining the garrigue and mac-
chia free from weeds and keeping the crops free from undergrowth. This




54
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




joint management pattern of combining the surrounding macchia and
non-irrigated crops with livestock farming has strong scenic and territo-
rial implications and it is extremely useful in preventing forest fires. Hav-
ing said this, this kind of action is only useful in places that are not very
steep, because on steep slopes irreversible erosion can occur.

Near the coast, in environments that are not especially sandy and with
fissured rocks, and even in places that are relatively distant from the
coast, savine woods can be found. The savine (Juniperus phoenicea) has been
extensively used for the manufacture of poles for the lateen sails of tradi-
tional local fishing boats. The degradation of this plant community has
led to an increase in the surface area occupied by pine forests, although
the pine is not particularly good at withstanding marine conditions. This
situation can easily be observed on the little island of Dragonera, where
small savine wood populations still survive.

Finally, the macchia and garrigue formations contain a rich diversity of
fauna that partially takes advantage of the agricultural resources of ad-
joining areas, and of the mosaic structure of the landscapes where these
formations lie. Rabbits, hares and genets are the land mammals found in
these environments. Good examples of birdlife are partridges, turtledoves,
thrushes, starlings, barn owls and eagle owls, although reptiles and am-
phibians are also present.

Forest ecosystems

Current forests in the Tramuntana area are basically comprised of holm-
oak woods and riverine forest, with the additional presence of wooded
pine groves considered, as we have already said, to be transition phases,
since they usually include undergrowth that eventually take control in the
form of high or low macchia. Woodland habitats and communities domi-
nated by trees and communities on the edges of dry torrent beds and gul-
lies (N:92D0) are made up of small tamarind woods (Tamarix sp.), with
no endemic species of their own although they are still of great ecological
importance.

The undergrowth of the holm-oak woods (CN:9340) is not especially well
developed, although there are some endemic species (Cyclamen balearicum,
Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris, Lotus teraphyllus) and some singular species of
orchid. Balearic holm-oak woodland is actually protected by Spanish leg-
islation and there are no notable threats to it. In fact its surface area is
even increasing.




                                                                                    55
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




For their part, pine woods (CN:9540) grow among plant formations com-
prised of garrigue, macchia and altered forests, in which the pine tree is
definitely relevant and useful as a pioneer species for the recovery of ecosys-
tems, so its utility in terms of the landscape cannot be overlooked either.

In the Tramuntana area the existence of a series of evergreen trees is also ac-
knowledged. They are typical of moister areas of mountain peaks and crags,
with remains of ancient vegetation (the yew, for example, Taxus baccata), out
of synch with the current climate in terms of rainfall and temperatures.

Special ecosystems (caves, freshwater wetlands, rupicolous areas, elevated areas)

Up to the 19th century and early 20th century, caves were not sufficiently
attractive in naturalistic terms to draw the interest of the scientific com-
munity, until Emile G. Racovitza and his school began working on cave-
dwelling fauna from caves on the island of Mallorca (1905). Ever since,
Racovitza has been considered the founder of modern biospeleology and
new zoological specimens have continued to be determined on the basis
of his discoveries. New ecological processes have also been described, work
has been carried out on the biogeochemical cycles of the subterranean
environment and the specific trophic chains of these environments have
been studied.

Mallorca’s biospeleological tradition has existed since the birth of this
science. There is an abundance of caves due to the limestone structure of
the Tramuntana Mountains. The most relevant ecological factor in these
systems is the absence of light, and in consequence there are no primary
photosynthetic producers. Organic matter introduced by wind or water
or the remains of organisms that were trapped there form the basis of
the trophic chain upon which up to 25 endemic species develop. They are
extremely valuable in terms of their scientific interest. The most note-
worthy examples are Oxychilus lentiformis, Eukenenia draco draco, Neobisium
monasteri, Tiphlocirolana moraguesi or the coleopter Henrotius jorda.




56
                                                     2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




Freshwater habitats and non-salinized wetlands stand out among fresh-                   Figure 8. Photo of the island of
                                                                                        Sa Dragonera, in the south of the
water moist ecosystems, as do more or less seasonally flooded plains, with              Tramuntana area.
hydrophytic ferns (CN:3120, 3170*) and also some oligo-mesotrophic com-
munities with species from the Chara genus (CN:3140).

Broadly speaking, rupicolous communities cover fern communities
or communities of chasmophytic vegetation typical of crags and cliffs
(CN:8210), whilst anthropized habitats are the location of plant commu-
nities that take advantage of small cracks in rocks and stones in dry-stone
walls and hillside terraces where earth accumulates. Groups of moss, he-
paticas and ferns live close to the dampest areas with no direct sunlight,
such as the openings of wells and underground spring and cave walls.

Cold, fast-draining, extremely rocky environments are found from an
altitude of 900–1000 m upwards, the lower part of them meeting up
with mountain holm-oak woods. It is here that high-ground ecosystems
are located, inhabited by yews (Taxus baccata), Sorbus aria and Acer opalus
subsp. Granatensis, all of which do not manage to form a proper forest. In
steeply-sloping environments where snowfall or the force of the wind pre-
vents colonization by trees, so-called Balearic high-ground cover develops,
including a large number of vulnerable or endangered species due to the
low number of specimens that make up the populations. Amongst the




                                                                                  57
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




animal species in these environments, the black vulture (Aegypius mona-
chus), deserves pride of place as the standard-bearer of the conservation of
the Tramuntana area’s animal biodiversity.

2.a.2. The hydrological landscape

The utilization of water - a scarce, precious resource in the climatic and
cultural context of the Mediterranean basin - has given rise in Mallorca
and the Tramuntana area in particular to the construction of a complex
network of traditional architecture related to water-harvesting techniques.
The aim of these constructions is to collect and harvest underground or
surface water and transport, distribute and store it. Throughout history
important systems have been designed for the regulation and control of
surplus water caused occasionally by torrential rainfall that gives rise to
flooding and other effects related to soil erosion.

Throughout the Mediterranean region, water is a limited resource – its
presence and absence is highly seasonal – and the island of Mallorca is no
exception to this specific circumstance. The island, which covers 3,620 km2,
has no rivers but instead dry watercourses, gullies, streams and torrents. As
mentioned above, in this document the concept of a torrent is used to refer
to a short watercourse that flows intermittently or temporarily along a fixed
channel. Therefore its main characteristic is that it is episodic, and may dry
out for part of the year. As a result, in Mallorca the generic term used to refer
to any watercourse, whether it is dry or not, is the word torrent, which is to say
an intermittent watercourse or channel that only functions during episodes
of torrential rain that occur, above all, in autumn. Mallorca also has springs.
These are isolated and scattered about the island, albeit more abundant by far
in the Tramuntana area, as opposed to the rest of the island, which contains
a large number of wells. The volume of water in these springs is rather low.

Water from springs and torrents has traditionally been used for multiple
purposes. As well as being used for human consumption on large rural es-
tates (possessions) that have traditionally formed the base structure of the
island and in towns and villages, water was used for livestock, as a driving
force and for the irrigation of crops.

Traditional water collection, regulation, distribution and storage systems
that were in operation, generally speaking, until well into the 20th century
(and still are in many cases) are the result of continuous developments
that have been modified, extended and adapted since the Middle Ages,
(more specifically since the 13th century), as is made clear by different doc-
umentary references.




58
                                                          2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




The Tramuntana area is unique in that, in the same place, agricultural,
water-supply and drainage systems all coexist, forming a system that can
only be understood if we bear in mind the complex sum of its different
parts and not only its individual elements. Moreover, on top of the natu-
ral network of dry watercourses and torrents which perform the natural
function of draining surplus water, there is an overlapping anthropic
water network. This anthropic network is integrated in and has been
adapted to the physical and topographical characteristics of the terrain,
forming a hydrological landscape whose virtue resides precisely in the bal-
anced integration of human activity into the natural environment and in
its component architecture, thus its heritage value.

The development of the aforementioned dual hydrological network was
motivated by man’s need to take advantage of the Tramuntana area’s
rich supplies of water, within the geographical context of a Mediter-
ranean island characterized by an absence of regular water resources. In
this way, given their high rainfall in comparison to the rest of the island,
the Tramuntana Mountains have directly or indirectly acted as the main
water provider for the island of Mallorca. But, paradoxically, the physical
conditions that make the relative abundance of water in the Tramuntana
Mountains possible also constitute a threat to its fragile built heritage, as
it is exposed to significant flooding on occasions and equally significant
erosion as a result.

The resulting ethnological heritage is not only material, but includes in-
tangible aspects, since the water supply systems and lands supplied with
water are clearly reflected in the local toponymy and specific terminology,
always expressed in the Mallorcan variant of the Catalan language. In
this way, springs, mills, vegetable gardens and other rural spaces, however
small they may be, take on a distinctive place name. From a geographical
point of view, the spatial use of this rich, extensive toponymic vocabulary
is extremely useful for identifying the exact location and delimitation of
hydrological landscapes, since many place names refer to water supply
systems and other hydrographical items (hydronyms). By way of an exam-
ple, in a small area of the basins of the Búger and Sant Miquel torrents,
in the north-west of the island, many distinctive hydronyms are linked
to a complex, singular water supply system: Font des Prat, Font de Biniarroi,
Font de sa Presa, Font de Camarata, Font de na Vica, Font de Crestatx, Font de
Son Siurana, Font de sa Torreta, es Molinot de sa Canaleta, Molí de Cas Vellaco,
Molí de Biniatzent de Dalt, Molí de s’Hort des Misser, Molí de Can Costa, Molí
den Ponça, Molí de Massanella, Molí de sa Cova des Fangar, Molí den Prats, Molí
den Cusseta, Molí den Garí, Molí de sa Rata, Molí des Pobil, Molí de sa Llebre, es
Molins d’Aigua, es Molinàs, es Molinet, s’Aljub, and sa Torrentera. (RIERA AND




                                                                                       59
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




ALOMAR-GARAU, 2009). Another intangible facet of the hydrological
landscape is the emergence of mechanisms to control water supplies, such
as the existence of water committees, created to regulate the irrigation
rights of landowners and establish norms for clearing channels and sanc-
tioning infractions.

In order to take advantage of the volume of water in the hydrographic
basins in the Tramuntana Mountains and secure land for farming, the
different human groups that occupied the area made substantial use of
the dry-stone construction technique to delimit and establish the beds
of torrents, streams and other secondary courses, and to build walls
along certain stretches or watercourses. After this it was relatively easy
to decide on the layout of irrigation channels and, in general, the built
water supply system, made up of networks to collect and divert water in
the form of weirs, distribution conduits, and storage systems compris-
ing ponds, open-air cisterns, water tanks, and even the same widened
irrigation channel.

The result is a complex, singular hydrological landscape and, all along
it, water channelled from a spring, stream or torrent is used for different
purposes. This landscape is characterized by the density and abundance
of the different types of items it contains, which may be organized in six
groups depending on their functions:

•	 Surface	and	underground	water	collection	systems:	natural	springs	
   and sources, dams associated with surface watercourses and reservoirs,
   underground water galleries, wells and noria-type waterwheels.
•	 Water	collection	and	distribution	systems:	irrigation	channels	and	
   other conduits.
•	 Water	control	systems:	ralles, albellons, eixugadors, parats, marjades in tra-
   ditional Mallorcan terminology.
•	 Storage	systems:	tanks,	open-air	cisterns,	troughs.
•	 Elements	driven	by	water:	flour	mills	and	paper	mills.
•	 Elements	to	make	use	of	snow:	ice	stores.

1) Surface and underground water collection systems: natural
   sources and springs, dams associated with surface watercours-
   es and reservoirs, underground water galleries, wells and
   noria-type waterwheels

In view of the rainfall characteristics of the Balearic Islands and particu-
larly of Mallorca, throughout history, the form of collecting and utiliz-
ing surface water from torrents or underground water from springs and




60
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




sources has played a fundamental role in the anthropic transformation of
the Tramuntana landscape. The morphology of the karstic systems of the
Tramuntana Mountains also ensures swift water filtration, which enters
the main aquifers, whose supplies were and still are utilized systematically
by the population of Mallorca.

The water resources of the Tramuntana Mountains are collected by four
means: natural springs and sources, dams associated with surface wa-
tercourses and reservoirs, the creation of underground water galleries or
qanats, and the construction of wells and noria-type waterwheels.

The Tramuntana Mountains have nearly eight hundred natural springs
or sources. The most important ones include the S’Abeurada spring,
which provides Son Gual (Palma) with water; the Coberta spring, lo-
cated between Valldemossa and Deià (Ca Madó Pilla-Miramar); the Sa
Cova spring, with one of the largest volumes of water in the mountain
range; and others such as the s’Ermitanet spring; the s’Estaca spring;
Font Figuera, which is very close to the sea; the spring of Es Poll, next to
Son Ferrandell, in Valldemossa, the waters of which were conveyed to the
houses of s’Estaca; the Son Ramon spring; the Son Galcerán spring and
the Sa Noguera spring.

Secondly we should emphasize the streambeds, gullies and torrents that
make up a significant hydrological surface network in the Tramuntana
Mountains. Even though they do not carry a large volume of water, be-
cause hydrological patterns are strongly seasonal and affected by the vari-
ability of rainfall, they are active during certain months of the year. One
decisive aspect that determines the fact that streams are dry throughout
most of the year is the rapid filtration of water through cavities in the ter-
rain and its karstic soils. The hydrographic basins of the mountain range
generally collect water from short, steep watercourses. The largest basin is
the one that collects water from the western part of the Teix massif and
northern face of Penyal Vermell.

Some of the most important streambeds in the Tramuntana Mountains
are the Lli torrent, Salt torrent, and Sa Noguera torrent or the Sa Marina
torrent, which flows into the Port of Valldemossa. The basin that collects
water from the northern part of the Teix massif does so through the Salt
and Racó torrents, flowing into Deià cove via the Major torrent. Also
noteworthy are the partially or completely channelled streambeds and
torrents of Fornalutx, Pastoritx, Esporles, Coanegra and Salt. The chan-
nelling is achieved by means of dry-stone walling on both sides of the
streambed, and sometimes the base of the bed is paved. These structures




                                                                                    61
                                  Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                  require continuous maintenance since the erosive capacity of the waters
                                  alters them, causing fragments to come loose.

                                  These surface water resources are collected by means of a purpose-built
                                  irrigation dam or weir and subsequently diverted and transported along
                                  different types of irrigation channels and conduits to farmland or to
                                  existing water-driven mills powered by gravity. The dams are stone and
                                  mortar constructions that form a wall crosswise or perpendicular to the
                                  watercourse, the function of which is to divert the water to one side of the
                                  stream bed where the irrigation channels begin.

Figure 9. Watercourses are fre-
quently channelled by dry-stone
walls. Miramar




                                  62
                                                     2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




As well as the channelled torrents, there are some free-falling water-
courses in the Tramuntana Mountains, such as those of Pareis, Mortitx,
and Es Cable. These are short watercourses characterized by steep slopes
carved into the terrain, forming highly pronounced gullies that drain wa-
ter from higher parts, sometimes making it flow out into the sea. They are
extremely beautiful in scenic terms and as a result they form part of the
island’s classic hill-walking routes.

As well as natural springs that emerge either naturally or through a
short dug-out channel, important underground water collection sys-
tems have also been constructed in the Tramuntana Mountains: under-
ground water galleries called fonts de mina. Some of them are from the
Moslem era – the qanats – (CARBONERO, 1992), known as foggaras in
North Africa, and they were maintained in perfect condition up to the
start of the 21st century, although the fact that livestock farming and
agriculture have been abandoned in higher parts of the mountains has
led to a certain deterioration. Aside from their being first-class items of
heritage of geobotanical value – given the abundance of hygrophilous
species they contain – these underground water galleries were funda-
mental in the development and consolidation of human settlements, as
both Islamic settlements (farms or smallholdings) and Christian ones
(villages) gradually grew up around them.

The aquifer was first located by digging a “parent well” running vertically
from the surface. The excavated gallery may be a kind of open mine, if
shallow, or totally subterranean. If the spring flows generously, it is not
infrequent for the water to be channelled off for storage in ponds.

In construction terms, these underground water galleries are character-
ized by the excavation of subterranean drainage galleries –called ‘mines’–
in a near-horizontal direction, until they reach the point where under-
ground water appears, providing an outlet for it using a conduit along
the length of the gallery.

These small works of traditional hydraulic engineering are usually com-
plemented with exterior troughs and small shelters where shepherds and
farmers would rest. To make them easier to find, a black poplar was usu-
ally planted beside them, and in time it would grow very large and stand
out even more from the surrounding vegetation due to the characteristic
colour of its leaves.

A total of 69 springs have been recorded in the municipality of Sóller, 61
of them flowing from underground galleries; in Fornalutx there are 48, 37




                                                                                  63
                                  Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 10. An underground water
gallery in La Trapa (Andratx)




                                  of them from underground galleries; and in Banyalbufar, 52 springs, 30 of
                                  which are also excavated underground gallery springs. In other munici-
                                  palities such as Escorca and Selva, a total of 84 and 31 springs have been
                                  recorded, respectively. Of all these springs, ones located on the edges of
                                  busy paths stand out particularly, such as the Es Prat one, the construc-
                                  tion of which dates from the year 1748; the Es Verger spring, remark-
                                  able as it carries one of the biggest volumes of water on the island; the
                                  Subauma spring, on the northern face of Puig Major de Son Torrella;
                                  the Muntanya spring, on the old road from Lluc to Pollença; the Sa Teula
                                  spring, near the l’Ofre houses; the s’Obi spring, on the Planícia estate; the Es
                                  Guix spring, on the old road from Caimari to Lluc; the Coberta spring, in
                                  Lluc, the site of miraculous occurrences according to tradition; the Es Noguer
                                  spring, near Cúber reservoir, and the Sa Menta spring in Banyalbufar.




                                  64
                                                     2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




                                                                                        Figure 11. There are numerous
                                                                                        underground water galleries in the
                                                                                        Tramuntana Mountains, most of
                                                                                        them constructed using dry-stone
                                                                                        techniques.




Finally, as well as water from aquifers collected by underground water
galleries and sources, water located at greater depths was traditionally
extracted by wells and noria-type waterwheels. In general, the wells have
a circular wall built around them clad in dry stone. On the exterior there
is usually a low stone structure, or a more complex structure formed by
pillars and pulleys. In spite of the fact that wells are not commonplace
in the Tramuntana Mountains (unlike the Mallorcan plain), they are in
a good state of conservation thanks to persistent usage and because they
are close to houses and estates. The island has an inventory of communal
(public) wells in Mallorca.

Noria-type waterwheels date back to Mallorca’s era of Islamic rule, al-
though most of the ones that survive are from the 18th and 19th century.




                                                                                  65
                                      Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                      The name they are given in Catalan is sínia, which stems etymologically
                                      from the Arabic word saniya, referring to a well where a wheel extracts
                                      water for irrigation purposes. The noria-type waterwheel consists of an
                                      artefact or machine for raising underground water to the surface. It is
                                      comprised of a horizontal wheel, driven by animals, which engages with
                                      the teeth of another vertical wheel fitted with a series of cups arranged
                                      along a long string or chain. When the wheel turns, the cups are sub-
                                      merged in the water of the well, carrying it up to the surface and pouring
                                      it into a small trough from where it is channelled into a tank or directly
                                      to a nearby field of crops.

                                      Noria-type waterwheels are relatively abundant on the edges of the
                                      Tramuntana Mountains, specifically in the areas of Pollença-Campanet and
                                      Andratx-Calvià, and also in the Sóller valley. Those located in the munici-
                                      palities of Selva, Mancor de la Vall and Valldemossa are also remarkable.
                                      The noria-type waterwheel of Son Moragues estate is worth mentioning.
                                      It comes under the Special Plan for the Protection of the Historic Site of
                                      the Estates of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria, together with the es-
                                      tate’s drinking trough and washing place. In his book Die Balearen (1872),
                                      Archduke Ludwig Salvator counted 363 noria-type waterwheels in what was
                                      then known as the jurisdictional area of Palma in the late 19th century. In
                                      the jurisdictional area of Manacor he counted 938, and in that of Inca 2,215.
                                      The mechanized extraction of underground water, using hydraulic pumps,
                                      meant that these magnificent, archaic artefacts have fallen into total disuse.

Figure 12. Diagram of the function-
ing of a noria-type waterwheel
(sínia).




                                      66
                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




2) Water conveyance and distribution systems:
   irrigation channels and other conduits

Acequias or irrigation channels are simply ditches dug out of the earth
which occasionally have paved edges to reduce water loss through filtra-
tion and help the water flow along. Since the water circulates by means
of gravity, they are always arranged on a minimal slope, estimated at 3 or
5%, in order to prevent any undesired stagnating of the water. Moreover,
since the terrain is never uniform, certain irregularities in level must be
overcome. When the terrain rises, the channel is dug deeper, sometimes
running underground, covered over like a tunnel. If the path of the chan-
nel crosses an area that is lower than the surrounding terrain, a raised
channel is constructed on a wall, by way of an aqueduct.

In the Tramuntana Mountains, more specifically in the town of Mancor
de la Vall, there is an exceptional irrigation channel called the canaleta
de Massanella which stands out for its length - around 6750 metres. This
measurement was estimated through fieldwork and the consultation of
orthophotos from the year 2006. This traditional example of hydrologi-
cal engineering was commenced between 1748 and 1750, and it called for
the building of an aqueduct with four arches along one stretch. Its objec-
tive was to collect water that flows from the Es Prat spring and take it to
the Massanella farming estate, specifically to the flour mill located in the
buildings themselves.

The irrigation channels and their auxiliary components – in the form of
branch sections, dams, aqueducts and public washing places – are a fas-
cinating ethnological example of hydrological architecture. However, the
rural surroundings through which they run must be seen as a landscape
unit that is inseparable from the water supply system they depend on.

3) Water control systems: ralles, albellons, eixugadors, parats, marjades

Climate-induced erosive processes that occur on the island are explained
by the torrential, seasonal, variable nature of its rainfall. Whilst the most
representative climatic characteristic of the Mediterranean area is its sum-
mer drought, which gives rise to three to five months of dry weather, Mal-
lorca’s specific climate stands out for its moderate and heavy rains with
a marked autumnal distribution (the meteorological autumn begins in
the month of September). Thus rainfall occurs precisely when the ground
is least protected, due to a reduction in the surface layer of vegetation,
caused by over-exposure to the summer drought.




                                                                                   67
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




As a result, even though agricultural and livestock activities in themselves
constitute both a use and misuse of edaphic resources, they cooperate
with the climate to trigger off soil erosion processes when heavy rains oc-
cur. Because of this, humans have attempted to find a technical solution
to the problem of erosion in areas transformed for agricultural use, based
on the widespread use of dry-stone techniques. This is the case, for exam-
ple, of the set of watercourses or torrents that cross the Sóller valley, near
to which the population settled, with the formation of a comprehensive
agricultural irrigation system, designed to prevent any possible damage
caused by the torrential floods of water that sometimes occur.

In Mallorca, four main methods are used for equipping farmlands with
an anti-erosive water-control system (GRIMALT, 1992, 1998):

a) Cancellation of the runoff on valley floors or thalwegs by building walls
   perpendicular to the flow of water, built crosswise with regard to the
   torrent bed. Called parats, their aim to reduce the effectiveness of the
   drainage network by using walls as obstacles and reducing the slope of
   the terrain when they are built in terraced areas;
b) The creation of an artificial drainage network based on conduits like
   ralles or albellons, which intercept the surface flow and channel it away
   from the field of crops;
c) Walls separating differently owned plots. Aside from their function as
   boundaries, they help reduce runoff and, in flatter places, prevent the
   formation of surface currents of water;
d) The staggering or terracing of mountainsides through the construc-
   tion of hillside terraces.

These building systems for controlling water and erosion – in the form of
parats, walls that mark the boundaries of plots and hillside terraces – are
systemic features whose abandonment, invalidation or wilful dismantling
have serious, clear environmental consequences. Precisely because of their
function of controlling the risk of flooding and desertification, and in a
future climatic setting presumably characterized by the intensification of
extreme atmospheric phenomena, these traditional rural water control
systems are becoming extremely important, and any abandonment of
them helps accentuate these risks. For this reason, these systems are gain-
ing in relevance as means of adapting to the effects of climate change.

One prime example of this function of controlling hazards and regulat-
ing water in the Tramuntana Mountains is the hydrographic basin of the
Sa Figuera torrent (Sóller), which flows into the Port of Sóller. This is a
heavily terraced area, the basin of which occupies 4.9 km2 with a main




68
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




watercourse that runs for approximately 3 km. The terrain is very uneven,
reaching a maximum height of 818 metres above sea level, and nearly half
the land has a gradient of more than 20º. The area has an average an-
nual rainfall of between 630 mm in the Port of Sóller and 800 mm in the
higher part of this basin. 71% of its surface is occupied by hillside terraces;
proof of long-term, intense dedication in agricultural engineering. The
high financial investment that was made can be tied in with the high level
of profitability of the crops and also to the financial capacity of the land’s
owners. 27 springs have been located in the area, some of them of the un-
derground gallery type, and a comprehensive network of different kinds
of water conduits has been preserved. As is common in the Tramuntana
Mountains, olive trees occupy nearly 95% of the terraces of Sa Figuera, al-
though at times they do so in combination with carob and almond trees,
whilst orange trees occupy just 3% of the space, in spite of the importance
that they came to acquire in the 19th century, and they are always located
at lower altitudes on deep, fertile soils.

The sophistication of the drainage systems of this terraced farmland at
Sa Figuera is proof of extraordinary human effort to take advantage of
a natural hydrographic network in order to exploit its supplies and also
control surplus water caused by torrential rain. Thus due to the steep gra-
dient, occasional intensity of the rainfall and intensive farming practices,
a controlled system of channelling the natural watercourses was required,
together with the creation of an extensive drainage network, designed to
control the damaging effects of surplus water and facilitate farming ac-
tivities on the hillside terraces.

All this has been achieved through the deliberate channelling of water-
courses, and also through the construction of parats, ralles and albellons.
Nearly all the watercourses are channelled with the aid of dry-stone walls
at the edges of the streambed, which is sometimes also paved with stones.
The parats consist of walls arranged perpendicularly to the bed of water-
courses as they pass through fields of crops in order to invalidate them or
reduce the speed of the flow and prevent soil erosion. Their extension is
such that in Sa Figuera they can together invalidate or regulate 8,000 lin-
ear metres of watercourses.

A large proportion of terraced land has dry-stone conduits that inter-
cept the surface current and divert it away from the farmland. This is
achieved by means of ralles de drenatge, in popular Mallorcan terminology.
These ralles or drains divert the water to one side of the thalweg, or even
divert it to a different hydrographic basin. Another common method
consists of draining off water that has accumulated on a hillside terrace




                                                                                    69
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




following flooding by means of underground drainage galleries, called
albellons. These prevent the structure of the hillside terrace from becom-
ing weakened. The same technique is used to bury some streambeds, and
in this way more surface land is gained for farming. In Sa Figuera around
700 metres of underground watercourses have been accounted for.

As a result of the above, it would appear that erosion through the action
of water is the main cause of poor soil and a reduction in its productive
capacity. Heavy rain (more than 100 mm in 24 hours) can lead to the in-
stability of farming systems, therefore requiring anthropic controls. Stag-
gered mountainsides in the form of hillside terraces rectify the uneven
land by dividing it into sections. Filling the back part of hillside terrace
walls with lots of smaller stones helps water drain away, contributing to a
reduction in the land’s vulnerability to erosion.

Finally, the continuance of agricultural practices and the conservation of
water regulation systems are necessary not only for the prevention of haz-
ards, but also because dry-stone infrastructure plays a prime role in the
uniqueness of Mallorca’s landscape. The degradation or disappearance
of this infrastructure, either individually or as the components of a more
complex system, would also imply the loss of one of the island’s most im-
portant cultural hallmarks (ALOMAR-GARAU, 2006).

4) Storage systems: tanks, open-air cisterns, ponds, troughs.

From a historic point of view water storage was fundamental for guar-
anteeing the availability of water for the population, as an indispensable
means of sustenance for livestock, and also for watering vegetable and
other gardens. Water storage systems were generally constructed in farm-
ing or forestry areas, or simply in places where there were no other water
supplies or watercourses like sources, springs, torrents or irrigation chan-
nels. There are also tanks near coastal watchtowers, necessary for supply-
ing lookouts with water.

Water storage in the Tramuntana area is traditionally performed by
means of tanks, although they co-exist with other water collection
methods. On the one hand, natural tanks have been used – natural ex-
cavations in the rock – like cocons and gorgs, which man has taken advan-
tage of and used for storing water. On the other, different constructed
storage elements have been designed, the most frequently found ones
being the bassa (pond), safareig (open-air water cistern), aljub (water tank)
and abeurador (trough).




70
                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




Water storage devices used to power a mill are given the name a bassa
(pond). The simplest one is made up of an irrigation channel that has
been broadened until it is transformed into a genuine pond. Open-air
constructions larger than ponds are called water cisterns or a safareig, with
mortar walls and internal cladding to render them waterproof. The open-
air cisterns of the Raixa (Bunyola) and Son Oliver (Santa Maria del Camí)
estates stand out for their size and capacity. The same cisterns covered
with a constructed roof are known as aljubs or water tanks. Both these
storage elements can be found both at ground level and on a lower level
or in any intermediate position, depending on the requirements and char-
acteristics of the terrain.

Water tanks sometimes contain a sandstone wall dividing them into two
and acting as a filter, so as to have purified water on one side which is
therefore apt for human consumption. They may be covered by a vault
that is visible from the outside, an exterior terrace or semi-flat roof.

                                                                                         Figure 13. Trough in the Tramun-
                                                                                         tana Mountains




                                                                                   71
                                          Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                          There are also abeuradors (troughs for livestock), that is to say artificial
                                          tanks that usually have an access ramp to make drinking easier for the
                                          animals. Some good examples are the Aljubets of Banyalbufar or the Son
                                          Vic pond in Esporles.

                                          It is important to add that since it is the Mediterranean climate that
                                          determines the seasonal availability of water – relatively abundant in
                                          autumn and winter, and scarce or entirely absent in spring and summer
                                          – there is a clear imbalance in the mountains between the availability of
                                          water and the demand, reflected historically by the need to construct large
Figure 14. The open-air cistern (safa-    storage tanks, since if there had been a more or less regular supply, they
reig) of Raixa is one of the largest in
the Tramuntana area.                      would have been unnecessary.




                                          5) Elements driven by water: water-powered mills.

                                          Water-driven mills use the power of running water to grind grain. Whilst
                                          the presence of windmills, which use eolic energy to move their parts, is
                                          one of the characteristics of the landscape of Mallorca, nearly all of these
                                          are located on the flat part of the island, either because they are close to
                                          grain-growing areas or because they are used to pump up water in places
                                          devoted to the farming of irrigated crops. Moreover, they are close to the




                                          72
                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




sea, near a recurrent sea breeze. However, windmills are extremely scarce
in the Tramuntana area, and are located, when they do exist, in mountain
passes that channel the wind.

Water-driven mills are much more commonplace in the Tramuntana area.
On Mallorca, due to the rainfall pattern and absence of permanent water-
courses, water mills were fed by both underground water and intermittent
water from streams, torrents and gullies. This explains why the majority
are found precisely in the Tramuntana Mountains or on their foothills,
alongside the torrent beds that carry the biggest volume of water or on
the edges of very old irrigation channels. Their most important function
was that of grinding grain, in which case they are also called flourmills.
And there are mills dedicated to other tasks, too, such as fulling or shred-
ding rags used to make paper pulp.

These mills in the Tramuntana area are constructed vertically in order to
take advantage of differences in the level of the terrain and generate a big
waterfall, which would provide the power needed to move the mill. Due
to the source of energy that is used, the watermills are accompanied by
complementary external constructions for conveying the water from the
stream to the mill along irrigation channels.

To begin with, water is conveyed to the tower, which generally has a pyra-
mid-shaped trunk although there are some cylindrical towers. From here,
the water gushes down a vertical conduit and its pressure, at the bottom,
rotates an axle that holds a wheel made up of blades. In turn, in the work-
room this energy is used to drive the millstones. When the water leaves
the tail race through a drainage channel, usually running underground
for a few metres, it is carried to another mill or returned to the original
channel. In this case, another weir or irrigation dam located a few metres
further down collects the water, and the process begins once more.

A total of 92 water-powered mills have been located in all the municipali-
ties in the Tramuntana area, although only 15 of them are in a good state
of repair. There is a remarkable group of mills in Andratx, Banyalbufar,
Estellencs, Calvià, Valldemossa, Escorca, Alaró, Bunyola, Santa Maria
del Camí, Selva, Fornalutx and above all Pollença, with 16 mills, seven of
them (called the molins de Llinàs) forming an ensemble that was declared
an Item of Cultural Interest in 1998. However, some towns or villages have
protected them using their own municipal inventory.




                                                                                   73
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




6) Elements to make use of snow: ice stores.

Snow is infrequent in most of the region of the Balearic Islands, except in
the Tramuntana Mountains where, nearly every year, snow usually falls in
the higher areas. The marked persistence and recurrence of the phenom-
enon in past centuries, in the climatic period that has come to be called
the Little Ice Age, gave rise to a traditional, centuries-old activity that had
significant economic repercussions: it consisted of the periodic collection
of snow for subsequent sale, and survived until the second decade of the
20th century.

The hypothesis of the possible introduction of this ice storage method by
the Arabs is reinforced by the fact that the Moslems of the Abbasi period
possessed knowledge of the usage of it, as it appears in the Thousand and
One Nights and works by other authors. Nevertheless, the first reference to
the existence of ice stores or cases de neu, as they are known in Mallorca, is
made by historian Joan Binimelis in his work Història General del Regne de
Mallorca (‘General History of the Kingdom of Mallorca’ - 1595), in which
he comments on the existence in Fornalutx of “some buildings where snow
is collected in winter to supply the town in summer and even all year”. Since the
first references to the existence of this activity coincide with the period that
is known in historical climatology as the Little Ice Age, the hypothesis has
been put forward that the increase in the sale of ice was a temporary conse-
quence of modifications in climatic conditions during certain periods.

There is an abundance of documents referring to these ice stores from
the 16th century on, and the sale of ice was a continuous economic activ-
ity until the year 1927, when, as a consequence of the implantation of the
industrial manufacture of ice – to be specific, an ice factory in the town of
Inca – the task of collecting and storing snow was performed for the last
time, in a store in the Comafreda valley, alongside the Massanella peak.
The presence of cases de neu (ice stores) for the collection and storage of
snow that fell in the Tramuntana Mountains is now a unique physical
testimony of this traditional form of trade on the island, where a total of
41 stores can be counted (GRIMALT and RODRÍGUEZ, 1991).




74
                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




As in other areas of the Mediterranean basin, in the Tramuntana Moun-                      Figure 15. An ice store near Puig
                                                                                           Major.
tains snow was historically used as a medicinal resource and also for gas-
tronomic purposes, more specifically for the manufacture of ice creams,
‘horchata’ (a cold sweet drink made from tiger nuts) and derivative prod-
ucts. The popularization of the consumption of ice, due to the healthy
properties attributed to it, meant that its commercialization increased
on a constant basis after the 17th century, to a point where the interest of
public institutions in this type of commerce led to the drafting of Capítols
de l’Obligat de Neu, an interventionist measure regulating the provision
and sale of it. For this reason many of the ice stores were built precisely
during this period (VALERO, 1984). Furthermore, medicinal uses of snow
and ice had been deemed essential by the island’s authorities, who year
after year concerned themselves with guaranteeing the production and
supply of ice to the city of Palma. Proof of this can be found in a speech
delivered in 1797 by Dr. Pere Martí Vidal y Llampayes to obtain the title
of member of the Royal Academy of Medicine and Surgery of Palma, a
speech entitled “Dissertation or physical-medical discourse on the prudent uses
of water cooled down with snow, both in a healthy and morbid state, giving means




                                                                                     75
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




for the making of artificial snow”. In fact snow was used both for lowering
fevers and stopping haemorrhages, as well as for curing burns and even as
a stimulant.

The collection and sale of snow gave rise to the construction of cases
de neu, made by digging out large holes or cavities (clots or pous de neu),
lined with dry stone, where the natural ice or snow was stored. The way
in which these snow wells are constructed is very similar in all cases: the
design is predominantly elliptical or semi-elliptical, although some may
be circular (the Cartujos ice store) or rectangular. One interesting con-
structional feature is the doorway that provides access to the inside of the
store, both for compacting snow when it is collected and for removing it
in summer. There are also small side windows through which the snow
was shovelled inside. A roof that was tiled or thatched with Mauritanian
vine-reed (Ampelodesmos mauritanica), a very common wild plant in the
Tramuntana Mountains, covered the store and protected the snow.

These old ice stores can be found in the highest parts of the largest
mountain massifs. One initial area was the western and southernmost
part of the mountain range, around the Galatzó peak, with ice stores at
relatively low altitudes, around 500 m. The second area they are located
in is the central part of the mountains, where most of the ice stores are
concentrated. Other smaller groups are those in the Es Teix, Sa Rateta
and Tomir mountain areas. One singular example, due to its location at
a lower altitude – 615 metres above sea level – is that of the Ses Figueroles
ice store, in the municipality of Selva.

The average capacity of each of the ice stores has been estimated at
around 300 m3, the total storage capacity standing at approximately
12.300 m3. The density of the ice stores is directly related to the altitude
where they are found and average annual distribution of days with pre-
cipitation in the form of snow. This relationship leads one to infer that,
as the Little Ice Age progressed, which FONT TULLOT (1988) situates at
between the years 1550 and 1700, during a phase moving towards a climat-
ic situation similar to the current one, the geographical limits for the col-
lection of snow and location of storage shelters might have moved up to
higher altitudes, with an increase in the number located in higher areas,
coinciding with the abandonment of ones situated lower down. Invariably
the ice stores were connected by paths – generally speaking bridle paths
– and often small hillside terraces were made near the stores to retain the
snow. Houses or refuges were built beside these constructions, and served
as temporary residences for workers and traders.




76
                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




The ice stores of Son Moragues (Son Moragues, Valldemossa), El Prat
(Escorca), Es Tomir (Binifaldó, Escorca) and Ses Figueroles (Selva) are
owned by the regional government of the Balearic Islands. The ice stores
of S’Avenc, Rodona d’en Rubí, Gran de la Mola, Son Lluc, Son Massip and
Galileu, all of them on the Tossals Verds and Son Massip estates in the
municipality of Escorca, are owned by the Consell de Mallorca. Of special
note is the Fartàritx store (Pollença), the only one that still has a roof. Also
remarkable is the architectural ensemble made up of twelve cases de neu on
the Massanella massif (Escorca), declared an Item of Cultural Interest in the
year 2001, within the category of a Place of Ethnological Interest. In the year
2009, the Consell de Mallorca began restoring the ice stores of En Galileu,
in what is the first reconstruction experience of this kind on Mallorca.

2.a.2 Dry-stone features

The most outstanding construction technique relating to the Tramuntana
Cultural Landscape is dry-stone walling. It is characterized by the use of
left-over stone from fields – meaning stone that does not come from quar-
ries – worked using no mortar or cement of any kind, and used to build
different types of walls and many other constructional items, such as paths,
huts, bridges and buildings.

It is very widely used in the Mediterranean basin, from the east of the Ibe-
rian peninsula (Castellón, Tarragona), to the French region of the Medi-
terranean Alps (between Cannes and Menton), Liguria in Italy (Cinque
Terre), Sicily (Pantelleria, Lipari), Greece (Crete, Andros, Patmos) and Cy-
prus. In Mallorca, and more particularly in the Tramuntana Mountains,
this technique was historically used to construct agricultural systems,
the greatest exponent of which are the fields of hillside terraces (called
marjades on the island), which are a way of staggering the mountainsides.
This is an indispensable way of preparing new agricultural land, using
only the stones on hand.

Dry-stone constructions normally use materials from the immediate sur-
roundings that blend perfectly into the natural surroundings, almost be-
coming a continuance of it. In fact, the integration of dry-stone construc-
tions into the natural environment reaches a point where old stone walls
can be considered a singular biotope, enriched by the presence of species
and communities of relevant botanical interest, such as ferns, some of
which are endemic (Asplenium majoricum, Asplenium sollerense, Asplenium
orelli). This same relationship with the backdrop means that these con-
structions become almost entirely reintegrated into the original environ-
ment if they decay or disappear.




                                                                                     77
                                     Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 16. Dry-stone constructions
form the greater part of the land-
scape of the Tramuntana area.




                                     Mallorcan dry-stone landscapes are mainly the result of the work of a
                                     group of artisans who specialize in this building technique, that is dry-
                                     stone wallers or hillside terrace builders (called margers): a trade that is
                                     documented on the island as far back as the 15th century. Whilst they did
                                     not manage to form an independent guild within the complex labour
                                     system of traditional Mallorcan society, dry-stone wallers were a group of
                                     workers with a well-defined range of tools, techniques and learning proc-
                                     esses, differentiated from those of other building trades, such as stone-
                                     masons. This trade, in decline since the 1960s, has been recovered thanks
                                     to the work of different institutions, including the Consell de Mallorca,




                                     78
                                                     2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




through the creation in 1986 of a training school called the Escola de Mar-             Figure 17. Dry-stone wallers – mar-
                                                                                        gers - are the artisans who build
gers or dry-stone wallers’ school. This has forestalled the disappearance               walls and hillside terraces using
of the profession, by having the technique taught by the last margers who               dry stone The trade was recovered
                                                                                        thanks to an initiative by the
were still active.                                                                      Consell de Mallorca, which created
                                                                                        the Sóller Dry-stone Wallers School
                                                                                        in 1986
The hundreds of kilometres of dry-stone walls that literally line the sides
of the Tramuntana mountain range are one of the most notable, unique
characteristics of its cultural landscape, since they are a symbol of the
historic human imprint made on the region, as well as representing a
highpoint in man’s relationship with his environment. These terraced
areas are linked to the water supply systems, and together they act as the
framework for the productive areas of large farming estates (possessions)
and small properties in areas close to villages. Villages like Banyalbufar
and Estellencs are also built on a base of dry-stone terraces, without
which settlement there would have been impossible.

Furthermore, a large part of the Tramuntana area has undergone signifi-
cant modifications in its physiognomy due to human interest in prevent-
ing surface runoff from damaging farmland and eroding or flooding
it. One significant modification to the natural hydrological pattern of
streams, torrents and gullies – and, in short, the resulting landscape – is




                                                                                  79
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




the farmland drainage system, which, in the case of terraced areas, com-
prises traditional drainage methods aimed at preventing excess water and
regulating runoff caused by continuous downpours. Also noteworthy is
the fact that for this reason most torrent beds are channelled between
walls, and the bottom of a high percentage of them is paved with stone.
Valleys whose thalweg has been regulated by building small walls called
parats are also common, and the original route of a significant number of
watercourses has been diverted.

The following are the main dry-stone features of the Tramuntana area: 1)
Hillside terraces and hillside terrace walls, 2) boundary walls of plots of
land and properties, 3) mountain paths, 4) olive grove shelters, 5) farm
shelters, 6) charcoal-making ovens and charcoal makers’ huts, 7) limekilns
and 8) other items of infrastructure: threshing floors, artificial piles of
stone in the form of galeres and clapers, aixoplucs (shelters) or hunting sys-
tems called colls de tords.

1) Hillside terraces and hillside terrace walls

Hillside terraces and hillside terrace walls are structures that are inter-
connected in the sense that one supports the other, and they cannot be
separated from one another. A hillside terrace wall is a bank of earth clad
in stone that separates two sections of earth located on different levels,
and a hillside terrace is a portion of land which has one or more terrace
walls as its boundaries so that it forms a terraced space. The walls usually
have steps or adjoining ramps for access to the terraces. They are also con-
nected to other features for the regulation or conveyance of water.

Terraced farming systems in the Tramuntana area stand out for their
abundance and they are distinguishable by the height of their walls,
which ranges from 0.5 to 5 metres, although walls of between 2 and 3 me-
tres are the most commonplace. They also stand out for their construc-
tion, using carefully worked stone, and because they are perfectly-planned
xerolithic ensembles that incorporate different solutions, depending on
the topography and requirements or protection from certain hazards. At
this point, given its monumental nature, we must highlight an extraor-
dinary wall known as Sa Regata, which supports part of the Sa Calobra
road, standing 17 metres high and covering 1,800 m2.




80
                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




                          SURFACE OF TERRACED LAND PER MUNICIPALITY
 Municipality    Surface of the municipality (km2)      Terraced surface (km2)              % of the municipality
 ALARÓ                          45.5                            23.6                                52.0
 ANDRATX                        82.5                             28.1                               34.0
 BANYALBUFAR                    18.1                              5.5                                31.0
 BUNYOLA                        84.1                              9.9                                11.8
 CALVIÀ                        145.5                            15.9                                 10.9
 CAMPANET                       35.7                              6.5                                18.1
 DEIA                           15.1                              7.3                               48.2
 ESCORCA                       139.4                             11.3                                 8.0
 ESTELLENCS                     13.4                              5.4                               40.7
 ESPORLES                       35.7                            12.7                                35.7
 FORNALUTX                      19.9                              7.9                               39.8
 LLOSETA                        12.0                              2.5                               20.6
 MANCOR DE LA VALL              18.9                              6.1                               32.4
 POLLENÇA                      151.7                            12.2                                8.02
 PUIGPUNYENT                    41.6                            15.3                                36.8
 STA. MARIA DEL CAMÍ            37.9                              7.3                                19.0
 SELVA                          48.7                              5.8                                12.0
 SÓLLER                         42.6                             24.1                               56.7
 VALLDEMOSSA                    44.5                             11.5                               25.9
 TOTAL                        1033.0                           219.1


The cataloguing of the terraced areas of 18 municipalities in the Tra-                   Figure 18. Surface of terraced land
                                                                                         in the Tramuntana area by munici-
muntana area gives a total of 219 km2 of terraced land, which represents                 palities.
hundreds of kilometres of dry-stone walls and approximately 23% of the
total surface of the mountain range. The municipalities with the highest
percentage of terracing are Sóller, Alaró, Deià, Estellencs and Fornalutx.
There are municipal regulations in place to protect the hillside terraces of
Sóller and Fornalutx.

The most outstanding terraced spaces, due to the heavy construc-
tion work they involved, are those of Rotes de Caimari (municipality
of Selva), the Biniaraix gully and Es Alous (Sóller), Clot de Monnàber
(Fornalutx), Sa Calobra (Escorca), Can Sastre (Pollença), Son Fortesa
(Puigpunyent), Son Galceran and s’Estaca (Valldemossa), the vineyards
of Son Bunyola, Can Fura and Pla des Cirerers (Banyalbufar), and also
those of La Trapa and Biniorella (Andratx). The first site, Rotes de
Caimari, was declared an Item of Cultural Interest in 2009, within the
Site of Ethnological Interest category. The cataloguing of these terraces
by the Consell de Mallorca facilitates not only their subsequent protec-
tion, but also management of them.




                                                                                   81
                                       Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 19. The terraced lands of the
Tramuntana Mountains use differ-
ent technical solutions to adapt to
the topography, demonstrating a
high level of planning.




                                       Another remarkable characteristic of the Tramuntana area is the fact that
                                       there are terraced areas at altitudes of up to 700 metres above sea level,
                                       as for example in the municipalities of Deià, Valldemossa, Escorca and
                                       Bunyola, whilst in coastal areas they are not normally situated any higher
                                       than 400 metres. The terraces located highest up usually correspond to
                                       very outlying agricultural land.

                                       The size of the terraces varies depending on their agricultural purpose, so
                                       in irrigated areas the retaining walls are larger and more complex due to
                                       the higher financial value of the land. The group of hillside terraces with
                                       the most outstanding individual dimensions is that of Banyalbufar, where
                                       there was a high amount of horticultural activity that took advantage of a
                                       pre-existing irrigation system.

                                       With regard to their location, we can distinguish between terraces that
                                       occupy intermediate slopes and others that are spread across valley floors.
                                       Even so, their general distribution depends on the location of existing
                                       human settlements and communication networks. Thus terraces used for
                                       horticulture are found around towns and villages, whilst terraces located
                                       further away from them generally contain unirrigated crops and they re-
                                       quired less construction work.




                                       82
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




The presence of hillside terrace walls are documented as early as the 13th                Figure 20. The terraces of Banyal-
                                                                                          bufar, dedicated to wine-growing
century in the Sóller valley, and their subsequent expansion is related to                and irrigated crops
the cultivation of olive trees linked to the importance of oil as an export
product. A gradual decline in the profitability of olive groves began to
take place in the late 18th century due to difficulties involved in the culti-
vation of olive trees and no development in the agricultural techniques
that were used. The transformation of existing hillside terraces into areas
for the cultivation of vines or orange trees was then promoted.
                                                                                          Figure 21. Parts of a terrace




                                                                                    83
                                  Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 22. The Biniaraix gully,
in Sóller.




                                  Terrace farming was progressively abandoned from the second half of the
                                  20th century, due to the lack of profitability of the farmland in unison
                                  with the growth and subsequent consolidation of the tourism sector as
                                  the driving force behind the island’s economy. Today, in spite of the walls’
                                  lack of maintenance and the decline of their crops, half the terraced sec-
                                  tion of the Tramuntana area is in a good state of conservation.


Figure 23. Steps




                                  84
                                                          2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




2) Boundary walls of plots of land and properties

Documented since the 16th century, these walls are built vertically up to
a certain height and used to enclose a piece of land. They are not always
made using the dry-stone technique; sometimes earth mixed with water is
used as mortar, a technique known as en verd in Mallorca.

There are two types of walls depending on the finish, the most common ones
being the so-called paret esquena d’ase (literally, ‘donkey-back wall’), finishing
in an acute angle, or the semicircular wall, the top of which has a rounded
section. There is also an abundance of ‘cabrera’ (goat) walls, which have a
top row of stones that jut out considerably from the vertical face of the wall
to prevent goats from crossing them. Walls with a ‘crown’ have a top row of
rectangular stones, all of which are similar in size – around 25 centimetres tall
– to close off the wall properly and prevent its collapse. The paret amb bardissa
has a barrier of wild-olive branches on top, or in modern times, wire.

Some building solutions are much more modest, as is the case of the paret
de lloses, which is comprised of large slabs arranged vertically, using the
dry-stone technique, to form a low wall. The paret toma, which consists of
two tiers of medium-sized stones, can also be seen.

All of them serve to separate crops from forest areas, to mark the bounda-
ries between pieces of farmland or separate plots of land. Often they have
secondary features, such as gateways with gates, botadors (steps built into
the wall as stiles) or cripple holes (clavegueres), consisting of small gaps
closed off by an arch or top enabling livestock to pass through or water
from torrents in the event of flooding.

3) Mountain paths

A large network of paths, constructed using the dry-stone walling tech-
nique, has been maintained and is still in use in the Tramuntana area. It
is documented since the 13th century, but probably existed earlier, and the
network forms the structural backbone to the area. Given the difficulties
involved in reliefs that were often impassable, this network of trails was es-
pecially important, since it has enabled communication links between peo-
ple and the transportation of merchandise between different places in the
mountain range over the centuries. And there are numerous places where
the only possible access is on foot. For example, bridle paths and trails,
designed for transporting goods on the backs of donkeys or horses, make
up a dense network of secondary tracks that provide access to forests and
farmlands, without which a fair part of the region would be cut off.




                                                                                       85
                                         Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 24. The path known as Camí
Vell de Bàlitx, in the municipality of
Fornalutx




                                         There are still many paths used for farming purposes. The primary or
                                         main routes, originally designed to link the main towns and connect
                                         villages to rural estates and also to ports, shrines and chapels, have lost
                                         none of their importance. However, paths constructed merely for forestry
                                         management purposes and those used for the transportation and sale of
                                         ice have ceased, to a large extent, to be used for their original purposes,
                                         although they are now used by some shepherds, fishermen and, above all,
                                         hunters. Although most paths – such as those that led to smugglers’ hid-
                                         ing places, fishing areas and coastal defence towers – have lost many of
                                         their original functions, this does not mean that they no longer have any
                                         value in terms of their interest and utility.

                                         Also remarkable are the mountain paths associated with the pilgrimage to
                                         the shrine at Lluc, which provided and still do provide access to the shrine
                                         from the neighbouring villages of Pollença, Caimari, Sóller or Bunyola.




                                         86
                                                     2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




                                                                                        Figure 25. Bànyols cart track,
                                                                                        Fornalutx




Recreational uses of the Tramuntana area have turned these paths into
excellent means of revitalizing the Mallorcan mountains, and it is fas-
cinating to contemplate and interpret the surrounding landscape from
them. Curiously enough, with this same intention in mind, a series of
coastal paths located between Valldemossa and Deià were created or re-
stored at the initiative of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria in the late
19th and early 20th century. The purpose of these paths was basically con-
templation of the landscape, which is why the Archduke had viewing plat-
forms and resting places constructed in places of special scenic interest.

The most important ones include the Barrera de sa Marina path (or old
s’Estaca path), the Barranc path, Bosc path, Cairats path, Castellàs path,
Cingle d’en Vic path, Cova path, Cova del Beat Ramon path, Ses Coves
path, Coves de Ponent path (or Coves de Miramar path), S’Estret de Son
Gallard path, Font Figuera path, Fontanelles path, Foradada path, Es
Guix path (or sea path), Miramar path, path from Miramar to Can Caló,
path from Miramar to s’Hostatgeria, Mirador de Son Ferrandell path,
Muntanya path (Arxiduc path), Nou de s’Estaca path, Pedrissa path, Pla
des Pouet path, Pont path, Puig de sa Moneda path, Son Moragues path,
Talaia Vella path, Torre path, Na Torta path, and Les Vinyes and Volta de
s’Escolta paths.

The first paths built by the Fomento del Turismo de Mallorca (Mallorca
Tourist Board) are from this same period, such as the one that provides
access to the Torrent de Pareis from the Escorca estate.




                                                                                  87
                                      Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                      With regard to the typology and characteristics of these mountain paths,
                                      one general feature common to practically all of them is the use of dry-
                                      stone construction techniques, that is, the compacting of stones using no
                                      kind of mortar whatsoever. Some paths are cobbled, although through
                                      deterioration caused by the passage of time, it is not always easy to con-
                                      firm this. The problems of uneven terrain were overcome by dry-stone
                                      buttresses, built at the sides of the path. They are usually set between two
                                      dry-stone walls to prevent animals entering or leaving farm fields.

                                      In terms of the width of the path, we can distinguish between cart tracks,
                                      bridle paths – just wide enough for one animal loaded with saddlebags to
                                      pass – and trails or tiranys, which enable walkers to reach places where ac-
                                      cess sometimes seems impossible, as is the case of some sea paths in cliffy
                                      coastal areas.




Figure 26 The Barranc de Biniaraix    There are also numerous public footpaths, royal roads, and municipal
path (Sóller), with its stone steps
designed to make it more convenient   and other paths in the Tramuntana area. The public footpaths tradition-
for the beasts of burden used as a    ally guaranteed movement between two towns or villages, whilst the pri-
means of transport.
                                      vate paths usually connected different mountain estates and rural houses,
                                      so maintenance of them corresponded to the estates in question.




                                      88
                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




Although the list of paths in the Tramuntana area is extremely long,
the following are the most interesting ones: the old Lluc path (Selva-
Escorca), Almallutx path (Mancor de la Vall-Escorca), Alaró Castle path,
Puigpunyent to Calvià path, S’Ermita path (Esporles), Estellencs to
Banyalbufar path, old Orient path (Bunyola), Comuna de Valldemossa
path, S’Escolta path (Valldemossa), Arxiduc path (Valldemossa),
Freu path (Santa Maria del Camí-Bunyola), Correu path (Esporles-
Valldemossa), Estellencs to Puigpunyent path, old Lluc to Pollença path,
Volta des Puig Roig path (Escorca), the Costera path (Escorca), Sóller to
Lluc path, Puig de Massanella path (Escorca), S’Alcina Fumadora path
(Fornalutx), S’Illeta path (Sóller), Barranc de Biniaraix path (Sóller),
Muleta path (Sóller), old Formentor lighthouse path (Pollença), Voltes
d’en Galileu path (Escorca), old Calobra path (Escorca), Puig de Maria
path (Pollença), Coma de n’Arbona path (Fornalutx-Escorca), Castelló
path (Deià-Sóller) and Ribassos path (Deià).

This network of mountain paths is not immune to the relatively recent
problem now affecting stretches of paths and trails all over the island of
Mallorca – that is, the closure of paths by some landowners in a practice
that has spread alarmingly all over the Tramuntana area. Sometimes the
paths are public, and town councils and other institutions have taken no
action to prevent this as yet. In other cases they are paths with a traditional-
ly public usage, historically documented since time immemorial, or simply
paths that provide access to emblematic or singularly interesting places.

Furthermore, awareness of the value of this network of paths in terms of its
heritage is still on the low side, which is why often some paths have been sub-
ject to transformations that have destroyed their integrity and mutilated cer-
tain features that account for much of their ethnological and heritage value.
However, we should stress possible new prospects for them, as they link two
points in the are and at the same time enable people to enjoy the scenic, cul-
tural and ethnological values of the places they run through. Consequently
a whole series of recreational and sporting activities and also economic ones
now take place using this network of paths. The most important ones are
day trips, hiking and different adventure sports, which have become signifi-
cant tourist attractions, and, as a result, the paths have become an ideal, nec-
essary form of infrastructure. Day trips and hiking – the most commonplace
activities and also the ones that are most environmentally friendly – are gain-
ing more and more enthusiasts amongst both residents and tourists.

The institutional work carried out to date in relation to signposting, in
the form of milestones, signs and panels, deserves an extremely positive
appraisal, as does the restoration of public paths, like the one that leads




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




up to Alaró Castle, for example, or the Deià to Sóller path, Correu path
(from Esporles to Banyalbufar), Pas des Cossis leading to the summit of
Galatzó, two paths from Deià to Cala Deià, old Lluc path, Biniaraix gully
path, or Puig de Maria path. There is also a Special Plan for what is known
as the Dry-Stone Route (GR 221), and the Mallorcan Hiking Group (Grupo
Excursionista de Mallorca - GEM) has performed the important task of
cleaning and signposting paths since 1997. The common objective is none
other than to maintain the network of paths in the Tramuntana area and
coordinate all the different actions being carried out, with the aim of pro-
viding a network that will contribute to raising awareness of the values of
the conservation and improvement of the mountain range.

As well as the stone paving that the traditional paths of the Tramuntana
area often have, they include other complementary constructional fea-
tures, such as cornerstones (escopidors), small walls, steps or ramps when
the paths run between hillside terraces. Sometimes there are features de-
signed to remove water that has accumulated on the paved surface, such
as cripple holes (clavegueres) and channels. The passage of streams from
one place to another is solved by constructing stone bridges or pedres pas-
sadores (stepping stones).

Vantage points, normally located in high places affording a panoramic
view of a large tract of land or sea, deserve a special mention. They are of-
ten the high point of a route. That is, they are traditionally acknowledged
natural viewpoints, well known historically for their visual delights. Also
commonplace are sites that combine views with pleasant surroundings.
The most outstanding panoramic vantage points in the Tramuntana
Mountains are the Ses Barques (Fornalutx) viewpoint, Ses Tres Creus, Sa
Miranda and Santa Maria del Olivar (Sóller), the Santa Llúcia oratory
(Mancor de la Vall), Alaró Castle, the Torre des Verger tower (Banyalbufar),
Coll de Sóller pass (Bunyola), Deià cemetery, the Cor de Jesús monument
(Esporles), Sant Elm Castle, the Cap Fabioler viewpoint, the La
Trapa viewpoint (Andratx), Miranda dels Lledoners in the Palace of King
Sanç (Valldemossa), Ricard Roca viewpoint (Estellencs), and other points
located on the Puig Major road and in Sa Calobra (Escorca), such as the Sa
Creveta viewpoint, Puig de Maria, Calvari or Castell del Rei in Pollença.




90
                                                     2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




                                                                                        Figure 27. Stepping stones




The more than 40 vantage points constructed or restored by Archduke
Ludwig Salvator, many of which lie within an area declared an Item of
Cultural Interest in the year 1997 within the Historic Site category in the
municipalities of Deià and Valldemossa, stand out for the quality of their
construction and their historical significance. The following are the most
remarkable of these viewing platforms:

•	 Mirador	des	Tudons,	a	low	tower	with	a	cone-shaped	trunk.
• Mirador del Puig de sa Moneda, with a square base.
•	 Mirador	de	Sa	Vorera,	which	has	a	square-based	tower,	made	up	of	
   two sections set one on top of the other, the upper one being narrower
   than the lower one.
•	 Mirador	Nou,	with	a	solid	octagonally-based	tower	set	on	top	of	a	plat-
   form with a circular base.
•	 Mirador	des	Creuer,	which	has	a	solid,	square-based	tower	that	is	small	
   in size.
•	 Mirador	de	Son	Marroig,	set	on	an	Ionic	shrine	with	a	circular	base,	
   measuring around 3.5 m in diameter and 6 m high, with a lower flight
   of 4 steps, six pillars, a roof and dome.




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                                    Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                    It is also important to point out that the Ma-10 road crosses the Tra-
                                    muntana Mountains longitudinally from north to south; this is the
                                    main road in the mountains, connecting the town of Pollença in the
                                    north of the island with that of Andratx in the south. It was con-
                                    structed at the request of Fomento de Turismo de Mallorca (Mallorca
                                    Tourist Board) in the 1960s, and its purpose was precisely to highlight
                                    the scenic virtues of the mountains of Mallorca with the early tourism
                                    industry in mind.

Figure 28 One of the many viewing
platforms commissioned by Arch-
duke Ludwig Salvator of Austria,
near Miramar (Deià)




                                    92
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




4) Olive grove shelters

In Mallorca these small huts or shelters - made using dry stone and Arab
tiles, located on the mountainside and used as a refuge and dwelling for
people and animals or for storing tools or wood - are referred to by the
name porxos. The porxos of the Sóller valley and neighbouring villages of
Fornalutx and Deià deserve a special mention. Their location corresponds
basically to the olive groves that occupy the higher parts of the mountain
slopes, close to villages.




The porxos generally have a rectangular base and one or two doorways on                   Figura 29. Olive grove shelter
                                                                                          (porxo) between Deià and Vall-
the main façade or on one side. They usually have a fireplace in one of their             demossa
corners, as well as several small windows to let light in. Beside the building,
or even inside it, there is normally a cistern that collects rainwater from the
roof. The best-preserved shelters are usually the least accessible ones that
can only be reached via bridle paths, and some noteworthy examples are
those located on both sides of the path of the Biniaraix gully in the munici-
pality of Sóller, which are also protected as Items of Cultural Interest.




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                           Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                           5) Sharecropper’s huts

                           A rota in the Catalan language is a piece of land within a rural estate
                           which, since it was usually a long distance from the houses, was offered
                           to a sharecropper, known as a roter, for cultivation purposes. Rotes were
                           therefore outlying pieces of land, wooded areas or those covered in mac-
                           chia which could eventually become productive, from an agricultural
                           point of view, after enough work had been invested in the form of remov-
                           ing stones. The sharecropper tilled the land ceded to him for a few years,
                           paying the landowner an agreed part of his harvest for it. Despite their
                           variety of sizes, the usual surface area of a rota was one quarterada: an
                           old local unit of measurement, exclusive to Mallorca and still in use, the
                           equivalent to 7,103 m².


Figure 30. An example of
a charcoal-maker’s hut




                           94
                                                     2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




A small shelter was usually built on these austere little farms, in accord-             Figure 31. A sharecropper’s hut in
                                                                                        the Montcaire area
ance with the limited size and outlying nature of the land on which it
was located. The sharecropper’s shelter is therefore equally austere, with a
rectangular base and a length that may vary between 4 and 12 metres, with
one room in a single space. Often it has just one opening – the doorway
– although there may be one or two small windows. Tree trunks or beams
(generally speaking wild-olives) are positioned across the ceiling, which
is always made of stone, supporting a roof that may be tiled. Currently
many of these huts are in ruins and some of them are still used as shelters
for sheep.

6) Charcoal makers’ huts and charcoal pyres

The production of vegetable charcoal as a basic source of energy goes
back a long way on Mallorca, and the tradition survived until the 1960s.
Numerous vestiges remain of this forestry activity in the form of build-
ings: charcoal ovens and charcoal makers’ huts. These are two primitive,
rudimentary constructions that were used by charcoal makers during the
spring and summer. Winter and autumn were avoided since they were




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                                         Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                         rainy seasons when the charcoal could be ruined. Charcoal pyres were
                                         circular and wood was burned on them in the open air. Usually a circular
                                         stone wall was built around the charcoal-making pit.

                                         The secondary building – the hut – was always located in holm-oak woods
                                         and, thanks to it, the charcoal maker could stay in the mountains for as
                                         long as it took to make the charcoal, generally 8 to 15 days. Since it was
                                         very basic, the hut only contained a hard bed and sometimes a net hang-
                                         ing from the middle of the wall where food was kept to protect it. The
                                         charcoal maker would normally build a small oven in which he baked his
                                         own bread near the hut and the charcoal pyre.

                                         All that is left of the charcoal pyres today is their circular base and stone
                                         structure. They can be seen nearly everywhere in the woods, although
                                         the best-known ones are those that lie close to the busiest paths in the
                                         Tramuntana Mountains, such as the Massanella wood path, Es Correu
                                         path or Sa Fita del Ram path. Recently some charcoal pyres and huts were
                                         rebuilt for didactic purposes in public spaces, such as those of the Cai-
Figure 32. The ‘rotllo de sitja’ (the    mari Ethnological Park or at Ses Serveres, in the Son Fortuny public es-
circle the charcoal pyre was built on)
is the mark left by charcoal makers.     tate in the municipality of Estellencs.




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                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




7) Limekilns

Throughout history lime was a fundamental product in Mallorca due to
its numerous uses: as a disinfectant, for whitewashing walls, a conglomer-
ate material in building, and for certain medicinal purposes. The tradi-
tional method of obtaining it called for the construction of limekilns or
forns de calç. This construction was generally built in the midst of garrigue
or macchia. Inside it, limestone was burned or calcinated, with a certain
amount of wood burnt on top, in order to obtain lime in the form of cal-
cium oxide.

The limekiln was usually located on a small slope where a large cylindri-
cal cavity was made, partially sunk under the ground and closed off at the
sides with a thick stone wall. The limestone was arranged inside it, leaving
a cavity for the wood, and covered with a layer of earth to form a dome.
An opening near the bottom was used to stoke the kiln, and the smoke
would be let out through another opening in the dome. The diameter
of these kilns could vary between 4 and 12 metres, and their depth could
reach 6 or 7 metres.

Limekilns were built close to places where there were large quantities of
stone and wood to ensure calcination, and near a path to allow for the
transportation of the lime that was produced. After calcination, the re-
moval of the lime involved the destruction of a large part of the kiln.

The heritage value of the towns and villages of the Tramuntana area also
stems from the preservation of the typical humble houses that belonged
to day labourers who worked on nearby large landowners’ estates.


                                                                                         Figure 33.
                                                                                         A limekiln near Valldemossa




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                                   Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                   Nowadays, the mass use of new materials has superseded the use of lime
                                   to a certain extent, so it is extremely difficult to find a whole limekiln,
                                   in spite of the fact that hundreds of them survive in the Tramuntana
                                   Mountains, in ruins. They are particularly abundant in municipalities on
                                   the southern slopes of the mountains, like Bunyola and Santa Maria del
                                   Camí. In this last municipality an inventory of over 50 limekilns has been
                                   drawn up and included in the Municipal Catalogue of Heritage Items. In
                                   the Caimari Ethnological Park a fully-reconstructed limekiln can be seen,
                                   and there is another, partially-restored one on the Son Moragues estate in
                                   the municipality of Valldemossa.

Figure 34. Limekiln




Figure 35. ‘Aixoplug’ or shelter




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                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




2.a.3. Rural estates (possessions)

In Mallorca the name possessió (literally ‘possession’) refers to a rural prop-
erty or estate of agricultural characteristics, varying in size and including
a small group of buildings called the cases de possessió. This is the central
core of an agricultural and livestock farm. The origin of the possessions can
be traced back to the division of land amongst the nobles who took part
in the Christian conquest of the island in the year 1229, a division that
was made on the basis of existing Islamic farms and smallholdings.

The owners of these estates are therefore usually genealogically related to
the descendents of noble landowning families. The possessió functioned
– and in certain cases, continues to function – like a production unit,
around which a whole farming system developed, which included the
participation of a large contingent of workers that could vary, depending
on the size of the property, from ten to nearly one hundred labourers. On
the pre-tourism island of Mallorca, prior to the first stages of the develop-
ment of mass tourism in the 1950s, the whole region was organized, struc-
tured and divided into possessions, typically for agricultural and livestock
farming both on the plain of Mallorca and in coastal areas and the moun-
tains. This structure co-existed and still does co-exist with municipal ad-                Figure 36. The ‘possessió’
ministrative divisions.                                                                    of Son Marroig, in Deià.




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Mallorca’s large estates are grouped together in the form of these agri-
cultural and livestock units. In fact, the 10 largest possessions occupy 31,200
hectares, which represents 38.2% of the surface of the Tramuntana area.
These large properties were authentic economic hubs, and some of them
still are today. They co-existed in the region alongside smaller properties,
concentrated mainly around towns and villages in the form of gardens,
irrigated land, and olive groves.

We can distinguish between mountain, valley and hillside possessions, in
accordance with their geographical location. Understanding and main-
taining the structure of the division of land as part of the local heritage is
fundamental in preserving the identity of the region.

•	 Mountain	estates	are	adapted	to	high	parts	of	the	island,	allowing	for	
   establishment of a farm and use of the available resources. Generally
   speaking their distinguishing characteristic is that they contain an ex-
   tensive tract of woodland and a smaller area of farmland. The cases de
   neu (ice stores) facilitated the use of a resource that was very important
   in its day.
•	 Valley	estates	can,	in	turn,	be	divided	into	three	sub-types	depending	
   on their relative location:
   – Single valley estates where a single farm occupies practically all the
       available surface area.
   – Valley estates parallel to two mountain faces, located with foothills
       on both sides with the access road along the centre of the basin
       beside the drainage torrent.
   – Estates in a valley belonging to a chain, located on the central plain
       along the road that links these valley.
•	 Mountain	estates	can	also	be	divided	into	two	large	groups:
   – Coastal estates that start in the mountains and run down the
       slopes until they reach the sea.
   – Those that run towards flatter inland areas (el Raiguer and el Pla).
       In general the latter have longer water supply networks and a larger
       extension of cultivated land.

These rural estates are distributed along the length and breadth of the
mountain region, although a particularly high concentration of them can
be found in the main valleys, occupying more fertile land. The size of the
property and its profitability in financial terms were clearly reflected by the
houses and outbuildings. Thus large possessions (Son Fortuny, Son Bunyola,
Planícia, Son Moragues, Pastoritx, Son Marroig, Bàlitx, Monnàber, Albarca,
Son Galceran) can be distinguished from other smaller, more austere ones
(Turixant, Ses Figueroles, Son Torrella, S’Estaca, Ariant or l’Ofre).




100
                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




The possessions located on the coast between Valldemossa and Deià deserve                  Figure 37. The ‘possessions’ are a
                                                                                           characteristic feature of the moun-
a special mention; they were gradually bought by the Archduke Ludwig                       tain range. In the photo,
Salvator of Austria during his visits to the island, from the second half of               Son Marroig.
the 19th century on. The following fall within the municipality of Vallde-
mossa: Son Ferrandell, Son Gual, S’Estaca, Sa Font Figuera, Can Costa,
Son Moragues, Miramar and Sa Torre; while Sa Pedrissa, Son Marroig
and Son Gallard are located in the municipality of Deià.

•	 Son	Ferrandell:	a	house	built	around	a	central	rectangular	courtyard,	
   with traditional architecture.
•	 Son	Galceran:	farmhouses	with	an	L-shaped	design.	It	has	a	ground	
   floor, upper floor and porch.
•	 S’Estaca:	a	newly-designed	house,	completed	in	the	late	19th century,
   with a rectangular base and flat roof.
•	 Font	Figuera:	rectangular	houses	with	two	galleries,	a	ground	floor	
   and two more floors.
•	 Can	Costa:		a	building	comprised	of	two	annexes,	traditional	architecture	
•	 Son	Moragues:	a	rectangular	farmhouse	with	a	central	courtyard.
•	 Casa	de	Miramar:	a	rectangular	farmhouse	with	two	galleries.	
•	 Sa	Torre	de	Can	Costa:	a	site	comprising	three	houses	adjoining	one	an-
   other in a row, with a ground floor and first floor. Traditional architecture
•	 Sa	Pedrissa:	farmhouses	with	an	L-shaped	design	and	a	tower	located	
   in the NE corner, where the two wings meet.




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                                      Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                      •	 Son	Marroig:	A	U-shaped	farmhouse	comprised	of	3	wings	with	a	cov-
                                         ered courtyard to the NE.
                                      •	 Son	Gallard:	a	farmhouse	with	a	quadrangular	base	and	a	central	
                                         courtyard.

                                      The Special Plan for the Protection of the Historic Sites of the Estates
                                      of the Archduke records up to 700 items that this aristocrat had built
                                      or restored on his lands, and 28 of these items are especially noteworthy,
                                      mainly estate houses, gardens, drinking troughs and public washing plac-
                                      es, noria-type waterwheels, chapels, viewing towers and watchtowers.

                                      In the architectural ensemble formed by the estate houses, two buildings in
                                      particular stand out: the casa dels senyors (landowners’ houses) and the casa
                                      dels amos (farm managers’ house). They are completed by a series of rooms
                                      and areas devoted to chores typical of the life of a farmer and shepherd.

                                      In some cases, due to difficulty of access to the estate’s houses or when
                                      the estate was of inferior category, the farm was left with no landowners’
                                      house. The absence of this building would be compensated for either by
                                      another large house on the outskirts destined to be used only as a resi-
                                      dence for the landowners or by typical inns or large town houses from
                                      where the estate was governed, in this case inhabited and farmed by farm
                                      workers only. They were usually inhabited by several families, as well as
                                      the estate manager, who rendered accounts to the owner for the farm, so
                                      often over fifty people would live on the estate, in addition to an equal
                                      number of draught animals.

Figure 38 The estate houses usually
have an inner courtyard called a
clastra. The photo shows the court-
yard of the Raixa estate (Bunyola).




                                      102
                                                         2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




Normally estate houses have a square design with a large central working
courtyard, called a clastra, around which all the outhouses stood, both
for residential purposes and for animals and storage. These farm units
were usually devoted not only to purely agricultural tasks but also to the
processing of products, which is why nearly all of them had an oil press, a
celler (wine cellar) and a mill for transforming agricultural produce.

The most important agricultural building on Tramuntana estates is,
without a shadow of a doubt, the oil mill or tafona, where the oil was
produced that was for centuries the main Mallorcan mountain resource.
Transported on the backs of donkeys, olives were brought down from
the mountaintops and all terraced areas. Olive oil was one of the most
sophisticated, expensive products that large estates produced. The oil
mill or tafona is one of the most singular, characteristic features of large
Tramuntana estates, and one of the symbols that most clearly define the
importance of these houses in the local area. It is normally a rectangular-
shaped room with several different standardized areas that differ little
from one estate to another. There is the trull, where the olives were ini-
tially pressed, and the graners (olive stores) at the back through which the
olives were entered. There was a fornal (fire) with a caldera (boiler), where
water was heated for the second pressing and decanting process, located
in the middle of the room. The oil mills contained one or two presses or
bigues, although some have three and even four - such as the mill at
Massanella (Mancor de la Vall) or Son Torrella (Santa Maria del Camí) –
for the second pressing, situated at the sides, and a sala de piques i safareig,
which were the areas where the oil was left for storage.

                                                                                            Figure 39. The oil mill is the place
                                                                                            where olives are turned into oil.




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Some estates had what were known as sweat mills, that is, mills driven
by animals, especially in places where one could not rely on water or the
wind as a driving force (CAÑELLAS, 1993). Although their performance
was inferior to that of other kinds of mills, the simplicity of their mecha-
nisms and easy availability of animals contributed to their being the most
commonplace kind of mill. It is unclear when sweat mills were brought
to Mallorca, although we do know that towards the end of the period of
Arab rule they were used assiduously, because some animal-driven mills
are named in the Llibre del Repartiment, which describes the division of
Mallorca’s lands by King Jaume I amongst the Catalan nobles who had
taken part in the conquest. In the Tramuntana area, as in the rest of the
island, there are two kinds of sweat mills, depending on their function.
On the one hand, there are flourmills, used to transform wheat into flour.
These are very widespread in the mountains, as they are linked to the
estates and were used for family consumption. And on the other hand,
there are oil mills, better known in Mallorca as trulls, linked to oil presses.
However, in time many trulls were mechanized and only a few are in a
good state of repair on certain large estates. Their disappearance went
hand in hand with the abandonment of agriculture and the disappear-
ance of draught animals.

On some estates there was also a winery or celler, found more often in the
Valldemossa, Deià and Banyalbufar areas, where not only did they cultivate
vines but exotic varieties also came to be produced, such as malvasia. They
were usually situated on the northern side of houses, half underground to
keep the temperature uniform until the following season. The wine was
stored in large wooden casks, both for consumption throughout the year by
the people who lived or worked in the house, and to be used as payment for
day labourers or in exchanges with other products, known as bartering.

Other highly-interesting examples of infrastructure present on Mallorcan
estates and those in the mountains in particular are chapels, defensive tow-
ers (more typical of estates near the coast), charcoal stores (where the char-
coal produced on the land was kept) and agricultural outbuildings such as
livestock shelters, barns, pigsties, stables, chicken coops or pigeon lofts.




104
                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




There are also historical gardens associated with estate houses. The                     Figure 40. On the coastal slopes of
                                                                                         the Tramuntana Mountains, many
Tramuntana area has a variety of extremely interesting gardens, such as                  estates have defensive towers, the
those complementing the houses of Raixa and Alfabia (Bunyola), Mas-                      construction of which dates back
                                                                                         to periods when there was more
sanella (Mancor), Galatzó (Calvià), Canet and Sa Granja (Esporles).                      danger of attacks by Turkish ves-
                                                                                         sels, in the 16th and 17th centuries.
                                                                                         The photo shows the Muleta Gran
•	 Alfabia	gardens	contain	different	styles,	such	as	the	Arab,	Italian	or	               estate, in Sóller.
   English style, with one common component: water features with cas-
   cades, fountains, jets of water and ponds. An impressive flight of stone
   steps with parallel water canals stands out from the rest, leading to
   the high part of the gardens, where there is a water tank topped with
   a barrel vault and an old pigeon loft. Also worthy of note is the per-
   gola formed by 72 columns and 24 hydrias made of stone, where water
   emerges, crossing over to form a passageway. Another highlight is the
   Queen’s Garden, so called because Queen Isabel II visited it in 1860.

•	 In	the	case	of	Raixa,	the	abundance	of	water	and	fertility	of	the	land	in	
   this privileged setting led to the establishment of a farm called Araixa
   farm during the period of Islamic rule. The estate’s present-day name
   stems from this period, and it continued to be inhabited throughout
   the Middle Ages and in modern times. In the 18th century Cardinal An-
   toni Despuig and Dameto, a Mallorcan, transformed the old agricul-
   tural estate, turning it into an Italian-style palace surrounded by one
   of the most emblematic gardens on the island. The palace grounds in-
   clude the gardens, a large flight of steps, a large pond and viewpoints.




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                                       Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 41. Drawing of the gardens of
La torre del Moro. Miramar




                                       •	 Sa	Granja	d’Esporles,	an	ancient	10th-century estate, highly prized as
                                          early on as in Roman times due to its large amount of water. It has a
                                          garden in a mixture of stately and rustic styles. Highlights are a yew
                                          tree that is over a thousand years old, and a magnificent natural jet of
                                          water that rises up to a height of thirty feet.

                                       •	 In	the	southern	part	of	the	Miramar	estate	lies	the	Torre	del	Moro	
                                          garden, a unique place containing geometrical figures by Ramon Llull
                                          emblazoned on flowerbeds and an Italian-style pond built in the Arch-
                                          duke’s time. The Byzantine Garden stands beside the first vantage
                                          point that the Archduke built on the coast. At the rear of the houses
                                          lies the Cypress Garden, which contains remains of the old church in
                                          the form of a Byzantine cross and a fragment of a Gothic cloister from
                                          the Convent of Santa Margalida in Palma. Two more of the archduke’s
                                          estates have interesting gardens. In Son Marroig the aristocrat wished
                                          to leave his mark by commissioning an enormous water tank, the
                                          es Galliner vantage point, and Carrara marble Ionic temple, with the
                                          imposing Sa Foradada rock below. In Son Moragues some Italian-style
                                          gardens were designed, located on an embankment.

                                       Some estates are still inhabited and in a semi-operational state, which
                                       helps them to be maintained in an acceptable state of conservation, but
                                       in general they are going through a period of considerable decline. There
                                       are also deserted or very dilapidated estates, whilst others have been re-




                                       106
                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




stored to be converted into tourist facilities in the form of rural tourism
establishments or as second homes for the well-off.

We should also point out that certain important estates have been
acquired by different public institutions in the Balearics. The estates of
La Coma d’en Vidal (Estellencs), Galatzó (Calvià), Planícia (Banyalbufar),
Tossals Verds, Son Amer, Binifaldó and Menut (Escorca) and Ses
Figueroles (Selva), belong to the Consell Insular de Mallorca, the Regional
Government of the Balearic Islands or the Spanish Government. As
for the area covered by the former estates of Archduke Ludwig Salvator
of Austria, this land is divided up amongst a multitude of properties,
most of them private, with the exception of the former lands of the Son
Moragues estate, which belong to the Government of the Balearic Islands.
The estate houses of Raixa, belonging to the Biodiversity Foundation of
the Ministry of the Environment and the Consell de Mallorca, have been
renovated for conversion into an environmental and cultural centre.

2.a.4. Towns and villages

In the Tramuntana area there is a wide spectrum of towns and villages,
ranging from larger ones such as Sóller, Andratx and Pollença to small
hamlets like Orient, Ullaró, Biniaraix, Sa Calobra, Llucalcari, Biniarroi,
Binibona or Binibassí, also including other villages that are extremely in-
teresting in architectural terms, for example Fornalutx, Banyalbufar, Vall-
demossa, Estellencs or Deià. The latter two have recently been declared
Items of Cultural Interest within the Historic Site category.

It is in these towns and villages that, logically enough, a large part of the
architectural heritage of the Tramuntana area can be found, as well as
many other items that define the urban landscape: public washing places,
mills, public wells, and large houses. In them, buildings ranging from im-
posing inns to very simple rustic houses can be seen, whose location deter-
mines an urban grid made up of narrow alleyways, sometimes adapted to
the mountainsides as in the cases of Bunyola, Estellencs or Banyalbufar.

The orography and network of roads, sloping steeply to adjust to the ter-
rain, and the shape of building plots give rise to tortuous, winding streets
that bestow an irregular, singular character on these towns and villages.
This urban topography is partly due to their Islamic past, although we
must point out that Islamic farms were much smaller and old quarters
of towns and villages grew significantly in the 14th century. Even though
the distribution of residential homes varies widely, there is a tendency to
build three-storey houses, with a ground floor, first floor and attic, called




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                                        Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                        a porxo in Mallorca. In towns and villages, the division of plots into small-
                                        er ones is highly influential. As streets were built in towns and villages,
                                        plots were divided up, and they are usually narrow and high at the front,
                                        which conditions the type of houses (as opposed to houses on the island’s
                                        plain which usually have a broad, low façade).

                                        Some towns and villages, such as Valldemossa, Estellencs, Banyalbufar or
                                        Fornalutx, still have a very well-preserved traditional urban landscape even
                                        today, thanks to the fact that limestone was used to construct the build-
                                        ings, and due also to their cobbled paving, which in some cases was incor-
                                        porated in the 20th century after burying the rainwater drainage system.

Figure 42. The Bank of Sóller, in the
town centre, reflects the economic
splendour of the first decades of the
20th century in this area.




                                        Although modern buildings, Baroque ones and others in the style of
                                        popular architecture prevail in towns, there are interesting Gothic, Ren-
                                        aissance and also Modernist examples. This latter style is concentrated
                                        basically in the town of Sóller, but also, to a lesser extent, in Bunyola.
                                        Together with contemporary buildings in historicist and regionalist style,




                                        108
                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




the Modernist ones are a clear testimony to the prosperous economic sit-
uation and emergence of a moneyed bourgeois class in the town of Sóller
in the late 19th and early 20th century. They have all contributed to defin-
ing a new urban profile for the town.

A full list of important buildings, from an architectural point of view,
surpasses the requirements of this document, but we can sum up with
some representative examples like the following: the Palace of King
Sanç in Valldemossa, which was a royal residence during the independ-
ent Kingdom of Mallorca; the Bank of Sóller and Can Prunera, in Sóller;
Cas Don, in the Biniaraix area; Ca n’Arbona and Es Puador, in Fornalutx;
Can Vallès in Deià; Sa Baronia in Banyalbufar; Son Mas in Andratx; Sa
Bastida dels Amunts and the Posada de Bànyols in Alaró; Son Morro
and Can Marquesí in Mancor de la Vall; and Can Costa Vell in Pollença.




Over the centuries, the complex water supply systems have been organized                 Figure 43. View of a street in the
                                                                                         village of Deià. Stone is omnipres-
into irrigational communities that still survive today and structure the                 ent in the urban landscapes of the
periurban garden areas of most of the villages in the Tramuntana area. The               Tramuntana area.
villages’ growth generally overlaps with this agricultural structure.




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One interesting example of popular art in towns and villages are the
painted tiles that adorn the cornices of some façades. Sóller and
Fornalutx are two municipalities on the island with the largest number of
inventoried houses (56 and 27 buildings, respectively). In spite of their be-
ing known as teules de moro (literally ‘Moor’s tiles’), the tradition appears
to date back to the 16th century. These ornamental features were made
by placing the tiles in lime and subsequently painting them red using a
mixture of linseed oil and red ochre. They bear geometric and vegetable
motifs, features of everyday life, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic fig-
ures, religious themes and a large quantity of inscriptions. As well as their
decorative value, they have a symbolic value associated with protection of
the house and its inhabitants.

2.a.5. Religious centres

When one is aware of the traditional religious dimension of Mallorcan so-
ciety and the strong influence the Church has on it, it is easy to understand
that the items of religious heritage preserved in the Tramuntana area are
both numerous and diverse. The municipalities of the Tramuntana area
feature many religious buildings, items and places of different architec-
tural styles and chronologies that reflect the connection between the area
and religious faith. Some examples are parish and rural churches, reli-
gious convents and monasteries, oratories and chapels, boundary crosses
and via crucis shrines and crosses.

The shrine at Lluc, the main focus of pilgrimages in Mallorca, and the
Miramar ensemble, founded by Ramon Llull, deserve a special mention
due to their singular, exceptional nature.

1) Religious and funerary archaeological remains

The religious heritage of the Tramuntana area is basically associated with
the Christian culture, which was introduced to the island in the year 1229,
although some archaeological evidence has been found dating back to the
Talayotic and Roman eras. Unfortunately no traces of the Paleo-Christian,
Byzantine or Islamic eras have survived in the area.

In the very heart of the Tramuntana Mountains, more specifically at the
Gorg Blau reservoir (Escorca), one can see some of the oldest religious
remains on Mallorca: the Talayotic shrines of Almallutx. Next to the
road that runs around the edge of the reservoir stands a column which
was inside one of three shrines whose corresponding building has disap-
peared under the water. On the other side of the reservoir, one can see the




110
                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




other two shrines with their corresponding columns. They have not been
covered by the water and excavation work has been carried out on them.
The two buildings have a square base and an apsidal wall. Inside one of
them, some pieces of pottery with lids were found, containing numerous
remains of sheep bones, and to a lesser extent pig, goat and oxen bones.
Two burial sites corresponding to a man and a woman were also found.

Much still remains to be learned about these shrines in terms of the reli-
gious practices and beliefs of the island’s first settlers, but a visit to them
is highly recommended given the splendid scenery that surrounds them.

The place name Lluc presumably comes from the Latin lucus, which al-
ludes to a “sacred wood”, so it seems plausible that the forest of Lluc was
a sacred place of worship and pilgrimage: activities that may even date
back to the Talayotic period if we take into account the cave, Cometa de los
Muertos, which is very close to the present-day shrine there. Six sarcophagi
from the Talayotic culture were found in this cave, along with their ce-
ramic and metal funerary offerings, consisting of iron daggers, swords
and diadems, bronze awls, little cone-shaped bells and arrow tips.

Whilst in Mallorca there is an abundance of Roman funerary and reli-
gious remains, these items are not especially common in the Tramuntana
area, with the notable exception, however, of the Roman necropolis of
Son Bosc, in Andratx.

2) The Lluc shrine

The restoration of the Christian religion in the Tramuntana area after
the Moslem interval coincides with a marvellous story about the discov-
ery of the Virgin of Lluc. Worship of this Gothic image dates back into
the distant past, as it is mentioned in a will from the year 1268, and pil-
grimages to the area are cited as having taken place as early as 1273. The
veneration of this figure increased notably in the 14th century, with two
masses per day being documented, as well as a religious brotherhood
and a collection box for alms in the churches of Mallorca. Although
the current buildings are more recent, building work on the square, pil-
grims’ hostel and the area of the covered spring dates back to the years
1322 and 1340. Between 1430 and 1440 attempts were made to found an
Augustinian monastery and another Dominican one. In the year 1456,
the parish church obtained its own parish priest, and work on the shrine
began on land given by Tomàs Thomàs. Pope Callistus III approved the
College of Presbyters and, after a period of internal struggles over the
priorate of Lluc between 1465 and 1494, its prior was appointed. Baltasar




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Thomàs, the son of Tomàs Thomàs, left his properties to the Virgin of
Lluc in his will and had the family coat of arms sculpted on the doorway
of the shrine. In this way the Thomàs coat of arms became that of Lluc.
In the year 1531 the shrine regulations were approved. Amongst other
considerations, it was established that the collegiate members had to be
Mallorcan priests and that there would have to be six boy singers. This
led to the creation of what is now the Blauvets de Lluc choir school, one
of the oldest in Europe.

In 1586 a building was erected to lodge pilgrims and their mounts. Lluc
shrine itself experienced a period of intense growth at this time. The
present-day church, which replaced the Gothic church, was built between
1622 and 1691, although alterations were made to it in the early 20th cen-
tury under the direction of architect Antoni Gaudí.

In 1884 the papal coronation of the Virgin of Lluc took place, an event
that was celebrated with a large ceremony presided over by Bishop Mateu
Jaume. Poets of the Catalan Renaissance offered the first poetical crown
to the Virgin. In the year 1891, the Missionaries of the Sacred Hearts
took over the running of the shrine. From 1909 to 1914 a great deal of
alterations and extension work were carried out at the request of Bishop
Campins. We should mention here that in the years 1934, 1959 and 1984,
coronation anniversary celebrations were held and in 1962 Pope John XX-
III made the Church of Lluc a basilica. The religious shrine of Lluc is still
a place of worship and pilgrimage for Mallorca’s Christian community,
and a religious, civic and cultural symbol of Mallorcan society.

3) The Miramar ensemble and hermit communities

Thirdly we should mention the main Medieval religious landmark in
Mallorca: Miramar, founded by philosopher Ramon Llull (Palma, circa
1232/1235–1316), considered the creator of literary Catalan. Llull’s parents
were from Barcelona, arriving in Mallorca during the Christian conquest.
During the first stage of his life he was private tutor to the future king
of Mallorca, Jaume II, and devoted himself to troubadour poetry, but on
reaching the age of thirty he had a spiritual crisis that led him to change
his life radically, leaving his family and embarking on impressive labours
as a writer, preacher and missionary.

In 1276, under the auspices of King Jaume II, Llull set up a Grammar and
Oriental language school on the Miramar estate – between the villages of
Deià and Valldemossa – where thirteen Franciscan friars were trained to
be missionaries and preach the gospel and Ars luliana to Moslems. This




112
                                                     2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




school was closed in 1295, but in the same place, in the second half of the
15th century, Mallorca’s first printing press became operational. Some time
later the hermit spirit took root in Miramar: in the 17th century, a distant
follower of Ramon Llull founded a hermitage in the nearby woods for a
congregation of contemplatives drawn from the common people, genuine
followers of Ramon Llull in terms of penitence. In these mountains they
sought a place to pray and lead a life far from the problems of the city.
The continuance of this hermitage in the present day is the hermit com-
munity of Trinidad de Valldemossa, near Miramar.

                                                                                        Figure 44. The bell tower of the
                                                                                        former Carthusian monastery of
                                                                                        Valldemossa




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Later on, in 1872, Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Habsburg-Lorraine
bought the estate and made alterations to it, recapturing the memory of
Ramon Llull and the message of a respect for and enjoyment of nature,
building numerous pathways and vantage points. Enamoured of these
places, the Archduke invited important figures of the time to visit it, one
prime example being the legendary Empress Sisi of Austria, who was so
impressed she named her yacht Miramar. The parts of Miramar one can
visit today are the old oil mill, the Archduke’s map room, the garden and
the cloister of the Convent of Santa Margalida, as well as remains of the
medieval building from Ramon Llull’s time. One can also see objects
from the Archduke’s time, such as fragments of his boat – the Nixe –, or
remains of the cenotaph in tribute to Viworny, his first secretary. In the
Cypress Garden one can also see the chapel of the Blessed Ramon Llull,
designed in 1877 by Frederick Waskmann, with a statue of the Virgin
Mary called Notre Dame de la Garde (a gift from Empress Sisi of Austria to
Archduke Ludwig Salvator), and a fragment of the cloister of the Convent
of Santa Margalida from the city of Palma.

4) Parish churches

Churches in the towns and villages united the population that had settled
in the region following the Christian conquest and the division of the
Mallorcan land amongst the new settlers. Most of the parish churches in
the towns and villages of the Tramuntana area are in the Baroque archi-
tectural style typical of the 17th and 18th centuries, albeit with later features
that are the result of subsequent alterations carried out in the 19th and
20th centuries. One of the most recent churches is that of Mancor de la
Vall, in neo-Gothic style, dating back to the 19th century.

In many cases these churches replaced older ones, many of which were
Gothic, which is why the majority of churches today still have moveable
or immoveable features in this style in their interior. The greater part of
these parish churches are documented in the 13th century, especially in the
Papal Bull of Innocence IV from the year 1248, such as Santa Maria in An-
dratx (1248), Sant Bartomeu in Alaró (1241), Nativitat de Maria in Banyal-
bufar (the second half of the 13th century), Santa Maria in Bunyola (1248),
the Virgen dels Àngels in Pollença (1236), Sant Bartomeu in Sóller or Sant
Joan Baptista in Calvià (1248).

Over the course of time, some of these parish churches have changed
their location within the town or village, such as the parish church of
Alaró, which moved from the Amunts district to an area called Avall.




114
                                                         2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




Some parish churches have changed with regard to the patron saint to
whom they were originally dedicated. This is the case of Alaró, where the
original saint, Mary, was replaced by Saint Bartholomew, or the parish
church of Saint John the Baptist in Calvià, a patron saint documented
from the year 1248 but changed in the 16th century to Our Lady of Sorrows.

The parish church of Deià was first to be blessed in the year 1496 and ded-
icated to Our Lady of Sorrows, but later on Saint John the Baptist became
the patron saint. This Gothic church crowns the little summit on which
the village is set. A small cemetery sits beside the church, considered one
of the most unique in all Mallorca, and buried here, amid local residents,
lies the English writer and poet Robert Graves, who lived in the village for
much of his life.

One of the most outstanding churches in the Tramuntana area is the parish
church of Sóller. The first church is documented in the Papal Bull of Inno-
cence IV in 1248, although it was replaced by another Gothic church, which
would have been in the area where the presbytery now stands. This church
was sacked by Turkish pirates in the year 1561, and as a result it was decided
that it should be fortified between 1563 and 1575, and large walls and towers
were constructed around the church and rectory, together with a moat. Work
on the current building began in 1688, and it was blessed in 1711 in spite of be-
ing unfinished, since the portal was completed in 1747 and the presbytery in
1827, which explains the fact that different decorative and constructive styles
overlap one another. The bell tower, in two sections, stands on the site of the
bell tower of the previous building, dating back to the late 19th century. The
alterations to the current façade were planned by Modernist architect Joan
Rubió i Bellver, carried out between 1904 and 1947, coinciding with a flourish-
ing boom in Modernism in the town of Sóller.

5) Rural churches

As well as parish churches associated with towns and villages, mention
must be made of small Gothic churches that sprang up to serve rural
communities whose main parish church was somewhat remote, as is the
case of the Oratory of Santa Llúcia in Mancor de la Vall. Other instances
are those where settlements failed to develop around them, as in the case
of the original Oratory of Sant Miquel in Campanet, near Gabellí estate,
built between 1248 and 1315. This performed the functions of the parish
church of Campanet until the latter year.

Also worth mentioning is the Church of Sant Pere in Escorca, a little jewel
of 13th-century rural religious architecture. As early as the year 1246 it had




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been recognised as a parish church, and also featured in a list on the Pa-
pal Bull of Innocence IV in 1248. In spite of these references, there is no
record of the existence of a church building as such, which was possibly
built in the second half of the 13th century. Today it is in a magnificent
state of conservation, with all its purity of design, thanks to its isolated
mountain location, the fact that ecclesiastical predominance was given
to the nearby shrine at Lluc in 1456, and the significant restoration work
that has been carried out on it. Not only was the Church of Sant Pere the
religious centre of the district until the year 1456, it was also the centre
of civil life. In front of its doors, in 1285, the Universitat d’Escorca – a lo-
cal corporation – elected representatives to swear an oath of loyalty to
Alfonso of Aragon, who had occupied the island in opposition to Jaume
II of Mallorca, a deed that was repeated in the year 1343, when an oath of
loyalty was sworn by the representatives of Escorca before King Pere the
Ceremonious.

6) Religious monasteries and convents

Throughout the Middle Ages and Modern Times many religious hermit
communities settled in the Tramuntana area, until in the year 1567 the
danger of attacks by pirates and bandits forced Bishop Diego de Arnedo
to make an announcement calling on all these communities to return
to towns and villages, which favoured the proliferation of convents and
monasteries there.

Places of worship and spirituality, convents and monasteries were also
teaching centres, because we should point out that in many villages the
primary school education of Mallorcan boys and girls depended on the
work of priests and nuns until the late 19th or early 20th century. Tending
to the sick and maintaining the parish church were other tasks habitually
performed by them too.

The Convents of Santa Maria de l’Olivar and Sant Francesc (Sóller) and the
Convent of Santo Domingo (Pollença) are especially noteworthy. Even so, the
most outstanding of all is probably the monastery of La Trapa estate, in An-
dratx, commenced by Trappist monks in 1810, although they only inhabited it
for a period of ten years. Dedicated to Santa Maria de La Trapa, it was built in
rural architectural style. It includes an oratory consecrated to Our Lady in the
Mystery of her Purification and Presentation of the Baby Jesus to the Temple,
the main building with dormitories and refectories, the workshop buildings,
cellars and storerooms. At the moment it is in a ruinous state, albeit under
reconstruction by the ecologist group, Grup d’Ornitologia Balear (Balearic
Ornithology Group - GOB), which now owns the estate.




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                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




7) Oratories, shrines and chapels

Every village in the Tramuntana area usually has an oratory or shrine
outside the urban perimeter where the parishioners go at certain times of
year to ask for protection and support.

In Calvià there is a small oratory known as Sa Capelleta, dedicated to Our
Lady of Sorrows, perhaps related to a dedication documented in the par-
ish church during the 16th century. It was built in the 15th century to house
the Virgin of Portals, but it is said that every time the statue was housed
in the chapel, it mysteriously returned to the cave where it had been
found.

Esporles conserves the Maristel·la shrine, erected in 1888 and dedicated to
the Virgin of Carmen, in honour of fishermen and sailors. In Valldemossa
you can find the shrine of Trinidad, built in the mid-17th century at the
request of hermit Joan Mir de la Concepció, who founded the congrega-
tion of San Pablo and San Antonio. In Mancor de la Vall the 13th-century
oratory of Santa Llúcia is noteworthy, and in Alaró Castle there is the
Oratory of the Virgen del Refugio, built in 1622 at the request of the rec-
tor of the parish church of Alaró, although alterations were carried out
between 1764 and 1778. The hermit Joan Mir de la Concepció also lived in
this oratory for a while.

                                                                                         Figure 45. The Oratory of Ramon
                                                                                         Llull, in Miramar.




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The Oratory of the Virgen de los Desamparados, dating back to 1688, can
be found in Llucalcari. In the Sóller valley, the 18th-century Oratory of
Castelló has been preserved, dedicated to the Virgin of the Rosary. In the
Port of Sóller, there is the Oratory of Santa Caterina d’Alexandria, built
in around 1280 to commemorate the miraculous shift in location of Sant
Ramon de Penyafort from Sóller to Barcelona. Today it houses the Sóller
Museum of the Sea.

One municipality that stands out for the numerous religious buildings it
contains is Pollença, where four interesting oratories can be found. The
first is El Calvari, built between 1795 and 1799 and reached by a flight of
365 steps, with splendid panoramic views of the town. Inside the oratory
there is a group of 14th-century sculptures of the crucified Christ with the
Virgin at his feet. Secondly, there is the old Oratory of Roser Vell, with a
basilica-type design featuring side chapels, built in the 14th century, where
the Virgin of the Rosary was worshipped. Thirdly, there is the Oratory of
Sant Jordi, built in the 16th century outside the town, in the direction of
the sea. This is the place where the inhabitants of Pollença set off from on
route to the coast when warning of pirates was given. Finally, near Puig
de Maria which stands 330 metres high, at the foot of the village, there
is a shrine with a chapel, refectory, tower and walls, built in Gothic style
in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The single-nave church contains a
popular image of the Virgin dating back to the 14th century. The refectory
is one of the most remarkable rooms in all Mallorca.

The newly built oratories and chapels that Archduke Ludwig Salvator
commissioned on the properties he bought deserve a special mention.
They come under the Special Plan for the Protection of the Historic Site
of the Estates of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria. They include the
previously mentioned Chapel of the Blessed Ramon, in Miramar, con-
structed by the Czech architect Friedrich Wachsmann from 1877 to 1880,
considered the most emblematic of the Archduke’s buildings. Regrettably,
only fragments of the wall, roof and arches of the portal now remain. An-
other two important items of heritage are the Chapel of Puig des Verger,
which has a square base, slightly pyramid-shaped volumes and a domed
roof; and the Miramar Chapel, also called the Chapel of Trinitat or Virgen
del Buen Pastor, which has a square layout and stone walls with hollow
ashlars with edging made of ashlars.

Finally, we should mention the fact that numerous estates included a pri-
vate chapel, which was used by both the landowners and the workers, and
often by peasants from the area surrounding the estate too.




118
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




8) Boundary crosses

Boundary crosses – known locally as creus de terme – are located at the
entrance to urban municipalities, and traditionally they marked the
boundaries of the municipalities they separated. These items of heritage
are frequent in the Tramuntana area – an inventory of nearly 30 crosses
has been drawn up – and they are protected by legislation as Items of Cul-
tural Interest.

Traditionally the crosses were placed at the edges of villages, beside the
paths that connected one village or town to another. The growth of these
towns and villages, in recent times, means that now they are located in-
side the network of village streets. Whilst they vary notably in type and
chronology, the crosses are usually set on a stepped polygonal base and
they feature a religious decoration, normally linked to the Crucifixion.
Aside from their value as an artistic object and geographical landmark, we
should also add the religious function they have performed for centuries,
as part of the religious calendar.

9) The ‘via crucis’

Certain villages and towns in the Tramuntana area still have chapels
with façades that fulfil the function of part of a via crucis. One outstand-
ing example is the via crucis running through the Puig district of Deià,
comprised of twelve small framed quadrangular chapels, built using a
kind of local stone – marès – and containing ceramic tiles showing the
corresponding season. They also feature the name of the sponsor, which
is usually an organization – Fomento del Turismo de Mallorca (Mallorca
Tourist Board) or the Provincial Government – or the names of families
who own the local rural estates.

One unique variant of the via crucis is the path of the Mysteries of Lluc,
also called the Rosary path. Built in the year 1909 under the direction of
engineer Guillem Carbonell, it leads to La Roca del Encuentro: the place
where, according to tradition, the Virgin of Lluc appeared, very close to
the top of the hill. In 1913, the installation of medallions with the bronze
reliefs of the fifteen mysteries of the Rosary (five joyful, five sorrowful and
five glorious) was completed. This was the work of sculptor Josep Llimona
and the Esteve Barberí foundry in Olot. The medallions can be found on
five limestone monuments, located on five esplanades that serve as pano-
ramic vantage points. Under the reliefs is the corresponding stone plaque
bearing the Latin verse from the Holy Rosary.




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10) Religious heritage in the form of furnishings

The parish churches, convents, oratories and other religious monuments
of the Tramuntana area contain an important, often little-known source
of heritage in the form of furnishings, particularly altarpieces and carv-
ings. The Museum of Lluc deserves a special mention. It was founded in
the year 1952 and, in it, you can see the Treasures of the Virgin, a set of
objects made of gold, silver and precious stones, as well as adornments
that have been donated to the Virgin of Lluc over the centuries. There are
also chalices, ciboria, monstrances, a Lignum Crucis dating back to the first
half of the 16th century, velvet tunics, ex-votos and other offerings. The
museum also houses a collection of statues and a collection of display
case nativity scenes.

Some of these churches still have their antique organs. Indeed the island
of Mallorca is one of the places in Europe with the highest density of
this kind of musical instrument. The oldest organs are in the Almudaina
palace (dating back to the year 1313), Palma Cathedral (1328) and Pollença
(1391). In the second half of this century, monumental organs with a
Gothic structure were introduced, and a Mallorcan musical school was
created, with outstanding dynasties of organists such as the Roigs in
the 16th century, the Caimaris in the 17th century and the Boschs in the
18th century. This last dynasty introduced important innovations to the
architectural structure of the instrument, permanently abandoning the
Aragonese flat front and adopting the Valencian three-sided swell box
and ornamentation of the pipes, one of the most notable features of the
Mallorcan Baroque. One important pipe organ builder was Jordi Bosch,
who introduced horizontal or ‘battle’ trumpets. He was responsible for
the finest organs on Mallorca, such as that of Sant Domingo, for example,
which dates back to the year 1765 and is now in Santanyí, and the organ
of San Francisco in Palma, dating back to 1771. He also built the organs of
the Royal Palace in Madrid and Seville Cathedral.

The seizure of Church property dealt a severe blow to organs in exist-
ence up until that point. Many vanished and others – the majority – were
transferred elsewhere. The most serious consequence was that the manu-
facture of new organs ground to a halt. In the early 20th century, the in-
strument recovered somewhat from its decline, above all after the First
Vatican Council. Newer types of pipe organs reached Mallorca somewhat
later than the rest of Spain, with the first Romantic pipe organs and
French symphonic organ being installed in the Churches of Montesión
and Santa Eulalia, and pneumatic organs like the one in Lluc (1922) or
electric ones like the Casal Balaguer organ (1930).




120
                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




Among the collection of Mallorcan pipe organs declared Items of Cul-
tural Interest, because they are the finest testimonials of a tradition of
organ building lasting over five hundred years, we can find those of the
Convent of Santo Domingo in Pollença and the Parish Church of Santa
Maria del Camí.

2.a.6 Maritime heritage

The north coast of the Tramuntana area, which is extremely difficult
to navigate, contains numerous examples of maritime heritage related
to surveillance of the coast, sailing and the exploitation of its relatively
scarce fishing resources. They include coastal towers, lighthouses, dry
docks and heritage linked to smuggling. Quarries for the extraction of
marès (sandstone) complete the list of coastal heritage of interest value.

1) Coastal watchtowers

The geographical isolation that Mallorca endured for centuries and incur-
sions and attacks by pirates on numerous occasions led to the depopula-
tion of the coast as a way of dealing with a danger that generally arrived by
sea. This circumstance has meant that, historically, the area has acted as a
last redoubt. As a result, there are two medieval castles – Alaró Castle and
Castell del Rei, in Pollença- in this area, along with numerous watchtow-
ers and defensive towers, organized around a complex system of signals and
communications, designed to warn of the presence of enemy ships or pro-
vide protection from the attackers once they had disembarked.

                                                                                           Figure 46. The Ses Ànimes tower,
                                                                                           in Banyalbufar




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




The construction of the first defensive towers and watchtowers that line
the coast of Mallorca began in the 16th century, although the presence of
guards and lookouts is documented from the 14th century on. The insecu-
rity of the period gave rise to the construction of an authentic network of
towers that could communicate with each other in order to warn others
of possible undesired or unforeseen landings. The signalling system and
network were designed by mathematician and historian Joan Baptista
Binimelis (1539-1616). In the Tramuntana area, the towers that have sur-
vived are the Sa Mola, Cala Basset and S’Evangèlica towers in the munici-
pality of Andratx; in Banyalbufar, the Es Verger or Ses Ànimes tower; in
Valldemossa the Son Galceran tower; in Deià the Sa Pedrissa and Cala de
Deià towers; in Sóller the Picada tower; in Fornalutx the Na Seca tower;
in Escorca the Es Forat, Sa Mola de Tuent, Es Bosc and Lluc towers, and
in Pollença the Aubercutx tower. Two of them are on lands that belonged
to Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria: the Talaia de la Trinitat or Son
Galceran, a cylindrical defensive tower that the Archduke himself bought
in 1878; and the Torre de Sa Pedrissa, circular-based very large one, meas-
uring 7.5 m in diameter and standing 10 m tall.

The coastal towers are situated in places with good visibility of the coast,
high up and in sight of neighbouring and adjoining towers. The tower
keepers sent warning signals in the form of fire or smoke, depending
whether it was day or night. The layout of the towers was always circular,
and the entrance was high up to impede access by any potential direct
form of attack, so a rope-and-wood ladder was used to enter and then
removed in the event of danger. A spiral staircase led up to the rooftop,
where there was usually a hut or sentry box and a cannon or two with the
corresponding ammunition.

As well as these towers, we must also mention ones that were built onto
numerous rural estate houses, which served as a refuge in the event of
invasion. Some remarkable examples can be found on the Son Orlandis
(Andratx), Son Fortuny (Estellencs), Son Mas (Valldemossa) or Albarca
(Escorca) estates. In some cases, when the sea presented almost no danger
any longer, in the 19th century the roofs were replaced by battlement tops,
due to the influence of Romanticist aesthetics.

The towers located on the western half of the Tramuntana coastline
are the best conserved ones, due to their ease of access. In contrast,
those located on the coast of Escorca are the ones most in need of
restoration – with the exception of the Sa Mola de Tuent tower, which
was recently restored by Escorca Council – as they are set on nearly-
inaccessible cliff tops.




122
                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




2) Lighthouses

Mallorcan lighthouses are single-tower buildings located in clearly-visible
places on the edge of the coast or set on cliff platforms or reefs. In fact
they are situated in strategic points along the coastline, so that the lan-
tern that projects long-range beams of light is visible to all sailors from a
long distance. The lighthouses are classified in a series of classes accord-
ing to their importance. Those in the first category or class are the ones
in the most important geographical locations, like peninsulas and capes,
and they warn ships farer away of the presence of the coast by means of
a rotating beam. The lighthouses in the second, third and fourth catego-
ries guide coastal shipping, warning of the presence of islands, rocks and
sandbanks. Finally, the least important lighthouses – the fifth and sixth-
class ones – serve as beacons to mark the entrance of a port.

The nine lighthouses on the coast of the Tramuntana area, like the rest of
the lighthouses on the island, are relatively modern items of heritage, as
most of them were built in the mid-19th century, following the directives of
a General Plan for maritime lighting for the Spanish coast dating back to
the year 1847. At the time, a series of improvements was introduced, relating
both to the architecture of the buildings themselves and the fuels and light-
ing systems that were used, and at the same time new optical apparatus was
incorporated in order to increase the amount of light they projected.

From an aesthetical point of view, the lighthouses of the Mallorcan
mountains follow the same neo-Classical criteria – popularly adopted in
many other places around the world – that Frenchman Durant imposed
at the beginning of the 19th century, even though engineer Emili Pou was
responsible for lighthouse design on the Balearic archipelago. Execution
of the building work of many of the lighthouses took place during the
reign of Isabel II, when the lighting apparatus was French-manufactured
and they were fuelled by olive oil, a system that would be replaced by the
progressive introduction of oil and gas, which eventually disappeared
with the arrival of electricity and solar or photovoltaic energy.
A total of nine important lighthouses are recorded in the Tramuntana
area. Three of them are on the island of Dragonera in the south: the
Dragonera lighthouse, Llebeig lighthouse and Tramuntana lighthouse.
The first one was built in around 1850 on the highest point of the island
to guide ships through the strait that separates Sa Dragonera from the
island of Mallorca, which was used as a passage by sailors coming from
Barcelona. The constant mists that hang over the island often hid its
light, which is why the decision was taken to build the Llebeig (1910) and
Tramuntana lighthouses.




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                                       Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 47. Early 20th-century photo    The lighthouse in the Port of Andratx is the only one on the island lo-
of the Far Vell, now disused, in the
port of Sóller.                        cated on a dock, identifying the mouth of the port. It began operating in
                                       the year 1859, but alteration work was carried out in 1904, when a conical
                                       trunk standing eleven metres tall was erected. In the Port of Sóller there
                                       are three lighthouses: the Muleta lighthouse, located 101 metres above
                                       sea level, Vell lighthouse and Nou lighthouse. The Muleta lighthouse was
                                       built in the year 1842 and its tower is 19.5 metres tall. The Nou lighthouse
                                       was built in the year 1930 to make up for the structural and signalling
                                       deficiencies of the Vell lighthouse, also designed by engineer Emili Pou.
                                       At the tip of the Formentor peninsula, in the municipality of Pollença,
                                       stands the Cape Formentor lighthouse. Set 210 metres above sea level,
                                       it is the highest in the Balearic Islands. The building is an exact copy of
                                       the lighthouse on the island of Cabrera, with a square layout and a tower
                                       20 metres in height. It has enough living space to accommodate three
                                       families. In the southern section of the coast of Pollença, we can find the
                                       lighthouse of Punta de l’Avançada, built under the direction of Eusebi Es-
                                       tada. It was inaugurated in 1905. The building is comprised of two equal
                                       sections joined by a central part and it has an octagonal-based pyramid-
                                       shaped tower attached to the rear.




                                       124
                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




3) Seashore dry docks

Although there are few of them, in places offering most shelter from
storms one can find traditional dry docks, known as alcoves in the
Tramuntana and escars in the rest of the island. Generally speaking they
are sheltered spots where a ramp has been built for launching or remov-
ing fishing boats from the water. The presence of boathouses or shelters
to house boats is very common, whilst the ramp used as a slipway for the
boats is made of wooden planks nailed to the ground.
These dry docks may be made of wood or a mixture of building materi-
als and wood. Their function is none other than that of protecting and
sheltering small fishing or leisure boats, and they are, for the most part,
located in places along the coast with difficult access, such as the strip
of coast between Port d’Estellencs and the cove of Deià. Even so, their ex-
posure to sea storms explains the scanty presence of these constructions,
which are much more abundant on the eastern and southern coasts of
Mallorca. Many coastal estates have their own dry docks, as is the case of
the D’Amunt estate in Deià, Son Marroig, Can Puigserver or Son Beltran.
These last docks, belonging to Son Beltran, date back to the 18th century,
featuring a singular stone lintel with a coat of arms chiselled into it. The
Sa Costa dry dock is built using marés (sandstone), in one of the least ac-              Figure 48. The ‘alcoves’
                                                                                         of the tiny fishing village of S’Estaca
cessible places in the mountain range.                                                   (Valldemossa).




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                                    Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                    4) The landscape of smugglers

                                    Pursuit of coastal smugglers gave rise to a number of very interesting
                                    buildings on Mallorca, such as the Cosconar police barracks in the mu-
                                    nicipality of Escorca, as well as paths for observation of the sea and hid-
                                    ing places used by smugglers, known on the island as secrets (secrets).

                                    2.a.7. Traditional lifestyles

                                    Towns and villages are the community’s main source of social life. The eco-
                                    nomic, political, educational, cultural and religious activities of different
                                    members of society find their expression in houses, public spaces, social
                                    and power relations, ideologies and beliefs, everyday life, diet, attire and
                                    tasks that are performed. In the Tramuntana area, towns and villages have
                                    evolved from former settlements from Moslem times, and have been deeply
                                    influenced by the orography of the mountains themselves. Life in them has
                                    gradually changed as time has passed, but these changes were accentuated
                                    with the growth of the tourism sector in the 1960s. Until then, the town
                                    was the most important place in the municipality, and the square, with its
                                    cafés and barbers’ shops, was the social centre, above all on Sundays, when
                                    people left church, and on public holidays and market days. It was a meet-
                                    ing place, a place for bargaining and the centre of social life.

Figure 49. The village of Deià in
around the year 1920.




                                    Mallorca’s countryside – that is, most of the island’s territory – cannot
                                    be understood without taking a look at the social and interpersonal re-
                                    lations that took place in rural estates or possessions. They were hubs of
                                    rural life and the backbone of traditional conventions in the Mallorcan




                                    126
                                                             2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




countryside. These large estates, the purpose of which was farming and
livestock rearing, were administrated from a nucleus of buildings called
the estate houses, consisting of the cases dels senyors (landowner’s houses)
and cases dels amos (farm manager’s houses). In them, the farm manager
and his wife (l’amo i la madona) frequently lived alongside the owner and
his family (els senyors). The senyors were landowners and members of the
nobility, belonging to what was called the braç noble (literally ‘noble arm’)
or mà major rural, boasting a high level of independence in these rural ar-
eas. They controlled the abundant peasant labour force on the basis of a
classist, clearly hierarchical social structure, reflected to perfection in this
glosa (Mallorcan folk song): (If he is a landowner, he should wear gloves. If
he is the farm manager’s son, he should wear a kerchief. And if he is the
son of the sharecropper, he should wear calluses on his hands).

    Si és senyor, que dugui guants.
    Si és fill d’amo, mocador.
    I si és fill d’arrendador,
    que dugui calls per ses mans

These estates constituted a unique system of production and system of
social interaction, in which the landowners, l’amo (farm manager) and the
madona (his wife) lived side by side with many other workers: amitger, ma-
joral, missatge, jornaler, pareller, bover, oguer, hortolà, segadors, homes d’era, jor-
nalers, and also the traginers (carters) and collidores d’oliva (olive gatherers),
that is to say people from different places around the island who came on
a temporary basis to work during the olive harvest. This meant there had
to be enough space to accommodate these temporary workers.

                                                                                                Figure 50. Collidores d’oliva (olive
                                                                                                gatherers), in the Tramuntana
                                                                                                Mountain in around 1920




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




The traditional lifestyles, agricultural and livestock-related know-how of
the peasants, specific solutions adopted to meet subsistence requirements,
and ways of seeing and understanding the region are expressed in the eve-
ryday universe of the estates. In the words of George Sand (1855: 37):

      «Nowhere have I seen the land worked with such patience, or such calm. Even
      the simplest of machines is unknown here. The arms of men – arms that are
      rather thin and weak in comparison to those of our own peasants – suffice for
      everything, albeit with unthinkable slowness.»

Although the senyors barely lived on some estates, they usually alternated
summer seasons in their townhouses with time spent at the estate. Partic-
ularly after the 17th century when social conflicts (the Revolta Forana, and
Germanies) between landowners and peasants were over, large landown-
ing families who had a townhouse sought a residence in the Tramuntana
area, where we can observe a higher density of estate houses belonging to
landowners than on the rest of the island, as well as greater complexity in
the rooms, chapels, gardens etc. These more frequent visits to their moun-
tain estates on the part of landowners is linked both to scenic questions
and the fact that they had a larger water supply.

Forest areas also had workers who specialized in different activities relat-
ed to forestry, notably the roters, sharecroppers who rented the most un-
productive part of the estate lands; the marger, in charge of building and
repairing the hillside terraces; the llenyater, who would cut down trees and
bushes to supply wood; the carboner, who manufactured charcoal using
wood from the surrounding area; the calciner, responsible for manufactur-
ing lime; or the nevater, who manufactured ice. Some of these activities
were seasonal. So the carboner, for example, usually worked from spring
to autumn. In contrast, the nevaters could only work during winter. Often
these chores were carried out by groups of four to six people in the case
of lime manufacturing, or eight to twelve people in the case of ice. These
workers habitually spent long spells in the mountains, surviving precari-
ously and, as a result, they built huts (roter, carboner and nevater huts)
where they could take shelter alongside the architectural structures they
used in their forestry work (the sitja de carbó, forn de calç, casa de neu etc).
They would also build ovens for baking the bread that constituted their
staple diet, and tanks for storing water. Sometimes an enclosure was also
prepared for the livestock that helped transport their products.

Mountain activities were clearly different – harder and more solitary – to
life in villages or towns or on estates, but people who could not work as
agricultural labourers on an estate and did not have their own piece of




128
2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




                                   Figure 51. A peasant from Pollença,
                                   wearing traditional Mallorca attire.
                                   Photo from the late 19th or early
                                   20th century.




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




land to subsist from were destined to work in these mountain activities,
often accompanied by their family or other people in the same situation.
Whilst most of these old trades have gradually disappeared, we can still
find numerous vestiges of these activities scattered around the area.

In addition to these activities, in the summer shepherds would also move
the livestock from flatter areas of the island to the Tramuntana Moun-
tains where they could find the necessary pasture land.

2.a.8. Traditional know-how and techniques

Villages and towns, estates and paths in the Tramuntana were oppor-
tunities for communication and the interchange of products, ideas and
knowledge.

One of the most valuable treasures of the Tramuntana areas is its dry-
stone construction work. This building technique, used since time im-
memorial, is clearly linked to a group of local craftsmen, who over the
centuries have passed on their techniques, materials, learning processes
and specialist vocabulary to extend areas of farmland, improve harvests,
prevent damage and utilize the water this area receives in such an irregu-
lar fashion.

The inhabitants of the Tramuntana area also benefited from an extensive
cultural background - transmitted orally from generation to generation
and enriched through experience and collaboration - relating to agricul-
tural and livestock processes and techniques, as well as knowledge of how
to use natural resources (wood, snow, charcoal, lime, game, fishing and
sailing, gathering resources, minerals, and stone). Processing techniques
(salting, drying, storage) were also transmitted in a fundamentally oral
manner, as were agricultural processing methods in oil mills, other mills,
and wineries, together with knowledge of the medicinal properties of
plants.

Regrettably, the decline of farming and the disappearance of the last la-
bourers who carried out these tasks threaten to relegate this extensive
area of age-old knowledge to obscurity. It is essential that it be preserved
and documented so that it can be made known to future generations.




130
                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




2.a.9. Ethnographic, scientific and technical knowledge

In 1869 Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Habsburg-Lorraine and Bourbon
of Austria (Florence, 1847 – Prague, 1915) arrived in Mallorca, becom-
ing known locally as s’Arxiduc. He was so captivated by the beauty of the
north coast that in 1872 he purchased Miramar and gradually acquired
most of the estates located between Valldemossa and Deià. He had the
spirit of a traveller and a scientist, and was a great nature lover too, build-
ing paths and vantage points on these estates.




Over the following decades, Miramar became the centre of his possessions.                  Figure 52. Archduke Ludwig
                                                                                           Salvator of Austria
It was there that he received all his visitors, who were drawn by the beauty
of the landscape, and they can be considered Mallorca’s first tourists. They
include the French painter and writer Gastón Vuillier; the prehistorians
Bartoli and Cartailhac; the Spanish naturalist Odón de Buen; the botanist
and rector of the University of Geneva, Roberto H. Chorat; the writer Mar-
gherita D’Este; and the poets Rubén Darío and Jacinto Verdaguer. Over the
years he mixed with Mallorcan and Catalan intellectuals (Antoni Mª Alcover,




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Miquel Costa i Llobera, Santiago Rusinyol, Jacint Verdaguer, Francisco
Manuel de los Herreros, and Miguel de Unamuno). He became integrated
into the local population, learning the Catalan language and investigating
traditional culture. As a result he published Rondalles de Mallorca (Folktales
of Mallorca, 1895), among other works. But the Archduke’s fundamental
contribution was Die Balearen geschildert in Wort und Bild (The Balearic Islands
Described in Words and Pictures, 1897), a complete radiography of the real-
ity of the Balearic Islands in the second half of the 19th century in which
he describes the habits, customs and scenery of the Balearic archipelago,
populated and worked just by its inhabitants along with the occasional
traveller. This extensive work would later achieve international recogni-
tion. In fact, Jules Verne based a part of his novel Clovis Dardentor (1896), set
in Mallorca, on this book, since Verne himself never visited the island.

Aside from the contributions that Archduke Ludwig Salvator made to
broadening knowledge of the ethnography and culture of the Tramun-
tana area, we must also stress those of other researchers and scientists,
such as François Aragó, Dorothea Bate, Guillem Colom, Emil G. Racovit-
za and William Waldren. They contributed to a knowledge of the natural
environment of the Tramuntana area and boosted work carried out sub-
sequently by other researchers:

•	 François	Aragó	(1786–1853)	was	a	French	scientist,	famous	the	world	
   over because he performed measurements to determine the exact
   length of the metre. In the month of May in 1808 he travelled to
   Mallorca and moved to the top of the mountain of S’Esclop, very
   close to the Puig de Galatzó summit. A simple ruined rectangular
   hut still reminds us of his stay here. The period when Aragó lived on
   Mallorca coincided with a time of great political instability caused
   by the outbreak of the French War of Independence. Because of this,
   Aragó’s work with fire and optical objects on the mountain top were
   misinterpreted, and he was thought to be an agent in the service of the
   Emperor of France. He spent the month of July as a prisoner in Bellver
   Castle, after which he left for France.

•	 Linnaeus,	the	famous	Swedish	naturalist,	regarded	as	the	father	of	the	
   classification of living things, described diverse species in the Balearic
   Islands and Tramuntana area: “...My God! These happy islanders have in
   their fields the plants that adorn our gardens, even the academic ones...”

•	 Emil	G.	Racovitza	arrived	in	Mallorca	in	the	month	of	July	1904	dur-
   ing the course of a French oceanographic expedition. Amongst other
   places, he visited the Drac caves (Manacor) and took samples of the




132
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




                                                                                          Figure 53. Dance of the Alaró
                                                                                          Cossiers , according to an
                                                                                          illustration in Die Balearen in
                                                                                          Wort und Bild, (19th century), a
                                                                                          work by Archduke Ludwig Salvator.




   organisms he found there. The following year he presented a descrip-
   tion of a new species, Typhlocirolana Moraguesi, the name of which
   refers to the naturalist and owner of the caves, Fernando Moragues.
   The discovery of this tiny crustacean marked the direction his studies
   would take, which tended towards cave fauna. The publication of his
   work Essai sûr les problèmes bioespéleologiques (1907) laid the foundations
   of biospeleology. Emil G. Racovitza went on numerous expeditions
   during the course of his life and he held different posts in European
   scientific institutions, becoming deservedly famous as a scientist. The
   European Dragan Foundation erected a sculpture in Palma’s Passeig
   Marítim in his memory.

•	 Dorothea	Bate	(1878	-	1951)	was	one	of	the	most	important	speleolo-
   gists of her time, an authentic fossil hunter. At the age of 22 she em-
   barked on her first expedition to Cyprus in search of fossils, and the
   find of 12 new sites encouraged her to continue her travels in Crete,
   Corsica, Malta and beyond. In 1909 she came to Mallorca where, ac-
   cording to her own notes, she found some fossils of an unknown
   animal on the island. Her initial studies reached no decisive conclu-
   sions, but they were dedicated fundamentally to description, as the
   contradictory characteristics of the new animal confused Bate: it had
   the cranium and two horns of a goat, but the most striking peculiarity
   were two large incisors similar to those of rodents. This particularity
   inspired her to name the new species: Myotragus Balearicus meaning
   goat-rat of the Balearics. Dorothea contacted local researchers like Pere




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




      Caldentey, but it was her compatriot Charles Andrews who continued
      her work. However, Bates’ early notes already spoke of the changes in
      the physiognomy of the animal due to its evolution in conditions of
      insularity.

•	 Guillem	Colom	Casasnovas	(Sóller,	1900	-	1993)	was	a	Mallorcan	ge-
   ologist who specialized in the geology of the Balearics. A specialist in
   foraminifera and calpionellids, he discovered approximately 250 new
   species for science and published over 200 technical and informative
   books, articles in scientific journals, including Estudios sobre la sedi-
   mentación profunda de las Baleares (Studies on the Deep Sedimenta-
   tion of the Balearics - 1947), Más allá de la prehistoria (Beyond Pre-
   history - 1950), Los foraminíferos del burdigaliense de Mallorca (The
   Burdigalians Foraminifera of Mallorca - 1952), and Biogeografía de las
   Baleares (Biogeography of the Balearic Islands -1957). Although Colom
   always worked independently from any private or public organization,
   his scientific vocation and sense of responsibility made him serve in-
   ternational science as a member of the Societé Géologique de France
   (1966), the Cushman Foundation (1954), Madrid Consejo Superior de
   Investigaciones Científicas (1950), Madrid Real Academia de Ciencias
   (1950), and Barcelona Reial Acadèmia de Ciències i Arts (1954). As a
   result his laboratory in Sóller became a reception centre for specialists
   from all over the world between 1934 and 1993.

•	 The	United	States-born	archaeologist	William	Waldren	(1924-2003)	so	
   discovered the goat / antelope Myotragus Balearicus, a species that dis-
   appeared 4,000 years ago according to experts, because it fell prey to
   the first humans who arrived on the islands. Waldren made Deià his
   habitual residence in around 1953, creating a museum devoted to the
   archaeology of the Balearic Islands there. Waldren had previously de-
   voted himself to painting, but his passion for the ways our ancestors
   found of solving problems led him to become interested in archaeol-
   ogy and to take a PhD in this speciality at Oxford, where he lectured
   for several years. From Deià, Waldren worked on different excavations
   both in Mallorca and Menorca, along with a team of local collabora-
   tors. One highlight of his work is the discovery of the campaniform
   culture in Son Marroig in Valldemossa, and the now-extinct endemic
   species Myotragus Balearicus in La Muleta cave in Sóller. He was also
   crucial in locating the Son Mas shrine and an important settlement
   in Son Oleza.




134
                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




2.a.10. Religious ideas and beliefs

Not only have the Mallorcan mountains been considered a place steeped
in energy and spirituality by writers and artists, even in a context with an
inclination towards introspection as can be seen in some neo-Classical
and Romantic poems. The different cultures that settled on the island of
Mallorca over the years have attributed a sacred character to certain plac-
es or inhabitants of the area, venerating the forces of nature and erecting
buildings to perform their religious practices. Although we can recognise
some religious and funerary structures from the Talayotic period, knowl-
edge of the religious practices and beliefs of the first settlers on the island
is scanty. Neither have any significant architectural or material remains
relating to the religions of the Roman, Paleo-Christian, Byzantine and
Moslem cultures survived. This is in sharp contrast to the profusion of
remains relating to the Christian culture, which was introduced to the
island last of all, yet more strongly and continuously, an it has made a
significant mark on the region’s popular and religious expression.

In the heart of the Tramuntana Mountains, as it has been said, especially
in the municipality of Escorca, the oldest religious remains in Mallorca
can be found: the Talayotic shrines of Almallutx and activity in the for-
ests of Lluc, the name of which stems from the Latin Lucus, which means
sacred wood or place. Nevertheless, there are still many unknown factors
regarding the religious practices and beliefs of these first communities on
the island, both Talayotic and Roman.

Nowadays the shrine at Lluc is one of the island’s main spiritual centres,
with an important tradition of pilgrimages and pilgrims coming from all
over the island to prove their devotion to the Gothic statue of the Virgin
of Lluc. This devotion dates back to 1273 and clearly remains alive today,
as throughout the year Mallorca’s different towns and villages organize
group walks to the monastery. As of old, the traditional paths that inter-
connect the different parts of the Tramuntana Mountains and connect
it to the rest of the island are used for these pilgrimages. One of these
pilgrim paths comes from Sóller and ascends the whole of the Biniaraix
gully. Another fundamental path is the one that leaves the shrine in the
direction of Caimari and from there provides access to the rest of the is-
land (Inca, Manacor, Alcúdia and Palma).

The Tramuntana Mountains have also been frequented by monastic com-
munities who sought the silent tranquillity and inspiring beauty needed
for prayer, leading a life far away from the problems of towns. The most
emblematic initiative was the Oriental language school that Ramon




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                         Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                         Llull founded in Miramar (1276), where Franciscan friars were trained
                         to become missionaries and preach the gospel and the Ars luliana to the
                         Moslems. This was not an isolated experiment because later on, different
                         contemplative congregations – some of them genuine followers of Ramon
                         Llull – continued this hermit spirit, searching for a place in the moun-
                         tains where they could pray and lead a life far from urban worries.

                         From the natural viewpoints of Miramar, Llull would go into ecstasies
                         through the contemplation of nature and he was able to express himself
                         in scenic verse like those found in the composition Hores de Nostra Dona
                         (When I see the earth and the sea and the sky and I hear the birds sing,
                         then I feel such sweetness in my heart, as great I had never felt before):

                               Quan veig la terra e la mar,
                               e lo cel e oig aucells cantar,
                               adoncs sent al cor tal dolçor
                               que anc no la sentí major.

                         A stanza of the poem written by Ramon Llull in 1299 refers explicitly to
                         the scenery of Miramar, using the terms «entre la vinya e el fenollar» (liter-
                         ally ‘amidst the vines and the fennel’); in general the vision of nature in
                         Llull’s works is conventional and idealized, but it does contain glimpses
                         of a personal, living incisive interpretation.

                         Cant de Ramon
                         Ramon Llull

                         Són creat e ésser m’és dat                             Matí ané querre perdó
                         a servir Déu que fos honrat,                           a Déu, e pris confessió
                         e són caüt en mant pecat                               ab dolor e contrició.
                         e en ira de Déu fui pausat.                            De caritat, oració,
                         Jesús me venc crucificat,                              esperança, devoció,
                         volc que Déus fos per mi amat.                         Déus me fé conservació.


Figure 54. Ramon Llull




                         136
                                                    2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




Lo monestir de Miramar              Vull morir en pèlag d’amor.
fiu a frares Menors donar           Per ésser gran no n’hai paor
per sarraïns a preïcar.             de mal príncep ne mal pastor.
                                    Tots jorns consir la deshonor
Entre la vinya e el fenollar        que fan a Déu li gran senyor.
amor me pres, fe’m Déus amar,       Qui meten lo món en error.
entre sospirs e plors estar.
                                    Prec Déus trameta misatgés,
Déus Paire, Fill, Déus espirat      devots, scients e verdaders
de qui és santa Trinitat            a conèixer que Déus home és.
tracté com fossen demonstrar.       La Verge on Déu hom se fes
Déus Fill, del cel és devallat,     e tots los sants d’ella sotsmès
de una Verge està nat,              prec que en infern no sia mès.
Déu e home, Crist apel.lat.
                                    Laus, honor al major Senyor
Lo món era en damnació;             al qual tramet la mia amor
morí per dar salvació               que d’ell reeba resplandor.
Jesús, per qui el món creat fo.     No són digne de far honor
Jesús pujà al cel sobre el tro,     a Déu, tan fort són pecador
venrà a jutjar li mal e el bo:      e són de llibres trobador.
no valran plors querre perdó.
                                    On que vage cuit gran bé far,
Novell saber hai atrobat,           e a la fi res no hi puc far,
pot-n’hom conèixer veritat          per què n’hai ira e pesar.
e destruir la falsetat:
sarraïns seran batejat,             Ab cont rició e plorar
tartres, jueus e mant orat,         vull tant a Déu mercè clamar
per lo saber que Déus m’ha dat.     que mos llibres vulla exalçar.

Pres hai la crots, tramet amors     Santedat, vida, sanitat
a la Dona de pecadors               gauig, me dó Déus e llibertat,
que d’ella m’aport gran socors.     e guard-me de mal e pecat.
Mon cor està casa d’amors           A Déu me són tot comanat:
e mos ulls fontanes de plors.       mal esperit ne hom irat
Entre gauig estaig e dolors.        no hagen en mi potestat.

Sóm hom vell, paubre, menyspreat,   Man Déus als cels e als elements,
no hai ajuda d’home nat             plantes e totes res vivents
e hai trop gran fait emperat.       que no em facen mal ni turments.
Gran res hai del món cercat,        Dó’m Déus companyons coneixents,
mant bon eximpli hai donat:         devots, lleials, humils, tements,
poc són conegut e amat.             a procurar sos honraments.




                                                                                137
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




As well as surroundings steeped in spirituality, the Tramuntana
Mountains have different characters and events of a religious nature
associated with them. One outstanding figure is that of Saint Catalina
Thomas, known all over the island as La Beateta, who was born in the
village of Valldemossa in 1531. Orphaned at an early age, as a young child
she already showed signs of her religiosity and determination to enter
a convent. After overcoming the reluctance of her family and lack of
dowry, in 1553 she entered the Convent of Santa Maria Magdalena of the
Augustinian canonesses regular of Palma. News of her exemplary life and
the ecstasies she experienced spread beyond the walls of the convent and
her fame took such root in the village and the island that by the time of
her death, she was already worshipped as a saint. Her incorrupt body is
still preserved in Santa Magdalena Convent of the Augustinian nuns in
Palma, where she passed away in 1574. She was beatified in 1792 thanks to
the intermediation of Cardinal Antoni Despuig who also had a sumptuous
chapel erected in the convent church of Santa Maria Magdalena, where she
took her vows and her incorrupt body is worshipped to this day. She was
canonized in 1930 by Pope Pius XI. The humble house where she was born
still stands in Valldemossa, located at number 5 Calle Rectoría. In 1930
the Valldemossa-born saint became the patron saint of the village and the
most important festivals in Valldemossa celebrate the Triumphal Carriage
or Parade of the Beata, when a 6-year-old girl is chosen to play the part of
the saint in a procession through the whole village, which is decked out
with plants and flowers.

2.a.11. Artistic expression

The Tramuntana Mountains have acted and still act as a model and
source of inspiration for many different artists – mainly painters and
writers – since Valldemossa Monastery welcomed the musician Frédéric
Chopin and writer George Sand from the winter of 1838 to 1839. They
stayed in monastery cells that still conserve memories of their time there,
like the Pleyel piano that the composer used and manuscripts and first
editions of Sand’s work Un hiver à Majorque (A Winter in Mallorca, 1855).
This was a controversial work because as well as describing the beauty
of the scenery of the Tramuntana Mountains, Sand also highlighted the
lack of comfort, upsets and setbacks that the couple experienced living
alongside the inhabitants of Valldemossa.

Despite all this, Sand acknowledged the merits of its cultural landscape,
stating: “Everything the poet or painter might dream of has been created here by
nature”. Chopin also praised the north coast of Mallorca in a letter to Juli
Fontana on November 15th 1838: “I will very probably go to live in a charming




138
                                                            2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




                                                                                               Figure 55. Frédéric Chopin




monastery set in the loveliest place in the world; the sea, mountains, palm trees,
a cemetery, church dating back to the Crusades, ruined mosque, ancient olives…
Now, dear friend, I enjoy life somewhat more; I am very close to what is most
beautiful in the world; I am a better man.”

They were not the first illustrious visitors to the monastery, because be-
tween 1801 and 1802 the famous writer and legal expert Gaspar Melchor
de Jovellanos was confined there as a political prisoner on the orders
of minister Godoy before being transferred to Bellver Castle in Palma.
There he wrote his Memoria sobre educación pública o tratado teóricopráctico




                                                                                        139
                                   Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




3
    Treatise on Public Education   de enseñanza3, Epístola a Posidonio4 and two petitions to King Carlos IV, and
    or Theoretical and Practical
    Treatise on Education          he started work on the Tractado de Botánica Mallorquina5, which he would
                                   conclude during his strolls through Bellver wood. The old medieval pal-
4
    Epistle to Poseidon
                                   ace of King Sanç, which in time came to form part of the monastery, has
5
    Treatise on Mallorcan Botany   also housed figures as illustrious as Unamuno, Azorín and Rubén Darío
                                   (1906 and 1913). The latter published two novels, La isla de oro and El oro de
                                   Mallorca, the second of which was published in instalments in the Buenos
                                   Aires newspaper La Nación. Endless personalities have visited Valldem-
                                   ossa in recent years, lured by the monastery’s musical influence, thanks
                                   to the Chopin Festival, which has been held since 1930 with 28 editions to
                                   date. Some of these personalities include Igor Stravinsky, Arthur Rubin-
                                   stein, Alfred Cortot, Manuel de Falla, Alexander Tansmann, Karol Szy-
                                   manowski, Ignaz Paderewski, Maurice Ravel and Pau Casals.

                                   La voz de la Cartuja
                                   Rubén Darío

                                   Este vetusto monasterio ha visto,                      Darme unas manos de disciplinante
                                   secos de orar y pálidos de ayuno,                      que me dejen el lomo ensangrentado,
                                   con el breviario y con el Santo Cristo,                y no estas manos lúbricas de amante
                                   a los callados hijos de San Bruno.                     que acarician las pomas del pecado.

                                   A los que en su existencia solitaria,                  Darme una sangre que me deje llenas
                                   con la locura de la cruz y el vuelo                    las venas de quietud y en paz los sesos,
                                   místicamente azul de la plegaria,                      y no esta sangre que hace arder las ve-
                                   fueron a Dios en busca de consuelo.                    nas,
                                                                                          vibrar los nervios y crujir los huesos.
                                   Mortificaron con las disciplinas
                                   y los cilicios la carne mortal,                        ¡Y quedar libre de maldad y engaño,
                                   y opusieron, orando las divinas                        y sentir una mano que me empuja
                                   ansias celestes al furor sexual.                       a la cueva qua acoge al ermitaño,
                                                                                          o al silencio y a la paz de la Cartuja!

                                   The Voice of the Monastery
                                   Rubén Darío

                                   This ancient monastery has seen,                       Those who in their solitary existence,
                                   parched from praying and pale from                     with the delirium of the cross and the
                                   fasting,                                               mystically blue flight of prayer,
                                   with the breviary and with Christ,                     turned to God in search of consolation.
                                   the silent children of Saint Bruno.




                                   140
                                                              2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




They mortified with discipline               Give me blood that fills
and hair shirts their mortal flesh,          my veins with calm and my brains
and repressed sexual passions                with peace,
by praying divine heavenly yearnings.        and not this blood that makes my veins
                                             boil,
Give me the hands of a penitent              my nerves throb and my bones creak.
that leave me with bleeding skin,
and not these lewd lover’s hands             And let me remain free from evil and
that caress the apples of sin.               deceit,
                                             and feel a hand that pushes me
                                             to the cave that welcomes the hermit,
                                             or to the silence and peace of the
                                             Monastery!


Among Archduke Ludwig Salvator’s prolific work, one authentic example
of poetic prose stands out, inspired by contemplation of the landscape of
Miramar and Sa Foradada. It is Somnis d’estiu ran de mar (Seaside Summer
Dreams, 1912). In it, he says (p. 101): Nature’s contemplation, done as it should
be done, must be regarded as a prayer in which man bows submissively before the
Creator of all these miracles. In this same work (p. 6-8), he describes the dif-
ferent features of the landscape of Mallorca’s north coast:

Seaside Summer Dreams
Archduke Ludwig Salvator

   In this solitude, the human voice is almost a disturbance and, when you speak
   to another here, you do it quietly as if you feared to break that higher silence.
   You are afraid of adding a discordant note to nature’s harmony, where only the
   wheeling of the birds around distant cliffs stands out, seeming to accompany the
   rhythmic beating of the waves. You almost feel tempted to hold your breath so as
   to listen better. (…) Sometimes clouds scud by close to the mountains and then
   they move backwards as if compelled by an invisible force, because behind the
   mountains there is another wind that whips them round. The air reposes gently
   like the sea, or rather the sea rests because there is no wind, and thus our souls
   rest doubly in this peaceful natural haven.
   Because while we see our sentiments reflected in nature, at the same time nature
   also influences us, arousing, inspiring or tranquilizing, depending on the circum-
   stances. It is an influence that we initially do not perceive, we cannot touch or see
   it and we are unconsciously affected by it. It is a domain similar to the realm of
   ideas in which we were educated and so it also educates. Nature sets the tone.




                                                                                          141
                          Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                          One anecdote about the Archduke demonstrates his sensitivity toward
                          the landscape that he cared for and made his home. One of the peasants
                          who worked on his land is said to have once stood staring at the Arch-
                          duke. When he was asked why, the peasant replied: “I wanted to meet the
                          person who paid so much for Son Marroig” (the estate that the Archduke had
                          purchased). The Archduke pointed out that Son Marroig had been a gift,
                          because Sa Foradada alone was worth much more.




Figure 56. Sa Foradada,   The Tramuntana Mountains were visited by other travellers, artists and
Valldemossa
                          naturalists from Europe and the Iberian peninsula, like Isidoro Antil-
                          lon, Joseph Tarongí, Santiago Rusiñol and Jerónimo de Berard, among
                          many others. All of them highlighted the landscape’s natural virtues and
                          sometimes they portrayed a society and economic system anchored in
                          traditional ways. Joan Cortada (1845, p. 98-99) visited the island and, after
                          riding up to Castell del Rei (a castle in Pollença) astride a mule, he wrote:

                                “When I reached the foot of the mountain whose peak housed the
                                ruins that we were planning to visit, we got down from the mules and
                                started the ascent on foot, a long tiring one because you have to beat
                                a path through the bushes and walk amid loose stones that trip you
                                up each step you take. The ruins are magnificent. Three quarters of




                          142
                                                             2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




   the castle are the work of nature, made up of a huge crag that seems
   to have been superimposed on top of the mountain… A magnificent
   armoury with good gothic architecture has been fairly well conserved.
   From the peak, there are splendid well-assorted views depending where
   you stand. On a good day, you can see the mountains of Catalonia on
   the other side of the Mediterranean.”

The writer Josep Pla (in a note on Mallorca in Les Illes, 1921), Catalan
Renaissance poets Joaquim Rubió d’Ors and Joan Cortada i Sala (Viaje
a Mallorca en el estío de 1845) and Julio Cortázar (in El rayo verde) also
described the landscape of the Tramuntana Mountains. Miguel de
Unamuno visited Mallorca on different occasions and devoted three
chapters to it (In Mallorca’s Tranquillity, On the Golden Island, the Olives
of Valldemossa) in Andanzas y visiones españolas (1922).

Josep Pla described the scenic variety from the central plain to the north-
western mountains that both worlds offer spectators from any of the
roads that runs between the central depression to the Tramuntana Moun-
tains (PLA, 1970: 118-119): On both sides, you can see almond, carob and olive
trees. Almonds in blossom, enveloped in an air midway between lilac and pink.
(...) At the foot of the trunks, short blades of wheat create spacious damp green
patches under the trees. (...) Amid the trees, from time to time, you can see an ad-
mirably located, delicious, rather decrepit, toasted rural mansion, with a palm tree
before the door: a palm trees that offers itself up to the sun with masculine grace
and total languidness. (...) As we approach the range of mountains along the north
coast, almond trees become scarcer: the carobs continue for a little longer; and
scrubland begins to appear amid olive groves. (...) When the road starts to wind
through the first mountain buttresses, enclosed spots start to appear, together with
sweet little valleys with lemon and orange trees amid the still air, and tiny vegetable
gardens so warm and sheltered where a still calm and dreamlike light prevail.

As for Sóller, as he reached it by train, Pla exclaimed: “When the traveller
peers out over the valley, the spectacle is a breathtaking one (...) Sometimes the
mixture of colours is so incredible that they form an unreal dreamlike palette, al-
most like a stage set.”

Mallorca is a place closely linked with art, among other things due to the
melting pot of cultures that have combined to form it and to the out-
standing beauty of its landscapes. Since the 19th century and, above all,
throughout the 20th century, numerous artists from outside Mallorca
have chosen it as the setting for their work, even settling on the island
permanently. In short, Mallorca became a venue for writers and art-
ists, who found the answer to what they were seeking on the island. The




                                                                                         143
                                    Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 57. Painting by Santiago
Rusiñol, Valley of Orange Groves,
Biniaraix (1901)




                                    Catalan painters Santiago Rusiñol and Joaquim Mir and Belgian painter
                                    William Degouve de Nuncques introduced Modernism and Symbolism,
                                    trends that represented a reaction to academic styles of painting, using
                                    elements of Impressionism and Post Impressionism. Once on the island,
                                    they forged friendships and shared experiences with local artists, like
                                    Antoni Gelabert, who was influenced by their spirit of renewal and devel-
                                    oped a personal, synthesized approach to portraying the landscape.

                                    Just a few years later, this evolution was to continue with Hermen Anglada-
                                    Camarasa and his disciples, who included the argentine Tito Cittadini.
                                    All of them settled in Pollença, transforming the Tramuntana Mountains
                                    into their source of inspiration. The Valencia-based artist Joaquín Sorolla
                                    made a very brief but notable trip to Mallorca, finding peace on the island
                                    and falling under the spell of the beauty of the northern coast.

                                    Throughout the 20th century, Pollença was a home for key local intel-
                                    lectuals, like the priest Miquel Costa i Llobera (1854-1922). He was the
                                    author of a poem entitled La Vall6 (1873) that described the joy he found in
6
    The Valley                      nature’s contemplation, together with the classic poem Lo pi de Formentor7
7
    The Formentor Pine              (1875), a tribute to the Mediterranean scenery of Mallorca’s north coast.
                                    Taking refuge in the idyllic peace of Pollença and Formentor, he discov-
                                    ered that his muse inhabited those luminous places of bluish mountains
                                    and green shores. His poetry expresses an emotional attachment to the




                                    144
                                                     2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




                                                                                        Figure 58. Joaquim Mir,
                                                                                        Torrent de Pareis




real landscape that he contemplated, with two closely linked constant
themes: religious sentiment and feelings for the landscape. The landscape
that Costa portrays in his poems – the vivid green scenery of Pollença, the
blossom-filled valley of Ternelles, the opal-coloured cove at Formentor – is
converted into a literary landscape with features and characteristics that
adopt a universality, as if this landscape were a symbol of the Mediterra-
nean. It is a landscape that reflects a romantic longing: the poet’s yearn-
ing to be one with infinity, transmitting a desire to rise above the horizon
and draw closer to God.




                                                                                 145
                                 Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 59. Work by the painter
Anglada Camarassa




                                 Ribera de Canten i Dormen
                                 Costa i Llobera

                                 Un vespre de cel rogenc                                Ja en la cala, a poc a poc,
                                 baixava un estol de gent,                              anaren a prendre lloc
                                 en llarga filera blanca,                               dins una nau que hi havia.
                                 per un desert penyalar,                                Era un galió, qui, mig buit,
                                 que en la ribera de mar                                allà estava per descuit,
                                 forma una estreta calanca.                             sense patró, sense guia.
                                 Eren dels últims vençuts,                              A on devien anar?
                                 muntanyesos qui, batuts                                Ningú ho gosà demanar,
                                 en llur defensa darrera,                               ningú hi podia respondre...
                                 escapar del vencedor                                   Anirien... cap al port,
                                 conseguien a favor                                     Ja en la vida, ja en la mort,
                                 dels penyals de la ribera.                             Que els hagués de correspondre.




                                 146
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




The Shore of They Sing and Sleep
Costa i Llobera

One evening of a reddish sky            Once in the cove, little by little,
a group of people,                      They each took their place
in a long white line,                   in a boat that was there.
descended a deserted crag,              It was a galleon which
which beside the seashore               had been abandoned there, half empty,
formed a narrow little cove.            without a captain or guide.
They were the last of the vanquished,   Where should they go?
mountain people who, defeated           No one dared ask,
during their retreat,                   No one could reply…
managed to flee the victor              They would go…toward the harbour,
thanks to the rocky landscape of the    In life or death,
coast.                                  whatever was their fate.


The musician Miquel Capllonch (1861-1935) was also born in Pollença. He
was the owner of the Bóquer and Albercuix estates and, throughout his life,
he granted some of his land to the town of his birth. Since 2006, the Rotger
Villalonga Foundation, in association with the local council and family of
the artist, has held a musical tribute entitled “Nits de Capllonch” (Capllonch
Evenings), which normally takes place in Montisión Church in Pollença dur-
ing the winter season. The painter Dionís Bennàssar (1905-1967) was also from
Pollença. He achieved international acclaim for picking up the baton of the
well-known Pollença school of artists and continuing the Modernism of Angla-
da Camarasa while also creating his own style of Post-Impressionist and Expres-
sionist work that can be seen in his former home, now a museum, in Pollença.

The argentine artist Adam Diehl commissioned the construction of the
famous Hotel Formentor, which first opened its doors in 1929 and con-
tinues to be a deluxe port of call for international celebrities, including
kings, aristocrats, presidents, Noble prize winners, business entrepre-
neurs, and the Dalai Lama, Winston Churchill, Aristotle Onassis, Audrey
Hepburn, Peter Ustinov, Ava Gardner, Gary Cooper, and intellectuals and
writers like Francis de Miomandre (1880-1908) and Agatha Christie. The
latter stayed there in 1932, going on to use it in one of her novels, Problem
at Pollensa Bay (1958). It was there that Camilo José Cela and editor Carlos
Barral organized two editions of a get-together entitled the Formentor
Poetic Conversations (in 1959 and 1960), which gathered together numerous
intellectuals. Special mention must also be made of the Pollença Interna-
tional Music Festival, held in Santo Domingo cloister. Initially founded in
1962 and now in its 47th edition, it is highpoint in Mallorca’s cultural life.




                                                                                   147
                            Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 60. Robert Graves,
portrait by Mati Klarwein




                            Part of the work of the British essayist, novelist and poet Robert Graves
                            (Wimbledon, 1895 – Deià, 1985) features Mallorca as a reference and, more
                            specifically Deià, where he settled in 1929 and lived until his death, with
                            the exception of a brief parenthesis between 1936 and 1945 motivated by
                            the Spanish Civil War. His novel, The Golden Fleece (1946) is partially situat-
                            ed in Deià. The presence of the island in some of his short stories and the
                            fact that, when he compiled them, the author decided to entitle a group
                            of them Majorcan Short Stories demonstrates the importance that Mallorca
                            played in the real and literary world of Robert Graves. Although they
                            were initially published in the press, later eleven of them were published
                            in 1965 in a compilation entitled Collected Short Stories, whose third part
                            included eleven Majorcan Short Stories of the eighteen that can be found
                            in his Complete Short Stories (1985). The author often refers to Mount Teix,
                            which he considered to be a shrine for the Moon goddess. Nowadays Ca
                            n´Alluny, the house that Robert Graves and his partner at the time, writer
                            Laura Riding, built is a museum open to the public.




                            148
                                                             2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




The Golden Fleece
Robert Graves

When they finally reached Deià, exhausted and with aching feet, Anceus found
the nymph of the oranges sitting very stiffly on a stone, near a plentiful spring that
came gushing out of the granite rock and watered the orchard. Here the mountain,
covered in a thick mantle of wild olives and green oaks, sloped sharply down to the
sea, five hundred feet below, dotted that day up to the horizon with small patches of
fog that looked like sheep grazing…

Following in Graves’ footsteps, artists and writers from all over the world
chose the scenery of the Tramuntana Mountains as a model and source
of inspiration for their work. More specifically, the painter and archae-
ologist William Waldren (founder of the Deià Archaeological Museum),
North-American painter Mary Taum (1925-1997), writers Laura Riding and
Julio Cortázar, musicians Mike Oldfield and Kevin Ayers, painters Paul
Hogarth and Mati Klarwein and entrepreneur Richard Branson all came
to Deià. In the last case, Branson converted the Son Moragues and Son
Canals estates into the famous Residencia Hotel.

Several well-known foreign artists currently live in Valldemossa, like the
German Nils Burwitz (1940), Bruno Zupan (1939) and Claudio Torcigliani
(1954). We must also mention Josep Coll Bardolet (Barcelona, 1912- Vallde-
mossa, 2007) whose paintings can be found in a foundation and exhibi-
tion centre in the village. Sóller is also the setting for work by artists like
the Aragonese sculptor Luis López or painters Bernadí Celià (1921-1985),
Manuel Santos Panitz (New York, 1927), Francesca Spille (California,
1962), Gisela Schrader (Frankfurt, 1947) and the Swede Elna Ernest.
Lastly, mention must be made of the innumerable local authors whose
narrative work and poems have been influenced by the Tramuntana
Mountains. As well as Miquel Costa i Llobera (the aforementioned author
of the poem Lo pi de Formentor, published in Poesies; the poems Raixa,
El Torrent de Pareis and El Gorg Blau, published in Noves poesies, 1907; and
L’era d’Escorca, in Tradicions i fantasies), other authors who must not go
unnamed include Joan Alcover (with the poems Miramar written in 1876
and Notes de Deià, published in the volume Cap al tard, 1909), Miquel dels
Sants Oliver (author of the poem Elisabet, emperadriu d’Àustria, written on
the occasion of a visit by the Empress of Austria in 1892 and 1893, and the
poem El perfum de Sóller, published in the volume Poesies, 1910), Bartomeu
Ferrà Perelló (Miramar, in Proses i poesies, 1929), and Miquel Ferrà i Juan
(L’ermita sobre el mar, in A mig cami, 1926; and Dins el bosc in Poesies completes,
1917), Josep L. Pons i Gallarza (author of the poem Los tarongers de Sóller
in Poesies, 1879), Bartomeu Rosselló-Pòrcel (Sóller, published in Imitació del




                                                                                         149
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




foc, 1938), Guillem Colom i Ferrà (author of the poem La Serra. La Vall, in
Entre el caliu i la cendra, 1972), Baltasar Porcel (author of La lluna i el Cala
Llamp, 1963), Llorenç Riber (La minyonia d’un infant orat, 1935) and Joan
Rosselló de Son Fortesa (Influència de la poesia, 1905).

3.a.12 Customs and traditions

The different municipalities that make up the Tramuntana Mountains have
contributed to the creation of a wide range of festivities and cultural
events of a religious, pagan and commemorative nature. As well as tra-
ditional festivities, a wide variety of regular cultural activities have been
created and integrated into the local festive calendar, forming part of the
complementary activities on which cultural tourism to the area by island-
ers and non–islanders is partly based.

1) Festivities

On the one hand, it is important to mention religious festivities, because
with the Christian conquest of 1229 Catholicism was appointed the of-
ficial religion, and so religious celebrations adhere to the Catholic festive
calendar, with highpoints being:

- Christmas
All the towns and villages of the Tramuntana Mountains celebrate Christ-
mas. Their streets are decorated with lights and other decorations and,
from a religious point of view, on December 24th practically all Mallorca’s
churches celebrate Matines, the Christmas Eve midnight mass, to com-
memorate the birth of Jesus. One of the most emotional moments of this
celebration is an ancient chant called the Sibil·la. Generally speaking, this
chant, which augers the end of the world, is sung by a young girl with a
pure voice, dressed in a tunic, skullcap or hat and cloak embroidered with
silk, and she holds a big sword in her hands. This ancient chant has only
been conserved in Alguer (Sardinia) and Mallorca and it can be traced
back to the tradition of medieval liturgical Christmas dramas, featuring
a voice alternating with musical interludes. The protagonist, dressed in
distinctive garments (the sword, tunic and cap) proclaims the arrival of
the Day of Judgement. According to a 14th century book of traditional ec-
clesiastic practice in Palma Cathedral, the Sibil·la has been sung since the
Christian conquest. Breviaries were sent from the Kingdom of the Crown
of Aragon with verses of the chant. This liturgical drama-cum-Gregorian
chant was declared an Intangible Item of Cultural Interest by the Ministry
of Industry, Tourism and Commerce in 2004.




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Likewise, at the religious shrine at Lluc, mention must be made of the
Blauets, a children’s choir named after the blue cassocks that they wear
during services. This permanent choir of boys and girls sing the Salve Re-
gina every day in public in front of the statue of the Virgin Mary. At the
matins mass, a single blauet chants the Cant de la Sibil·la, making this one
of the most emblematic events on the island.

- Saint Anthony the Abbott
One of Mallorca’s most traditional events is the feast day of Saint Antho-
ny on January 17th each year. It is a festivity that is deeply rooted in popu-
lar tradition, dating back to Mallorca’s former agricultural society. Back
then, people asked Saint Anthony, the patron saint of domestic animals,
to protect animals used in agricultural work. Over the years, the saint
has been venerated in different ways, slowly developing into the festivity
that we know today, although it has never lost its essence: the adoration
of the saint and protection for animals. People flock to church with their
animals for them to be blessed (the Beneïdes) by the benevolent Saint An-
thony. Two classic ceremonies are held in Mancor de la Vall and Alaró.

The night before, the Revetla de San Antoni is held, a popular festivity when big
bonfires are lit in the main streets and squares of towns, which people dance
round. Fire, the real core of the celebration, symbolizes the purification and
renewal of life at this festivity; the triumph of good over evil. Additionally,
torrades (barbecues) are held and everyone shares cured meats like llonganisses,
botifarrons, sobrassada and other local produce from the island. For the whole
night – a magical one for many people – bagpipers play tirelessly and one of
the night’s highpoints is the traditional Dance of the Demons, which sym-
bolizes the temptations that the Devil often laid before Saint Anthony.

The following morning, the feast day of Saint Anthony, there is a solemn
mass in honour of the saint and animals belonging to the townsfolk are
blessed. From canaries, goldfinches, dogs, cats, pigs and hens to donkeys
and horses, all the towns’ domestic animals wait eagerly by the church
for mass to finish so that Saint Anthony can bless and safeguard them.
In many places on the feast day, there is a parade of floats decorated with
rural motifs that allude to Saint Anthony’s life:

        Sant Antoni és un bon sant
        qui té un dobler li dóna
        perquè li guard s’animal
        tant de pell com de ploma.

(Saint Anthony is a good saint, those with money give it to him; for him
to safeguard animals, whether covered in hair or feathers).


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In Pollença, after the traditional procession and blessing of the animals,
a strange traditional event is held that does not extend to other towns or
villages on the island: the townsfolk depart to look for a pine tree in Ter-
nelles, accompanied by bagpipers. After lunch, in the Ternelles estate, the
people of Pollença take the pine to a square named Plaça Vella. There it
is stood vertically and youths from the town try and climb the 20 metres
that the trunk usually measures.

- Easter week
Easter week stands out for a cultural programme made up of processions
of Nazarenes, the Davallament in Pollença, and processions known as the
procesiones del Encuentro.

Easter week is a religious celebration that commemorates the death and
resurrection of Jesus. At the same time, it is also a popular festivity, whose
processions can be traced back to medieval times. Different ‘brotherhoods
of believers’ process through the streets of different towns in the Balearics,
recreating Christ’s final days. The acts begin on Palm Sunday, which cele-
brates Jesus’ entrance into Jerusalem, and they continue for the whole fol-
lowing week. The most traditional component of Palm Sunday is the bless-
ing of the olive branches and palm leaves taken to the procession, which
are kept in the window of homes as a means of protecting the family.

In the Tramuntana area, one particularly spectacular procession is El Dava-
llament in Pollença, which takes place on Easter Friday. This procession,
when the body of Christ is carried down 365 stone steps flanked by cy-
press trees from a hillock called El Calvario, is the most important event
that day on Mallorca.

The week of celebrations finishes on Easter Sunday, when most of the
towns hold a procession known as the Encuentro, which represents a resus-
citated Christ reunited with his mother.

Mallorca’s shrines and chapels play an important role during the week
after the Easter week. After Easter Sunday, celebrations of a more recrea-
tional kind begin, traditionally known as pancaritats. They consist of com-
munal picnics held on the outskirts of towns, usually preceded by a pro-
cession on foot to the local chapel or shrine. Some towns hold this event
on Easter Monday, as is the case of Andratx, Pollença and Selva. Others,
like Campanet, Mancor and sa Pobla, do it on the Tuesday. In Lloseta, it is
held on Wednesday, while in Valldemossa and Alaró, they wait for the first
Sunday after Easter (called Diumenge de l’Àngel), the day that concludes
the week of the pancaritats. In a festive, friendly atmosphere, popular




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dances are held and traditional Easter food is eaten, with giants and xere-
miers (popular musicians that play the Mallorcan bagpipes or xeremies).
On this day, it is typical to eat traditional Easter produce like pies filled
with meat, fish or peas, or a dish made of lamb with fried vegetables. Typi-
cal desserts include two pastries known as crespells and robiols.

- Corpus Christi
Corpus Christi, the festivity held 60 days after Easter Sunday, is cel-
ebrated almost all over Mallorca, but one prime example is in Pollença,
where an ancient tradition has been conserved that is now only exclusive
to Pollença: the Ball de les Àguiles and ritual dance known as Sant Joan Pelós.
The Ball de les Àguiles (Dance of the Eagles) is performed by two young
girls dressed in white and covered from head to foot in gold, supplied by
families from the town to mark the occasion. Around their waists, they
wear a cardboard crowned eagle, from which numerous different-coloured
ribbons hang to make their movements even more striking. They perform
two dances: one known as Les taules, inside the church, and the proces-
sional dance, accompanied at all times by a guitar, 25-string guitar and
violin. Castanets mark the rhythm of the dance. The origins of this tradi-
tion are thought to date back to a big eagle that flew across the sky of the
city of Palma on the day of Corpus Christi in 1614. Sant Joan Pelós is also
an ancient ritual dance, performed by the figure of Saint John. Archduke
Ludwig Salvator mentions it in his work “Die Balearen”. In Pollença, it is
performed on the day of Corpus Christi together the Ball de les Àguiles and
the procession, with Saint John dressed in silk with a lamb in his arms.

- San Joan (Saint John’s Day)
In Mallorca, as in other places in the Mediterranean, the summer solstice
is celebrated to the full, with festivities to welcome in the summer. On
the eve of the solstice, traditional foguerons (bonfires) are lit beside the sea.
The celebrations must continue until the sun rises, that is “el sol quan
balla” (when the sun dances). Saint John’s day is an annual festival in
Calvià and Deià.

- Sant Pere and La Verge del Carme (The Festivities of Saint Peter and Our
Lady of Mount Carmel).
June 29th is an important feast day for mariners, since Sant Pere (Saint
Peter) is the patron saint of fishermen. It is celebrated with enthusiasm
in almost all coastal municipalities, which have a fishermen’s guild that
organize processions by sea. The saint day is also celebrated inland in
Alaró, Búger and Esporles. On July 16th, in coastal areas in Mallorca,
including the ports of Sóller, Pollença and Andratx, a seagoing proces-




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sion is held at which the Salve Marinera is sung, with the participation
of numerous local boats, decked out to celebrate the occasion.

Other traditional festivities include:

- The Valentes dones and Es Firó
During the second week of May, the town of Sóller holds its most popular
festivity, known as the Fires i Festes de Maig (May Fairs and Festivities). This
commemorates the role of the Valentes dones (brave women) during an at-
tack by Turkish pirates on May 11th 1561, when sisters Catalina and Fran-
cisca Casasnoves, far from being scared witless, took the bar used to close
the front door and used it to kill some pirates, thus contributing to the
town’s victory. The bar still exists today and it features in the commemo-
ration of the event. It is exhibited during the parades and takes pride of
place during the programme of events, although the star protagonists are
the Valentes dones, represented every year by two young women from Sóller,
chosen by the ‘Groups of Moors and Peasants’.

The festivities begin with an opening speech and the investiture of the
Valentes dones.
On the Saturday afternoon, a floral offering is made to Our Lady of Vic-
tory, who is taken from the oratory to the parish church, and on Sunday
a fascinating craft fair is held. The busiest day is the Monday. In the
morning, mass is held in the house where the Casasnoves sisters lived and
in the afternoon the Firó de Sóller takes place, when 1200 people enact the
1561 battle, taking either the role of a peasant or pirate.

- Moors and Christians in Pollença
On July 26th, festivities begin in Pollença in honour of the patron saint
in a civil and religious celebration of ancient origins. The programme of
events opens with canons being fired, rockets being set off and church
bells being rung. Events continue until August 2nd, the day of Our Lady
of the Angels, with a wide variety of activities.

The highpoint of these festivities is the Moors and Christians Simulation,
which commemorates the battle by the people of Pollença against 1500
Moors led by the pirate Dragut on May 30th 1550. It was the worst pirate
attack that the town had ever experienced. The battle was won largely
thanks to Joan Mas, who rushed into the main street and warned people
of the danger, heading the heroic fight against the pirates. The attackers
were fought off by the townsfolk, who fought against the invaders until
the latter were forced to beat a retreat, looting and pillaging on their way.




154
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




The simulation was included in the programme of events in the 19th cen-
tury to enact a historic event that is strongly present in the memory of
the people of Pollença. It is a visually striking celebration, which virtually
all the townspeople take part in, with the Christians wearing white and
Dragut’s Moors in colourful clothes.

The simulation is announced at 5 a.m. on August 2nd after an open-air
dance, when the band plays La Alborada. The whole town is eager for this
special moment to begin. On the day of the patron saint, August 2nd, at
11 a.m. a mass is held in honour of the said saint (Our Lady of the Angels)
and the dance of the Cossiers (a group of popular Mallorcan dances) is
performed. In the afternoon, after a procession with the ancient statue of
the Virgin, the simulation begins. Following the famous cry by Joan Mas,
imploring the Virgin “Our Lady of the Angels, help us for the pirates are
already here!”, the expected encounter between Joan Mas, the leader of
the Christians, and Dragut, head of the Turks, with his second-in-com-
mand, takes place. The Moors withdraw down the main street and, when
they reach Can Nogués, the Ajuntament Vella joins the battle. This figure
represents the former organ of government in Mallorca. At the Church
of Sant Jordi, another skirmish takes place, enacting the liberation of the
women, men and children that the Moors had imprisoned there. The bat-
tle continues until the old football field is reached, where the last encoun-
ter takes place.

Once the battle is over, the Christians sing the Te Deum by clergyman
Miquel Tortell in thanksgiving and the Càntic dels Goigs by clergyman
Costa i Llobera. The festivity ends with a spectacular firework show.

- La Beata, Valldemossa
Valldemossa, the place of birth of the pious Saint Catalina Thomás, is
decorated every July 28th in tribute to its patron saint. A procession with
the saint’s triumphal float is held at which the saint, represented by a
6-year-old girl from Valldemossa, is paraded through the streets of the
municipality with her court of angels. She is accompanied by numerous
other floats decorated with coloured ribbons and other adornments, car-
rying villagers in traditional Mallorcan costume.




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                                         Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 61. Dance of the Alaró
‘Cossiers’, during the celebrations of
the patron saint, Saint Roch




                                         - The Alaró Cossiers
                                         In this description of key popular expressions of the Tramuntana Moun-
                                         tains’ culture and history, a popular event held in Alaró as part of its
                                         festivities to celebrate the village’s patron saint Sant Roc or Saint Roch
                                         (August 16th) must not be missed. It features cossiers or horsemen as its
                                         protagonists. This event is particularly fascinating because each year it
                                         includes the dance of the cossiers. The dancers are usually made up of six
                                         men, each in traditional costume, and a Dama or Lady, accompanied by a
                                         man who represents both a Dimoni (devil) and musician playing a whistle
                                         and a drum. The male dancers dance round the Dama, who stands in the
                                         middle of the circle.

                                         Pairs of cossiers dress in different colours and they dance as they process
                                         along the streets of the village, performing different dances along the
                                         way called L’Oferta, La Gentil Senyora, La Cadena, La Processó, S’Embui and
                                         L’acompanyament. The origin is so ancient that researchers have found
                                         different explanations. On the one hand, they might be pagan dances of
                                         adoration, thanksgiving or divine veneration, initially forbidden by the
                                         Church and later integrated as dances in Christian rites, thus becoming
                                         religious dances. In them, the Dama represents Good and the Dimoni rep-
                                         resents Evil. The devil strives to make the Lady fall, while the horsemen
                                         try to stop this from happening, thus protecting Good.




                                         156
                                                     2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




- Dance of Les Àguiles, Pollença
The Dansa de les Àguiles (Dance of the Eagles) in Pollença shares the same
religious background. Dating back to the 16th century, it consists of a
parade in front of Christ during the Corpus Christi procession, accom-
panied by a statue of Sant Joan Pelós (Saint John). The dance is performed
by two young women, who wear a cardboard crowned eagle round their
waists with the head at the front as if they were riding on it. The women’s
costumes – white tunics – are called Maria Antonietas, since they are be-
decked with jewels and evocative of the Baroque style. They perform two
types of very basic dances called Sa Processó and Ses Teules, dancing to
the melody of a guitar, 25-string guitar and violin. There are different hy-
potheses about the origin of this dance. Some authors think it has civil                Figure 62. Dance of ‘Les Àguiles’ in
                                                                                        Pollença, depicted in an oil painting
origins, associated with ancient medieval and modern eagles present in                  by Dionís Bennásser (Violins.
some Catalan cities. Others think it formed part of a procession, taking                Cançò de les àguiles, 1944).
as a starting point the Corpus Christi procession in the short play about
Saint John the Evangelist, or that it formed part of a representation by
the Guild of Weavers who featured an eagle on their coat of arms.

2) Traditional dances

The traditional Mallorcan dance known as a Ball de Bot or Ball de Pagès
is very matriarchal. The dances, led by a woman, have an erotic dimen-
sion and they are totally improvised. The woman makes her male partner
imitate the different parts of her dance, drawing closer or moving away
as she sees fit. In olden days, the dances formed part of town festivities
to celebrate their patron saints and celebrations organized by the owners
of possessions (rural estates) when there had been a good harvest of wheat,
olives, figs etc.

For more basic festivities, musicians were not strictly needed, because the
base music was provided by human voices, accompanied by percussion
instruments to keep the rhythm going. For this purpose, objects were
used that had been made by the participants: cane castanets, saws, reeds,
bones, bottles of aniseed liqueur, tabors, tambourines, drums, wooden
spoons etc. For festivities aimed at providing greater entertainment, sev-
eral musicians were used, who, with a ukulele-type guitar, violin, whistle
and guitar, added a richer note through a wider variety of sounds. Key
traditional instruments associated with Mallorcan folklore are:

- The Mallorcan bagpipes (xeremia). A wind instrument with a double
  reed. The windbag is made of goat’s hide, while to make the reeds al-
  mond, cherry or trumpetwood is used.




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- The whistle (fabiol). Made of the same wood as the bagpipe. It stands
  out for the way it is played, with just one hand.
- The drum (tamborino). Made of rabbit’s skin and hackberry wood.
- The ukulele-type guitar (guitarró). A string instrument much used dur-
  ing dances held at big estates, made of lignum vitae.
- Other important instruments are the violin, guitar, lute and mandolin.

3) Gastronomy

Traditional Mallorcan cuisine is based on fishing and agriculture, two ac-
tivities from before the tourist boom. One simple dish, sopes mallorquines,
reflects how hard it must have been to subsist in rural Mallorca. To make
it, whatever products were available in the vegetable garden were used
(mainly cabbage, spring onions, leeks and garlic), to which dry bread was
added, moistened in vegetable stock. In exceptional circumstances only,
meat or wild mushrooms were added. Despite its traditional self-suffi-
cient economy, Mallorcan cuisine is very varied. The island’s typical dishes
and desserts point to a rich gastronomic tradition, reflecting the different
cultures that succeeded one another in Mallorca. Pastries like robiols and
crespells evoke the Jewish presence on the island during its Islamic domi-
nation and the first centuries after the Christian conquest, while cocarrois
and panades are clear legacies of the Islamic period. The eating of suckling
lamb during the Easter week and by-products from when pigs are slaugh-
tered (sobrassada, botifarró, camaiot, varia) are a reflection of the Christian
culture. The origin of the ensaïmada (a spiral-shaped pastry) is still the
subject of controversy. Its name stems from the word ‘saïm’, which means
pork lard. However, some uphold its Arabic origins, given its shape evoca-
tive of turbans, while others believe it is derived from a ‘bulema’ (a very
similar roll that Jewish people used to make). Other Mallorcan dishes, like
frit mallorquí or tumbet, are clearly influenced by the arrival of two prod-
ucts from America, the tomato and the potato.

Mallorca also has certain gastronomic traditions linked in with the cal-
endar. It is a custom to cook pork specialities following the slaughtering
of a pig on bonfires at Saint Anthony celebrations (January 16th-17th), to
roast suckling lamb during Easter week, or eat soup and chicken or tur-
key escaldums at Christmas. Likewise, on the night of October 20th, when
the Revetla de les Verges (Virgin Festivities) are held, young girls give gifts
of potato and/or sweet potato fritters and dessert wine to the boys who
come to sing serenades to them.

The Carnival is also celebrated through Balearic Island cuisine, with
different specialities that add a special flavour to the festivities. The




158
                                                              2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




ensaïmada, one of the Balearic’s most typical pastries, is adorned in red
and green when Carnival arrives, because traditionally on the Thursday
before Lent (one week before Ash Wednesday), ensaïmades de tallades are
put on sale, with pieces of sobrasada and candied pumpkin. Another typ-
ical pastry in the Tramuntana area is coca de patata (sweet potato rolls),
particularly in Valldemossa.

The island’s wines, one of Mallorca’s oldest crops responsible for an im-
portant legacy in terms of viniculture and popular traditions, is an excel-
lent accompaniment when sampling the island’s cuisine and an unparal-
leled way of taking away the bottled aromas and flavours of the island.

                                                                                                 Figure 63. Kitchen of a rural estate
                                                                                                 in Calvià. Illustration by Archduke
                                                                                                 Ludwig Salvator.




Using oranges from the Sóller valley, an orange liqueur is currently made
that constitutes a delicious drink, either neat or combined with a mixer,
evoking the beauty of the area where the fruit was grown. In his work La
isla de la calma, Santiago Rusiñol highlights the importance of oranges in
this corner of the island: “It has courtyards with flowerpots and pilasters; it has
a large church, well-cared for streets; but all of it is presided over by orange trees.
All the rest serves as a framework to highlight the fruit. (…) Sóller oranges are eve-
rything. They are an indication of the weather, life, and well-being of the town.”

Nonetheless, two of Mallorca’s most traditional liqueurs are its herbes
(herbs) and palo, which both have a designation of origin. Mallorcan
herbes are made of different herbs, in some cases more than 30 different
types. Fennel, rosemary, mint, orange and lemon leaves, camomile and
lemon balm are left to macerate for several months and the resulting con-




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centrate is mixed in small proportions with sweet aniseed to make herbes
dolces (sweet herbs) and dry aniseed for the more alcoholic herbes seques
(dry herbs). They can be traced back to the medicinal drinks prepared by
apothecaries in the 16th century to fight epidemics. Traditionally, these
herbs were digestives, drunk after a meal. They can be drunk cold, with
ice or at room temperature. They are also delicious accompanied with
lemon or orangeade, although this is not very common in Mallorca.

Palo is an exquisite liqueur that can be traced back to the 16th and 17th
centuries when there was a lot of marshland on Mallorca and mosquitoes
transmitted a terrible illness, malaria. To combat it, two plants were used,
quina calisaia and genciana, which were conserved by putting them in alco-
hol to stop them from fermenting. People also added sugar to remove the
bitter taste. Gradually, over the course of time, changes have been made
to the way in which palo is made and now it is made with burnt sugar, the
secret of this liqueur. According to those in the know, all palos are made
with the same base ingredients, but none of them tastes the same. Most
palo is made in Mallorca and it is particularly popular in Pollença. Unlike
herbes, palo is an aperitif, drunk before meals, either neat or with soda wa-
ter (the most common way in the Balearics).

Although there are several factories in Mallorca that specialize in mak-
ing these liqueurs according to traditional practices handed down from
former generations, none is located in the Tramuntana area. However, the
household tradition of making homemade herbes for family consumption
continues.

4) Crafts

Roba de llengües are handcrafted, traditionally made fabrics from the
Tramuntana area. To make them, the warp is prepared with white
cotton, in accordance with traditional custom, and it is dyed in sections
depending on the chosen pattern. This means that the fabric does not
have a front or back, because both sides have the same pattern. The
dyes are made with solid colours. Once this stage has been completed,
the most delicate complicated part is the composition of the pattern.
Subsequently, it is taken to the loom to give the fabric more body, using
linen. This is how it continues to be done at Can Vicenç (Pollença), Art
Textil Riera (Lloseta) and Artesanía Textil Bujosa (Santa Maria del Camí)

Other traditional crafts that can be found in the Tramuntana area, al-
though they are also present in other parts of the island, are:




160
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




- Typical Mallorcan embroidery, using Mallorcan stitch, chain stitch,
  linking stitch and cross-stitch. Embroidery is a traditional craft that
  has only recently been revived, taught by former embroiderers. In the
  Tramuntana area, Pollença stands out for this speciality.
- Mallorcan espadrilles (espardenyes) are still made in traditional style, us-
  ing only natural products: raffia, linen etc. Visits can be made to the Cas
  Campaneter workshop in Campanet or Can Parets workshop in Consell.
- Artisan jewellers, capable of making impressive-looking typical gold
  chains, botonades d’or (gold buttons worn on traditional costumes),
  filigree panerets (literally little baskets) and traditional settings.
- Artisans who work with wrought iron, like Guillem Cerdà from Port
  de Pollença.
- Luthiers who make traditional Mallorcan folkloric instruments (the
  whistle, bagpipe or drum), like Joan Marroig and Tomeu Amengual in
  Sóller and John Lambourne in Valldemossa.
- Footwear manufacturing. The municipality of Selva has six shoe-
  making factories, the best-known of which is probably KOLLFLEX,
  founded in 1927 by Llorenç Coll. Lloseta specializes in mountain boots,
  the best-known brands being Cabrit and Can Bestard.

2.a.13. Oral traditions

The Tramuntana area has generated an extensive, exceptional intangi-
ble heritage. Despite its intangible nature, or precisely because of it, it
is a prime exponent of the local culture, closely identified with the rich
culture of the region. Four different aspects can be distinguished: place
names, legends, rondalles (folk tales) and gloses (songs), although obviously
there are other linguistic contributions, like terminology related to dry-
stone wall making, agricultural and livestock farming, fishing, forestry
or gastronomic activities, some of which have been conserved although
many terms are in danger of extinction since they have not been cata-
logued or studied sufficiently.

1) Toponyms

Place names combine to form a rich heritage that makes up a large part
of popular and traditional culture. Given the intangible nature of this
heritage, the task of safeguarding it is an important one. This mainly
oral toponymic heritge encompasses many different aspects, particularly
the geography, history and native language of Mallorca. The island has a
very extensive intangible toponymic heritage. The Balearic Topographic
Map, on a scale of 1/5000, contains an average of 30 names per km2,
some 40,000 toponyms in total. It is strange that, from the place names




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                                     Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                     used in Mallorca, a map of the island’s different physiographical units
                                     and sub-units can be formed with amazing perfection and detail and, by
                                     extension, a map of its flora-related and geomorphological landscapes
                                     and its agricultural division into plots and estates of differing sizes. This
                                     is because in Mallorca in particular the names given to inhabited spaces
                                     combine to form a rich terminology and popular vocabulary in the native
                                     Catalan language (with Mallorcan as the local dialect), so that however
                                     small places may be and even though they may initially look similar to
                                     others, they might have names as different as pleta, tanca, tancat, hort, clova,
8
    All names of pieces of farm-     artiga, tros, terç, sort, taula, cairó or rompuda8, which highlight their form
    land or land for growing
    crops.                           and function. Sometimes, what determines the name is the shape (dau,
9
    Cube, irregular portion,         gaia, quadro, llenca, punta, trinxa, vela9), while on other occasions it is the
    square, strip, tip, strip, ir-
    regular hillside terrace         size (campiri, gaveta, hort, jovada, quarterada, quartó, sort, terç, tornall, verger).

                                     Another typical characteristic of Mallorca are the well-known local ways
                                     that the particle Son can be formulated (derived from => acò => so d’en =>
                                     Son), So na, Can, Ca na, Sos etc. (all denoting ownership of land and mean-
                                     ing “that belonging to” or “the home of”, normally used to refer to big
                                     properties) and Cal, Cas, Cats, lo d’en, lo de na, (referring in general to small
                                     ones). It must also be remembered that this rich, plentiful terminology
                                     and these toponyms encompass Mallorca’s entire countryside, because un-
                                     til the first half of the 20th century, agriculture was the predominant activ-
                                     ity. The rural landscape looked very different from today. It was inhabited
                                     on a relatively permanent basis, mainly by agricultural workers who spent
                                     most of their time there. Thus undeniably, the landscape (or, in reality,
                                     landscapes) helped to determine the identity and culture of the island.

                                     2) Legends

                                     Due to their isolation and rural way of life, from the Middle Ages through
                                     to the Modern Age, the mountains were the source of numerous legends.
                                     Some of them very probably have an even older origin and are versions of
                                     myths believed by the island’s first settlers. The mountains are a symbol of
                                     vigour and strength for men from all ages. Galatzó and Es Teix, two of the
                                     island’s most emblematic mountains, are a source of innumerable legends
                                     and popular tales, whose main protagonists are witches and ghosts. Some
                                     passages from history are also the source of this type of popular tradition,
                                     like the case of the divine aid received by the people of Sóller during the pi-
                                     rate attack of 1561 or the case of the legendary figures of Guillem Cabrit and
                                     Guillem Bassa, defendants of the independent Kingdom of Mallorca dur-
                                     ing the invasion of King Pere IV. Among the most popular legends referring
                                     to this area, we must highlight two that are clearly linked to the area and its
                                     landscape: Cabrit and Bassa and El Salt de la Bella Dona.




                                     162
                                                          2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




In the first case, the backdrop to the legend of Cabrit and Bassa is the
resistance of Alaró Castle in 1285. The story goes that young King Alfonso
of Aragon gathered with his army under the defensive walls of Alaró Cas-
tle in an attempt to conquer it from the King of Mallorca’s troops, who
had gathered there. A brief dialogue took place with the defendants, dur-
ing which the royal official of the army attacking the castle demanded
that the other troops surrender in the name of King Anfós (pronounced
Anfós instead of Alfons, leading to a misunderstanding because anfós is
the Catalan word for a fish called grouper). When the officer of the other
army heard him, he replied in an arrogant sarcastic tone: Anfós torrat o ben
aguiat amb salsa mengen els homes. Només reconeixem com a rei nostre senyor en
Jaume de Mallorca (Grouper, roasted or stewed in sauce, is eaten by men.
We only acknowledge our lord Jaume of Mallorca as king).
The king, affronted and furious, asked who had uttered such insulting
words, and then the response could be heard: Jo soc en Cabrit i aquest, el
meu company, s’anomena Bassa (I’m Cabrit – baby goat in English – and my
companion is called Bassa - pool), to which the king impetuously replied:
Idò jo te jur, Cabrit, que t’he de fer torrar com a tal (Well I swear, Cabrit, that
I’ll eat you roasted as you are). And once the castle had been conquered,
Cabrit and Bassa were executed and roasted in Lledoner Square at the top
of Alaró. This legend is mentioned in the following poem:

El Comte Mal
Guillem Colom i Ferrà

        Quan la lluita es fa més forta,
        truca un missatger a la porta:
        -Castellans, lliurau de pressa les claus del castell rebel
        o de grat deixau-vos prendre:
        el fort que car es deixi vendre
        serà en sec fet pols i cendra,
        insepults els qui el defensin i menjats pels corbs del cel.

        -I, ¿qui amb tal ordre us envia?
        Cabrit irat responia-
        -Anfós d’Aragó i Mallorca jurat com a rei i hereu.
        -No coneixem al reialme
        altre rei que el rei En Jaume
        A Mallorca, -i perdonau-me-
        anfós és un peix que es menja amb allioli a tot arreu...

        -Llamp del cel!, que és gran vilesa
        sofrir més vostra escomesa!




                                                                                      163
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




           ¿Qui gosa amb tals paraules insultar el rei d’Aragó?
           -crida Anfós als de la plaça.-
           -Dos lleials: Cabrit i Bassa.
           -¿Cabrit, dieu? Bona caça!
           Doncs, com cabrits jur rostir-vos per escarment del traidor!-

           The Wicked Count
           Guillem Colom i Ferrà

           When the battle grew stronger,
           a messenger knocked on the door:
           “Castellans, hand over the keys to the rebel castle at once
           or surrender:
           for the fort that allows itself to be abandoned
           will at once be converted into ashes and dust,
           and those who defend it buried and eaten by the sky’s crows.

           “And who sends you with such an order?”
           Cabrit angrily replied.
           “Anfós of Aragon and Mallorca, sworn king and heir.
           “We know not in this kingdom of Mallorca
           any other king than King Jaume
           and excuse me,
           grouper is a fish eaten everywhere with garlic mayonnaise…
           Damn it, it is dastardly
           to put up with your attack any longer !”
           “Who dares, with such words, to insult the King of Aragon?”
           cried Anfós to those in the square.
           “Two loyal subjects, Cabrit and Bassa.”
           “Cabrit, you say? Good hunting!
           For as young goats I swear I’ll roast you as a lesson for your treachery!”

The Evil Count (el Comte Mal) was the name given to Ramon Zaforteza, the
owner of the rural estate of Galatzó (Calvià). A member of one of the most
aristocratic Mallorcan families, he went down in history for his extreme cru-
elty to the peasants who worked his land. There is a popular legend according
to which it is thought that the Evil Count’s soul was condemned to ride eter-
nally every night on a black horse surrounded by flames in his Galatzó estate.
There are numerous legends, myths and anecdotes about the peak called Puig
de Galatzó, which lend it a magical, magnetic, ghostly air.

One of the most popular legends in Mallorca, usually associated with a
specific part of the Tramuntana Mountains because it is popularly situat-




164
                                                          2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




ed on the way up from Caimari to Lluc, is that of the Salt de la Bella Dona
(Beautiful Wife’s Leap). The legend is about a couple who were process-
ing to the shrine at Lluc. The husband, who suspected that his wife was
having a secret affair with a little shepherd, pushed her off a cliff when he
reached this point. Imagine his surprise when he reached the shrine and
entered the church to find his wife praying in front of the Virgin. A poetic
version of the legend has been put to music and performed by the well-
known Mallorcan folk singer Maria del Mar Bonet.

El salt de la bella dona / The Beautiful Wife’s Leap
Gabriel Janer Manila - Lautaro Rosas

Què se n’ha fet de l’amor,               What has become of the love
tan prest s’apaga?                       that so quickly dies out?
El marit està gelós,                     The husband is jealous,
la dama calla.                           the wife remains silent.
Parteixen de cap a Lluc,                 They depart for Lluc,
és mitja tarda.                          it’s mid afternoon.

Ell només cerca venjar-se,               He only seeks revenge,
no diu paraula.                          he says not one word.
Un niu de serpents que fiblen            A nest of snakes that bite
com una daga.                            like a dagger,
Ai, ai, que dins les muntanyes           Oh, oh, in the mountains
cau l’horabaixa.                         the afternoon is ending.

Ella duu el vestit de seda               She wears a silk dress,
blava i brodada                          blue and embroidered,
dins la mà un ramell de flors,           in her hand a bunch of flowers,
flors de guirnalda.                      a garland of flowers.

Arriben a un lloc estret,                They reach a narrow point,
el camí es tanca.                        the path comes to an end.
Les murtreres de la nit                  The myrtles of the night
un plany exhalen.                        exhale a lament.

         (…)




                                                                                      165
                                  Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 64. The Beautiful Wife’s   3) Folk tales
Leap, Escorca

                                  The Tramuntana Mountains are often the setting for rondalles, tales or
                                  narrations in prose of oral origins by anonymous authors. The tales re-
                                  count imaginary events featuring a series of characters, a plot, and a spe-
                                  cific setting. Archduke Ludwig Salvator wrote Rondalles de Mallorca (Folk
                                  Tales of Mallorca, 1895) and, in a secondary way, in other works that he
                                  published about the Balearics he also compiled stories from the islands’
                                  extensive, rich oral heritage. In his work Los castillos roqueros de Mallorca,
                                  Archduke Ludwig Salvator (1994: p. 214-215) included the following legend
                                  that revolves around the previously mentioned Bellver Castle and a cave
                                  close to the fortress:

                                        A man found a cave on the peak where the castle sat and, inside it, he saw seven
                                        heaps of coins. He told a friend and they went back there, but the friend did not
                                        want to touch any of the coins. The other man took one, without his friend real-
                                        izing, and suddenly the mouth of the cave closed, plunging them into darkness.
                                        The one who had taken the coin threw it to the floor but the mouth of the cave
                                        would not open up until the coin was returned to the heap where it had origi-
                                        nally been. Finally, they were able to get out of the cave, but the mouth closed
                                        again and never again has it opened.




                                  166
                                                             2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




The person who was mainly responsible for compiling the rondalles was
a clergyman called Antoni Maria Alcover. In the late 19th and early 20th
centuries, he gathered together tales that had been verbally handed down
from generation to generation, trying to conserve the popular language
(Mallorcan) in which they were told. Their publication, at Christmas in
1895, in the form of serialized instalments made a big cultural impact
and they were widely read. The first edition of the Rondaies mallorquines
d’en Jordi des Racó (Jordi des Racó being the pseudonym of Antoni Maria
Alcover) was made up of 428 tales, divided into 24 volumes.

The landscapes of the rondalles reproduce the island’s different features,
often mentioning the coast, its torrents, panoramic views of Mallorca
from mountain peaks, and geographical features like caves, crags and
mountains such as Puig Major, Es Teix and Alaró Castle. The mountain
on which Alaró Castle is situated and another called S’Aucadena both play
a starring role in this tale: In the olden days, on Saturday evenings, witches used
to congregate on the two peaks and they threw yarn across to one another that they
knew how to spin, making a bridge between the castle and S’Aucadena, and there,
on top, they danced and pranced about until dawn. (Alcover, XXIV, p. 101-102).

The rondalles mention some of the island’s most popular historic events,
like the conquest of Alaró Castle by King Jaume I: That needle-shaped peak,
part of which stands out above the rest, belonged to the Moors. King Jaume came,
and needless to say he wanted to capture it. There, where the steps up to it begin, his
horse rode up, leaving its hoof prints behind which can still be seen. The poor Moors
could only flee the king by throwing themselves from that crag. To protect them-
selves, they jumped off with their heads in an earthenware pot. Imagine, when they
hit the ground what the Moor and pot must have done to themselves. The biggest
piece was smaller than an ear. (Alcover, V, p. 108-109)

The protagonists of these tales often take paths like the one from Santa
Maria to Alaró, the path that leads to the new houses of Son Grau, or the
Na Pontons path that begins at the Church of Sant Miquel in Campanet.
Although many towns or villages in the Tramuntana area are mentioned,
like Sóller, Andratx, Pollença, Puigpunyent and Alaró, there are far more
stories set in rural surroundings and they mention 124 rural estates like Es
Putget in Estellencs, Alfàbia in Bunyola, Cúber and Es Tossals in Escorca,
Planícia in Banyalbufar and Son Forteza in Puigpunyent, together with
numerous references to country houses throughout the island. In the tale
“En Pere de la bona roba” (Alcover, IV, p. 5-14), there are specific references
to parts of the town of Sóller, like Can Cudony de Sa Volta, the Rectory,
Calle de la Luna, the bridge in the square and the torrent, and mention is
also made of dialectic features peculiar to the town.




                                                                                         167
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Given the isolation that insularity entails, Mallorcans can only come into
confrontation and be contrasted with other Mallorcans, with this division
being based on two geographic concepts: the Pla (plain) and Muntanya
(mountains). They are two radically different landscapes, to the extent
that the tales contrast the characters of the towns and villages of both
areas. Thus in the tale En Tià de Sa Real, the protagonist is a typical man
from the plain who comes up against a glosador (singer) from the moun-
tains. To emphasize a character’s uselessness, the phrase is even used ‘he
is of no use for either the plain or the mountain’.

Aside from these legends, mention must be made of an imaginary character
called Maria Enganxa (Maria Hook), present in Mallorcan oral narrations
since time immemorial. Folk tales are full of frightening characters like
Maria Enganxa, who, according to tradition, is an old woman that lives in
all wells and water tanks. With the hook from which her name is derived,
she traps children who dare look down into the well. Through this intelli-
gent way of frightening children, grandmothers safeguarded children from
the dangers that wells and water tanks represented. This imaginary well
woman is probably associated with ancient local divinities of water and cur-
rents that were worshipped in past times. With the introduction of Christi-
anity, they were replaced by the veneration of the Virgin Mary.

Today, during the Alcúdia Fair, Maria Enganxa takes part in the Estol del rei
en Jaume, a street parade of nine big heads that represent nine characters
from different popular tales and Mallorca’s historic traditions. King Jaume I
and the Moor King (the Saracen king who capitulated to Jaume I), Ramon
Llull and Maria Enganxa symbolize the island’s past. Maria Enganxa strolls
through the streets of the town with a broom, a hook for picking figs and
a bucket and she pretends to chase people watching the parade and hook
their feet. The other big heads - L’Amo de so na Moixa, Na Pixedis Bruta, En
Tòfol Mentider and En Gori Dolenties, and Sa Jaia Tonina- represent hu-
man vices and defects in a humorous, satirical way. All the heads were made
in 1990 by Josep Fluxà, a Mallorcan artist of cardboard figures.

The tradition of the big heads ties in with another tradition that has been
well conserved on the island and is therefore also present in the towns
and villages of the Tramuntana area: giants. Associated initially with the
Corpus Dei processions, their origins can be traced back to Barcelona in
1424 and they were first documented on Mallorca in 1630 in the Corpus
procession in Sóller. Their gradual incorporation by different towns and
villages has been recorded, like Pollença in the late 18th century. Although
some such processions disappeared in the course of time, in the late 20th
century the tradition was revived. The island currently has 74 pairs of




168
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




giants of five different types: peasants, characters from folk tales and leg-
ends, traditional trades, historic characters and other giants. Aside from
those that represent historical figures (like Cabrit and Bassa in the case of
Alaró), the giants usually have names typical of their local town. Thus the
Sóller giants are called Antoni and Catalina, while the Binissalem ones are
called Jaume and Aina in honour of the patron saints of their local festivi-
ties. In other cases, they are related to local history (the giant of Mancor
de la Vall is called Lucía in honour of the Oratory of Santa Lucía) or local
geography (the Puigpunyent one is called Fàtima in honour of the moun-
tain of the same name).

4) Songs and gloses

At a time when culture was limited to an élite, oral traditions were the key
to finding out news and remembering information.

One important expression of Mallorcan folklore are its gloses, popular oral
rhymes that are normally improvised when they are declaimed. They are
the equivalent of the Catalan corrandas or Valencian albadas. In the Bal-
earic Islands’ illiterate rural society, the figure of the glosador became suf-
ficiently popular for some of them to do it professionally, travelling from
town to town and testing their skills as challenged by the townspeople or
other glosadors in what were known combats of gloses.

Even today in some popular festivities a codolada is often organized, with
the participation of people skilled in the art, who compose improvised
poems – gloses - that can sometimes be woven in with one another. Unfor-
tunately, the glosadors are ageing and this art is partly disappearing with
them. Some gloses refer to the geology of an area, like the one alluding
to S’Avenc de Femenia, an impressive pothole with a huge 120m vertical
shaft, located on the upper coastal section of the north face of Caragoler
de Femenia (Escorca):

   Mal trobassis un fondal
   com s’Avenc de Femenia,
   que si hi caus es migdia,
   es vespre no ets a baix.

   You’ll find it hard to find a chasm
   like S’Avenc de Femenia
   where, if you fall, it’s midday
   and you’re still not down by evening.




                                                                                   169
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Other gloses describe traditional agricultural or mountain activities:

Sa Revetla
   A sa Cala de Tuent
   me llogaren per xermar,
   me tractaren malament,
   per això no hi vull tornar.
   A sa Cala de Tuent
   te llogaren per xermar,
   te tractaren malament,
   per això no hi vols tornar.

The Open-Air Dance
  At Cala de Tuent
  they hired me to clear the land,
  they treated me badly,
  that’s why I don’t want to go back.
  At Cala de Tuent
  they hired you to clear the land,
  they treated you badly,
  that’s why you don’t want to go back.


Jota des collir olives
   Vaig anar a collir olives
   a n’es poble d’Orient
   i no vaig menjar calent
   per això és que m’he amagrida.
   A sa Rota hi tenc un pi
   que fa albercocs i cireres
   i síndries i meloneres,
   al·lota, que hi vols venir?

The Olive-Picking Dance
  I went to pick olives
  in the town of Orient
  and I didn’t eat anything hot
  that’s why I’ve got weak.
  in sa Rota I’ve got a pine
  that gives apricots and plums
  and watermelons and melons,
  lass, do you want to come there?




170
                                                          2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




   2.b. History and Development

The Tramuntana cultural landscape has been and still is the result of the
area’s historical evolution, succession of cultures and ways in which the land
has been used. Alternating periods of prosperity and shortages have left their
mark on the landscape. Traditional agricultural and livestock farming has
left a strong imprint on the area, through its irrigation systems, the dry-stone
walls of hillside terraces, and olive trees, complemented by traditional uses of
the woodland, coastal areas and peaks of the mountains.

The specific marks that each successive historical period and culture left on
the Tramuntana area can still be seen. The period spanning man’s arrival
on Mallorca and the fall of the Roman empire represented the first human
change to a landscape that had hitherto remained untouched, with the ex-
tinction of species and introduction of allocthonous ones, the introduction
of agricultural and livestock activities and deforestation. In particular, the
development of technically complicated irrigation systems, dating back to
Moslem times and still surviving today, offer an image of fertility and pros-
perity that contrasts strongly with austere olive groves in very steep areas or
others with bare rocks. Olives could be grown thanks to the design and con-
struction of complex hillside terrace walls that evoke periods when it was nec-
essary to extend crop-growing areas to a maximum due to the pressure of a
growing population on an island with limited resources. In conjunction, this
unique rich variety of archaeological, architectural, ethnological, artistic and
intangible features highlight man’s cultural response to the environment.

In the following sections, these historical periods are described in greater detail
and an outline is given of their impact on the area, contributing to the configu-
ration of the Tramuntana area’s outstandingly unique cultural landscape.

                                                                                             Figure 65. Ancient olives close to
                                                                                             Valldemossa




                                                                                      171
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




2.b.1. From the first settlers to the fall of Rome (5000 BC – 454 AD)

The oldest human remains known to date in the Balearics were found
in the Tramuntana area. With these remains and numerous archaeo-
logical sites that extend along the mountain range, it can be affirmed
that the first human presence in the area dates back to approximately
5000 BC, leading to the gradual introduction of new flora and fauna,
causing the extinction of some species and partly modifying the exist-
ing natural environment due to deforestation. Archaeological sites and
remains from this period have been found throughout most of the area,
particularly in the form of caves or rock shelters that acted as a refuge
for the first settlers. In some cavities in the rocks (Coval den Pep Rave,
Cova de s’Alova and Cova de Ses Alfàbies) numerous ceramic and hu-
man remains have been found that span a chronological period from
the pre-Talayotic period to the Middle Ages, indicating the continuous
human occupation of the region which led to an intense process of cul-
tural transmission, particularly in terms of the technical way in which
humans modified the environment to adapt it to activities, examples
being stone paths, walls and hillside terrace walls.

This group of humans subsisted by hunting and gathering food. The
mountains offered a good environment for this kind of nomadic
life, since it had good natural resources and numerous rock shelters
that could be used as the first dwelling places. In the Son Matge site
(Valldemossa), the remains of Myotragus balearicus were found: an extinct
native goat that stood barely 50cm high, weighed 15 kilos, and fed on
typical Mediterranean vegetation. Due to an absence of predators,
their legs got shorter and they lost the capacity to run or jump. Their
extinction in about 5000 BC coincided with the arrival of the first settlers
in the Balearics, who hunted them for food and then tried to domesticate
them. In about 2500 BC the settlers are documented as having achieved
a high level of organization, with the appearance of bell-shaped ceramics
and the use of copper and other metals.

Intensive agricultural and livestock activities have also been documented.
Grain was very probably the most important crop. Gradually human settle-
ments became more complex in their built structure and in terms of the so-
ciety that they represented. Two archaeological sites from the period should
be highlighted: Puig d’en Canals (in Sóller) and Almallutx (in Escorca).




172
                                                   2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




                                                                                      Figure 66. Illustration of the
                                                                                      Bóquer naviform settlement
                                                                                      (Pollença), an example of
                                                                                      colonization based on agriculture
                                                                                      and livestock until the final stages
                                                                                      of pre-Talayotic Mallorca. Source:
                                                                                      Cerdà Juan, 1984.




In about 1700 BC the Bronze Age began, known in the Balearics as the
pre-Talayotic period (1700-1350 BC). This was characterized by the ap-
pearance of a new type of construction, naviform structures, and by the
use of bronze. The naviform structures were upside-down boat-shaped
dwellings, made using cyclopean techniques instead of mud. That is, large
blocks of stone were inserted in the earth and made into dry-stone struc-




                                                                               173
                                       Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                       tures. The walls of the dwellings are very wide, with a double wall, filled in
                                       the middle with smaller stones and earth. Bronze was used to make tools
                                       and objects for worship. In many parts of the Tramuntana Mountains,
                                       the existence of small settlements has been confirmed (Bóquer, Es Brutell,
                                       Galatzó, and Cals Reis, among others), that specialized in keeping sheep
                                       and goats, reinforced by a very basic type of agriculture, the gathering of
                                       food, hunting and fishing. During this period, pressure on the natural
                                       environment began to have quite an impact, as indicated by the discovery
                                       of settlements with naviform structures at altitudes of up to 700 metres
                                       in rocky, relatively unfertile areas. (ARAMBURU, 1998, p. 34-49).

                                       During the late Bronze Age (1300-900 BC), there were new innovations in
                                       the technology used by island communities, with ceramics of new shapes,
                                       metalwork made of improved alloys, and new strategies in dealings with
                                       the outside world. Researchers see this process of cultural transformation
                                       as being a process in which society changed its conception of the way ter-
                                       ritories were organized. They wished to control the available water and
                                       food. This made groups more competitive and better organized. There was
                                       also an increase in the amount of contact with societies from outside the
                                       island and, very importantly, a rise in the population began that would
                                       finally lead to the deforestation of a large part of the island. Family links
                                       grew stronger and the population began to group together in settlements,
                                       building defensive walls round each territorial unit that was created.

Figure 67. A plan of a typical
Talayotic settlement that made up
the main nucleus of the Talayotic
model of spatial settlement. Drawing
by Vicenç Sastre.




                                       The transformation of the land continued with the Talayotic people, a
                                       Megalithic culture that could also be found in Menorca whose prime leg-
                                       acy was a round or square tower-shaped structure called a talayot, made
                                       of large blocks of stone. Although the origin of this culture is not clear, it
                                       is generally accepted that migrant warrior and seafaring people from the




                                       174
                                                         2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




eastern shores of the Mediterranean reached the island, probably also set-
tling on other islands like Sardinia, Malta, Crete and of course Menorca.
Whatever the case, the architectural structures and types vary from island
to island, contributing to the mystery that surrounds these settlers. The
Talayotic culture began about 3000 years ago in Mallorca, between 900
and 850 BC. At that point, the island started to fill with talayots: archi-
tectural structures that gradually replaced naviform ones, becoming the
main scenic legacy of the period. These structures are well represented in
the Tramuntana area, with the talayots of Coma-Sema (in Bunyola), Son
Ferrandell (Valldemossa) and Ses Casotes (Puigpunyent) standing out for
their good state of conservation.

The population must have become very high during this period, judging
by the high number of constructions and remains scattered throughout
the island. In the Tramuntana area, some 60 or 70 Talayotic settlements
are calculated to have existed, in places close to safe fertile valleys, in other
more hidden spots on the fringes, and in the mountains’ most remote
valleys. Each of them controlled an area of between 9 and 15km2 and their
gradual expansion must have generated complex power relations and ri-
valries, as well as helping to decimate the island’s natural resources.

                                                                                            Figure 68. The Shrine of Son Mas
                                                                                            (Valldemossa), whose layout
                                                                                            is reminiscent of table-shaped
                                                                                            Minorcan shrines. Pre-talayotic
                                                                                            remains were found here.




Numerous shrines have also survived in the Tramuntana area, normally
located close by settlements, where different types of religious ceremonies
must have been held, some related to the seasons, climatic adversities,
plagues that affected crops, and the fertility of the land. Some examples
are the shrines of Son Mas (in Valldemossa), Almallutx (Escorca), Els




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Clapers (Formentor) and Es Fornets (Calvià). From a religious perspec-
tive, there is also a predominance of collective burial sites particularly in
caves and rock shelters previously used as dwellings, such as Son Boronat
(Calvià), La Cometa dels Morts (Escorca), La Punta (Pollença) or El Ce-
menteri dels Moros (Capdellà).

The Greeks and seafaring Phoenicians no doubt knew the Balearic Islands
and used them as a base in trade with the mainland. Until the island’s
Roman occupation in ancient classic times, Greek traders differentiated
between the Gymnesias (Mallorca and Menorca) and the Pitiusas (Ibiza and
Formentera). The former two islands were inhabited by native societies of
possible Indo-European origin (the Talayotic culture), while the second
two depended directly on the Phoenician and Carthaginian worlds. The
Romans introduced the place name Baliares, using it first to refer to the
Greek Gymnesias and later for the whole of the archipelago. (RULLAN,
2001). Although no Greeks or Phoenicians settled on Mallorca, they did
trade goods with the Talayotic people and influence the introduction to
the island of products and ideas from other parts of the Mediterranean.
According to historical data, the Phoenicians and Greeks introduced olive
trees to the Iberian Peninsula and, from there, they probably passed to Ibi-
za (BLAZQUEZ, 2000: 151-184; COSTA and FERNÁNDEZ, 1992, p. 342-343).

“The islands’ fertility is very well known (Diodorus, 5, 17, 2; Strabo, 3, 5, 2; Pliny,
Historia Naturalis., 14, 71 and 18, 67). Olive growing and, in consequence, the con-
sumption of olive oil was non-existent before the conquest in the two bigger islands,
the Gymnesias, at least, because very possibly it was already consumed to a certain
extent on the island of Ebusus given its own historical dynamics related to the
Punic-Phoenician world. It is important to bear in mind, at this point, the words
of Diodorus Siculus, the 1st century BC author, documented from 3rd century BC
texts. This author speaks of olive growing on the island of Ibiza (by grafting onto
wild olives) and he says that in the bigger islands, given the lack of oil, they extract-
ed it from the pistacia lentiscus and, mixing it with pork fat, they spread it on their
bodies” (MARIMON, 2004, p. 1052).

The Roman occupation, led by General Quintus Caecilius Metellus in
123 BC led to the creation of two Roman colonies in the Bays of Palma
and Alcúdia (Palma and Pollentia, Latin toponyms that mean victory and
power), with the survival of existing Talayotic settlements. Romanization
resulted in the coexistence of new settlers with the heirs of the Talayotic
culture, who adopted Latin, urban customs and new forms of production.
Most Talayotic settlements are documented to have survived after the Ro-
man conquest, while a more in-depth process of urban development oc-
curred, for example in the prehistoric settlement of Bocchorum (Bóquer,




176
                                                           2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




Pollença), which was one of the island’s most important urban nuclei.
Although no urban settlement was created in the Tramuntana area, given
its proximity to the two Roman colonies it was probably much frequented
in search of supplies of its abundant well-assorted natural resources.
Indeed, in Bunyola Roman lamps have been found in the galena mines
of Son Creus, known popularly as the Minas de los Moros (Mines of the
Moors). In Pollença, a drinking water network was discovered measuring
13km long, carrying water to the city of Pollentia (Alcúdia), and a Roman
bridge and Talayotic settlement that was still occupied in Roman times,
possibly the federate city of Bocchorum cited in classic sources. In differ-
ent municipalities of the Tramuntana area (like Estellencs, Puigpunyent,
Selva and Mancor de la Vall), archaeological sites have been found with
Roman remains on the surface.

Roman domination of Mallorca led to the centuriation of the Mallorcan
ager- a process that has been documented and analysed in the southeast
of Mallorca - and the appearance of villae (basic units of agricultural
land mainly devoted to growing basic produce like the Mediterranean
trio – olives, vines and wheat), although imports of wine and oil have
been documented, which might indicate a lack of local supplies.
(AMENGUAL et al, 2003, p. 11-26; CARDELL and ORFILA, 1991-92, p. 415-
423; GARCÍA and SÁNCHEZ, 2000, p. 13-14; MARIMON, 2004, p. 1054).
“It was Romanization that boosted the mass cultivation of olives and it should not
be thought that Mallorca was an exception. Nonetheless, our lack of information
about rural areas – in reality about all the basic problems of Roman life on the
island – prevent us from making a more accurate statement and determining the
stages and intensity of olive growing and oil making. Was Mallorca self-sufficient?
The presence of Dressel 20-type amphorae, which were used to transport oil and
which are always attributed to the Betica area (Andalusia), might lead us to
infer that oil from Andalusia reached the island. However, although it is true
that large numbers of Dressel 20 oil-filled amphorae departed from the ports of
Betica, it cannot be assumed that all amphorae of this kind came necessarily from
Andalusia. If we accept the second hypothesis, some of them could have held local
oil.” (TARRADELL et al, 1978:334-335). Pliny (14.72) considered Balearic
wines to be comparable to the finest Italian ones and Diodorus Siculus
(5.17.2) mentions the production and commercialization of wine in the
Balearics (CERDÀ, 1978, p. 31; 1999). Documentary sources have revealed
the existence of other rural activities, like livestock farming with oxen,
sheep, pigs, mules, goats and fowl, as well as hunting fowl and rabbits.

Fishing began to be an important activity, like trade. Remains found in
coastal areas of the Balearics reflect heavy trade, mainly related to agri-
culture and fishing. At Sa Roca Rotja (in Sóller), the remains were found




                                                                                       177
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




of what might have been an old port of Roman origin and various little
statues have appeared there.

The decline and fall of Western Roman civilization, from the 3rd century
AD, led to a drop in trading and craft-related activities by Mallorcan colo-
nies, which probably led, in turn, to the gradual abandonment of urban
nuclei in favour of rural areas to ensure self-sufficient supplies. This could
well have generated a rise in local agricultural and livestock farming.
The period between man’s arrival on Mallorca and the fall of the Roman
Empire represented the first changes of anthropic origin to a hitherto
untouched landscape. The intensity with which man transformed the
area during that period is clearly highlighted by the booming growth and
decline of the Talayotic culture: a Megalithic culture that was also present
in other Mediterranean islands, as is the case of Menorca. This culture
expanded progressively in Mallorca, exhausting its natural resources and
leaving behind as a scenic legacy its talayots (structures made of large
blocks of stone), scattered throughout the entire Tramuntana area. In
parallel, Mallorca’s conquest by Quintus Caecilius Metellus in 123 BC
represented the Balearic’s incorporation into Roman and Western civili-
zation. Romanization led to the coexistence of the heirs of the Talayotic
culture and new settlers.

2.b.2. The dark centuries and Moslem rule (454 – 1229)

The looting of Mallorca by Vandals in 454 represented the end of Roman
domination of the island and the beginning of a long period of which little
or nothing is known. Indeed the centuries following the fall of Rome are
known locally as the dark centuries, having left no important marks on the
local landscape. The virtual disappearance of the island’s two Roman cities
and a notable drop in human pressure on the environment due to the de-
clining population are the most significant features of this period.

The only thing that is known, in the pre-Islamic period, is the use of castles
built in mountainous locations, used subsequently by Moors and Chris-
tians, as power centres. Their leaders managed to reach agreement with the
Moslems from at least the year 711 to avoid domination. Archaeological
discoveries relating to the period reflect a population that was concentrated
in the castles of Santueri (Felanitx) and Alaró. The resistant population of
this last castle grouped there for eight years and six months.

As Rullán (2004, p. 85) points out, nothing territorially functional re-
mains of the earliest cultures (between 3000 BC and the Roman decline),
only isolated items of heritage, in particular archaeological remains, place




178
                                                          2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




names, and cultural vestiges common to the whole Mediterranean: “With
the re-naturalization that occurred in the dark centuries (454-903), Mallorca re-
covered fully from an ecological point of view, and so when the Moslems settled in
Mallorca from 903 onward, a new stage of colonization began without any territo-
rial inertias that might have conditioned future growth”. Thus the current land-
scape of the Tramuntana area is the direct legacy of Moslem domination
and of the populations that colonized rural areas, devoting themselves
to extensive livestock farming and irrigated crops. In this last case, tech-
niques based on the channelling and distribution of water were used to
water orchards and vegetable gardens: techniques at which the Moslems
were highly skilled. In this way, a mainly woody landscape was formed
(used for hunting and extensive livestock farming), dotted here and there
with irrigated land round which the rural population lived in alqueries
and rafals (farms and small farm holdings).




After two centuries, during which the island was sporadically frequented                     Figure 69. Castell del Rei
                                                                                             in Pollença
by the Moslems, in the year 903 Mallorca came under Islamic domination
and the Balearic Islands became the eastern islands of Al-Andalus, de-
pendent on other states. Between 903 and 1229, the year when the feudal
Christian conquest occurred, the Balearic Islands formed part of the fol-
lowing states: the emirate and caliphate of Cordoba; the taifa10 of Dénia-                   1o
                                                                                                  Kingdom




                                                                                      179
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Balearics, with its capital in Dénia; the taifa of the Balearics, with its capi-
tal in Madina Mayurqa (now Palma); an Almoravid state; an independent
Balearic Almoravid taifa; and, finally, an Almohad state. Civil and military
power over the territory was held by a walî, the caliph’s main representa-
tive and subsequent governor of Madina Mayurqa. He was responsible for
receiving taxes from peasant communities, controlling piracy, and keep-
ing an eye on long-distance trade with the island.

Experts believe that this rural Islamic population maintained a strictly
tax-related relationship with the states, paying them taxes regulated in
the Koran in cash and guaranteeing the system stability. Payment in cash
gave the peasants a high degree of autonomy, because, via different strate-
gies, it allowed them to decide what crops to grow, what to produce, and
where to sell any surplus. The payment system was also designed to avoid
the emergence of lords to whom they would have to pay rent, along the
line of feudal lords, who might have monopolized part of their output
and thus held sway over them.

From a spatial point of view, two stages can be observed in Moslem
Mallorca. The first, lasting up until the 6th century, was characterized by
a predominance of rural areas over urban ones (Madina Mayurqa) and a
predominance of livestock farming over arable farming during the process
of the island’s colonization, organization and rule. During the period of
the taifa (1015-1114), the city grew in size and developed intellectually, there
was an increase in demographic pressure, and the rural world was organized
around tribal and clan-related rural communities, complementing the
urban population. Agriculture expanded, together with water engineering
techniques, in order to supply rural areas and the growing city.

After the conquest, waves of immigrants began to arrive of Arabic and
Berber origin, the first from the East (theoretically descended from
Arab tribes) and the second from North Africa. They arrived in perfectly
structured, organized extensive families known as clans. In turn, clans
were usually interrelated, so that different ones formed a tribe. The
names of clans and tribes were used to create place names. For instance,
extensive clans or families used to call themselves the descendents of
a common ancestor, putting the particle Banu (meaning “children of”)
before this name. After the Christian conquest, this particle was given a
Catalan version in the form of Bini or Beni, leading to numerous place
names like Binissalem, which means “children of Salim”. Other direct
legacies of the period are the abundant place names of Moslem origin
that still survive in the Tramuntana area, like Alfàbia, Alquería Blanca,
Biniatzar, Banyalbufar, Bunyola and Valldemossa.




180
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




During the long period of Islamic rule (902-1229), the island, which was
called Mayurqa, was divided into 12 districts (Jûz in the singular and
ajzd’ in the plural), characterized by a tribal structure and the districts’
links with livestock farming, because originally the term was used for
communal grazing areas. The Islamic district of Bunyûla-Mûsû, for
example, occupied the current municipalities of Bunyola, Valldemossa,
Deiá, Esporles and part of Banyalbufar. Calvià, Andratx and Puigpu-
nyent formed part of the Jûz of Ahwaz al-Madina. Pollença and Alcúdia
formed the Jûz of Bulansa. The Lluc area was called al-djebal, which liter-
ally means ‘the mountain’.

In these rural districts (Jûz), the population was fragmented, revolving
around two types of settlements: an al-Garya and rahal. That is, farms
and small farm holdings (alqueries and rafals in Catalan). Studies have
been made of them thanks to the Llibre del Repartiment, a register that
the Christians drew up to share out the spoils of war after the Christian
conquest of 1229. The farms, with agricultural land covering an average
of 85 hectares, were communal rural communities mainly dedicated to
agriculture. They emerged during the taifas and Almoravid rule. The
smaller farm holdings, with about 50 hectares of land, might date back
to the period when Mallorca formed part of the Caliphate of Cordoba
and they were private holdings as opposed to communal ones. Accord-
ing to estimates by Poveda (1992, p. 5-7), Mallorca’s countryside would
have had over 1600 farms and farms holdings, which would have ac-
counted for the deforestation of one third of the island for agricultural
and livestock activities.

In the Tramuntana area, there is still evidence of how important it was to
take advantage of water resources and land during Moslem domination.
Olive growing became more widespread, particularly in more mountain-
ous areas. Hillside terraces were built there to prevent erosion and facili-
tate the cultivation of these non-irrigated trees. The terraces followed
contour lines, with surfaces that were not particularly flat because a cer-
tain slope facilitated agricultural work. They are particularly plentiful in
Alaró, Caimari, Campanet and Galilea.

Although no systematic records have been found about irrigated crop
farming in Islamic times, the presence of artificially watered fields, using
irrigation systems, and the existence of mills point to the cultivation of ir-
rigated crops of grain, fruit, vegetables, cotton, linen and vines (for grapes
and raisins) and rice in wetlands. Indeed, it was at this time that the cul-
tivation of rice, aubergines, artichokes and sugar cane was introduced to
the mainland and Balearic Islands.




                                                                                   181
                                        Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 70. Systems for collecting and
channelling water are one of the
most outstanding examples of scenic
heritage from the Moslem period.




                                        Apart from irrigated and non-irrigated crops, the Moslems used other
                                        resources from the Tramuntana area. The abundant wood of its woodlands
                                        was used to make furniture, boats, and as fuel. Mention must also be made
                                        of the collection of medicinal and aromatic plants and wild fruit. Although
                                        fish did not play an important role in the Moslem diet, the existence
                                        of a long coastline must have encouraged fishing and, in other parts of
                                        Mallorca, the extraction of salt could have led to a big salting industry as
                                        well as being an export product.

                                        As for livestock farming, it is repeatedly quoted in written sources. The de-
                                        scription of the Balearic Islands by geographer Al Zuhri, in the 12th century,




                                        182
                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




gives us an insight into the livestock farms on each island. In Mallorca, there
were few goats but lots of sheep, cows, horses and mules. Horses and mules
must have played a particularly important role in the Balearic Islands, because
there are numerous references to exports of these animals to the mainland.
Leather making must also have been an important activity, because there are
references to a special inclination in Al-Andalus for shoes made of Mallorcan
leather. This craft continued with the Christian conquest and has survived up
until today, particularly in the towns of Inca, Lloseta, Alaró and Palma.

The creation of terraces for crops was a fundamental feature of the
Islamic system of irrigation. Small mountain orchards shored up by
dry-stone walls are common in the Tramuntana Mountains and they are
clearly visible on the coastal side, particularly in Estellencs, Banyalbufar,
Sóller, Fornalutx, Bunyola and Alaró.

Irrigated crops, which prevailed in farms at the time, entailed the creation
of terraced orchards with dry-stone walls and certain built features to
supply, control and regulate water, transforming the land and scenery of
the Tramuntana area in a big way. The existence of irrigated crops implied
access to a more or less constant flow of water and to underground water
(either by gravity by digging shafts – qanats – to the water table or by add-
ed force, using norias), rounded off with water storage and distribution
systems (water tanks, irrigation ditches, norias, ponds and wells). Using a
gravity-based system of movement, water came down from the upper hill-
side terraces to lower ones, sometimes under the ground, and any surplus
water was channelled into torrents and, from these, into the sea.

Crops could be irrigated by flood irrigation or using channels. In the first
case, the soil must retain the right level of moisture and so it is essential
for the land to be horizontal and for the wall of the terrace to be higher
than the surface of the field so as to keep the water in. In the second case,
the terrace must be slightly sloped lengthwise in the same direction as the
water in the irrigation ditch, and also sloped crosswise so that water runs
to the end of the terrace and can flow back without running down to the
lower terrace. In this case, the wall should not be higher than the soil, be-
cause the aim is not to store water. As for surface water, as well as shoring
up the sloping terrace, channels to collect torrential rain were also incor-
porated because the two things are vital for the maintenance of hillside
terraces in areas with clearly defined dry seasons and to reduce soil ero-
sion caused by surface water from seasonal rains.

These irrigation systems were always based on previous very rigid designs,
conditioned by the flow of water and physical geography. The character-




                                                                                    183
                                  Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 71. The ‘Juz’ of Islamic
Mayurqa




                                  istics of some of those initial designs have been established and, from
                                  them, the population that each of these irrigated areas could cope with,
                                  because they covered the dietary needs of a specific number of people. If
                                  there were a growth in the population, part of the group would split away
                                  and begin the construction process of hillside terraces in another place.
                                  During the final period of Moslem rule, the colonization of agricultural
                                  areas speeded up, thanks to the development of water engineering sys-
                                  tems that made it possible to extend the surface area of irrigated land.
                                  (BARCELÓ, 1989, p. 2013-2047; CARBONERO, 1984, p. 31-68).

                                  The basic principles on which irrigation systems in mountain valleys and
                                  larger irrigated areas, like the orchards of Banyalbufar or Valldemossa,
                                  were based were similar. For instance, Alaró’s system was centred in the
                                  Ses Artigues estate, whose spring features an underground gallery - qanat
                                  or font de mina - that leads down toward the water table and extracts water
                                  by gravity. The gallery subsequently turns into an open irrigation ditch
                                  that runs alongside one side of the torrent, which crosses the bottom of
                                  the valley, maintaining a constant angle. The land that can be irrigated is
                                  situated between the ditch and the torrent. It is flat close by the torrent,
                                  with hillside terraces in more sloping areas. Further down, near the hous-
                                  es of Sa Font, there are the remains of a mill driven by water that forms
                                  part of a series of ten mills that used to be found in the area. In the village




                                  184
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




                                                                                          Figure 72. The location of
                                                                                          waterwheels in Madina Mayurqa,
                                                                                          according to the historian Miquel
                                                                                          Barceló.




of Alaró, water from the irrigation ditch is used for domestic purposes. At
the other end of the village the houses of Son Tugores can be found, with
a terraced orchard, waterwheel, and big open-air cistern (safareig), where
the water corresponding to the houses was stored. The irrigation ditch
then leads on to the houses of Son Forteza, crossing a fan-shaped piece
of irrigated land. Secondary irrigation ditches can be seen that distribute
the water throughout this section of land, which is bigger than the belt of
irrigated land by the torrent. There are also open-air cisterns for storing
water for each sector or irrigation device so that it can be used to move
waterwheels and water the land. The distribution of the water supply
was regulated by assigning a certain timetable to each person when they
could let water in to their land from the main irrigation ditch. After the
Christian conquest, an urban water supply system was introduced, which
functioned until very recently.

Studies of different water supply systems in Mallorca and Ibiza demon-
strate how different groups of people shared a same area and its springs,
together with the construction and maintenance of irrigation systems.
By pre-established agreement, they managed the water supply, communal
land and water-driven mills. In combination as part of a global system,
hillside terraces, irrigation ditches and water tanks have a specific signifi-
cance, not just related to the way the water supply system worked techni-




                                                                                   185
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




cally and mechanically but also to the way in which social groups were
organized and shared water to make better use of it: a system that the
society of Al-Andalus called ma’jil.

Although the basic principles of these water supply systems did not
change with the Catalan conquest, in certain cases subsequent additions
and the growth of urban nuclei led to the occupation of part of this irri-
gated land. In Moslem times, in contrast, residential zones were never sit-
uated below the level of the irrigation ditch because irrigated land would
have been wasted. Many other Islamic irrigation networks were cared for
and maintained during subsequent centuries up until today. The crisis of
the island’s traditional agricultural society and recent building develop-
ment endanger what is the finest, almost exclusive tangible legacy of the
Moslem period in the Balearics. The irrigated tree-less hillside terraces
of the Tramuntana area that can be found close to the qanats built by the
Moslems are a relic of Mallorca’s Al-Andalus landscape, one which has
today been invaded to quite a substantial degree by woodland but where
some farmland from the period can still be seen.

The marks of the Moslem period left on the makeup of the Tramuntana’s
rural landscape is evident in works by different authors, especially in the
opinion given by Mallorcan geographer Bartomeu Barceló: “The forma-
tion of the [Balearic] Islands’ rural landscapes can be traced back to Moslem rule
(903-1229), which ended with Catalan occupation of the Balearics, when ownership
of new lands were acquired by sharing out former Moslem farms and small farm
holdings. [...] In this way, while the Moslem legacy was a scattered population with
small farms playing a colonizing role, the policy of the new rulers [the Christians]
tended to favour the concentration of the population in urban nuclei.”

The Christian conquest of the city of Madina Mayurqa took place in 1229.
Between 1230 and 1231, the rest of the island was gradually occupied,
although a certain resistance to the new invaders was encountered in the
mountains of the eastern range and Tramuntana Mountains, where the
Moslems took refuge, particularly in two castles: Alaró Castle and Castell
del Rei in Pollença. The latter was the last place in Mallorca to surrender.
Resistance there was not organized by members of the Almohad army
but by the religious hierarchy, who had managed to flee the city. Thus the
Tramuntana Mountains acted once again as a frontier between two worlds.

The two aforementioned castles are the only two examples of strongholds
of that type to be found in the Tramuntana area. They were military and
defensive fortresses that played an important role in the island’s medieval
history, in the transition between Moslem and Christian rule. For cen-




186
                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




turies they were privileged surveillance points, acting as a refuge for the
civilian population in the event of an enemy attack. Alaró Castle, situated
in a central inland part of the Tramuntana Mountains, has traditionally
been regarded as the most impregnable in Mallorca. Conquered by King
Jaume I in 1231, in 1285 it was defended by two popular heroes, Cabrit and
Bassa, from King Alfons of Aragon. With the introduction of artillery, from
the 16th century onwards, its military function waned and so only Castell
del Rei was kept on as a surveillance post of the coast. Castell del Rei, lo-
cated in the extreme east of the Tramuntana area, takes its name from the
fact that it was acquired by King Jaume I. This fact is documented in 1231,
at a time when an agreement was signed between Jaume I and Prince Pere
of Portugal. It had a gothic chapel, covered by pointed arches, consecrated
to the Archangel Gabriel, as documented in 1354. Outstanding events in its
history include the siege of the castle by King Pere IV the Ceremonious. It
was abandoned once and for all in 1715. In 1990, its current owners started
to renovate it but at present both castles are in a ruined state, although
their progressive restoration is contemplated.

2.b.3. The Christian conquest and modern era (13th to 18th centuries)

The Christian conquest of Mallorca in 1229, with the arrival of King Jaume I
of Aragon (the Conqueror), led to the introduction of a European feudal
system in the Moslem countryside and an end to the fragmented possession
of farm holdings. Instead agricultural land became concentrated in the
hands of the aristocracy, with the creation of rural estates called possessions.

                                                                                           Figure 73. A series of buildings
                                                                                           called the ‘casetes del Rei Sanç’
                                                                                           (houses of King Sanç), whose origin
                                                                                           is the medieval castle of Es Teix,
                                                                                           built in 1309




                                                                                    187
                                Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                Once the island had been conquered, its land and properties were shared
                                out among all the participants in the conquest: King Jaume I, the Crown
                                of Aragon’s important feudal lords, more minor nobles or knights, and the
                                Church, leading to new forms of spatial and social organization. As well
                                as gaining an insight into the structure of ownership of properties and
                                toponyms at the time of the conquest, the Llibre del Repartiment (register
                                detailing how land was shared out) shows that the king divided the island
                                into eight parts: half the island became owned by the king (medietas regis)
                                and the other half (medietas magnatis) was shared out among four nobles
                                (Guillem de Montcada, Viscount Bearn; Huc de Ampurias; Nuno Sans,
                                Count of Rosselló; and Berenguer de Palou, Bishop of Barcelona), who
                                in turn shared the land out among their men, freemen and religious
                                communities. If we focus on the Tramuntana area, Guillem de Montcada
                                received a third of the djuz of Sóller, while Huc de Ampurias received the
                                other two thirds. Nuno Sans received the ajzâ’ of Valldemosa and Bunyola
                                but, when he died with no heir, his properties passed to the Crown.
                                Berenguer de Palou received Calviá, Andratx and Puigpunyent. Numerous
                                other nobles received land in Mallorca, like Gilabert de Cruïlles and Ramon
                                Sa Clusa, who received the Barony of Banyalbufar, or the Knights Templar,
                                who received most of the land in Alcúdia and Pollença. Although he
                                divided his land among his nobles, cities and religious orders, King Jaume
                                I reserved control over it, so that the owners became feudal subjects, owing
                                him service and allegiance. This increased the power in the monarch’s
                                hands, who came to occupy a predominant, less precarious place in relation
                                to his nobles, in addition to the added prestige that he acquired.

Figure 74 Ancient olives near
Pastoritx, in Valldemossa




                                188
                                                         2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




The implantation of a nobility in Mallorca meant that the island’s inhab-
itants were converted into feudal vassals. From then on, they were forced
to pay an annual rent in kind. This was completely different from the
previous stage, because the Islamic state collected its taxes in the form
of money, which the peasants obtained by producing what they deemed
most fitting. In contrast, from 1232, the peasants had to ensure surpluses
of certain agricultural products, livestock or milk by-products to be hand-
ed over annually.

In 1230, the Franqueses de Mallorca were passed, privileges aimed at guaran-
teeing sufficient labour to work the land, attracting new settlers mainly
from Catalonia. This contributed to the introduction of the Catalan lan-
guage in Mallorca and also to Occitania, Italy, Aragon, Navarre, France,
Castile and Flanders.

After the death of Jaume I, Mallorca, Ibiza and Formentera and differ-
ent lands under his rule in the south of France were inherited by his
son, Jaume, and the Crown of Mallorca was created. This was a kingdom
independent from the Crown of Aragon until its reintegration in 1343.
King Jaume II strove to guarantee the viability of the kingdom, increas-
ing royal tributes and creating a new monetary system. He consolidated
what was known as Ciutat de Mallorca (now Palma), starting work on the
construction of the cathedral and extending the Almudaina Palace and
transforming it into a royal residence. Likewise, he ordered the construc-
tion of Bellver Castle and the palaces of Manacor, Sineu and Valldemossa,
outside Palma. King Sanç and King Jaume III both spent periods at the
latter, particularly to alleviate the former’s asthma and, in both cases, to
go hunting. This contributed to the growth of a settlement close to the
palace. In 1399, King Martí of Aragon granted ownership of the old palace
in Valldemossa to the Carthusians to found a monastery in Mallorca.

What is particularly important, however, was his policy to promote the
colonization of agricultural areas. In 1300, he passed the Ordinacions, a plan
to found towns on the island and regulate their growth. It contained a
series of regulations regarding surface areas, communal lands, conditions
for settlers, infrastructure and defence. Each settler would be entitled to
two plots: an urban plot measuring 1775 m2 (a measurement known as a
quarto), a plot of land of 3.55 hectares (5 quarterades) suitable for an orchard,
vineyard or non-irrigated land, and a right to 10 quarterades of communal
scrubland as grazing land for livestock. To guarantee supplies of water for
the new agricultural units, it was established that, using public money,
public water tanks and ponds would be built. The towns affected by the
Ordinacions were Manacor, Felanitx, Campos, Santanyí, Algaida, Llucmajor,




                                                                                     189
                         Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                         Porreres, Selva, Petra and Binissalem, and newly created ones were Sa Pobla,
                         Sant Joan, Capdepera and Son Servera.

                         “The aim that Jaume II sought, by passing this legislation, can be summarized in the
                         following basic points: first, to return an economic and human balance to Mallorca
                         between its mountain areas and plains; and, second, to promote the development of
                         an agricultural economy. Stimuli were created for those who went to live in the new
                         towns, whether they worked the land or were craftsmen, but always under the com-
                         mitment of their permanence. To create focuses of agricultural growth, the develop-
                         ment of a section of urban land was planned, using an urban grid in the case of new
                         urban development and, if there was an existing urban nuclei, this section was jux-
                         taposed or superimposed. The new settlers had access to loans for the construction of
                         dwellings and, after they had been assigned a plot, they had to complete the building
                         work within a period of six months. If they incurred debts within a three-year period,
                         repayment could be postponed. Public features were created, like squares, a plot for a
                         church with its own square, a civic and trading centre, cemetery and public place for
                         washing.” (CURIEL, CANTÓ, CALVO, 1998, p. 108).




Figure 75. Valldemossa   Although a split occurred between Moslem and Christian Mallorca in
                         political and religious terms, there was a process of continuity in the
                         island’s colonization by man and ownership of the land. The scattered
                         about Moslem farms and small farm holdings gave way to a network of
                         fiefs known as caballerías, which were responsible for introducing the new
                         Christian way of running the land, symbolized by big rural estates or
                         possessions equivalent to cortijos in Andalusia or masies in Catalonia, run by
                         noblemen or members of the Church. Socially and economically, these
                         estates were run in feudal style.

                         The owners or senyors held direct control of these fiefs, as extensive as
                         Moslem tribal farms, but they subdivided them into smaller peasant
                         farm holdings, leading to a different system of tenure: usufruct. This
                         gave rise to two key figures in medieval society: the senyor (owner) and
                         amo (estate manager).




                         190
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




Mass numbers of new settlers led to a higher concentration of people in
the Tramuntana area, and its numerous towns, villages and hamlets are
medieval in origin. These urban nuclei, which were populated after the
Christian conquest, are, in some cases, linked in with communal wood-
land properties from which the inhabitants obtained their own resources.
This is the case of the Comuna de Bunyola, Comuna de Fornalutx and
Comuna de Caimari, now public properties that are proudly maintained
in joint style. An extensive network of tracks would come to link these set-
tlements and connect them to their agricultural land.

                                                                                          Figure 76. The Raixa estate
                                                                                          (Bunyola)




Because the island bordered Moslem territories, a network of fortifica-
tions had to be built in the form of watchtowers and castles along the
mountain range. In this way the island’s most important fortifications,
which the Moslems had already transformed into major strongholds,
were consolidated: Castell del Rei (Pollença), Alaró Castle in the Tramun-
tana Mountains, and Santueri Castle (Felanitx) in the eastern mountains.
Another medieval fortification in the Tramuntana Mountains that is now
in ruins, with barely visible remains, is El Teix Castle, built in 1309, known
as the casetes del rei Sanxo. These castles, perched on rocks, were used by
followers of King Jaume III of Mallorca to defend themselves during the
island’s invasion by King Pere IV of Aragon, which led to the reincorpo-
ration of the independent island kingdom (1271-1343) into the Catalan-
Aragonese confederation.

The increasing commercial strength of the island’s capital (called Ciutat
de Mallorca up until 1715) generated increasing pressure on the rest of the




                                                                                   191
                                     Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                     island, which was divided into estates whose owners lived in the city and
                                     chose the main crops to be grown according to their potential commer-
                                     cial benefits. Compared with Moslem agriculture, which was mainly based
                                     on orchards, this feudal society and economy promoted the introduction
                                     of non-irrigated crops, primarily wheat, olives and vines. This move from
                                     a Moslem agricultural system of small tribes that each revolved around
                                     an irrigation network and self-sufficient supplies to a feudal one brought
                                     about big changes to the landscape of the Tramuntana area.

Figure 77. Grain production in the
14th century, according to Jaume
Sastre




                                     This partly involved an increase in wheat growing, a minority crop for the
                                     Moslems but one that became a strategic, fundamental one for the new
                                     Christian culture who were more dependent on grain than the Moslems
                                     with their more varied diet because it was the main source of food for the
                                     population. The growth of this crop was particularly evident in the centre
                                     and south of the island, where it was virtually the only crop and led to a
                                     gradual reduction in woodland (CELA CONDE, 1979). In the words of
                                     Rullán (2004, p. 92), “the transformation of the landscape that it entailed led large
                                     areas of woodland dotted with small patches of irrigated farmland characteristic of
                                     the Moslem period to be exchanged for an ocean of grain with patches of woodland of
                                     Christian characteristics. (…) When the slope of the land or thinness of the soil made
                                     the cultivation of grain impossible, there were two possible solutions to the problem: to
                                     let a peasant work the land in exchange for part of the yield or to grow olives there.




                                     192
                                                             2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




The former meant taking farming to critical limits, since this was outlying land, while
olive growing, suitable for high sloping land with poor soil, would, like the former
case, allow crops to be grown higher up and ensure supplies for a bigger population.
Indeed, oil, produced in amounts far beyond the islanders’ needs, was mainly ex-
ported, and so necessary imports of grain could be made to deal with the pressure of
the Mallorcan population. Oil was produced when it was impossible to cultivate grain
so as to be able to buy in grain. In this sense, oil was equivalent to grain.”

At the same time, from the Catalan conquest, olive growing became
more widespread, especially in the northern and southern areas of the
Tramuntana area, with the central focus being the municipalities of Es-
porles, Bunyola, Valldemossa, Deià and Sóller. Taking advantage of the
extraordinary aptitude of these trees to grow on mountain slopes and the
technique of hillside terraces shored up by dry-stone walls introduced in
Moslem times to create irrigated land, a large amount of woodland was
ploughed up to free new land. The old Moslem olives of some farms, like
those of Biniatzar in Bunyola, acted as a core. With the passing of the
centuries, olive-growing spread throughout the entire Tramuntana area
and, in this way, new terraces of olive groves were added to existing ones
and to Moslem irrigated hillside terraces.

Historical records show that from the 13th century, oil was exported from
Mallorca to North Africa, together with other agricultural produce. In the
mid 15th century, it was exported regularly on a constant basis, particularly
from the Port of Sóller, but it was in the 16th century that there was a big
boom and oil became the main source of wealth for many rural estates in
Mallorca, which had their own oil mill. In the early 16th century, a levy called
a diezmo was paid to the king on all produced oil. This represented 10% of the
total, a percentage only surpassed in the case of wheat and barley.

Feudal lords and owners of big estates mainly levied taxes for peasants
to pay on less easily perishable non-irrigated agricultural produce. This
new system put peasants under the control of feudal lords in the city and
thus favoured the city-based growth of the latter’s power over the rest of
the island’s rural land, symbolized by its rural estates. Unlike the Islamic
farms and small farm holdings, these estates grew, increasing their sur-
faces areas of cultivated land. Extensive livestock farming became decreas-
ingly important and estates specialized more and more in crop-growing
alone. From the 16th and 17th centuries, in parallel with different crises in
subsistence caused by successive increases in the population, olive grow-
ing was extended, reaching higher altitudes and covering more and more
land. Given how steep the land was, it might have seemed impossible to
grow olives there, but for the use of hillside terraces.




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                                      Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                      During the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, Mallorcan oil played a key role
                                      in the island’s economy, as a basic ingredient in the local diet and in
                                      exports in exchange for goods in short supply locally, mainly grain. Oil
                                      continued to play a predominant role in exports until the first half of
                                      the 19th century, accounting for between 65 and 80% of all Mallorcan
                                      exports for many years, and even in the second half of the 19th century,
                                      Mallorca continued to export considerable amounts of oil, particularly to
                                      places with which it had historical trading relations, specially the south
                                      of France. In one of the documents that best reflects customs and life
                                      in Mallorca, Die Baleren in wort und bild geschildert (1869-1891), written by
                                      Archduke Ludwig Salvator during the time he spent on the island in the
                                      19th century, the quality of Mallorcan virgin olive oil is praised. External
                                      recognition was achieved in the late 19th century, when oil made in
                                      Mallorca was awarded second prize in an oil tasting contest.

Figure 78. Vine growing in the 14th
centry, according to Jaume Sastre.




                                      In third place, grain and olives were complemented by vines: a crop that
                                      dates back to Roman times in Mallorca, as indicated by Pliny the Elder
                                      in his work “Naturalis Historia”: “…Balearic wines can be compared with the
                                      finest of Italy’s”. They continued to be grown during Moslem rule, despite
                                      the fact that wine is forbidden in the Koran, in order to produce raisins.
                                      Nonetheless, the crop grew in importance after the Christian conquest,
                                      because one of the measures taken by the king was the granting of li-




                                      194
                                                       2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




cences for vines to be grown in certain Mallorcan towns and villages, in-
cluding Bunyola and Valldemossa. Between the 14th and 18th centuries,
the island underwent a prosperous period of vine growing, with wine even
being exported by sea.

A special mention must be made of Sóller, an important seaport and
town in the Tramuntana area, which, in the 17th and 18th centuries,
had some five thousand inhabitants. As also occurred in most of the
Tramuntana, in the Sóller area olive growing predominated, but fruit
growing (oranges and lemons) was also important, together with
mulberry trees to make silk.

In the 17th century, the first records can be found of other traditional ac-
tivities, tied in with woodland areas that had in many cases been spared
the plough because it was simply impossible due to the climate or cultiva-
tion of olives. These activities included the production of charcoal and
lime and the use of other resources, like wood or ice.

The late medieval and modern ages represented a golden age for the local
landowning nobility and estates, whose houses played a key role in the
island’s traditional agricultural and livestock farming economy. They un-
derwent functional changes over the centuries to meet defensive needs or
the desires of their owners to have a large rural mansion. This led to differ-
ent types of buildings, some of a fortified nature, like Son Marroig (in Deià),
while others were authentic baroque palaces, like Alfàbia (Bunyola) or Sa
Granja (Esporles) or neo-classic ones, as is the case of Raixa (Bunyola).

In parallel, during the Modern Age, an organized, coordinated defen-
sive system was introduced to deal with pirate raids, under which the
island was divided into three parts: the mountains, plain and coastal
section. Some towns in the Tramuntana area or close to it were ex-
pected to offer assistance to ones closer to the coast. For instance, the
towns of Santa Maria, Bunyola and Alaró had to assist Sóller in the
event of a pirate attack. From the 16th century, this system was inten-
sified with the construction of watchtowers in the mountains, com-
bining to form a complex, effective network of coastal surveillance,
covering the whole of Mallorca. The towers could communicate with
one another by smoke signals, so that in just a few hours the whole
island could be warned of an attack. Worthy of special mention are
the defensive towers and watchtowers of Cala En Basset (in Andratx),
la Trinitat (Valldemossa), la Pedrissa (Deià), la Torre Picada (Sóller),
Na Seca (Escorca) and Aubercutx (Pollença).




                                                                                   195
                                  Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 79. The watchtower of Sa   In the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of King
Calobra, in Escorca
                                  Felip II (1558-1598), Mallorca was constantly besieged by pirates, with
                                  the Turkish empire generally leading them in attempts to weaken the
                                  Spanish monarchy’s hold over Mediterranean areas. The people who
                                  lived in the Tramuntana Mountains were the most isolated and found it
                                  most difficult to find reinforcements when needed, and so some attacks
                                  were devastating, like those on Banyalbufar and Estellencs in 1546. The
                                  townspeople of Pollença defeated the fearsome pirate Dragut in 1550 at
                                  a well-known battle, and much looting was recorded in Alcúdia (1551),
                                  Valldemossa (1552) and Andratx (1553). Nevertheless, the town of Sóller
                                  suffered from one of the worst pirate attacks of the century. In May
                                  1561, the population was attacked by a small Turkish/Algerian fleet com-
                                  manded by Euldj Alí, Dragut’s second-in-command. Sources speak of
                                  almost 1700 pirates landing, intending to loot the town, but they were
                                  met by the townsfolk, with reinforcements from Alaró, Bunyola and
                                  Santa Maria, who stood up to the invaders and forced them to retreat,
                                  following much destruction and pillaging.

                                  During this period, the Tramuntana Mountains, especially the Alaró
                                  and Bunyola areas, served as a refuge for bandits from Mallorca’s differ-
                                  ent aristocratic families, including the Santacilia and Pacs families. The
                                  bandits took advantage of the mountains and family estates to hide and
                                  attack enemy groups.




                                  196
                                                        2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




                                                                                            Figure 80. Simulation of the pirate
                                                                                           Dragut’s attack on the town of
                                                                                           Pollença, celebrated each year
                                                                                           during the festivities of the town’s
                                                                                           patron saint.




2.b.4. An end to autarky (19th and 20th centuries)

The most noteworthy characteristic from the 18th century on was no
doubt the end of Mallorca’s traditional autarky, when the island began to
form part of Spanish trade networks mainly to America. This led to tech-
nical improvements, the development of a manufacturing industry, and
imports of food supplies. During a second phase, between the second half
of the 19th century and first half of the 20th, there was the biggest boom
in agricultural and industrial development. This was when the industrial
economy first started to take over from the traditional agricultural sector.
During a third phase, from the second half of the 20th century, tourism
was introduced in a big way, the basis of the island’s current growth, with
the integration of the Balearics into the world economy.

In more contemporary times, the Tramuntana area has continued to have
an essentially rural society. The seizure of Church property in the 19th cen-
tury, with much of it passing to the State, brought about the emergence of
owners of small-sized rural or urban properties. As a result mountain farm-
ing reached a peak in production, because changes in the system of own-
ership brought about an increase in production and a change in society,
with a growth in small holdings that still exist in areas in the Sóller valley.
Despite this, there were still big differences between different parts of the
Tramuntana, and large estates – in the hands of the aristocracy – remained
intact until the late 19th century. There continued to be a predominance of
traditional crops. (That is, grain on the plain and olives in the mountains).
At the same time, there was a growth in existing minority crops, like al-
monds, carob trees, figs, citrus fruit and vines, which gained in importance
due to the intensification of trade with America.




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                                   Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 81. Son Marroig, a
Valldemossa estate purchased
by Archduke Ludwig Salvator
of Austria for its outstandingly
beautiful scenery.




                                   In the first half of the 19th century, there was a big decrease in vine grow-
                                   ing due to two plagues caused by aphids and oidium. In contrast, the
                                   plague of phylloxera that ravaged France in 1862 generated an urgent de-
                                   mand for grapes, must and wine by French wine dealers, bringing about
                                   the rapid re-plantation of vines in Mallorca between 1865 and 1890 and a
                                   boom period in grape growing and wine producing on the island. Such
                                   large amounts were sent from the ports of Palma, Portocolom and Alcú-
                                   dia to France that shipping companies were created, dedicated exclusively
                                   to wine exports. Unfortunately, phylloxera spread to Mallorca in 1891,
                                   with a lightning effect on its vines. Exports stopped and the local vine-
                                   growing sector was devastated. In consequence, some vines were replaced
                                   with another crop, mainly with almonds, and the amount of wine that
                                   was produced was limited to just a very small amount, insufficient for
                                   domestic consumption, and so wines had to be imported.
                                   In the 19th century, the number of island municipalities rose, following
                                   their emancipation brought about by the liberal laws of the 1830s. For-
                                   nalutx separated from Sóller and Deià separated from Valldemossa. In
                                   the same century, the traditional landscapes and features of Mallorca’s
                                   mountains began to become known to outsiders, following visits by nu-
                                   merous Romantic travellers, attracted to Mallorca by its beauty and the
                                   conservation of its scenic and cultural values. One outstanding example
                                   is Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria. He first came to Mallorca in 1867
                                   and, shortly afterwards, he settled on the island with homes in Deià and
                                   Valldemossa, buying ten different estates like Son Marroig, Miramar, Son
                                   Moragues and s’Estaca, many with superb views of the Mediterranean sea.
                                   Their land was devoted to growing vegetables, fruit trees and vines.
                                   The Tramuntana area was visited by other travellers, artists and natural-




                                   198
                                                      2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




ists from Europe and the Iberian Peninsula, like Isidoro Antillon, George
Sand, Frédéric Chopin, Joseph Tarongí, Santiago Rusiñol and Jerónimo
de Berard, among many others. All of them highlighted the natural vir-
tues of the landscapes they discovered and sometimes they portrayed a
society and economic system anchored in tradition.

In reality this idealized image of the Tramuntana area contrasted with
pressure by the aristocracy, epidemics and emigration. Despite this, in the
19th century, the traditional isolation that had characterized the Mallorcan
mountains began to disappear, first when roads and tracks were improved
and then when the main harbours were adapted, like Sóller or Andratx.

In the late 19th and early 20th century, the effects of industrialization
were perceptible on top of traditional rural landscape of olives and
hillside terraces, with estates and small mountain villages. This led to the
creation of infrastructure (roads, railway tracks, and infrastructure for
generating electricity), many made with dry-stone building techniques,
constituting in some cases a prime example of public property that
is well integrated into the landscape. During the first quarter of the
20th century, electricity supplies and telephone lines began to be built
and, at the same time, the railway started to reach different towns.
The development of a textile industry (of particular importance in
Sóller and Esporles) generated substantial trade, facilitating the urban
growth of associated towns. The valley of Sóller is a prime example of
the changes that occurred during the late 19th century and early 20th
century. During this period, the town saw a big growth in industrial
development, trade, the textile sector and export of citrus fruit
(especially oranges), added to which emigrants who had made a fortune                    Figure 82. Villa Francisca, in
in France and America returned and reinvested their profits in the                       Bunyola. An example of the
                                                                                         introduction of Modernism to rural
construction of small Modernist-style palaces.                                           parts of the Tramuntana area.




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                                     Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                     The 20th century also generated social, economic and spatial change in
                                     Mallorca, also noticeable in the Tramuntana area, although in this case
                                     the effects are not as clear as in other parts of the island. Tourism began
                                     in the early 20th century and mountain areas were one of the first main
                                     destinations. In the 1920s, combined with the promotion of tourism, hik-
                                     ing attracted tourists to the Tramuntana area. The Fomento de Turismo
                                     (Tourist Board) and Associació per a la Cultura de Mallorca (Association
                                     for Mallorcan Culture) were created, organizing outings to places like
                                     Lluc, Torrent de Pareis and Galatzó.

                                     It was at this time that the first tourist accommodation began to appear
                                     for visitors to the Tramuntana area. One flagship was the guesthouse Ca
                                     Na Magina, also known as Ca Madò Pilla after the person who ran it. After
                                     having been refurbished several times, it is now called Hotel El Encinar. The
                                     building was possibly one of the first mountain hostels, because in about
                                     1900 building alterations were made by the Archduke to offer free shelter
                                     for three nights to anyone visiting this part of the Tramuntana, with the
                                     provision of a guidebook for those wishing to discover the surrounding
                                     area. Other important hotels were Hotel el Guía (1880) and Hotel La Vila
                                     (1904) in the town of Sóller; Hostal Can Marió (1890) in Valldemossa; Hotel
                                     Juma (1907) in Pollença; and Hotel Miramar (1912) and Hotel Illa d’Or
                                     (1929) in the Port of Pollença. Also worthy of mention is Hotel Formentor,
                                     built in 1929, which has belonged to the Buades family since 1954. Winston
                                     Churchill, Henry Miller, Charles Chaplin, Ava Gardner, the Duke and
                                     Duchess of Windsor, John Wayne and Aristotle Onassis all feature
                                     among its illustrious guests. The building blends carefully into the idyllic
                                     landscape of Formentor beach, with pines leaning over the sea. Likewise,
                                     the Es Port estate must also be highlighted: one of the first to be converted
                                     into a hotel after refurbishment work between 1911 and 1912.

                                     From the second half of the 20th century, a boom in tourism led to the
                                     progressive abandonment of agriculture in places with a more complicated
                                     physical geography. From 1960, there was a sudden emergence of mass
                                     tourism and very soon agriculture just came to occupy a marginal propor-
                                     tion of the economy compared with the service sector, with all the social
                                     and cultural changes that this entails. Even so, the towns and villages of
                                     the Tramuntana area at a distance from the sea and its beaches were not
                                     affected by the tourism phenomenon. This also had repercussions on the
Figure 83. Ca Madò Pilla, in times   physical image of the Tramuntana area, which is generally well conserved,
of the Archduke (1900)
                                     although there has been a growth in residential and recreational uses.

                                     The impact of modernity and post-modernity on the landscape of the
                                     Tramuntana Mountains is reflected in the progressive advance of woodland




                                     200
                                                         2. Descr ip t ion of Prop er t y




areas and the introduction of new tourist-related and residential uses in
traditional towns and villages. It is also reflected by a collective awareness of
the need to safeguard and promote the value of its scenic heritage.

                                                                                            Figure 84. The construction of the
                                                                                            Sóller-Palma railway (opened in
                                                                                            1912) represented a big advance
                                                                                            in transport links between the
                                                                                            Tramuntana Mountains and rest of
                                                                                            the island




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




3

Justification
for inscription




202
                                               3. J us t if icat ion for inscr ip t ion




3.a Criteria under which the proposed nomination is based (and
justification for inscription according to these criteria)

Over the centuries, the Mediterranean has been a cradle and meeting
point for successive cultures along its shores. Mallorca and the Tramun-
tana area are a border territory where these cultures have successively
left their mark on the land. Over the course of one thousand years the
introduction of Islamic water supply systems and their subsequent
transformation and extension in Christian times, insularity and the ge-
ographical features of the Tramuntana area have all gradually moulded
the place, culminating in the landscape we can see there today. Given
the complex technology of the water supply system, the use of dry-stone
techniques as the main building system and the unique make-up of its
settlements, with Arabic, North-African and European features, we pro-
pose that the Tramuntana area should be declared a World Heritage Site
in its capacity as an essentially evolutionary cultural landscape, based
on the following criteria:

(ii) The exhibition of an important interchange of human values,
over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on
developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts,
town-planning or landscape design

The Mediterranean has always been an area of interchange between
Moslem North Africa and Christian southern European. The Balearic
Islands have also acted as a bridge with the East through maritime
trade. Agriculture played a fundamental role in guaranteeing these
exchanges. This led the Arabs to introduce irrigation systems in an
island with long periods of drought, since they were highly skilled at
handling water supply systems in their countries of origin. They cre-
ated productive orchards and vegetable gardens where before there
had been uncultivated land to produce food and generate wealth for
the local inhabitants. For this purpose, they used the most plentiful,
cheapest material – stone – and their own hands as tools. Gradually
the land was transformed, leading to a multitude of small settlements
throughout the whole of the Tramuntana Mountains, with exquisitely
sculpted hillside terraces that allowed them to grow crops very similar
to those of their countries of origin.

After the Christian conquest, the changeover to a feudal model based
on the collection of levies, mainly in kind, of wheat and oil led these
systems to be extended and transformed. Big areas of steep wooded
mountain slopes were cleared of their vegetation and given new hill-




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




side terraces and complicated drainage systems, grafting olives onto
wild olive trees to make them produce fruit. The few f lat areas that
existed were ploughed up for growing grain or used for grazing. The
landscape was transformed, becoming covered in hillside terraces of
olive groves, and there was a move from Islamic farms and small farm
holdings to the big estates (possessions), villages and towns that now
make up the Tramuntana area.

An area of trade and piracy and, above all, one characterized by an impor-
tant cultural exchange between Moslems and Christians from north and
south, the Tramuntana area forms a rich, complex landscape that is both
unique and representative of the Mediterranean.

(iv) An outstanding example of a type of building, architectural
or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) sig-
nificant stage(s) in human history

The introduction by the Islamic world of water supply technology and
the subsequent adaptation of the land to make it productive involved
the construction over the centuries of kilometres of dry-stone walls
(marges) that can range from a few centimetres high to several metres,
covering hillsides like scales and retaining the little soil there is. Like-
wise, sophisticated drainage systems were introduced that help drain
away surplus water and avoid erosion. Additionally, very long walls
enclosing estates and endless cobbled roads form a spider’s web across
the peaks and valleys of the Tramuntana Mountains, making this one
of the most spectacular man-made dry-stone (mortarless) landscapes
in the world.

Many features of the area are also built using the same technique, like the
underground water galleries, known as qanats in the Arabic world and in
Islamic Mallorca or foggaras in Northern Africa. They are a living testimonial
of our Islamic past. A large number of them perforate the land horizontally
in search of water, with narrow galleries that can be hundreds of metres long
covered by a vaulted ceiling with vertical ventilation shafts. Subsequently, via
complex networks of irrigation ditches and minimal gradients, the water is
transported to places where irrigated terraces could be created for citrus fruit
trees or orchards. Likewise, big water tanks for storing water regulated water
supplies in periods when it was scarce. Water was used to move waterwheels,
positioned parallel to irrigation ditches in such a way that they took advan-
tage of drops in level. This meant they could be used for grinding wheat, full-
ing, dyeing or other uses related to the textile industry.




204
                                                   3. J us t if icat ion for inscr ip t ion




In turn, drainage systems also formed part of these complex water-engi-
neering and dry-stone technologies. Understanding these systems and
knowing how to maintain them is fundamental for the conservation of
the area. In addition to the sides of torrents, features like alballons, ralles
and eixugadors (drains, drainage ditches, and open drainage pipes) collect-
ed surface water and transported it, slowing the water down and helping
it to filter into the soil and avoid erosion. This helped to replenish under-
water aquifers, which abound, given the karstic nature of the Tramuntana
Mountains, guaranteeing supplies in times of drought.

Other constructions that use stone in a unique way are associated
with different ways of taking advantage of existing resources. They
range from ice stores (formerly used to store snow for its sale or gas-
tronomic or medicinal use) to kilns for making lime, barraques de roter
(very basic dwellings used by sharecroppers), porxos d’olivar (shelters in
olive groves) or groups of buildings, sitges (charcoal making pyres) and
huts for charcoal makers, which can be found throughout the area.
Escars, small boathouses with ramps, can be found all over the coast as
a support for fishing activities.

This landscape and its privileged situation, on steep slopes overlooking
the sea, have for centuries been enjoyed, appreciated and used by local in-
habitants and visitors alike. As well as the plentiful agricultural structures
and constructions, there are endless vantage points, defensive towers, cas-
tles, shrines, churches and other buildings, which all help to enrich and
enhance the Tramuntana area as a whole.

All this, over the centuries, has led to a unique place where many dif-
ferent expressions of dry-stone architecture and water technology can
be seen.

(v) An outstanding example of a traditional human settlement,
land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or
cultures), or human interaction with the environment especial-
ly when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irrevers-
ible change

Settlements in the Tramuntana area are living examples of the evolu-
tion of the Roman model of a settlement through to the Islamic cul-
ture and beyond, with their progressive transformation over the cen-
turies to constitute the farm holdings, towns and villages that today
mark it. Numerous Islamic farms and small farm holdings appeared,
with associated water supply systems and hillside terraces for growing




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crops. After the Christian conquest, the typical Catalan model of a ru-
ral estate and the introduction of a feudal system changed the image
of these settlements, which were taken over by new owners, generally
members of the nobility.

Large plots of land, with a characteristic irrigation network, formed spatial
units that gradually became known as possessions or estates. Each of these
estates contained a series of different agricultural areas of different charac-
teristics and morphologies: rocky areas on the tops of mountains, strips of
woodland, slopes with hillside terraces of olives, terraces where crops were
intensively grown near dwellings, extensive grazing land, fields for reaping,
vineyards or different non-irrigated fruit crops on flatter land.

The epicentre for storing and processing produce and living were the
estate houses or cases de possessió, made up of a series of buildings sur-
rounding a central courtyard known as a clastra. Round it were rooms for
processing and storing the produce and dwellings. Among these, mention
must be made of the big oil mills (tafones) for producing oil that were so
important for the local economy of the area.

Because these possessions were used by the nobility as summer residences,
many of them were transformed into beautiful mansions based on Italian
models. Their orchards and gardens were enhanced with decorative fea-
tures in keeping with the period, while still conserving the legacy of their
original Al-Andalus orchard garden.

The network of tracks that connect these estates with towns and villages
and the paths that lead to agricultural land, through woodland and olive
groves, can be used today to cross the area and appreciate its scenery.

The towns and villages are based on a medieval urban design of irregular
little streets with steps and cul-de-sacs, marked by the complex water sup-
ply systems that led to their original creation. Irrigation ditches, public
washing places, orchards, mills and well-type water tanks can be seen
amid stone houses piled up on the slopes, forming a fascinating urban
ensemble that blends perfectly into the natural surroundings. To attract
new settlers, the feudal lords created communal land (comunes), some of
which still survives. Defensive towers, churches, convents, markets, old
factories and splendid Modernist houses all bear witness to the evolution
of the landscape and to different external influences.

The Tramuntana area is thus a testimonial of the conservation and evolu-
tion of settlements and urban structures in a rugged area of the island




206
                                                  3. J us t if icat ion for inscr ip t ion




characterized by steep slopes. The settlements have been adapted to the
local landscape through the skilful use of stone, as a key resource, and in-
telligent use of water, with the gradual incorporation of different features
that reflect the area’s role as a Mediterranean cross-roads.

(vi) Being directly or tangibly associated with events or living
traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary
works of outstanding universal significance

The Tramuntana area has fascinated and continues to fascinate visitors.
Figures like Frédéric Chopin and George Sand, together with other il-
lustrious visitors, reflected their experiences in journals of their travels
where they highlight the marvels of the area. They ended up by at-
tracting numerous other intellectuals and artists to the Tramuntana
area, some of whom even settled there. One emblematic example was
Archduke Ludwig Salvator, who compiled a major work on the Balearics
called “Die Balearen”, which has been and still is a fundamental refer-
ence for studies of our heritage. The Archduke was the first person to
uphold the importance of the semi-agricultural, semi-wild romantic
spirit of the landscape of the Tramuntana area and he was its strong-
est champion. He improved the appearance of his estates, built roads
and vantage points, and transformed the land into a productive place
that could be visited by all. He went to live in a mansion called Miramar
which, over five hundred years before, had been the School of Oriental
Grammar and Languages founded by the great Mallorcan medieval phi-
losopher Ramon Llull, a prime exponent of intercultural dialogue. The
scenery and coast around Miramar continue to be some of the most
captivating in the Tramuntana area.

Very close by is Deià, a magnet for writers and poets and place chosen by
the British writer and poet Robert Graves as a home. Local characters and
images of the Tramuntana were sources of inspiration in many of his nov-
els because, as he said, they evoked memories of the classical past. Today,
Deià is still a venue for literary get-togethers.

Further north, Pollença acts as an umbrella for a big group of painters
who, for over one hundred years, have been inspired by the landscapes
of the Tramuntana Mountains. Among others, Anglada Camarasssa,
Joaquim Mir and Santiago Rusiñol fell in love with the landscape,
which features in many of their paintings. It is not only painters who
value the Tramuntana area. Major writers, intellectuals, actors and
politicians have stayed in what is still a symbol of top-quality tourism
throughout the world: Hotel Formentor. The hotel and the literary




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awards to which it lends its name are a reference point in the 20th cen-
tury world of culture.

The Tramuntana area also features important examples of intangible, liv-
ing heritage derived from its historical past and geographical context. Its
Islamic past and the fact that it was a border territory for the Christian
world have led to numerous place names and words of Arabic and Berber
origin and even rich traditions, like its local festivities, which have for cen-
turies commemorated battles between Moors and Christians. Prime ex-
amples are the festivities held in the towns of Sóller and Pollença. Dances
like Les àguiles, Els cavallets or Els cossiers are also age-old cultural traditions
that have been kept alive.

Lluc is the spiritual nucleus and, every year, numerous pilgrimages are
made to its shrine from all over the island. Font Cuberta is its holy spring
and the Mysteries of the Via Crucis, by the world’s best-known Catalan
architect Antonio Guadí, is one of its most typical features. The chil-
dren’s choir, the Blauvets, perform the mysterious chant dating back to
the distant past, La Sibil·la, each year on Christmas Eve, which announc-
es the Day of Judgement.

3.b Proposed Statement of Outstanding Universal Value

The cultural landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana is an exceptional ex-
ample of a Mediterranean agricultural landscape because of its singular
combination of water supply systems applied to irrigation, of Islamic
origin, and olive and vine growing systems, of Christian origin. Both are
conditioned to a large extent by the scant resources the environment of-
fers in the region, due to its climate, orography and insularity. The result
of this combination is a landscape modelled by man in an extremely in-
tense fashion, and one which bears witness to the continuous interaction
between man and nature over the centuries.

This landscape is characterized by the intense transformation of the origi-
nal natural environment, based on the construction of hillside terraces
on mountain slopes for olive cultivation; the extraction, channelling and
conveyance of water in order to achieve orchards and irrigated areas; and
the consolidation of a whole agricultural system in a mountainous area
founded on the use of dry-stone architecture and intelligent management
of the land.

The use of dry-stone building techniques involved huge effort, because
this system only uses material available in the immediate vicinity com-




208
                                                   3. J us t if icat ion for inscr ip t ion




bined with manual labour. Work by successive generations is reflected
by the extensive dry-stone architecture, spread all over the slopes of the
Tramuntana area, plus a wide variety of building and technical solutions.
In conjunction, this architecture is a magnificent exponent of Mediter-
ranean cultures whose insular circumstances strongly determined their
historical and cultural evolution.

The landscape of the Tramuntana area is therefore a faithful reflection of
the isolation that the island of Mallorca experienced over the centuries
due to its remoteness from continental lands and because it was a bor-
der region, half way between Africa and Europe, subject to invasion from
both north and south, which led to major cultural interchanges. The
singularity of the landscape is defined by concepts such as insularity, the
orographic layout and climate, water as a means of subsistence and aes-
thetic value in the form of the sea, Islamic and Christian cultural legacies,
admiration on the part of philosophers, travellers, painters, musicians,
poets and writers, and a wealth of legends, traditions and festivities linked
to the Tramuntana area.

The Tramuntana area demonstrates the close links between the in-
tense use and enjoyment of this cultural landscape and between highly
demanding natural conditions and the imprint of successive cultures,
who have gradually moulded the Tramuntana to make the most ben-
efit of it. This is the key to understanding the survival of age-old crops
like olives, the outstanding tangible and intangible heritage that this
cultural landscape constitutes, and an age-old intercultural way of life
in an area that constantly evolves, resisting nearby pressure from tour-
ism and the growing emergence of fragmented settlements over the
rest of the island.

For this reasons, we are calling for the Tramuntana area to be included in
the list of WHS, given the exceptional values that it represents, aestheti-
cally, ethnologically, socially, economically, culturally, physically, ecologi-
cally and scientifically, all of which make this emblematic place so unique.

3.c Comparative analysis (including the state of conservation of
similar assets)

The focal point of our comparative analysis is the introduction of
water engineering techniques and use of stone to transform terrain
that was originally rugged and infertile into land suitable for crop
growing, together with the value derived from the assimilation of
different cultural systems that have interacted in a specific place. For




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this purpose, each of the values that contributes to the formation of
the Tramuntana area’s unique character is used to make a comparison
with other sites already recognized by the UNESCO or else on its
tentative list of potential candidates of a similar quality level. The
values are taken into consideration in accordance with basic aggregate
criteria, bearing in mind their presence or absence in a specific place.
Information from the UNESCO and different consultative bodies
(UICN, ICOMOS), the official pages of different landscapes and the
extensive graphic information that is available were used as the basis
of an assessment of each of the areas. In continuation a list is given of
the sites that were compared with the Tramuntana area:

- Bam (Iran)
This fortified medieval town is situated on what was a commercial cross-
roads for silk and cotton traders. It is an oasis, built using a local tech-
nique (adobe), with underground irrigation channels (qanats).

- Costiera Amalfitana (Italy)
The Costiera Amalfitana has been a World Heritage Site since 1997. This
coastal strip of the province of Salerno began to be heavily colonized in
the early Middle Ages. Several cities, like Amalfi and Ravello, feature ar-
chitecture and works of art of substantial value. The rural areas reflect the
local inhabitants’ versatility and capacity in adapting to terrain that var-
ies substantially. They spread their vineyards and orchards across slopes
that overlook the sea in order to use the big plateau for grazing land.

- Cinque Terre (Italy)
The coastal region of Portovenere, Cinque Terre and the Palmaria, Tina
and Tinetto islands were declared a Cultural Landscape in 1997. The shape
and layout of the villages and type of surrounding landscape help offset
the disadvantages of steep, uneven terrain, allowing for the continual hu-
man occupation of the region during the whole of the last millennium.
The vineyards are located on terraces of land with a slope of over 30%.

- Alto Douro (Portugal)
The wine-producing region of Alto Douro, a production area dating back
over two thousand years, was declared a World Heritage Site in 2001. Since
the 18th century, its main product - port wine - has been famous through-
out the world for its quality. This long tradition has led to a cultural land-
scape of outstanding beauty that reflects the technological, social and
economic evolution that this crop has undergone.




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- Lavaux (Switzerland)
The terraces of vines at Lavaux were declared a World Heritage Site in
2007. They cover some 30 kilometres of the north bank of Lake Geneva,
where vines cover the lower south-facing slopes. Although it might seem
that vines have been grown there since Roman times, the current terraces
date back to the 11th century, when Benedictine and Cistercian monaster-
ies controlled the area. Lavaux is an example of interaction between peo-
ple and the surrounding land over the course of the centuries in order to
optimize local resources and produce a much esteemed wine.

Sites on the tentative list of possible UNESCO World Heritage Sites

- The rural settlement of Fikardou (Cyprus)
Fikardou was nominated to be a World Heritage Site in 2002. It is a tra-
ditional mountain settlement that has conserved its physiognomy, ar-
chitecture and natural environment since the 18th century. It stands out
particularly for the integrity and authenticity of the village, which blends
harmoniously into the background setting.

- Western Sand Sea (Algeria)
The valley of Saoura bore educated witness to caravans that transported
gold, wheat and slaves from Fez, Tunisia or Timbuktu. Marking the route
are large fortified mansions, extraordinary oases with palm groves, and
traditional towns with numerous foggaras (underground water galleries)
and irrigation channels to transport the highly prized water supplies.

A comparison with other regions allows us to define those qualities that
best distinguish the Tramuntana area and explain why it is an outstand-
ing cultural landscape. Briefly, we acknowledge it as having the following
unique values:

1. The Tramuntana area is a magnificent example
   of the advantage that has been taken of water resources
   in short supply in order to transform an infertile land
   into a rich agricultural landscape.

For over one thousand years, the introduction of water engineering
techniques by Arab and Berber conquerors made it possible to convert
inhospitable terrain with few resources and steep slopes into a rich, varied
agricultural landscape that has gradually been enriched over the centuries
through the contributions of the different cultures that have lived there.
The resulting landscape is a rich ecosystem with a careful balance between
nature and the action of man.




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2. The Tramuntana area is a place moulded by successive cultures,
   with a clear linking thread: dry-stone architecture.

Widely differing civilizations have shaped the Tramuntana area, using the
same distinctive element: the sensitive, sustainable use of local stone (re-
sidual surface stone not quarried stone), removing it from wild stretches
of land and working in traditional style (building the carefully worked
stone into structures, using no binding mortar of any kind).

This has given rise to a powerful, coherent image: an outstanding land-
scape forged through ongoing efforts, over the course of the centuries, by
its inhabitants and also through a combination of unique physical condi-
tions and the application of environmentally-friendly uses.

3. The agricultural hillside terraces are the result of singular
   efforts by man to adapt to harsh natural conditions.

Through age-old efforts by man, the scanty soil has been retained and
thousands of hectares of terraces (marjades) have been built on rocky out-
crops, avoiding erosion and carefully terracing the steep land to ensure
access and its cultivation.

The terraces follow the lay of the land, sculpting a new rich landscape,
with a variety of shapes that are carefully adapted to the specific features
of each particular place.

4. Dry-stone building work has led to the construction
   of a rich variety of structures closely associated
   with a way of colonizing, inhabiting or using the land.

The work of successive civilizations has led to the creation of hillside
terraces (marjades); land uses through the construction of wells, under-
ground water galleries, irrigation channels, ice stores, mills, water tanks,
olive presses, sharecropper’s huts, shelters in olive groves, charcoal-mak-
ing pyres, limekilns, caves, and huts; means of facilitating the movement
of people, like cobbled paths, low balustrades, walls, steps, ramps, bridges
and dry-docks by the sea; means of channelling water by paving the sides
of torrents or building drainage elements (albellols, ralles, eixugadors), un-
derground water galleries, irrigation ditches, norias, aqueducts, and water
storage tanks; and means of defence or observation points based on slings
(foners), watchtowers, castles perched on rocks, towers and lighthouses. At
the same time, an environmentally-friendly enjoyment of the landscape
has also been encouraged, with walks, vantage points and springs; the




212
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erection of small monuments, like the gardens of mansions, shrines, her-
mitages, and oratories; and monasteries, cloisters and most of the small
towns and villages.

All this has been achieved over the course of the centuries, generating
singular results: a unique place where this dry-stone architecture can
be appreciated.

5. In the Tramuntana area, a rich legacy of urban heritage
   has been built up.

Different towns and villages have maintained their integrity, from small
villages on terraced slopes to others in the foothills of a few valleys, com-
bining to form a rich heritage of historic buildings.

These settlements colonized the mountains through an extended system
of hillside terraces, although each one follows a distinctive pattern, de-
pending on its location and the culture that led to its creation. Thus as a
legacy of different cultures, you can find:
- castles perched on rocks, like those of Alaró and Pollença, which held
   sway over a large part of the island (characteristic of the Vandal and
   Byzantine cultures);
- farms and smaller farm holdings, generating a system of settlements
   in the Islamic period that have survived up until today (Sóller, Alaró,
   Bunyola, Banyalbufar etc.);
- possessions or rural estates: the main production unit during the Cata-
   lan-Aragonese period. They are the cornerstones of the spatial struc-
   ture of the Tramuntana area, featuring prime examples of architecture.

6. In the Tramuntana area, the age-old tradition
   of growing olives has been conserved

The coherence of resources in short supply and the adaptation of the natu-
ral environment explains why the tradition of growing olives has survived
up until today, with the constant updating of the olive-pressing trade.

The immense majority of the hillside terraces are filled with olives, some
thousands of years old, resulting in very competitive, highly prized prod-
ucts (made in Caimari and Sóller, for example), which form part of the
local identity, keep local traditions alive and, by extension, conserve the
land from neglect.




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7. Different interventions have enhanced
   this supremely beautiful landscape

If the rocky castles that were erected from the 5th century onward or
watchtowers of the 15th to 18th centuries had an essentially defensive role,
the system of paths and vantage points commissioned by Archduke
Ludwig Salvator and those that have continued to be built or restored
through until today are intended to ensure widespread enjoyment of
landscapes of breathtaking beauty, from impressive rocks leading into the
sea to fertile valleys or a vision of hillside terraces gradually sculpted over
the centuries.

The construction of these features over the course of history, either for de-
fensive purposes or social reasons, has infused the Tramuntana area with a
rich complexity of values that go beyond mere production-related qualities.

8. The Tramuntana area’s values are widely
   acknowledged by society

Legal protection has played an important role in the conservation of the
Tramuntana landscape from the real estate and tourism pressures that
the rest of the island has suffered from. Nonetheless, leaving aside differ-
ent legal figures, the Tramuntana area and its people have been calling for
special recognition of their heritage for over a century, with eminent ini-
tiatives and numerous projects, plans and laws that call attention to the
area and guarantee the preservation of its resources.

However, these endeavours to work toward the area’s recognition and
preservation also involve modest, everyday yet vitally important efforts
by numerous social agents. They include those who have revived the tra-
ditional trade of the hillside terrace builder; those who have managed to
prevent the disappearance of several species of animals; the volunteers
who work tirelessly at weekends to rebuild cobbled paths, an old Trappist
estate, charcoal-makers’ huts or limekilns; those who have revived and
defend age-old traditions; those who have transformed a splendid estate
into a rich example of the uses and customs of old estates; the olive mak-
ers who continue to improve oil production processes and to maintain
and build a landscape of terraces; the inhabitants who keep alive a rich
tradition of festivities and customs; or the numerous academics through
their analyses and fight to conserve the area. All of them, like the Tra-
muntana area, are worthy of special recognition.




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As a conclusion, if we compare Tramuntana area with other places not
included in the list, we can see how its wide diversity of hydrological and
dry-stone architecture is far more plentiful, as is the surface area this ar-
chitecture covers and its prevalence and presence over the centuries.

If we refer to those sites on the WHS list, the Tramuntana Cultural
Landscape stands out in comparison with some of them for its specific
values and, far more still, for the concurrence of these values there and
their continued production over a long space of time. Likewise, the
Tramuntana stands out for the creation of a landscape where natural and
cultural factors interact in harmony. The interdependence and continued
validity of so many values is largely attributable to physical isolation and,
even more so, to the silent patient labours of so many inhabitants and the
laudable task of cultured travellers, academics, artists and intellectuals in
disseminating its scenic and emotional values in their capacity as the first
people sensitive to its values and concerned with its conservation. The
broad cultural repercussions of these visitors have helped forge a tourist
image of this cultural landscape based on its natural, cultural, scenic and
emotional values.




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 List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls
    VALUES




                                                                                                 Basic details for characterization of landscape
    CRITERIA




                                                                               UNESCO
                                                                                                                  Surface area                     Values
                                                                          assessment criteria




                                     Bam
                                                                                 ii,iii,iv,v                            81 Ha                      Cultural
                                     (Iran 2004)
    Cases of UNESCO World Heritage




                                     Costiera Amalfitana
                                                                                  ii, iv, v                        11.231 Ha                       Cultural
                                     (Italy 1997)


                                     Cinque Terre
                                                                                  ii, iv, v                        4.869 Ha                        Cultural
                                     (Italy, 1997)


                                     Alto Douro
                                                                                 iii, iv, v                        24.600 Ha                       Cultural
                                     (Portugal, 2001)


                                     Layaux
                                                                                  ii, iv, v                         989 Ha                         Cultural
                                     (Switzerland, 2007)


                                     Serra de Tramuntana,
                                                                                ii, iv, v, vi                      31.932 Ha                       Cultural
                                     Mallorca (Spain, 1996)
of proposed sites
  Indicative list




                                     Western Sand Sea
                                                                                 ii,iii,iv,v                                                       Cultural
                                     (Algeria, 2002)


                                     The rural settlement of
                                                                                ii, iii, iv, v                                                     Cultural
                                     Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)



                                                                                    Degree of relevance of each value
                                                                                   High
                                                                                Medium
                                                                                   Low




                                                           216
                                                                                               3. J us t if icat ion for inscr ip t ion




 List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls
    VALUES




                                                                 VALUE 1: Example of use of a scarce                   VALUE 2: An area shaped by successive
                                                                resource, water, to transform unfertile                    cultures with a clear common
                                                                land into a rich agricultural landscape                denominator, dry-stone constructions



                                                                                  An infer-           A rich
                                                                                                                      The cons-
                                                                                 tile, steep       ecosystem,
                                                                                                                     truction of           An area
    CRITERIA




                                                                Rich age-       landscape           based on
                                                                                                                     a landscape          delimited
                                                                old water         transfor-         a balance                                          Diversity of
                                                                                                                      based on            by defined
                                                                 supply         med into a          between                                             activities
                                                                                                                     the legacies           natural
                                                               techniques      rich, diverse       nature and
                                                                                                                     of different          features
                                                                               agricultural          human
                                                                                                                       cultures
                                                                                     one              action


                                     Bam
                                     (Iran 2004)
    Cases of UNESCO World Heritage




                                     Costiera Amalfitana
                                     (Italy 1997)


                                     Cinque Terre
                                     (Italy, 1997)


                                     Alto Douro
                                     (Portugal, 2001)


                                     Layaux
                                     (Switzerland, 2007)


                                     Serra de Tramuntana,
                                     Mallorca (Spain, 1996)
of proposed sites
  Indicative list




                                     Western Sand Sea
                                     (Algeria, 2002)


                                     The rural settlement of
                                     Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)



                                                                            Degree of relevance of each value
                                                                         High
                                                                       Medium
                                                                            Low




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                                                           Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




 List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls
    VALUES




                                                                              VALUE 3: The agricultural terraces are the result of singular adaptations
                                                                                              by man in difficult natural conditions
    CRITERIA




                                                                                                                                              Slope greater than
                                                                                                                            Variety or
                                                                      Terraces on rocky          Terraces on rocky                             -30% and surface
                                                                                                                         specificity of the
                                                                          outcrops                   outcrops                                 area of over 40% of
                                                                                                                        shapes of terraces
                                                                                                                                                    region




                                     Bam
                                     (Iran 2004)
    Cases of UNESCO World Heritage




                                     Costiera Amalfitana
                                     (Italy 1997)


                                     Cinque Terre
                                     (Italy, 1997)


                                     Alto Douro
                                     (Portugal, 2001)


                                     Layaux
                                     (Switzerland, 2007)


                                     Serra de Tramuntana,
                                     Mallorca (Spain, 1996)
of proposed sites
  Indicative list




                                     Western Sand Sea
                                     (Algeria, 2002)


                                     The rural settlement of
                                     Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)



                                                                                   Degree of relevance of each value
                                                                                  High
                                                                                Medium
                                                                                   Low




                                                           218
                                                                                      3. J us t if icat ion for inscr ip t ion




 List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls
    VALUES




                                                                VALUE 4: Dry-stone building work has given rise to a rich variety of heritage,
                                                                   associated with a way of colonizing, inhabiting or using the territory
    CRITERIA




                                                               Diversity in the way           Landscape mainly
                                                                                                                                  Crop-growing
                                                               the mountains were             made up of hillside
                                                                                                                                 on steep slopes
                                                                    colonized                     terraces




                                     Bam
                                     (Iran 2004)
    Cases of UNESCO World Heritage




                                     Costiera Amalfitana
                                     (Italy 1997)


                                     Cinque Terre
                                     (Italy, 1997)


                                     Alto Douro
                                     (Portugal, 2001)


                                     Layaux
                                     (Switzerland, 2007)


                                     Serra de Tramuntana,
                                     Mallorca (Spain, 1996)
of proposed sites
  Indicative list




                                     Western Sand Sea
                                     (Algeria, 2002)


                                     The rural settlement of
                                     Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)



                                                                       Degree of relevance of each value
                                                                      High
                                                                    Medium
                                                                      Low




                                                                                                                          219
                                                           Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




 List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls
    VALUES




                                                                                                VALUE 5: Consolidation of urban heritage
    CRITERIA




                                                                         This urban heritage                  Towns and villages       Towns and villages
                                                                       maintains and conserves               situated on terraced      situated at the foot
                                                                             its integrity                          slopes              of terraced slopes




                                     Bam
                                     (Iran 2004)
    Cases of UNESCO World Heritage




                                     Costiera Amalfitana
                                     (Italy 1997)


                                     Cinque Terre
                                     (Italy, 1997)


                                     Alto Douro
                                     (Portugal, 2001)


                                     Layaux
                                     (Switzerland, 2007)


                                     Serra de Tramuntana,
                                     Mallorca (Spain, 1996)
of proposed sites
  Indicative list




                                     Western Sand Sea
                                     (Algeria, 2002)


                                     The rural settlement of
                                     Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)



                                                                                   Degree of relevance of each value
                                                                                  High
                                                                                Medium
                                                                                   Low




                                                           220
                                                                                         3. J us t if icat ion for inscr ip t ion




 List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls
    VALUES




                                                                               VALUE 6: Age-old crop-growing systems are kept alive




                                                                                The cultivation
                                                                                     of the
                                                                 A crop-                                                      Currently
    CRITERIA




                                                                                   immense
                                                                 growing                              Particularly             stable or     A mostly
                                                                                  majority of
                                                               tradition of                             famous                expanding       living
                                                                                  the hillside
                                                                   over                                produce               agricultural   landscape
                                                                                 terraces with
                                                                800 years                                                       estates
                                                                                  traditional
                                                                                     crops


                                     Bam
                                     (Iran 2004)
    Cases of UNESCO World Heritage




                                     Costiera Amalfitana
                                     (Italy 1997)


                                     Cinque Terre
                                     (Italy, 1997)


                                     Alto Douro
                                     (Portugal, 2001)


                                     Layaux
                                     (Switzerland, 2007)


                                     Serra de Tramuntana,
                                     Mallorca (Spain, 1996)
of proposed sites
  Indicative list




                                     Western Sand Sea
                                     (Algeria, 2002)


                                     The rural settlement of
                                     Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)



                                                                         Degree of relevance of each value
                                                                        High
                                                                       Medium
                                                                         Low




                                                                                                                             221
                                                           Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




 List of places with built heritage based on a rich use of irrigation systems and hillside terraces with dry-stone walls
    VALUES




                                                                             VALUE 7: Different types of
                                                                                                                         VALUE 8: The values of this area have
                                                                      interventions have given new value to an
                                                                                                                        achieved widespread social recognition
                                                                         extraordinarily beautiful landscape




                                                                                                                         The involvement
    CRITERIA




                                                                     Observation points
                                                                                                    A variety of        of different social      Legal level
                                                                     that can be traced
                                                                                                 different types of       stakeholders in      of protection
                                                                      back to different
                                                                                                   scenic routes        its protection and      for the area
                                                                          cultures
                                                                                                                           conservation




                                     Bam
                                     (Iran 2004)
    Cases of UNESCO World Heritage




                                     Costiera Amalfitana
                                     (Italy 1997)


                                     Cinque Terre
                                     (Italy, 1997)


                                     Alto Douro
                                     (Portugal, 2001)


                                     Layaux
                                     (Switzerland, 2007)


                                     Serra de Tramuntana,
                                     Mallorca (Spain, 1996)
of proposed sites
  Indicative list




                                     Western Sand Sea
                                     (Algeria, 2002)


                                     The rural settlement of
                                     Fikardou (Cyprus, 2002)



                                                                                   Degree of relevance of each value
                                                                                  High
                                                                                Medium
                                                                                   Low




                                                           222
                                                   3. J us t if icat ion for inscr ip t ion




3.d Integrity and/or authenticity

The authenticity of the Tramuntana area is the outcome of the com-
bined knowhow and techniques that the different cultures that have en-
riched it have each contributed, together with the evolution of the dif-
ferent social forms, beliefs and sensitivities that have gradually shaped
it. A long process of over one thousand years of removing stones, drain-
ing and shoring up land, creating water supply networks and adapting
settlements has transformed uncultivated rugged land into a beautiful
productive zone.

All this illustrates a socio-economic process that continues to survive to-
day, leading to a protected landscape in a state of constant evolution, due
to changes in production systems and the moderate growth of traditional
towns and villages.

Numerous studies and conferences on dry-stone building techniques
have facilitated a comparison between Mallorca’s landscape and other
similar places around the world. There are many shared features, but
insularity, the high degree of conservation and diversity of features
and typologies, together with the importance that dry-stone building
techniques represent in association with techniques aimed at collecting,
piping and draining water and the natural setting in which this can be
found, make the Tramuntana area a focus of substantial interest for the
international community.

The contributions of specific bibliographies on the introduction of water
supply systems in areas with a mountainous physical geography and diffi-
culties in irrigation are also important. From places ranging from the Ar-
abic peninsula or Northern Africa to the former territories of Al-Andalus,
numerous studies manage to relate certain techniques with their origins.
This is a key issue in helping to understand the evolution and cultural
transmission of knowledge that occurred on the shores of the Mediter-
ranean over the centuries. Rural estates (possessions) as a basic spatial unit
have also come under study and they are the living testimonial of the re-
markable way in which limited resources were taken advantage of and an
example of the sustainable use of a territory. An accurate understanding
of their structure is a key aspect of the territorial initiative currently in
progress and in efforts to restore such an impressive example of function-
al architecture that is so well adapted to the local environment.

To maintain the large areas of cultivated land and quality of this produc-
tive landscape, ongoing intervention is required. For this purpose, age-old




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




techniques that have been maintained through traditional trades that
still survive in towns and villages in the Tramuntana area must be con-
served and perpetuated.

A sensitive insight into the landscape of the Tramuntana area can be fur-
ther enriched by numerous artistic and literary contributions. The first
descriptions by travellers who visited the area during the 19th century,
the high literary standards of authors who finally settled in its valleys and
the pictorial movement of the Pollença school of artists represented the
beginning of an important group of writers, painters and poets who all
upheld the value of the Tramuntana’s landscapes.

Likewise, many age-old festivities and traditions have been kept very
much alive. Many have been held for centuries. Not only do they demon-
strate the deep-rooted feelings of local inhabitants but also a unique, rich
mixture of influences from the northern and southern Mediterranean.

The Tramuntana area continues to evolve in a process not without dif-
ficulties. Numerous legal acts, spatial plans and projects deal with the
maintenance, protection and promoted value of the resources of this
extraordinary place. These joint efforts, inspired by its values, together
with the Tramuntana’s mountainous topography, difficult access and,
above all, appreciation of its inhabitants are the best way of avoiding the
dangers of a massive influx of people, as has occurred in other areas of
the Mediterranean.

As for its integrity, the Tramuntana area is characterized by a high level of
uniformity, based on dry-stone structures, with hillside terraces of olive
groves as the star protagonists. Its spatial organization is clearly evident
in the area’s basic agricultural and livestock unit: its possessions or estates.
These estates are organized around water supply networks that divide the
land into different production areas. This, in turn, has determined the
type of settlement on which the towns and villages of the Tramuntana
area are based; ones which continue to conserve their basic original struc-
ture despite their growth and transformation.

We can find all these elements uniformly scattered throughout the area
and transformed, in the course of time, by different styles and influences,
although they always maintain the values that gave rise to them. The area
that makes up the nominated property is well representative of all the val-
ues and it is the outcome of a process of historical evolution that has con-
tributed to the cultural transformation of the Tramuntana Mountains.




224
                                                   3. J us t if icat ion for inscr ip t ion




In 1973, the Tramuntana area was declared a “picturesque landscape
of the island of Mallorca”. The area it covers (its core area and buffer
zone) include a total of 610 items of cultural interest of all types, from
the historical ensembles of Valldemossa and Deià to the historic site of
Pollença, historical gardens, monuments, archaeological sites and items
of ethnological interest. It is an area inextricably linked to historic events
and memories of the past, popular traditions and artistic work of a high
historical, ethnological, paleontological and anthropological interest.
It is, therefore, a magnificent field of study for numerous different
scientific disciplines, making it one of the most authentic heritage-related
ensembles in the Mediterranean.

This heritage survives thanks to numerous instruments (plans and leg-
islation) that acknowledge its extraordinary value, despite substantial
pressure from tourism in nearby areas or the impact of quarries, housing
developments, bottling plants, “improvements” to roads, forest fires, and
uncontrolled dumping in the immediate area.

The aim in moving from the necessary protection and preservation of the
area’s major resources and from coercive mechanisms or the promotion
of maintenance tasks to the Tramuntana area’s universal recognition is to
stimulate all those inhabitants who strive on a daily basis to defend their
heritage. Likewise, the objective is also to reinforce a global understand-
ing of the area, not as the sum of a series of extraordinary isolated re-
sources but as the resulting hallmark of successive cultures that colonized
this part of the Mediterranean.




                                                                                       225
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




4

State of
conservation and
factors affecting
the property




226
                         4. Sta t e of c onservat ion and fact or s af f ect ing t he p rop er t y




4.a Present state of conservation

Due to its physical features –difficult access and an absence of flat, sandy
coastal sections– the Tramuntana area has remained historically unaffect-
ed by the intense process of economic growth that the island of Mallorca
has experienced from the second half of the 20th century, sparked off by
mass tourism. This has led to a reduction in the population, the decline
of its fragile mountain-based economy, and the progressive abandonment
of existing farmland and woodland, followed by the deterioration of cer-
tain associated ethnological features and infrastructure. At the same time,
this situation has also helped safeguard many places in the Tramuntana
area from the intense process of tourism development that some coastal
areas in Mallorca have suffered from, so that although it has lost part of
its traditional agricultural and forestry-related function, it still boasts
high environmental standards in several respects: the quality of the air,
low noise levels (resulting in noiseless places), and high visual appeal.

All this only serves to demonstrate that the Tramuntana area is a privi-
leged natural setting that constitutes a solid base for the development of
activities related to the use and enjoyment of the environment within a
sustainable framework (rural tourism, visits to natural environments, eco-
friendly agriculture). Additionally, the Tramuntana Mountains contain
a much higher number of public estates and properties than the rest of
the island, even if they are attached to several different authorities. For
instance, communal properties like those of Bunyola, Fornalutx, Caimari
and Biniamar have been conserved, together with estates that are owned
by the Balearic Regional Government or Consell de Mallorca or which are
simply run by these bodies. This high amount of public property, particu-
larly in the central part of the Tramuntana Mountains, favours the pres-
ervation of local values and helps prevent activities that are detrimental
to the environment and the Tramuntana’s heritage.

4.a.1 The state of conservation of natural features

The natural environment of the Tramuntana area is relatively well
conserved and its environmental resources are in good physical condi-
tion. For instance, its karstic limestone pavements have not undergone
any noticeable deterioration and their exokarstic and endokarstic for-
mations have conserved their geomorphological and scenic qualities
almost intact.

The state of conservation of its water resources is equally good, despite
very localized problems, like occasional specific spillages of wastewater.




                                                                                              227
                                 Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                 Its underground aquifers, watercourses, streams, beds of torrents and
                                 springs are also in good condition, despite the strong trend for this water
                                 to be used for human consumption by piping it artificially to existing
                                 towns and villages.

Figure 85. The spring known as
the Fonts Ufanes, one of the
Tramuntana’s natural monuments




                                 As for flora and plant communities, the areas of most interest in terms of
                                 their flora are those over 1000 metres above sea level (Puig Major de Son
                                 Torrella, Massanella, Tossals, l’Ofre, Puig Roig, Puig Tomir, and many other
                                 peaks), together with some specific biotopes, like the beds of torrents or
                                 streams that sometimes carry water, caves and cliffs. In the area between
                                 the mountains of Puig Major de Son Torrella and Puig Tomir, 53% of the
                                 plant species considered to be in critical danger of extinction can be found,
                                 59% of species in danger, and 68% of vulnerable species. The biotopes of
                                 the main mountain peaks have a very high percentage of native species
                                 from the perspective of their specific composition, territorial scope and the
                                 percentage of their biomass. Additionally, Mallorca’s mountains are the
                                 only place where certain birds of prey of high interest to naturalists nest,
                                 like the black vulture or sea eagle, and they are also a favourite place for
                                 cormorants and the peregrine falcon.

                                 The coastline of the Tramuntana area also features interesting examples
                                 of native plant species in a good state of conservation, thanks to difficulty
                                 of access. Naufraga balearica, a delicate native plant protected internation-
                                 ally (European Directive 92/43/CE - Habitats Directive, 1991–; Convention
                                 on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats –Berne
                                 Convention, 1991–; and Act 4/89 which, by virtue of Royal Decree 439/90,




                                 228
                         4. Sta t e of c onservat ion and fact or s af f ect ing t he p rop er t y




creates the National Catalogue of Threatened Plant Species), can only be
found in two places in Mallorca, both on the Formentor peninsula. The
possible extinction of species like these cannot only be brought about by
forest fires and the uncontrolled burning of reeds, but also by wild goats,
whose population the Government of the Balearic Islands’ Ministry of
the Environment currently monitors and controls. Based on the average
productivity of Mediterranean plant formations, it has been estimated
that the area’s maximum permissible carrying capacity with regard to
grazing by herbivores is one sheep or equivalent per hectare per year
(PAPANASTASIS et al., 1990). Exceeding this threshold is extraordinarily
dangerous because it has negative effects on the survival of certain plant
formations, in addition to subsequent erosion. In consequence, it is im-
portant to make sure that the joint carrying capacity of sheep and goats
does not exceed one sheep or equivalent per hectare per year in order to
avoid situations of irreversible damage as has occurred in Cala Bóquer
and some parts of the Artà mountains, in the northeast of the island. As
for woodland, it should be remembered that the abandonment of most
traditional forestry activities and practices has led to a decrease in the use
of woodland, while the felling and removal of wood and trees is regulated
by existing legislation. This has generated an increase in the surface area
of woodland in the Tramuntana area, and only forest fires and certain
urban development activities can now lead to its destruction. Existing
woods of holm oaks offer maximum potential in terms of native wood-
land today and so they should be considered the type of woodland most
representative of the natural state of the environment. Other smaller-
sized examples of woodland to be considered, given their potential inter-
est value, are small groves of yews, oak and cedars.

It is no mere coincidence that Mallorca’s mountain areas are the parts
of the island where most land in natural conditions can be found,
despite the relative value of the concept ‘natural’ in a place like the
Tramuntana area, with such a strong human imprint on it even if it
has such a small population. Its ecosystems still maintain their en-
vironmental function and the ecological function of its agricultural
land is of high interest too. In certain places where the natural habitat
has been conserved, there are sections adapted for traditional farm-
ing activities that act as ecological connectors with forest masses and
other natural areas. Thus, the role of olive groves on existing hillside
terraces is a fundamental one.

Streams, beds of watercourses and torrents also act as linear biological
corridors, encouraging the re-vegetation of banks and the expansion of
species in danger of extinction. It must be remembered that the flora and




                                                                                              229
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




fauna of the Tramuntana area include a high number of native species,
sub-species and formal varieties. As for fauna, most native species are in-
vertebrates, like the little toad known locally as the ferreret (Alytes muleten-
sis), described in 1981 but known as a fossil since 1978 when it was consid-
ered an extinct species. There are also several sub-species of the Balearic
lizard on some islets in the Tramuntana area.

For the international scientific community, the Tramuntana area is a key
focus of interest and, for some time now, an important field of experimental
research in naturalistic, heritage-related and socio-cultural matters. This has
led to differing documentary, bibliographical and statistical material on the
area. Indeed, the evident peculiarities of the Tramuntana area’s natural and
human habitats make it a privileged fascinating place for a special type of
scientific tourism. Likewise, it can also be used for educational purposes.

4.a.2 The state of conservation of cultural features

Given their extension and hallmark on the landscape, the Tramuntana’s
hillside terraces are a prime feature of tangible cultural heritage. Its ter-
raced slopes occupy a total of 219 km2 of the surface of all its municipali-
ties, according to figures from catalogues of hillside terraces made to
date. Some municipalities, like Sóller, Alaró, Deià and Estellencs, have
hillside terraces that cover half their surface areas, reflecting the intensity
of man’s marks on the local landscape and his adaptation to the local
environment in order to take advantage of agricultural resources and con-
trol geomorphological or climatic hazards.

Although the figures for the municipalities of Bunyola and Mancor de la
Vall are still missing, approximately half the surface area of hillside terrac-
es in the Tramuntana area is in a good state of conservation (47.9%) and
the other half is in a poor state (46.5%). A meagre 5% of them are regarded
as being in a ruinous state, by which we mean it is impossible to restore
them. This means that, generally speaking, the terraces still fulfil the key
role of physically supporting soil and preparing land for agricultural use.
However, there is a clear tendency for terraced areas to be abandoned, due
to the disappearance of agricultural activities in places with the worst
physical geography, where mechanization is very difficult, and so they are
the first places to be neglected. All in all, it must be said that in these plac-
es, even when part of the heritage related to these hillside terraces is lost,
the original vegetation is restored: vegetation that suffered from a high
level of anthropic pressure up until the first half of the 20th century.




230
                        4. Sta t e of c onservat ion and fact or s af f ect ing t he p rop er t y




                STATE OF CONSERVATION OF HILLSIDE TERRACES, BY MUNICIPALITY
 Municipality              Good state (%)                                Bad state (%)                     Destroyed (%)
 ALARÓ                          64.1                                        34.6                                 1.3
 ANDRATX                         27.1                                        47.2                              25.7
 BANYALBUFAR                    50.0                                         37.0                               13.0
 BUNYOLA                    Under study                                   Under study                       Under study
 CALVIÀ                         74.1                                        23.0                                 2.8
 CAMPANET                       55.0                                        40.0                                 5.0
 DEIÀ                           42.0                                        53.0                                 5.0
 ESCORCA                        43.0                                        55.3                                 1.7
 ESTELLENCS                     22.0                                        62.0                                16.0
 ESPORLES                       24.2                                         75.3                                0.5
 FORNALUTX                      45.6                                         51.1                                3.3
 LLOSETA                        47.2                                         51.9                                0.9
 MANCOR DE LA VALL          Under study                                   Under study                       Under study
 POLLENÇA                       62.3                                        29.5                                 8.2
 PUIGPUNYENT                    37.5                                        59.0                                 3.5
 STA. MARIA DEL CAMÍ            71.7                                         27.7                                0.6
 SELVA                          50.1                                        48.2                                 1.7
 SÓLLER                         61.9                                        35.8                                 2.3
 VALLDEMOSSA                    38.0                                        60.8                                 1.2
 TOTAL                         47.99                                       46.56                               5.45


The hillside terraces in better condition are those that are still used                             Figure 86. State of conservation of
                                                                                                    hillside terraces in the Tramuntana
in an effective way. They tend to be located in places closest to urban                             area.
nuclei. Those used for cultivating non-irrigated crops suffer from the
highest degree of deterioration or they have already been abandoned
and invaded by vegetation (pines and scrubland). This move from the
use of hillside terraces to their abandonment restores areas gradually to
their natural state and accelerates the disappearance of one of the key
values of this cultural landscape.

It must be noted that the construction-related features of hillside ter-
races and their adjoining structures are conceived to ensure that the
system is as functional as possible. Thus a genuine insight into interre-
lations among these built elements and their management requirements
is needed in order to ensure their survival over the course of time. In
this respect, the multi-functional aspect of terraced areas must be taken
into account, together with the premise that the maintenance of agri-
cultural and livestock activities is vital for their conservation. If there
are alternatives to existing crops, they should be introduced in accord-
ance with sustainable criteria that minimize possible erosion and help
to conserve the biodiversity.




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




It is also possible and indeed advisable to identify those areas of greater
interest, where priority must be given to activities based on criteria like
environmental, scenic, and construction-related quality and the role that
they might play in the prevention of natural hazards.

In short, criteria and techniques relating to management and use must be
drawn up that bear in mind ecological, historical, symbolic, cultural and
aesthetic values and the complexity of systems present in the Tramuntana
and interrelations among all their components, particularly with regard
to the fundamental control and regulation of water supplies to hillside
terraces and their complementary infrastructure. Furthermore, the need
for conservation work is even more relevant when an assessment is made
of the financial cost of the replacement of a landscape or infrastructure in
the event of its loss.

The conservation of paths ties in with their recent, highly significant
recognition as invaluable items of heritage in the Tramuntana area, due
to their role as revitalizing arteries and the existence of a big network
of paths that connect all four corners of the Tramuntana area, even the
most remote places, thanks to tracks originally conceived for hoofed traf-
fic and carts. The narrow width of these tracks, ensuring that they are
not wide enough for wheeled traffic, has contributed to their conserva-
tion, except for specific cases when they have been widened or partially
destroyed, forest trails have been opened up that cut across cobbled
tracks, or other modifications have been made to the path they follow. It
is important to mention tasks to inventory, protect and define the owner-
ship of certain paths, and work to consolidate and restore them by the
authorities. However, the current situation of traditional paths is a prob-
lematical one, due to the high number of hikers along some of them and
the closure of certain ones over the last decade. This has affected public
paths, ones with a traditional use, and private ones leading to emblematic
places like mountain peaks or symbolic buildings or constructions. Vari-
ous paths are closed to the public, although a court ruling has demon-
strated their public ownership, like Camí de S’Escolta (in Valldemossa),
Camí de Son Verí that led from Valldemossa to Bunyola, Camí de la Torre
de Lluc and Camí de la Ermita de Sant Pere, both in Escorca, and Camí
de Solleric in the municipality of Alaró. Many owners who close paths
claim that it is because they pass through private property but they would
be willing to lease rights to their use as thoroughfares to compensate for
the expense and problems that access by the public involves, like rubbish,
the disturbance of animals and a loss of privacy. This might be a solution
in certain cases in order to guarantee public access to this heritage, rein-
forced by surveillance measures, regular cleaning, signing, the publication




232
                          4. Sta t e of c onservat ion and fact or s af f ect ing t he p rop er t y




of leaflets indicating these routes and their conditions of use, and their
adaptation to include rest areas for visitors.

The widespread abandonment, throughout the 20th century, of tradition-
al infrastructure relating to water supply systems and the ethnographic
heritage of rural and wooded sections of the Tramuntana area has led to
a general state of advanced neglect. Although some features have recently
been restored, others are in a bad state of deterioration, mainly due to the
action of the weather or neglect. Architectural structures have been gener-
ally invaded by vegetation while, in other cases, the outlying location and
structural weakness of other constructions have led to their gradual dete-
rioration or parts have fallen down.

The pressure of day-trippers and, to a lesser degree, hunters has resulted
in a build up of rubbish (paper, cigarettes, cans, plastic bags), vandalism
(graffiti, paintings or the dismantlement of structures) and, in the case
of the hydrological landscape, even pollution (detergent, soap). Some
inappropriate activities in the vicinity of these assets have been noted,
like camping or fires inside constructions, even using stones from items
of local heritage. Measures to clean up, maintain and monitor the area
are seen as insufficient and greater effort must be given to initiatives that
help sensitize citizens and the different authorities to their joint responsi-
bility in the conservation of the Tramuntana area.

Mores specifically, items of heritage that form part of the water supply
system are generally in a deficient state. Most of the norias in the Tra-
muntana area are in bad condition and many cannot be used due to a
drop in the water table or, alternatively, they have been replaced by hy-
draulic pumps, mills, or simply modernized versions of the same norias
with wheels and iron axles. In contrast, the wells are still in use and are in
good condition.

The springs and underground water galleries are in an irregular condi-
tion, because in crop-growing areas (particularly Sóller, Banyalbufar and
Esporles), water gushes up on a regular basis from most springs, which
contributes to their conservation. However, in abandoned areas, par-
ticularly in olive groves at medium and high altitudes and in what was
originally sharecropper’s land, their bad state of conservation makes it
hard to restore them, particularly due to the outlying position of the land
or abandonment of crops. Springs close to paths, above all ones used for
hiking, are cleaned and restored by the public authorities, but those at
high altitudes tend to be in a bad state of repair, even if they are on hiking
routes, and they require specific action to protect and restore them.




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Water storage tanks in mountain areas (pools, water tanks, wells and
depressions in the rock) are, with some exceptions, in a bad state of con-
servation due to neglect, the weather and deliberate action by day-trippers
and hunters.

Ice stores have been catalogued and protected under regional legislation,
but they are in an insufficient state of repair due to their exposure to the
weather and some negligent behaviour by day-trippers.

Water wheels have lacked effective protection and, in many cases, this
has led to adjoining buildings being turned into homes. As a result, their
structures have been altered. Many are also in a ruinous state, without
anyone keeping an eye on them, which has led to plundering. During
the last decade, thanks to their inclusion in catalogues of items of mu-
nicipal heritage, better knowledge of them has been gained together with
improved protection. The Consell de Mallorca is currently working on a
general catalogue of these features.

The same needs extend to mills and, although in some cases they have
conserved their machinery, particularly the millstones, almost none of
them in the Tramuntana area still has their sails. The Consell de Mallorca
is running a project to fit new sails, which could help these architectural
features to regain the place that befits them within the cultural landscape.

Big progress has also been made in the restoration of ethnological herit-
age, thanks to the implementation of certain projects promoted by the
Consell de Mallorca for the restoration of items of heritage (hillside ter-
races, oil mills and mills), based on the recovery of traditional crafts via
the creation of training workshops. This demonstrates the feasibility of
many of the environmental initiatives that have been carried out. The
maintenance and proper management of these places can help boost local
development, as has occurred as a result of past attempts.

The limekilns are in a very bad state of conservation, because they
stopped being used in the 1950s and since then they have gradually dete-
riorated. Specific work has been carried out to them but, generally speak-
ing, no effective measures for their conservation currently exist.

The stone sharecroppers’ huts in the Tramuntana area are an item of
ethnological heritage in a bad state of conservation due to their neglect,
outlying position or basic architecture, which has often led them to be
excluded from inventories. Charcoal-makers’ shelters are in a similar
situation, because the weakness of their structures and roofs has caused




234
                         4. Sta t e of c onservat ion and fact or s af f ect ing t he p rop er t y




sections to fall down. Rubbish left by day-trippers and, to a lesser extent,
hunters can be found in those that are closer to used paths, like the Camí
des Correu path in Massanella wood, and Sa Fita des Ram.

As for the porxos d’olivar (stone shelters in olive groves), their chang-
ing function and renovation and extension so as to convert them into
weekend residences, particularly in areas that can be reached by motor
vehicle, often leads to the disappearance of their traditional character-
istics. The most common alterations consist of the addition of new sec-
tions of building, the cement rendering of their walls, the incorporation
of windows, and the replacement of roofs and water collection systems.
On the other hand, those that are less accessible are the ones that have
undergone the least change but they are most prone to neglect, like the
hundred or so examples in the Barranc de Biniaraix, declared Items of
Cultural Interest (BIC according to the Spanish acronym).

As for defensive heritage, the watchtowers (declared Items of Cultural
Interest in 1992) are characterized by two very different situations. On the
one hand, those between Andratx and Sóller are restored or in an accept-
able state of conservation and they are also accessible, while those in the
municipality of Escorca are in a state of deterioration that makes their
conservation difficult. Additionally, they are situated on cliffs that are
inaccessible. The only one there that has been restored, Sa Mola de Cala
Tuent, was badly restored and these problems must be put right.

The escars (or boathouses) of the Tramuntana area are limited in number
but important, due to the fact that they are concentrated between the
municipalities of Deià and Estellencs. They have undergone modern al-
terations, although their gradual protection and inclusion in municipal
catalogues have reduced the risks they face.

As for archaeological heritage, although some previous work in this field
has been done, it has not been completed, and the creation of an exhaus-
tive updated catalogue needs tackling of existing archaeology in the
Tramuntana area, based on intensive fieldwork that details their current
condition, protective mechanisms, and defines the protective buffer zone
around the item or site. In general, the state of conservation of these as-
sets is poor, due to the influence of agricultural and forestry work over
the course of time and the re-use of the stone they were made of to make
dry-stone structures. Excavation and research work should be promoted
to gain a better insight into the importance of this historical period in
the development of the cultural landscape.




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Initiatives must also be urgently drawn up in the field of sensitization,
aimed both at property owners and residents in general, which might
make an impact on the conservation and monitoring of this archaeolo-
gy and control over the plundering and vandalism (graffiti, destruction)
that has traditionally affected this type of heritage and other ethnologi-
cal features. Likewise, measures must be introduced to promote public
access to declared Items of Cultural Interest (BIC in Spanish) and the
use of public paths.

Finally, it must be added that the intangible heritage of the Tramuntana
area has been kept alive, although it is subject to the pressures of globali-
zation, which might represent a threat for the survival of local traditions
and customs, local craftwork and products, and the rich linguistic herit-
age represented by terminology related to agricultural and livestock farm-
ing and dry-stone architecture. More specifically, current demographic
changes in the towns and villages of the Tramuntana area have had big
social and economic repercussions, as well as making an impact on the
local identity, with local customs and traditions increasingly tending to
coexist with cultural features of new residents. One future challenge for
the area is to manage this evident cultural diversity in a balanced way so
as to avoid the loss of the traditional local culture while also promoting
intercultural integration.

4.b Factors affecting the property

(i) Pressures due to development

The decline of the rural world and its agricultural and livestock systems
has been aggravated by the shift toward the tertiary sector at a local, re-
gional and worldwide level, the waning importance of agricultural econo-
mies and depopulation of the countryside as rural populations migrate to
cities. In the case of Mallorca, mass tourism has become the main source
of income so that the wealth generated by the tertiary sector has almost
completely replaced what was traditionally generated by the island’s pri-
mary sector activities, even though the social importance of the latter is
still strong thanks to the cultural values that they represent and the sym-
bolic hallmark they have left on the local population, expressed through
numerous festivities and traditions that exist on the island.

The Tramuntana area suffers from the economic and social territorial
imbalances that affect the island as a whole and, in consequence, an at-
titude has formed among certain sectors of society that does not look
well upon environmental protection. The outlying geographical position




236
                        4. Sta t e of c onservat ion and fact or s af f ect ing t he p rop er t y




of some towns and villages in the Tramuntana area has led to their exclu-
sion from development brought about by mass tourism and to low levels
of income. The population of the Tramuntana area feels excluded from
the benefits of tourism, and this generates a negative attitude to land and
environmental protection initiatives because the latter prevent them from
increasing their income through building speculation (which coastal mu-
nicipalities were able to do in previous decades and continue to do). This
situation also hinders environmental and urban planning control by mu-
nicipalities affected by this situation of exclusion.

                                                                                                    Figure 87. General view of Pollença,
                                                                                                    in the extreme northeast of the
                                                                                                    Tramuntana area




The Tramuntana area is not unaware that economic and tourism develop-
ment brings about new needs and demands that end up by generating an
increase in new infrastructure and growing pressure from urban develop-
ment. Building work to create new infrastructure and new buildings for
communication networks represent a threat when they occur in places
of high natural and scenic interest. Moreover, an increase in developed
areas and second homes built in places with a clear rural vocation has
sometimes had an impact on the surroundings, because the buildings are
over-sized or materials are used that do not blend into the background
setting. Since the 1950s, the Tramuntana area has undergone big changes
associated with the tourist industry, linked particularly with the breaka-
way from the age-old economic model based on agriculture. During the
last 40 years, the growth rate of the population of the Tramuntana area
has been quite a lot lower than other areas in Mallorca, although differ-
ences among municipalities can be observed. The population is rising at
the extremes of the Tramuntana area (Andratx, Calvià and Pollença) and




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                                        Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                        also in areas close to Palma (Bunyola, Esporles and Puigpunyent). On the
                                        other hand, the population of other municipalities is tending to decline.

                                        All this has a clear reflection on the composition of the working popula-
                                        tion by economic sectors. In 1857, the working population dedicated to
                                        the primary sector in the Tramuntana area accounted for over 80% of the
                                        corresponding total figure there. This figure has now dropped to barely
                                        10%. This is the result of the ageing process of the agricultural workforce,
                                        mainly due to an exodus of young people and to the fact that farmers are
                                        not replaced.

                                        Given these considerations, the Tramuntana area is today a multi-func-
                                        tional area in which agriculture coexists with new non-agricultural forms
                                        and uses of the land, like its development for housing estates, second
                                        homes, game refuges, and certain tourism facilities. Nonetheless, a large
                                        part of the Tramuntana area is not cultivated, due to its physical and
                                        morphological characteristics, where intensive agricultural or livestock
Figure 88. Hillside terraces of olive
                                        farming is impossible except in very specific places. In 1860, cultivated
groves in the Tramuntana area           land accounted for 38% of the area, while now it accounts for about 23%.




                                        238
                          4. Sta t e of c onservat ion and fact or s af f ect ing t he p rop er t y




As for livestock, the Tramuntana area follows a pre-tourism-type model,
according to which bovine livestock, mainly located in orchard areas, is
not very important, whereas there is a predominance of sheep, pigs (on a
self-sufficient family-reared basis) and goats, all in mountain areas where
livestock is a complementary aspect of rural life. It must also be added
that traditional agricultural activities offer minimum earnings. Apart
from reasons inherent in the structure of property and the division of
land into plots, these minimum earnings can be accounted for by four
factors: low productivity per hectare, difficulties in mechanization and ac-
cess, commercialization problems and the lack of a competitive industry
for making by-products.

Additionally, certain traditional practices related to the use of grazing land,
based on the burning of thickets of Hypericion Balearici, greatly hinder the
possibility of the growth and consolidation of woodland in many high
mountain areas due to chemical erosion and the erosion of organic soil
matter that occurs during months just after the burning process.

Thus the gradual abandonment of the countryside is the main reason
for the deterioration of terraced fields, their associated structures, and
landscapes, where a perceptible process of rural change can be noted. The
expansion of urban areas, the shift from agricultural and forestry uses to
residential ones and the replacement of traditional construction techniques
with others that bear no physical or cultural relation with the local environ-
ment and which lead to a loss of cultural and heritage-related values and
to environmental degradation and a certain growing scenic uniformity are
motivated by a process of deterioration that is, in turn, conditioned or con-
tributed to by factors of a lithological and geomorphological nature.

All this means that certain items of heritage are subjected to a process of
accelerated deterioration or destruction once they have lost their initial
function, as occurs with waterwheels, hillside terraces, traditional paths,
public washing places, defensive towers and many others. In some cases,
like the charcoal-makers’ huts, the reason for this deterioration is due to
the fact that they are very simple architectural structures and thus prone
to deteriorate as time goes by. In other cases, like the constructions and
structures associated with the gathering of snow in high parts of the
mountains, it is because they are located in places exposed to the action
of environmental agents and so they have rapidly deteriorated under ex-
treme environmental conditions.

Lastly, two examples of activities that are detrimental to the environment,
especially on the southern side of the Tramuntana Mountains, are the quar-




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




rying of aggregates for the construction sector and limestone for cement, be-
cause this face of the mountain range has outcrops of useable minerals and
good transport and distribution links for quarried material, as well as being
closer to parts of the island where these minerals are consumed.

(ii) Environmental pressures

The previously mentioned irregular rainfall and permeability of the subsoil
and the fact that the drainage system is based on very small basins mean
that there are no surface watercourses that can serve as a permanent source
of water or as biological corridors to link different wet microsystems.

Underground water supplies are resources that must be conserved in
optimum conditions in terms of the quality of the water, although they
are very vulnerable because the materials that make up a large part of the
Tramuntana area are heavily karstified and fissured, so that water easily
penetrates the surface at a high speed with hardly any capacity for it to
be filtered. This means that any spilled liquid pollutants on the surface
can affect underground water resources, which can also be contaminated
by dumped solid waste. Thus the beds of watercourses suffer, albeit at
specific moments, from the dumping of untreated or barely treated waste-
water, as also occurs with the uncontrolled dumping of solid waste. These
practices are, needless to say, a threat because they upset the ecological
balance of watercourses and lead to the contamination of underground
water resources.

In addition to the above, the amount of water taken from the under-
ground water supplies of some hydrographic units is or has been higher
than the water that replenishes them, sometimes to a serious extent in
the case of the over-consumption of water from aquifers in contact with
the sea, like those of Na Burguesa, Calvià or Andratx, with the subsequent
filtration of sea water and salination of supplies.

It should also be mentioned that the transfer of water from some ba-
sins to others for consumption purposes can have a negative effect on
the ecology of streams, beds of watercourses, ravines and aquifers that
find themselves without water following the transfer. For example,
since the construction of the dam Gorg Blau, the mountain stream
known as the Torrent de Pareis has seen a reduction in the water that
it carries. Following a drop in the level of the karstic aquifer along
which it runs, in time certain wells have dried up that used to have
water supplies all year round thanks to the carved channel that linked
up with saturated levels of the aquifer.




240
                          4. Sta t e of c onservat ion and fact or s af f ect ing t he p rop er t y




It should also be remembered that a large part of the species of plants and
animals with only a limited geographical distribution are, given the nature
of their biotopes, in danger of disappearing due to the destruction of the few
areas in which they can be found. One particularly representative case of this
vulnerability is species of invertebrates that live in caves or springs, which
often only live in one or few cavities or pools. With regard to the aforemen-
tioned emblematic toad ferreret (Alytes muletensis), Mallorca’s most important
native species of animal, the presence of the water serpent Ofidi natrix endan-
gers its survival although, at the same time, the serpent is a valuable species
in itself in terms of the biodiversity of the Mallorcan mountains.

Lastly, the low profitability of crops of olives and other kinds of non-
irrigated trees tends to lead to the abandonment of maintenance work
to these areas of hillside terraces. The vegetation that replaces the olive
groves is not always of special naturalistic interest, but it is true that the
abandonment of traditional crops involves a higher natural risk because
the traditional engineering structures that shored up this land, which
prevent soil erosion and desertification, fall into a state of disrepair.

(iii) Natural hazards

The Tramuntana area’s same physical conditions that make it a place
of such outstanding scenic value are prone to generate natural hazards,
mainly due to its stratigraphic and geomorphological circumstances
(entailing the possibility of mass landslides) or due to climatic and hy-
drological factors (causing big floods of water following rains). Age-old
human action on the land has aggravated this problem but, at the same
time, also provided construction-related solutions designed to alleviate
the dangers. Thus in areas with the biggest human presence, the natural
dangers of floods or rock falls can affect economic activities or endanger
the inhabitants physically. The places most susceptible to this kind of
process are the southwestern part of the Tramuntana area (Estellencs and
Banyalbufar), the Sóller valley, and loamy sections of the southern face of
the Tramuntana (more specifically the Mancor de la Vall area).

Although most natural disasters in Mallorca are related to adverse weath-
er and extreme climatic factors (frost, floods, cold spells, drought, hail
and tornados), there are climate-induced disasters that become geomor-
phological ones or geological ones derived solely from the internal dy-
namics of the Earth, originated by seismic movements like earthquakes.
Given the area’s lithological composition, steep land and high rainfall,
the Tramuntana Mountains are potentially prone to natural disasters,
both in terms of frequency and intensity.




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Landslides and rock falls are a well-known risk in the Tramuntana area,
with several documented cases. Examples include the landslides of
September 25th 1971 in Estellencs, Banyalbufar and Andratx or the big
landslide that occurred in the village of Biniarroi (Mancor de la Vall) in
1721, which led to a mass exodus of the population. The Sóller valley has
historically been particularly affected by the movement of land and by a
risk of erosion. Erosion is, indeed, a natural way of shaping the landscape.
This process is accelerated with quarrying activities and by the construc-
tion of artificial reservoirs, roads and housing estates, given the loss of
soil that is involved.

Natural hazards motivated by stratigraphic and geomorphological
conditions and climatic and hydrological circumstances have been
aggravated (and sometimes alleviated, as mentioned above) by the action
of man. Since ancient times, most beds of streams and torrents and
ravines in the Tramuntana area have been modified by man in order to
prevent the water from destroying crops and eroding land. Watercourses
in the Tramuntana Mountains can carry substantial amounts of alluvium
on occasions when there is heavy rainfall. In such circumstances,
water can flow down along the main watercourses in amounts of up to
hundreds of m3, taking the form of flash floods. That is, they are sudden
and have a high destructive capacity. As a result, areas close to the beds
of some watercourses can become flooded, with subsequent destruction
and material and human losses. In the Tramuntana area, there are several
places that are especially prone to flooding:

1) Traditional urban nuclei crossed by watercourses: Esporles, S’Arracó,
   Sóller, Calvià, Lloseta, Alaró.

2) New housing estates on the beds of torrents or in the immediate vicin-
   ity of them: Puerto de Sóller, Camp de Mar, Peguera, Port d’Andratx,
   Son Font, Cala Sant Vicenç.

3) The beds of valleys with alluvial formations: the orchards of Sóller.

A relatively long list of episodes of big floods can be drawn up in the
history of some places (GRIMALT, 1992). One prime example is the big
flood of water in Sóller in 1885 or in March 1974. In the south-west of the
Tramuntana area there have been repeated catastrophic events like that
of September 1962, with serious destruction in Esporles, Puigpunyent,
Calvià, Andratx, Bunyola and Palma, or that of September 24th 1971 in the
vicinity of Estellencs and S’Arracó. Some torrential floods coming down
the south face of the Tramuntana Mountains have caused well-known




242
                          4. Sta t e of c onservat ion and fact or s af f ect ing t he p rop er t y




destruction in recent years, like the flooding of the Almedrà Torrent in
Lloseta and Solleric Torrent in April 1981 and the water that flooded down
toward Pollença in October 1990.

At the same time, some plant formations can be considered relicts due to
their gradual disappearance. If, in some cases, they are clearly woods that
grew well in former climatic conditions, like woods of yew trees, in other
cases we are talking about vegetation that could cover bigger areas, given
its ecological potential. These masses are also threatened by the permanent
presence of pests, since populations of certain types of insects can, in fa-
vourable environmental conditions for the insects, endanger their conserva-
tion. Certain plagues of insects, like that of the pine caterpillar (Thaumeto-
poea), originated when this species of insect was introduced to the region
by accident relatively recently. The case of Cerambyx cedro, which affects the
holm oak, is different, because its presence on the island is natural and it is
a taxonomic group protected by current environmental legislation.

Forest fires, generally deliberately caused, also threaten certain plant
formations like wild olive groves, mountain thickets, and other woody
masses in the Tramuntana Mountains.

The deforestation of some areas and the fact that some traditional sys-
tems of controlling mountains slopes have fallen into disuse lead to prob-
lems of erosion, with a reduction in the depth of the soil and increase in
rocks. These signs of erosion can be observed in many places in Mallorca
with irregular reliefs, but particularly in the Tramuntana area.

(iv) Visitor / tourism pressures

The gradual development of Mallorca’s international image can no doubt
be initially traced back to a visit by Napoleon’s representative André
Grasset de Saint-Saveur, who published Voyage dans les iles Baléares et Phi-
tiuses in 1807 and opened up the gateway to trade between the Balearics
and European continent. In 1837, the first scheduled shipping line be-
tween Palma and Barcelona was inaugurated, leading to a flow of eminent
artists, aristocrats and famous or wealthy people who were engaged on
a Grand Tour. They included George Sand, Gaston Vuillier, Jean-Josep
Laurens, Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria and Charles Toll Bidwell (a
member of London’s Royal Geographical Society).

Aside from these early visitors, since the 1960s the Balearic Islands have
experienced three tourist and real estate booms. The first began in 1960,
coinciding with Spain’s incorporation into the world economy, leading




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




to the end of the relative isolation that the Balearic Islands had suffered
from and finishing with the oil crisis. During this first boom, the Balearic
coastline began to be heavily developed, mainly in the Bay of Palma and
island of Ibiza.

The second boom occurred in the 1990s, when accommodation grew at
the same pace as the growth in tourists and increase in immigration. The
period coincided with the approval of Balearic Act 1/1984 on the Regulation
and Protection of Natural Areas of Special Interest, which classified the first
areas designated ANEI (natural areas of special interest) areas of non-devel-
opable land. In 1991, Balearic Act 1/1991 on natural spaces was also passed
(LEN in Spanish), which excluded approximately 40% of the Balearics from
urban development, although not from the construction of buildings.

Lastly, the third boom, between 1993 and 1999, coincided with the expan-
sion of the world economy, reflected in the Balearics by the incorporation
of rural areas into the real estate and tourism markets.

The birth of mass tourism and rising development that characterized the
first tourist boom led to a process of spatial functionalization that affected
most of the Mallorcan coast, with the major exception of the Tramuntana
area, which remained relatively unaffected by the necessary development of
hotel infrastructure and complementary tourism services, apart perhaps
too from the Port of Sóller. In contrast, in the last two decades, tourism has
been extended to encompass the whole of the island, reflected in the Tra-
muntana area since 1994 by an extensive network of tourism services based
on rural tourism (rural rented properties, rural hotels, and inland tourism
accommodation). The Tramuntana area also has one of the highest rates of
European foreigners, with the municipalities of Estellencs, Deià, Fornalutx,
Puigpunyent and Alaró having a predominance of residential tourism.

The conservation of the Tramuntana Mountains’ natural spaces, follow-
ing the approval of successive regional acts, its declaration a Natural Site,
and the drafting of a corresponding Plan for the Regulation of Natural
Resources (PORN according to its Spanish acronym), has generated an
increase in visits by residents and tourists alike. This is because a rise in
the demand for open-air leisure activities and an interest in wildlife have
attracted more people to these places, thanks to their high scenic value,
and they have become a tourist attraction with a high pull capacity.

The importance of leisure activities by tourists and residents in places
declared ANEI (Natural Areas of Special Interest) is evident when peak
daily user numbers are scrutinized, with Sa Calobra being visited by 1,925




244
                         4. Sta t e of c onservat ion and fact or s af f ect ing t he p rop er t y




people in the high season (BLÁZQUEZ, 2002). The Consell de Mallorca
has estimated the Dry-Stone Route as having 326 daily users in the cen-
tral section of the Tramuntana Mountains, 27.1% of whom are foreigners
(mainly from Germany, accounting for 17.5%) and 5.1% of whom are Span-
iards from outside the Balearic Islands.

In any of the Tramuntana’s recreational dimensions (hiking, diving, bird
watching, photography, enjoying the biodiversity, learning and educa-
tion), visitor numbers to places of scenic, cultural or natural interest there
has added to the aforementioned vulnerability of the area by introducing
a series of related problems. These include congestion, the disturbance of
the flora and fauna, the exhumation of tree roots, the dumping of waste
and oil by-products, illegal fishing and hunting, a loss of biodiversity and
surface soil, the deterioration of cultural assets, degradation and the frag-
mentation of habitats and introduction of new species.

                                                                                                     Figure 89. Visitors to Calobra, the
                                                                                                     mouth of the Torrente de Pareis, in
                                                                                                     Escorca




Nevertheless, the deterioration of the landscape is not so much caused by
tourism as by a lack of material and human resources to guarantee the
fundamental goal of conservation and protection that should form the
basis of any management plan of the area. A well-regulated plan of the
area’s distribution, based on the specific characteristics of ecosystems,
human habitats and activities to be performed in them, and controlled
access to certain places of preferential interest could ensure that (conven-
tional, student-based and scientific) tourism contribute to its preserva-
tion. On top of this, additional revenue could be obtained which, together
with possible budgetary allocations, might facilitate the development of
other functions as important as research, the publication of information,
interpretation of landscape values and a raised social awareness, aimed at




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                                      Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                      sensitizing residents and visitors to the natural values and tangible and
                                      intangible cultural heritage of this cultural landscape.

                                      (v) Number of inhabitants within the property and buffer zone

                                      Estimated population inside:

                                      - The surface area of the nominated property: 7,958 inhabitants.
                                      - The buffer zone: 120,354 inhabitants.
                                      - Total: 128,492 inhabitants.
                                      - Year: 2008.

                                      The number of inhabitants of municipalities in the Tramuntana area,
                                      according to census figures, amounts to 128,492, without taking into ac-
                                      count the municipality of Palma, even though a small part of the latter
                                      is inside the buffer zone. Naturally, the total municipal population does
                                      not coincide with the real population inside the limits of the nominated
                                      property. If the said figure is taken into account and related to the to-
                                      tal surface area of the 19 municipalities (1,033.8 km2) included wholly or
                                      partly within the limits of the nominated property (with the exception of
                                      Palma), the density of the population is 124.3 inhabitants per km2.

Figure 90. Surface area, population                        Surface area (km2)                      Population   Inhab./km2
and density of the population by        Alaró                     46.5                               5.178         111.3
municipalities in 2008.
Source: Review of Municipal             Andratx                   82.5                              13.348         137.5
Registers of Inhabitants for 2008.      Banyalbufar                18.1                                627          34.6
Spanish National Institute of
Statistics (INE).                       Bunyola                   84.1                               5.910          70.3
                                        Calvià                   145.5                              50.777         349.0
                                        Campanet                  35.7                               2.601          72.9
                                        Deià                       15.1                                754          49.9
                                        Escorca                  139.4                                 276           1.9
                                        Esporles                  35.7                               4.696         131.5
                                        Estellencs                13.4                                 388          28.9
                                        Fornalutx                 19.9                                 732          36.8
                                        Lloseta                   12.0                               5.655         471.2
                                        Mancor de la Vall         18.9                               1.146          60.6
                                        Pollença                 151.7                              11.997          79.1
                                        Puigpunyent                41.6                              1.763          42.4
                                        Santa María del Camí       37.9                              5.572         149.7
                                        Selva                     48.7                               3.370          69.2
                                        Soller                    42.6                              13.625         319.9
                                        Valldemossa               44.5                               1.977          44.4
                                                                  1037                             128.492         124.3




                                      246
                        4. Sta t e of c onservat ion and fact or s af f ect ing t he p rop er t y




The core area, which covers 320 km2, should be considered an area with a
low population, since its inhabitants amount to about 8,000 people. This
figure corresponds to an estimate based on data for the resident popula-
tion in this main core, according to a review of municipal registers of in-
habitants for 2008. Thus, in the case of municipalities only part of which
are located in the core area (Sóller, Calvià, Alaró, Lloseta and Selva, for
instance), their populations have not been included or a percentage-based
estimation has been made of residents scattered about the core area.
When the municipality’s main town is located in the core area (as is the
case of Valldemossa, Estellencs or Mancor de la Vall), the total population
of the municipality according to the said register has been included.




                                                                                             247
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




5

protection
and management
of the nominated
property




248
                            5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




5.a. Ownership

Ownership of the land within the proposed core area of the cultural land-
scape of the Tramuntana area is divided between private owners, holding
a majority with a total of 25,226.2 hectares (79%), and publicly-held land,
which amounts to a total of 6,704 hectares (21% of the total). This situation
represents a high percentage of private ownership thus constraining, to a
certain extent, the nominated property’s management. The management
plan must contemplate appropriate measures in line with the ownership of
property so that the results, at the end of the day, are the same with regard
to the protection and conservation of the declared asset, without any nota-
ble difference being perceived whatever the Property Register.

  DISTRIBUTION OF OWNERSHIP IN THE TRAMUNTANA AREA (CORE AREA)                                  Figure 91. Distribution of ownership
 Ownership                       Surface Area (Ha)                                  %           in the core area of the Tramuntana
                                                                                                Mountains.
 Private                            25,226.2                                       79.0
 Public                               6,704.0                                      20.9
 State                                1,713.2                                      64.4
 Regional Government                  1,126.2                                      42.3
 Consell de Mallorca                  1,203.4                                      45.2
 Town Councils                        2,661.2                                     100.0
 Total                              31,930.9                                      100.0


With regard to private ownership, this encompasses properties held by
the Church, including the outstanding setting of Lluc Monastery, and
also large rural estates, some of which still belong to heirs of the nobility.
As for public ownership, reference should be made to the fact that this
category covers all levels of the public authorities, from municipal to
State level. In terms of surface areas, it is significant that the State holds
ownership rights over a total of 1,713 hectares, including very important
estates such as that of the recently acquired Planícia, in the municipality
of Banyalbufar. The Regional Government of the Balearic Islands in turn
owns a total of 1,126 hectares, while the Consell de Mallorca holds another
1,203 hectares. The remainder corresponds to those estates owned by the
municipalities, which form the most numerous group, covering a total of
2,661 hectares. In general, the estates in question are communal properties
that have been in public use since remote times.

It must be noted that the Consell de Mallorca owns a number of publicly-
owned properties located in different places on the island of Mallorca,
particularly in the Tramuntana area. All of these, except for Son Amer,
have been declared of public use and are included in the State Forestry
Catalogue. Corresponding plans have been drawn up for the use and




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




management of these publicly-owned estates and these instruments regu-
late the kinds of work and activities that can be performed in them.

5.b. Protective designation

5.b.1. General characterization of current regulations
       protecting the Tramuntana area

Throughout the Tramuntana area, there are many elements that reflect
interaction between the natural setting and successive cultures, signalling
traditional ways of using the land and illustrating the basic features of
this cultural landscape. The delimited area is currently included under or
covered by protective categories or designations defined in various legal
instruments in the fields of spatial planning and protection, historic and
cultural heritage, and natural and environmental resources. These legal
figures aimed at protection and management, approved between 1972
and 2007, represent the recognition of exceptional values, establishing a
specific restrictive protective regime, so as to ensure the conservation and
maintenance of these values, and promoting the implementation of poli-
cies relating to economic development, the dissemination of information,
the protection and conservation of natural and cultural assets and visitor
attention, whether local residents or tourists.

For over a hundred years, the Tramuntana area and its people have been
longing for special attention to be granted to their heritage. After the
publication of Un hiver à Majorque by George Sand and, following in the
footsteps of Chopin at Valldemossa Monastery, numerous Spanish and
foreign visitors reflected their vision of the scenic, natural and cultural
values of the Tramuntana area in numerous travel books. The impres-
sions of leading figures from the worlds of science (E. A. Martel), art
(Rusiñol and Anglada Camarasa), and prose (Sargeant, Rubén Darío,
Verdaguer, Unamuno and Graves) gave rise to groups of writers in Deià
and artists in Pollença, as well as intellectuals attracted by the wealthy
patron of the arts Diehl in Formentor, who also contributed to the image
of the Tramuntana area as a unique place and prime destination for cul-
tural tourism. Special mention, nonetheless, must be made of Archduke
Ludwig Salvator, who made a decisive contribution at the end of the 19th
century to the Tramuntana Mountains’ image. The Archduke, who was in
love with the area, bought numerous properties where he had a network
of paths and vantage points built with the intention of fostering enjoy-
ment of the landscape. The Archduke’s Route is an extraordinary exam-
ple of a tourist route capable of generating a powerful collective image,
and his lead was to be followed by other enlightened individuals tied in




250
                             5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




with the Fomento del Turismo de Mallorca (Mallorca Association for the
Promotion of Tourism) at the beginning of the 20th century.

Voices calling for the recognition of the values of the Tramuntana area
were not long is making themselves heard. In 1916 writer Miquel dels Sant
Oliver applied for the former estates of the Archduke to be declared a Na-
tional Park: “His estates made up one of the most beautiful and regal of “national
parks” ever seen in Europe; and the public use he made of them (...) meant that
the islanders became used to considering them shared property, somehow linked to
their knowledge and admiration by future generations (...) This foreign magnate
was the first to create a modern National Park.”

Years later, in 1922, a report by the Royal Commissioner for Fine Art, Joan
Alcover, tells us that the Fomento del Turismo has applied to the Minister
for Public Works to have “... the areas known as Miramar, made up of the estate
and other portions detailed on the attached plan, declared a National Park with
all the urgency that circumstances dictate, pursuant to the Act dated December 7th
1916 and Royal Decree dated February 27th 1917”.

In 1946, Joaquín Ximénez de Embún, an Aragonese forestry engineer who
worked in the Balearics during that decade, again requested that it should
be declared a Natural Site of National Interest, proposing the establish-
ment of a local Tourism and Parks Board to act as the governing body.
Private interests and political influences managed to frustrate this project
which was eventually abandoned.

In 1972, architect Gabriel Alomar, at the time Vice-President of ICOMOS
and previously General Commissioner for National Artistic Heritage for
several years, sponsored the declaration of the Tramuntana area a Pictur-
esque Setting. This declaration (Decree 984/1972 of March 24th, published in
Official State Gazette no. 94 of April 19th 1972) represented the first formal
protection for the territory, fully affecting the municipalities of Campanet,
Deià, Valldemossa, Banyalbufar, Estellencs, Escorca and Fornalutx and
partly those of Sóller, Andratx and Pollença. The preamble of the Decree is
striking in that this recognition is based on principles very similar to those
used twenty years later by the UNESCO to define cultural landscapes:

   “The northwest coast of Mallorca, praised by Spanish and foreign pens,
   transferred to paintings by eminent paintbrushes, the cradle of illustrious
   figures, with marvellous landscapes of international renown where it is
   hard to find a parallel for its rich monuments and historic memories, is an
   appealing area of outstanding beauty, with a unique character worthy of be-
   ing conserved in its entirety.




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




      Among its numerous rich variety of monuments, a special mention must be
      made of the gothic oratory of Sant Miquel in Campanet, the gothic palace of King
      Sancho and Valldemossa monastery and, from a decorative point of view, its
      gardens and vantage points, strategically situated mainly on the coast of Miramar;
      its urban ensembles, monasteries and rural churches, and a multitude of natural
      or scenic places of interest like the valleys of Son Brondo, Sóller, Ternelles, Cala
      Tuent and so many others of incomparable beauty.

      All this makes it advisable for the northwest coast of Mallorca to be placed un-
      der State protection by declaring it a picturesque site”.

      At the proposal of the Ministry of Education and Science, following considera-
      tion by the Council of Ministers at their meeting on March seventeenth, nine-
      teen seventy-two.”

Subsequently, in 1996 to be exact, the Tramuntana area came to form
part of the UNESCO’s Indicative List on the basis of criteria (v), (vii), (ix)
and (x).

Quite apart from all this formal recognition, the values of the
Tramuntana area have been highlighted in singular style in legislation
governing the Balearic Islands’ natural and cultural heritage:

•	 State	Act	4/1989	of	March	27th	on	the	conservation	of	natural	spaces	
   and wild flora and fauna.
•	 Act	1/1991	of	January	30th	on	Natural	Spaces	and	the	Urban	Planning	
   Regime for the Balearic Islands.
•	 Decree	54/1995	of	April	6th	approving	the	Plan	for	the	Regulation	of	
   the Tourism Supply.
•	 Act	6/1997	of	July	8th	on	Rural	Land	in	the	Balearic	Islands.
•	 Act	12/1998	on	the	Heritage	of	the	Balearic	Islands.
•	 Act	6/1999	of	April	3rd	on	Spatial	Planning	Guidelines	for	the	Balearic	
   Islands and Tax Measures.
•	 Act	14/2000	of	December	21st	on	Spatial	Planning.
•	 Act	8/2003	of	November	25th	on	Urgent	Measures	for	Spatial	and	Ur-
   ban Planning in the Balearic Islands.
•	 Decree	71/2004	of	July	9th	declaring	certain	species	subject	to	hunting	
   and fresh-water fishing in the Balearic Islands, and establishing the
   rules for their protection.
•	 Act	5/2005	of	May	26th	for	the	conservation	of	spaces	of	environmen-
   tal relevance (LECO according to its acronym in Spanish).
•	 Act	11/2006	of	September	14th	on	environmental	impact	assessments	
   and strategic environmental evaluations in the Balearic Islands.




252
                            5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




•	 Decree	28/2006	of	March	24th	declaring	Special	Protection	Areas	
   (ZEPA according to its Spanish acronym) for birds.
•	 Decree	29/2006	of	March	24th	extending	the	list	of	Sites	of	Commu-
   nity Importance (SCI) and ZEPA within the Balearic Islands.
•	 Decree	91/2006	of	October	27th	on	the	regulation	of	goat	populations	
   and the hunting of Mallorcan wild mountain goats and on the amend-
   ment of technical plans.
•	 Resolution	by	the	Cabinet	dated	March	3rd	2006,	definitively	approv-
   ing the list of Sites of Community Importance (SCI) approved by
   virtue of a Resolution of the Cabinet dated July 28th 2000, within the
   geographical scope of the Balearic Islands.
•	 State	Act	42/2007	of	December	13th	on	Natural	Heritage	and	Biodiversity
•	 State	Act	45/2007	of	December	13th	for	the	sustainable	development	of	
   the rural environment.
•	 Framework	Plan	regulating	hunting	in	game	reserves	on	the	island	of	
   Mallorca.
•	 Resolution	by	the	Cabinet	dated	May	30th	2008	creating	additional	
   Special Protection Areas (ZEPA) for birds and extending the surface
   area of certain existing ZEPAs within the geographical scope of the
   islands of Mallorca and Minorca.
•	 Decree-Law	3/2009	of	May	29th	on	environmental	measures	to	foster	
   investment and economic activity in the Balearic Islands.

The natural values of the Tramuntana area, in part or as a whole, are cur-
rently recognized under the designations Natural Park, Natural Site and
Natural Monument:

•	 Natural Site of the Tramuntana area (Decree 19/2007 of March 16th).
   Although at the time the authorities proceeded to approve the Plan
   for the Regulation of the Natural Resources of the Tramuntana area
   (PORN according to the Spanish acronym)11, there is so far no corre-                         11
                                                                                                     This PORN creates and
                                                                                                     regulates the Network of Nat-
   sponding Master Plan for its use and management (PRUG according                                   ural Leisure Areas (XALEN
   to the Spanish acronym).                                                                          in Spanish), entered on the
                                                                                                     register of the Directorate-
•	 Natural Park of Sa Dragonera and the islands of Pantaleu and sa Mitjana (De-                      General for Biodiversity of
   cree 7/95 of January 26th). Owned by the Consell de Mallorca (1987),                              the Balearic Ministry of the
                                                                                                     Environment, comprising
   it occupies 908 Ha overall, 274 of which form the on-land surface area                            those public and private
                                                                                                     amenities and installations
   of the natural park. So far, a Master Plan for the use and management                             related to recreational,
   of Sa Dragonera Natural Park has been drawn up for the period 2001-                               educational, cultural and
                                                                                                     similar uses (refuges, hos-
   2004 (Balearic Official Gazette no. 73 of June 19th 2001), together with                          tels, summer camps, recrea-
   a Management Plan for Sa Dragonera Site of Communal Importance                                    tional areas, camp sites etc.)
   (ES0000221), by virtue of Decree 25/2007 of March 30th 2007.
•	 Although	corresponding	Master	Plans	for	use	and	management	have	
   not yet been approved, the Tramuntana area has two already declared




                                                                                         253
                                  Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                     natural monuments: the Natural Monument of Ses Fonts Ufanes (Decree
                                     111/2001 of August 31st) and the Natural Monument of Torrent de Pareis,
                                     Gorg Blau and Lluc (Decree 53/2003 of May 16th).
                                  •	 It	is	also	worth	highlighting	the	existence	of	La Trapa Nature Reserve in
                                     Andratx, located in a forest property belonging since 1980 to the Bal-
                                     earic Island Ornithology Group (GOB). Part of the European Network
                                     of Private Nature Reserves (EUREL), it is a game refuge catalogued a
                                     Natural Area of Special Interest (ANEI in Spanish) and a Special Pro-
                                     tection Area for Birds (ZEPA).

                                  In addition, the Tramuntana area features two cultural routes acknowl-
                                  edged by the European Route Network:

                                  •	 The Dry-Stone Route (GR-221), which runs through thirteen municipali-
                                     ties in the Tramuntana area: Andratx, Calvià, Estellencs, Banyalbufar,
                                     Esporles, Valldemossa, Bunyola, Deià, Sóller, Fornalutx, Alaró, Escorca
                                     and Pollença. It has a Special Plan for the regulation and protection of
12
     http://www.                     the Dry-Stone Route (2008)12.
     conselldemallorca.net/?id_
     section=1675                 •	 The Artà-Lluc Route (GR-222), which affects the municipalities of Selva
                                     and Escorca. Its special plan for the regulation and protection of the
13
     http://www.                     route has not yet been approved13.
     conselldemallorca.net/?id_
     section=1841
                                  With regard to historic and cultural heritage, the following have already
                                  been declared Items of Cultural Interest (BIC):

                                  •	 Historic Site: the Historic Site of the Llinàs flourmills in Pollença (Oc-
                                     tober 30th 1990) and attention to the Historic Site of the estates pur-
                                     chased by Archduke Ludwig Salvator in Mallorca (October 6th 1997),
                                     which has had a Special Plan of Protection since 2002 highlighting 28 of
                                     the over seven hundred monuments built or restored by the Archduke.
                                  •	 Historic Ensemble: Current declared ensembles include the Historic Ensem-
                                     ble of Valldemossa Monastery (July 8th 1971), although the Palace of King
                                     Sancho had already been declared one since April 22nd 1949; the Historic
                                     Ensemble of Deià (February 5th 2001); and the Historic Ensemble of Es-
                                     tellencs (March 6th 2007). The first additional provision of the Mallorca
                                     Spatial Plan (PTM in Spanish) proposed, in 2004, that proceedings should
                                     be put in motion to arrange for the towns of Sóller and Pollença to be de-
                                     clared items of cultural heritage (BIC) in the category of historic ensem-
                                     bles, together with the extension of the historic ensemble of Valldemossa
                                     and the declaration of the smaller-scale ensembles of Biniaraix (Sóller),
                                     Ullaró (Campanet) and Galilea (Puigpunyent), but so far they have not
                                     been declared as such. On the other hand, proceedings have been set in
                                     motion for the declaration of the town of Orient (Bunyola).




                                  254
                               5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




•	 Places of Ethnological Interest: Ice stores on the Massanella massif
   (Escorca) (March 8th 2004) and hillside terraces at Ses Rotes de
   Caimari (Selva) (February 7th 2009).
•	 Monument: The Oratory of Sant Miquel, Campanet (December 7th 1978);
   ‘La Avanzada’ Fortress, the Port of Pollença (July 7th 1997); the tower
   of the electricity plant in Alaró (May 8th 2000); Banc de Sóller and Can
   Magraner (December 4th 2000); the Parish Church of Sant Bartomeu
   in Sóller (June 2nd 2003); The estate houses of Alfàbia (March 8th 2004);
   the Chapel of Santa Llúcia in Mancor de la Vall (October 28th 2004);
   the Church of Sant Pere in Escorca (March 8th 2004); the water supply
   network at La Font de’n Baster, Palma-Esporles (December 24th 2005);
   the Casa de la Lluna in Sóller, classified a monument (August 8th 2006);
   the water supply network of La Font de la Vila, Palma (January 11th
   2007); the waterwheels at Cala de Banyalbufar (June 16th 2007); the
   water supply network of Font de Mestre Pere and irrigation channels of
   Na Cerdana, Esporles (March 26th 2009).
•	 Historic Garden: the Gardens of Alfàbia (February 5th 1954).
•	 In	1949,	a	generic	declaration	was	approved	for	castles	and	defensive	
   towers based on a list drawn up by architect Gabriel Alomar.
•	 Religious	and	heraldic	elements	on	monumental	sculptures	(crests,	em-
   blems, heraldic stones, pillories, crosses marking local boundaries and
   similar items of historic or artistic interest) were declared Items of Cul-
   tural Interest (BIC) as a whole by virtue of Decree 571/1963 of March 14th.
•	 Archaeological Site: apart from the archaeological site at Son Serralta,
   Puigpunyent (declared on January 24th 2000), most of the prehistoric
   and protohistoric monuments of the Tramuntana area were declared
   a National Historic Monument in 1966 (on the basis of an inventory
   drawn up by Mascaró Pasarius) and they became items of cultural in-
   terest in 1985, when the National Historic Heritage Act came into force.
•	 Moveable Heritage: The most representative organs on Mallorca, includ-
   ing the organ from the Convent of Santo Domingo in Pollença (Octo-
   ber 6th 2005); the Guasp Collection, Valldemossa (October 7th 2006);
   and the documentary collection, library and chair at Alfàbia (Bunyola).

The Mallorca Spatial Plan (2004), approved by the Consell de Mallorca on De-
cember 3rd 2004, is currently the general instrument used for spatial planning
purposes and the regulation of the island’s human settlements, activities, and
uses and shared services, stipulating measures for improving the quality of life
and protecting the environment. Its goals are clearly aligned with the need to
preserve the cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area: to improve the quality
of life of its citizenry; to ensure a suitable spatial structure to achieve social and
economic development that is compatible with the rational use of natural re-
sources; and to guarantee the protection and improvement of the environment.




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




More recently, in May 2009, the Consell de Mallorca published the Funda-
ments of a Mallorcan Landscape Strategy, a document developing the European
Landscape Convention to which this body subscribed in 2008 which is based
on the ideas and proposals contained in the Florence Convention. The said
document considers the Tramuntana Mountains to be “…a natural special
interest area. The most important natural area in Mallorca, featuring the island’s most
valuable natural habitats and a traditional landscape, based on Mediterranean moun-
tain farming. The creation of a “dry-stone route” must be mentioned as a proposal for
its public use and the interpretation of the area’s landscape and heritage.”

5.b.2. The impact of urban and spatial planning
       on the nominated property

The impact of urban and spatial planning on the area delimited as the
proposed core area entails the classification of most of the said area pro-
tected rural land, in accordance with the urban planning rules currently
in force in the Balearic Islands.

The Mallorca Spatial Plan acknowledges that part of the Tramuntana
area is considered a Picturesque Site and as a result it specifically regu-
lates and protects its monumental and historic heritage. In particular, it
devotes Title III to this area, explicitly stating that it contains three areas
enjoying special protection: Natural Areas of Special Interest (ANEI), Ru-
ral Areas of Scenic Interest – Woodlands (ARIP-B), Rural Areas of Scenic
Interest (ARIP) and Settlements within Areas of Scenic Interest (AAPI).
Under these protective categories, certain uses are prohibited, constrained
or permitted on rural land. Similarly, it regulates the tourism supply out-
side areas regulated by the Mallorca Master Plan for the Regulation of the
Tourism Supply, especially that of the Tramuntana area.

With a view to landscape integration, the Mallorca Spatial Plan (PTM in
Spanish) defines the Tramuntana area as one of nine scenic and environ-
mental integration units and one of nine spheres for coherent planning
with a trans-municipal scope on Mallorca. The territorial conversion ar-
eas (ART in Spanish) foreseen in the PTM (which allow for the execution
of action to free up space, create or improve amenities and infrastructure,
provide services, and improve the urban and rural landscape) include
ART1: ANEI Tramuntana area (ecological and environmental assessment
and restoration) as the basis for a Special Plan to regulate land uses and
access to the most heavily protected areas of the Tramuntana.

At the same time, regulation 31 of the PTM indicates that, according to
Balearic Historic Heritage Act 12/1998 of December 21st, all elements in-




256
                              5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




cluded in the Mallorca Register of Items of Cultural Interest and in the
Mallorca Catalogue of Historic Heritage are considered to be listed ele-
ments, as are all those included in existing municipal catalogues14.                              14
                                                                                                       Several municipalities in
                                                                                                       the Tramuntana area (Ban-
                                                                                                       yalbufar, Deià, Fornalutx,
More specifically, as provided for in the Mallorca Spatial Plan, which is                              Sóller, Puigpunyent, Man-
                                                                                                       cor de la Vall, Valldemossa
mandatory for the island’s municipalities, the types of land in the core                               and Bunyola) are currently
area are as follows:                                                                                   working on a municipal
                                                                                                       catalogue as an inventory
                                                                                                       and protective mechanism
                                                                                                       for real estate and herit-
•	 Natural	Area	with	a	High	Level	of	Protection	(AANP):	This	is	the	rural	                             age of historic, artistic,
   land category with the highest level of protection, allowing only uses                              architectural, ethnographic,
                                                                                                       ethnological and scenic
   related to agriculture, livestock farming and the environment. These                                interest. Regulation 31.3.
   areas coincide with the most important ecosystems from an environ-                                  of the said PTM indicates
                                                                                                       that those municipalities
   mental standpoint. In the core area, a total of 16,773.3 hectares are clas-                         that have not definitively
   sified in this protective category, representing 54.6% of the total surface                         approved the correspond-
                                                                                                       ing municipal heritage
   area of the core area.                                                                              catalogue will only be al-
                                                                                                       lowed to carry out activities
                                                                                                       of a strictly conservation-
•	 Natural	Area	of	Special	Interest	(ANEI):	The	second	highest	category	                               related nature in build-
                                                                                                       ings of architectural or
   in terms of protection, allowing for some more activities than an                                   ethnological importance
   AANP although still within the scope of areas under the strictest pro-                              (estate buildings, country
                                                                                                       houses built using tradi-
   tection. Among other prohibitions, the construction of housing inside                               tional techniques, mills and
   these areas is forbidden. These areas represent a total of 8,890.1 hec-                             waterwheels, bridges, ice
                                                                                                       stores and other elements
   tares, 28.9% of the total core area.                                                                representative of traditional
                                                                                                       techniques).

•	 Rural	Area	of	Scenic	Interest	(ARIP).	This	kind	of	rural	land	includes	
   areas of the mountains with a rural and agricultural flavour, with an
   agricultural vocation but not including natural habitats or ecosystems.
   Under certain highly restrictive conditions, the use of single-family
   dwellings is allowed in this category (minimum plots of 50,000 m²,
   with very strict conditions with regard to finishes and the building
   process, as measures to protect the landscape). These areas represent a
   total of 3,512.0 hectares, 11.4% of the total core area.

•	 Rural	Area	of	Scenic	Interest	–	Woodlands	(ARIP-B).	This	is	differentiat-
   ed from the preceding category by the presence of scrubland or forests.
   The use of single-family dwellings is prohibited in this category. These
   areas represent a total of 1,207.1 hectares, 3.9% of the total core area.

•	 Area	of	Agricultural	Interest	–	Olive	Groves.	This	is	a	category	included	in	
   unprotected rural land, which nonetheless establishes a certain degree of
   protection for growing olive trees in areas that are scenically less sensitive.
   The permitted uses are more extensive than in preceding categories, includ-
   ing the use of single-family dwellings under less restrictive conditions than
   in ARIPs. These areas represent a total of 3.5 hectares, 0.01% of the core area.




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                                         Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                         •	 Settlement	Areas	in	Landscapes	of	Interest	(AAPI)	in	rural	land.	This	is	
                                            a specific category for the area surrounding the core of the Sóller valley
                                            and the occasional small isolated settlement. It is an area of rural land
                                            close to the town. Due to its special characteristics (orchards), it has
                                            certain restrictions in comparison with its equivalent category: com-
                                            mon rural land. In total, these areas cover 78.6 hectares, 0.3% of the
                                            total core area.

                                         •	 Areas	of	urban	or	developable	land	(Settlement	Areas	in	Landscapes	
                                            of Interest – AAPI for urban development). A category covering towns
                                            and villages in the proposed core area and their small surrounding
                                            development areas. This category is the one that allows for the growth
                                            of existing urban nuclei in the core area, which are subject to certain
                                            scenic and heritage-related restrictions when it comes to the considera-
                                            tion of new growth. These areas represent a total of 280.2 hectares of
                                            the core area, 0.9% of the total.

                                         Thus it should be noted that 98.8% of the whole core area is classified as
                                         protected rural land (AANP, ANEI, ARIP and ARIP-B), thus effectively
Figure 92. Urban planning                guaranteeing protection for the whole area nominated for inclusion on
classification of the core area of the
Tramuntana area.                         the World Heritage list.

                               URBAN PLANNING CLASSIFICATION OF LAND IN THE CORE AREA,
                                   IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE MALLORCA SPATIAL PLAN
   Category                                                                                Surface area (Ha)        %
   Natural Area with a High Level of Protection (AANP)                                              16,773.3      54.6
   Natural Area of Special Interest (ANEI)                                                           8,890.1      28.9
   Rural Area of Scenic Interest (ARIP)                                                              3,512.0      11.4
   Rural Area of Scenic Interest – Woodlands (ARIP-B)                                                1,207.1       3.9
   Settlement Areas in Landscapes of Interest (AAPI),
   in urban or developable land.                                                                        280.2      0.9
   Settlement Areas in Landscapes of Interest (AAPI),
   on rural land                                                                                          78.6     0.3
   Areas of agricultural interest (AIA), olive groves                                                      3.5    0.01
   Total                                                                                              30,745.0   100.0


                                         Meanwhile, categories that can be considered urban or developable land
                                         represent less than 1% of the whole proposed area, and, in this case, they
                                         are subject to protective regulations derived from other legislation on his-
                                         toric heritage which place very serious constraints on possible new build-
                                         ings and uses allowed in urban historic ensembles.




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                            5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




5.c. Means of implementing protective measures

A number of different protective legal regimes apply to the Tramuntana
area, with different physical scopes and different legal areas of authority
that often overlap. When the target of protection is analysed, they can be
classified into three groups: those related to the protection of historic,
artistic and cultural heritage, those related to environmental protection,
and finally those associated with legal compliance with urban and spatial
planning regulations.

It is important to note that protection can be applied at different mo-
ments, either in a preventive way by controlling intended activities or in
a subsequent regenerative way by trying to restore values that, for some
reason, have been negatively affected.

Through the different powers of different authorities entrusted with safe-
guarding the Tramuntana area, in compliance with current legislation,
a wide range of available resources currently exist to ensure its effective
protection. In continuation, these resources are listed and broken down
according to the responsible body and its powers, even if, in some cases,
administrative mechanisms can be linked up to guarantee coordinated,
more effective protection.

1. Within the different municipalities, town councils are the authority in
   closest proximity with the reality of the Tramuntana area, with easier
   scope of initial action even if their actions are limited to the physical
   boundaries of their respective municipalities. Essentially, they have
   protective powers in matters concerning legal compliance with urban
   planning regulations, building permits, compulsory formalities prior
   to certain activities, or the opening of proceedings when an urban
   planning offence has been committed. They may also have comple-
   mentary powers to act in matters concerning historic heritage and en-
   vironmental protection.

2. The usual resources at their disposal tend to be municipal technical
   services (architects, engineers, legal experts, inspectors and, in general,
   local law enforcement officers in terms of staff and, by extension, the
   technical and material resources assigned to them, such as offices, ve-
   hicles, equipment etc) and they can vary in number, depending on the
   size of the municipality and its resources.

3. The Consell de Mallorca is invested with a series of trans-municipal
   powers which, in this case, comprise three specific scopes of authority:




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      a. Safeguarding historic heritage through the Mallorca Committee
         for Spatial and Urban Planning and Historic Heritage and the re-
         sources of the Department of Cultural Affairs’ Mallorca Directorate
         for Historic Heritage, which is entrusted with reporting on special
         plans of protection, opening proceedings for the declaration of
         items of cultural interest, supervising projects to be run in protect-
         ed areas, authorization for archaeological excavation, prospection
         and research projects, and the surveillance, control and conserva-
         tion of archaeological and ethnological monuments for which it
         has technical services, inspectors and the necessary material means
         to carry out these tasks for the Tramuntana area.

      b. Control over compliance with urban planning regulations, from the
         control and supervision of municipal urban plans and their provi-
         sions relating to the Tramuntana area to direct intervention in the
         supervision of certain projects to introduce activities to rural land
         in the Tramuntana area. This service counts on the technical and
         material resources of the Spatial Planning Department’s Mallorca
         Directorate for Urban and Coastal Planning. At the same time,
         there is also a regional body called the Mallorca Agency for Legal
         Compliance with Urban and Spatial Planning whose main aim it is
         to safeguard compliance with urban planning regulations within its
         own scope of authority and as delegated by municipalities, particu-
         larly on rural land and in the protected public coastal strip, carry-
         ing out surveillance activities, controlling possible building activi-
         ties and land use, and opening proceedings for the restoration of
         legal compliance with urban planning regulations. It has a specific
         inspectorate, with specially assigned staff and experts and a general
         monitoring service.

      c. Emergency aid through the Mallorca Fire Service, attached to the
         Home Affairs Department. It is an operative unit with numerous
         highly skilled members of staff who attend to and resolve incidents
         of different kinds in the Tramuntana area, like the extinction of
         fires, assistance in traffic accidents and mountain rescue operations
         via a special mountain rescue team who deal with people who get
         lost or have accidents in the mountains. It has an extensive range of
         material resources at its disposal to carry out its activities.

4. The Balearic Ministry of the Environment has protective powers over
   all elements relating to the environment in all their different forms
   (flora, fauna, mountains, water, pollution etc) in terms of their regula-
   tion, inventories of existing resources, and their protection.




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                           5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




5. It has an extensive network of agents at its disposal, normally one per
   municipality, dedicated exclusively to associated surveillance. There
   are also technical back-up staff and sufficient technical and material
   resources.

6. The Balearic Ministry for Home Affairs has authority in matters con-
   cerning public order and situations involving emergencies or natural
   catastrophes. It coordinates civil defence services and has specialist
   means at its disposal for the extinction of fires and rescues involving
   hazardous situations.

7. SEPRONA (the Nature Protection Service), attached to the Directorate
   General for the Police and Civil Guard of the State Ministry for Home
   Affairs, is a body of public law enforcement agents who safeguard the
   environment in compliance with current legislation in all matters that
   might be considered an environmental offence, usually acting in an
   official capacity and, in other cases, in collaboration with the legal au-
   thorities. The service has sufficient material and human resources to
   cover the whole of Mallorca and its coastal waters.

5.d. Existing plans related to the municipalities and the region in
     which the nominated property is situated

Current plans of action that apply to the Tramuntana area can be classified
in three groups, depending on the matter they concern. These groups are:

1. The regulation of natural resources

   •	 The	Plan	for	the	Regulation	of	the	Tramuntana	Area’s	Natural	Re-
      sources, approved by virtue of Decree 19/2007 of March 16th follow-
      ing the Tramuntana’s declaration a Natural Site in accordance with
      current legislation on areas of environmental interest.
2. The Protection of Historic Heritage

   •	 The	Special	Plan	for	the	Protection	of	the	Historic	Site	of	Arduke	
      Ludwig Salvator’s Estates, approved on April 8th 2002 in a plan
      that develops legislation on the matter.
   •	 The	Special	Plan	for	the	Protection	of	the	Dry-Stone	Route.		
   •	 The	Special	Plan	for	the	Protection	of	the	Artà-Lluc	Route.




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             Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                   •	 The	Special	Plan	for	the	Protection	of	the	Historic,	Artistic,	Archi-
                      tectural, Ecological and Scenic Values of the Municipality of Deià.
                   •	 The	Special	Plan	for	the	Protection	and	Cataloguing	of	the	Village	
                      of Lluc.
                   •	 The	Special	Plan	for	the	Protection	and	Cataloguing	of	the	Munici-
                      pality of Escorca.
                   •	 The	Special	Plan	for	the	Historic	Centre	of	Pollença.	

             3. Spatial and Urban Planning

                   •	 The	Mallorca	Spatial	Plan,	approved	definitively	on	December	13th	2004.
                   •	 The	general	urban	plans	of	each	municipality	in	the	Tramuntana	
                      area, which contain different provisions that affect all or part of the
                      delimited area. The most important are listed below:
Figure 93.
               Municipality                        Plan                              Date
               Alaró                               Subsidiary Planning Regulations   17-10-2003
               Andratx                             Subsidiary Planning Regulations   26-04-2007
               Banyalbufar                         Subsidiary Planning Regulations   18-07-1986
               Bunyola                             General Urban Development Plan    13-02-1978
               Calvià                              General Urban Development Plan    26-06-2009
               Campanet                            Subsidiary Planning Regulations   28-07-2003
               Deià                                Subsidiary Planning Regulations   23-07-2004
               Escorca                             Subsidiary Planning Regulations   25-11-1993
               Esporles                            Subsidiary Planning Regulations   23-11-2001
               Estellencs                          Subsidiary Planning Regulations   07-05-2007
               Fornalutx                           Subsidiary Planning Regulations   19-05-2006
               Lloseta                             Subsidiary Planning Regulations   15-11-1996
               Mancor de la Vall                   Subsidiary Planning Regulations   30-04-1992
               Palma                               General Urban Development Plan    23-12-1998
               Pollença                            General Urban Development Plan    29-11-1991
               Puigpunyent                         Subsidiary Planning Regulations   28-07-2003
               Santa Maria del Camí                Subsidiary Planning Regulations   26-01-1996
               Selva                               No planning instrument            --
               Sóller                              General Urban Development Plan    17-11-2000
               Valldemossa                         Subsidiary Planning Regulations   27-10-1995




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5.e. Management plan for the nominated property

Volume IV of the document contains a copy of the ‘Management Plan
for the Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana’ in spanish. In
continuation, by way of a summary, an outline is given of the main provi-
sions and strategies contained in the said Plan. This has been specifically
drawn up for the Serra de Tramuntana’s World Heritage candidacy and as
an alternative to other existing management plans and programmes for
the area, which are also attached as appendixes.

This Management Plan was developed by the Consell de Mallorca’s Spatial
Planning Department during the year 2009. As well as different experts from
the Consell de Mallorca, over 50 social and cultural bodies from the Serra de
Tramuntana area were involved in its creation, through different working
sessions directed at reaching a consensus on programmes and initiatives that
must be given priority and at identifying the necessary agents for its suc-
cessful implementation. Consequently, this Plan has been created through a
comprehensive strategy of public participation: a crucial factor in ensuring its
successful implementation in a place as complex as the Serra de Tramuntana.

The Management Plan for the Cultural Landscape of the Serra de
Tramuntana is conceived to act as a strategic plan for the coordination of
all initiatives currently in progress in the Serra de Tramuntana, thanks to
the different protective instruments and management mechanisms that it
already possesses, as described in sections 5.b, 5.c and 5.d of this document.
It also takes into account the implementation of those actions which,
throught the public participation process, have been identified as necessary.

The generic goal of the management plan for the Tramuntana area, in its capac-
ity as a Cultural Landscape, is the comprehensive management of all actions
that have an impact on the area, so as to adapt and co-ordinate them to allow
for the conservation and protection of the asset. To this end, the Consell de Mal-
lorca, the body promoting the proposed nomination, is working on the estab-
lishment of a specific body for the management of the cultural landscape of the
Tramuntana area. As its first step, at a Plenary Session of the Consell de Ma-
llorca on July 2nd 2009, the following resolution was unanimously approved:

   “1. To push for the creation of a body with such legal form as may be considered
   appropriate at the time to carry out the management of the Tramuntana area
   as a World Heritage Site, once it has been designated a Spanish candidate for
   inclusion on the World Heritage List under the concept of a Cultural Landscape.
   The specific legal figure to be created must allow for the incorporation of the
   public authorities involved in the nomination, as well as those bodies and social
   representatives related to the intended declaration by the UNESCO.


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      2. To entrust the Spatial Planning Department with tasks aimed at creating the
      said body, following at all times procedures established in applicable regulations
      in force at the time.”

With this body as a starting point, the drafting of a management plan
for the nominated asset is proposed with a view to developing strategies,
goals, programmes, projects and management tools for the protection,
conservation, dissemination and sustainable economic development of
the landscape values of the Tramuntana area, in the short and long term,
on the basis of 10 priorities or basic goals, namely:

1. The maintenance and fostering of crops and good practices in tradi-
    tional and/or environmentally sustainable agriculture, livestock farm-
    ing and forestry activities.
2. The protection of the cultural, ethnological and ethnographical values
    of this cultural landscape.
3. The conservation of the environment, maintenance or increase in the
    area’s biodiversity, and protection of specific habitats, species or geo-
    logical formations.
4. The recovery of abandoned hillside terraces, water supply networks
    and other items of heritage.
5. The development of a model of rural tourism able to ensure the con-
    tinuity of agriculture and livestock farming, generate complementary
    sources of income and facilitate the conservation of rural areas and
    traditional uses.
6. Adequate tourism-related and recreational uses, from an environmen-
    tal, social and economic standpoint.
7. Infrastructures and services that help to achieve a better understand-
    ing of the cultural landscape, such as interpretation centres, reception
    offices, signed routes and other elements for public use.
8. Activities in the fields of interpretation, environmental education,
    training and citizen participation so as to contribute to a better under-
    standing and appreciation of the natural setting, cultural heritage and
    cultural landscape.
9. The fostering of scientific and research tasks that help gain a deeper under-
    standing of environmental, cultural, ethnological and landscape values.
10. The promotion of land stewardship bodies and agreements and easements
    of environmental interest in conjunction with titleholders of rights.

The common denominators to this management plan are sustainability,
a respect for the local identity and cultural diversity, and the development
of the local economy.




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                            5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




The management body will encourage, support and accompany initiatives
related to these priority areas, providing that they are in line with
objectives aimed at the conservation of the cultural landscape, fit in with
the natural and cultural characteristics of the area, do not have a negative
impact on the values to be protected, and do not disturb the traditional
production activities or lifestyle of the resident population. The sustainable
development of local heritage-related and cultural resources, the boosting
of the local economy and improvement of the quality of life of the
population are commitments undertaken by the management plan with
respect to the Tramuntana area and its recognition as a cultural landscape.

Furthermore, the management body will foster the implementation of
these actions by participatory means. In addition to preparing the nomi-
nation in collaboration and in complete agreement with local communi-
ties, throughout the process of the definition of the management plan, it
will deploy such measures as may be necessary to reach a consensus and
the ratification of the same with public and private agents, institutions
and the local population in general, and it shall also foster their involve-
ment in the course of its implementation.

The initiatives that make up this management plan have been divided
into five programmes:

•	 Communication and participation: The first premise on which the
   Management Plan must be based is its definition through the consen-
   sus and participation of the main stakeholders that form part of the
   cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area. Thus, the programme for
   communication and participation will set forth the necessary meas-
   ures to achieve effective involvement of society in decision-making re-
   lating to the protection and conservation of the nominated asset.

•	 Economic development: This is the programme affecting economic
   activities in the Tramuntana area, i.e. agriculture and livestock farm-
   ing, handicrafts, trade and tourism. The actions in this programme are
   mainly aimed at promoting changes and improvements in cultivation
   systems and supporting alternative activities that ensure financial re-
   sources that can contribute directly or indirectly to the protection and
   recovery of the landscape, starting out from the basis that it is, to a
   large extent, an agricultural landscape.

•	 Dissemination: this programme includes actions in the field of educa-
   tion and training; relevant issues in helping to change social attitudes




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




      in the long term; research, which covers scientific activities to improve
      the asset; and actions involving citizen participation in the nomination
      process, so as to achieve the entire population’s awareness and support.

•	 Heritage: This programme covers those actions directly affecting ele-
   ments representative of the uniqueness of the cultural landscape of
   the Tramuntana area. In this sense, direct actions are contemplated
   for the restoration and conservation of cultural and natural heritage,
   or such complementary actions as will improve the understanding of
   these assets, such as inventories and the cartography of the area.

•	 Management of visitors: This programme deals specifically with the
   handling of visitors to the area, in order to organize, regulate and limit the
   impact of visitors and ensure the area’s conservation through three types of
   measures: deterrents for the most fragile areas, preventive measures to avoid
   overcrowding, and filters to avoid inappropriate visits in certain settings.

Through powers held by each of the participating authorities, the man-
agement body will carry out the necessary actions to bring each of the
programmes to fruition. In this sense, the management body’s ability to
act will be based on the following thematic areas:

1) Spatial and urban planning. The Consell de Mallorca’s Spatial Plan-
   ning Department holds pertinent powers, on the island of Mallorca,
   for spatial and urban planning. To this end, it will offer the manage-
   ment body the possibility of the development of a proposed Special
   Plan for the whole of the Tramuntana area in the Mallorca Spatial
   Plan (Territorial Conversion Area number 1), on the basis of which it
   will be possible to establish measures related to the regulation of ac-
   cess to and uses of the area, the recovery of traditional uses and crops,
   the restoration of hillside terraces and dry-stone elements, as well as
   the development of economic activities related to the recovery of the
   agricultural landscape.

2) Protection of historic and cultural heritage. The Consell de Mal-
   lorca’s Cultural and Heritage Department will introduce the necessary
   measures to protect and preserve historic and cultural elements of the
   Tramuntana area. In addition to continuing initiating proceedings
   for the declaration of Items of Cultural Interest, it will develop pro-
   grammes for the management and conservation of declared cultural
   assets and boost the cataloguing and mapping of all items of heritage
   making up the Cultural Landscape of the Tramuntana Mountains.




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                            5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




3) Agriculture and rural development. The management body will
   place great importance on the development of agricultural and rural
   development policies, through the Balearic Ministry for Agriculture
   and Fisheries and also through the Consell de Mallorca’s Department
   for the Economy and Tourism, the party holding authority over ag-
   riculture for the island of Mallorca in 2010. In this sense, it should be
   pointed out that the Rural Development Programme for the Balearic
   Islands (2007–2013) already contemplates actions to recover agricul-
   tural and rural activities, such as the strategy for landscape develop-
   ment in the Tramuntana area or the promotion of olive oil and wine
   through the Mallorca Protected Designation of Origin and other agri-
   cultural and livestock farming activities related to the improvement of
   the quality of life and environment in rural settings.

4) Environment and biodiversity. The degree of protection given to the
   Tramuntana area through protective mechanisms for natural spaces and
   the importance of the biodiversity present in the area must always be
   given fundamental emphasis in the cultural landscape’s management.
   In this sense, collaborative strategies will be set up through the Balearic
   Ministry of the Environment and through the Department of the Envi-
   ronment of the Consell de Mallorca, so as to ensure a consensus on poli-
   cies for protecting the biodiversity and existing flora and fauna, along
   with management strategies for the “Natural Site of the Tramuntana
   Area”, the maximum protective designation for the area and one that
   is still currently in the development process. The Consell de Mallorca’s
   Department of the Environment has, in turn, extensive experience in
   the restoration of hillside terraces and dry-stone structures, and it is re-
   sponsible, among other activities, for the management and development
   of the Dry-Stone Route (a hiking route (GR-222) that runs through the
   Tramuntana Mountains from north to south).

5) Tourism. Another fundamental cornerstone for the recovery and im-
   provement of the social and economic fabric sustaining the landscape are
   tourism-related activities, linked to the endogenous development of the
   villages of the Tramuntana area. The Consell de Mallorca, through the
   Department for the Economy and Tourism, will equip the management
   body with the necessary tools for the appropriate supervision of the plan-
   ning and regulation of tourism in the area, as well as the dissemination
   and communication of actions linked to the nomination in order to make
   people aware of the proposed asset and the need for its adequate protec-
   tion and management. In this sense, it is particularly important to be able
   to take advantage of the network of tourist information offices currently
   attached to the Consell de Mallorca as information offices.




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5.e.1. Management body for the nominated property

Legal form of management

As has been explained above, the Consell de Mallorca is promoting the
creation of a suitable legal body to manage the nominated property and
it must, in all cases, contemplate the participation of different authorities
and not-for-profit organizations with objectives that are of public interest.
The main mission of the management body is the co-ordination of ac-
tions for the development, conservation, dissemination and public use of
the area. To this end, it is proposed that the following institutions should
be included within the said management body:

•	 The Spanish Government: The Ministry for Cultural Affairs and
   Ministry of the Environment.
•	 Regional Government of the Balearic Islands: The Ministry for
   Presidential Affairs and Ministry for Education and Cultural Affairs.
•	 Consell de Mallorca: The Spatial Planning Department, Heritage
   Department, Department of the Environment and Department for
   Tourism and the Economy.
•	 Town Councils: Federation of Local Bodies (FELIB), Association of Bal-
   earic Municipalities (AMIB) and Local Agenda 21 Participatory Platform.

In addition, a proposal will be made for the inclusion in this body of all
those non-governmental stakeholders and associations that are consid-
ered necessary for the proper execution of the management plan, such as:

• Economic stakeholders: Business associations in the fields of tourism,
  trade, agriculture, the food processing industry or crafts sector.
• Social stakeholders: Institutions for the protection of the environment
  and heritage, and cultural associations.
• Other stakeholders: The University of the Balearic Islands, leading
  institutions in the fields of scientific research and development, and
  other scientific associations.

The management body must be able to count on suitable institutions for
citizen participation in the decision-making process related to the asset’s
management.

Structure and organization of the management body

As a starting point for the incorporation of the management body, the
following aspects must be taken into account:




268
                           5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




1) The legal definition and Articles of Association of the body. This en-
   tails the following points: incorporation, the concept and scope of
   application, legal nature, general management principles, purposes,
   powers, functions.

2) Structure and organization, on the basis of the following structure:

   • Management bodies: Governing Council, Executive Committee and
     Management.
   • Consultative bodies: Advisory Council (formed by bodies represent-
     ative of citizens) and benefactors (partners and sponsors).

3) The regime governing financial and economic aspects of the manage-
   ment body, the property it administers, and its personnel. This will
   include the following sections: property, the economic and financial                        Figure 94. Raixa, in the
   regime, economic and financial control, human resources, and the                            municipality of Bunyola, is the
                                                                                               proposed seat of the management
   body’s dissolution, winding-up and disappearance.                                           body




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The headquarters of the management body

It is proposed that the headquarters of the management body should
be the publicly-owned property known as Raixa, an emblematic estate
belonging to the Biodiversity Foundation and Consell de Mallorca, the
houses of which have recently been refurbished. The headquarters of the
management body will house and centralize the following departments
and services:

1) Management and administration.

2) The Technical Department, on which focal points of the management
   plan will be based (economic development, dissemination, heritage,
   visitor management).

3) Communication and participation: the External Relations Office, Citi-
   zen Information Service and Citizen Participation Unit.

4) An interpretation centre for the Tramuntana area (permanent exhibition).

5) Rooms for dissemination activities.

5.e.2. Information and Participation Programme

This programme is intended to provide citizens with access to the various
authorities, refer their requests on correctly, and ensure comprehensive
management of all resources and services available in the Tramuntana
area in the fields of economic development, conservation, study and pub-
lic use. The goal is to turn it into a service for citizens that provides real
advantages, such as information on the status of administrative proceed-
ings, access to tourist and cultural information and programmes of ac-
tivities, bookings for activities organized in the Tramuntana area etc.

The programme will be deployed through three channels:

•	 Information	Services
•	 An	External	Relations	Office
•	 A	Citizen	Participation	Strategy

Network of information points

Apart from Raixa (the general headquarters of the management body
which will centralize administrative, informative and project manage-




270
                            5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




ment services), a network of information points is planned, distributed
throughout the Tramuntana area in co-ordination with organizations in-
volved in the management body and with the local authorities. Two types
of information centres are proposed:

•	 External	Centres.	These	would	comprise	automated	interactive	infor-
   mation points outside the Tramuntana area, located at the port in
   Palma, the airport, hotels or other places of interest.

•	 Internal	Centres.	These	will	be	located	in	the	Tramuntana	area,	prefer-
   ably in existing amenities such as the Tourist Information Offices in
   Andratx, Pollença, Sóller and Valldemossa, and in other existing facilities
   such as municipal offices, social and cultural centres, headquarters of
   social and cultural bodies, publicly run hostels and similar locations.

These strategic points will help sensitize residents and visitors, and their
requests can be handled more smoothly. They will act as single windows,
offering personal attention and telephonic and electronic contact with
the support of a website and informative material, such as leaflets and
maps on the following aspects:

1) Information service: On the one hand, it will furnish information
   on programmes run by the authorities involved in the management
   body and it will channel requests from citizens to the appropriate
   authority or body. On the other hand, it will centralize information
   on the Tramuntana area and the projects and services provided by the
   management body.
2) Advice on and the speeding up of administrative formalities by dif-
   ferent stakeholders: residents, agricultural and livestock farmers and
   co-operatives, educational centres, social and cultural bodies and other
   platforms for citizens.
3) Services for companies: It will offer advice on the legislation in force,
   financial support programmes, the processing of administrative for-
   malities, and sectoral information of an economic and socio-demo-
   graphic nature. It may evolve towards the formation of a seedbed for
   companies when their projects contemplate or contribute to the im-
   provement and conservation of the items of heritage within the asset.
4) Technical advice on projects in the fields of traditional agriculture, or-
   ganic farming, the creation of craft products and marketing of locally
   produced items, and services by cultural tour guides etc.

Obviously, the management body will develop educational and research
activities and economic development and heritage restoration and conser-




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vation programmes in specific parts of the Tramuntana area that require
intervention, striving at all times to harmonize conservation and research
needs with the need for information, training and socio-economic devel-
opment by the local population.

In this sense, the information points will furnish informative material
(leaflets, guides, posters) with details about access, car parks, visits and
anything that may be of interest and useful for visitors.

In parallel with these information points, the website will provide all nec-
essary details of routes, publicly run hostels, gastronomy, rural tourism
accommodation, services and resources. It will be a dynamic, constantly
updated website.

The External Relations Office

The general goal of the External Relations Office is to establish a perma-
nent, fluid, effective communication system with the different parties at
whom the initiative is aimed, basically institutions present locally, visitors,
social and cultural bodies, the economic fabric, educational centres, resi-
dents, the mass media, opinion leaders, experts and residents in general.

The External Relations Office of the management body will be divided
into two areas: a Press and Public Relations Department and a Publica-
tions Service, which will take responsibility, respectively, for relations with
the media and the organization of events, and for informative materials
(leaflets, books, catalogues or presentations).

1) Press and Public Relations Department
   The Press Department is responsible for dealing with the media,
   events and other PR actions. Its goals are:

      •	   To	achieve	positive	repercussions	in	the	press.
      •	   To	contribute	to	the	generation	of	favourable	public	opinion.
      •	   To	maintain	fluid	relations	with	journalists.
      •	   To	involve	opinion	leaders	so	that	they	take	part	in	its	acts.
      •	   To	organize	events	with	high	citizen	participation.
      •	   To	organize	and	keep	the	management	body’s	press	library	up	to	date.
      •	   To	plan	how	to	act	in	the	event	of	a	communication	crisis.




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   Proposed actions:
   •	 Notification	of	informative	sessions	forming	part	of	the	dissemina-
      tion campaign.
   •	 Notification	of	meetings	held	with	political,	economic	and	socio-
      cultural agents in the Tramuntana area.
   •	 The	preparation	of	press	releases	on	scientific	advances,	seminars	
      and events, completed projects, the results of educational pro-
      grammes, implementation of research projects etc.
   •	 The	organization	of	press	conferences	and	the	preparation	of	cor-
      responding press dossiers.
   •	 The	creation	of	a	press	library	for	the	monitoring	and	assessment	
      of impacts in the media.
   •	 The	organization	of	an	annual	event	with	the	media	for	the	presen-
      tation of the management body’s programmes.
   •	 The	public	announcement	and	dissemination	of	the	annual	
      “Tramuntana Forum” Award.
   •	 The	preparation	of	an	annual	informative	programme	on	the	Spon-
      sorship Plan.
   •	 The	preparation	of	the	management	body’s	annual	report.

2) Publications Service
   This service will supervise the correct application of the corporate
   identity in all communications issued by the management body, co-
   ordinate actions and informative supports at information points, and
   it will be responsible for the design and publication of various items.
   Its goals are:

   •	 To	provide	information	flexibly	and	speedily	for	all	audiences.
   •	 To	centralize	all	information	on	the	Tramuntana	area and to be-
      come a reference for others.
   •	 To	provide	stable	up-to-date	information.
   •	 To	organize	the	media	library	of	the	management	body.
   •	 To	act	as	an	interactive	communication	channel,	which	users	can	
      consult and where they can join programmes for friends and spon-
      sors of the Tramuntana area, book visits, contact tourism-related
      services etc.

   Proposed actions:
   •	 The	creation	of	a	corporate	identity	for	the	nomination.
   •	 Documentation	on	the	UNESCO	nomination	and	the	declaration.
   •	 A	website.
   •	 Informative leaflets for the Interpretation Centres and other available
      amenities, places to visit, hiking routes, annual educational services etc.




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      •	 Tourist	promotion	leaflets	for	tourism	fairs	and	similar	events.
      •	 Educational	materials:	teaching	guides	and	modules	for	teachers.
      •	 Catalogues	and	guides	to	interpret	the	cultural	landscape	of	the	
         Tramuntana area.
      •	 Maps	to	help	understand	the	cultural	landscape.
      •	 A	monthly	guide	to	social,	cultural,	educational	and	interpretative	
         activities run by the management body, the authorities, services,
         and social and cultural bodies.
      •	 The	publication	of	an	annual	report	on	performed	activities.
      •	 Signage.
      •	 Audio-visual	material.
      •	 The	compilation	of	scientific	publications.
      •	 The	creation	of	material	to	promote	the	management	body,	the	
         “Serra de Tramuntana Paisaje Cultural” brand name , and per-
         formed activities.

At the present time, an interactive website is already available for indi-
viduals and other bodies interested in this proposal for them to consult
the contents of the nomination, give opinions and receive information on
dissemination initiatives. It facilitates the centralization of documenta-
tion, photographs and videos relating to the nomination.

The citizen participation strategy

The degree of awareness of the local population and their engagement
with the project are a key factor during the nomination phase, as priority
is given to the welcome acceptance, understanding and appreciation of
any eventual recognition of the Tramuntana area as a World Heritage Site
by all the groups involved.

In this sense, the citizen participation strategy has four general goals: to
publicize the nomination and its relevance for the conservation of the
Tramuntana area, to generate public opinion in favour of the nomina-
tion, to involve the residents of municipalities included in the area, and to
achieve the participation of key sectoral agents (in the fields of heritage,
agriculture, tourism and trade).

The plan has two phases:

1) January-June 2009. The nomination launch stage, with the goal of in-
   forming all sectors of society of the nomination, above all the most
   relevant sectors (the media, socio-economic agents, socio-cultural and
   environmental bodies in the Tramuntana area, and residents in general).




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   It includes a campaign to increase awareness of the nomination among
   the inhabitants of the Tramuntana area, the owners of the cultural assets
   and/or estates, affected authorities, schools, the sectoral agents men-
   tioned above, the media, the population of Mallorca in general and finally
   tourists. The campaign aims to inform people of the meaning, need for
   and scope of the places declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO
   and the values of the Tramuntana area that warrant its nomination.
   In addition, sectoral meetings have been held with various groups and
   bodies from the Tramuntana area: teachers from the Tramuntana area,
   the Association of Tourist Guides, the Círculo Ecónomico de las Islas
   Baleares and ARCA (an association devoted to the conservation and
   dissemination of heritage).

2) From September 2009. A participative process has been developed aimed
   at reaching a consensus on, approving and enriching the proposed man-
   agement system, both during the formulation and acceptance of the
   candidacy and during a period of up to one year after the UNESCO’s
   final decision. Participative workshops have been held in different mu-
   nicipalities, focused on the five programmes of the Management Plan.
   At them a consensus has been reached on activities to be performed as
   part of the Management Plan and their characteristics.

In parallel, contact will be made with the local authorities, socio-cultural
bodies and economic agents locally in order to explain the initiative in
detail and to obtain their support for the nomination.

The creation of the Tramuntana Forum is proposed as a forum for
discussion and awareness raising and a meeting point for people and
bodies interested in collaborating in the conservation and research of the
Tramuntana area, as well as acting as a driving force for the dissemination
of actions carried out by the management body. Throughout both phases,
the following actions will be carried out, some of them intended for
specific sectors and others aimed at the population in general:

•	 Support	for	existing	volunteer	programmes	(Volunteers	for	Mallorca,	
   run by the Consell de Mallorca, and other bodies) and the develop-
   ment of specific informative, protection-related, and awareness-raising
   activities in the Tramuntana area.
•	 The	boosting	of	initiatives	already	under	way	by	local	socio-cultural	bod-
   ies (associations, leisure groups etc.) to promote the Tramuntana area.
•	 Preferential	support	for	the	Tramuntana	area	with	respect	to	the	rest	
   of the island for actions foreseen within the framework of Local Agen-
   da 21, and on sustainability issues, particularly those tending to boost




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      joint actions among different municipalities, plus the definition of a
      joint environmental policy for the Tramuntana area.
•	    The	creation	of	the	Tramuntana	Forum	which	will	schedule	regular,	
      stable series of conferences devoted to four main themes (geography,
      biology, history, heritage) that contribute to the dissemination of the
      results of studies by researchers, sectoral agents and citizens who have
      contributed to the conservation and improvement of heritage in this
      cultural landscape.
•	    The	organization	of	an	international	seminar	on	tourism	and	cultural	
      landscapes.
•	    The	creation	of	an	Annual	Landscape	Seminar,	focusing	on	the	conser-
      vation of cultural landscapes.
•	    The	organization	of	an	edition	of	the	International	Congress	on	Dry	Stone.
•	    The	organization	of	sectoral	meetings	in	co-ordination	with	economic	
      and socio-cultural agents and local researchers, and others related with
      the needs of the area.
•	    An	Annual	Open	Day	for	amenities	in	the	Tramuntana	area,	with	edu-
      cational activities such as series of conferences and guided tours, the
      tasting of local products and other leisure-oriented activities.
•	    Participation	in	external	fora	and	debates	contributing	to	the	dissemi-
      nation of the values of the Tramuntana area, the purposes of the man-
      agement body and performed activities.
•	    The	reintroduction	of	the	Formentor	International	Literature	Award	
      (1959), with the announcement of an award for those works set in the
      Tramuntana area.

5.e.3. Economic Development Programme

The conservation of the cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area and
the values that make this place unique requires the maintenance of wa-
ter supply networks, hillside terraces and traditional crops, as well as the
proper use of natural resources and the cleaning and upkeep of forests. Its
continuity is, furthermore, an opportunity to generate activities that re-
dound on the socio-economic development of the area, especially through
the development of initiatives focusing on the implementation of changes
and improvements in the production, processing or marketing systems of
local products, or the generation of tourism services based on the sustain-
able use of endogenous resources.

The management plan intends to prioritize those activities that allow
for the maintenance and continuity of processes and dynamics relating
to agricultural, livestock and rural tourism that make the landscape of
the Tramuntana area unique, particularly those encouraging traditional




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and complementary uses and activities in a context of sustainable local
development. In addition, the management body will promote activities
combining traditional uses with others compatible with the economic
and ecological conservation of rural estates, in other words allowing for
harmonious social and economic development in the area as well as en-
suring environmental quality.

For all these reasons, the management body will establish regulatory
mechanisms (such as the development of a Special Plan related to the
Mallorca Spatial Plan) and economic mechanisms to foster agricultural,
livestock, forestry and environmental uses, especially those that allow
estate owners to find ways to complement their income so as to avoid the
abandonment of these sectors.

In addition to the positive direct and indirect repercussions on the con-
servation of the nominated asset, the development of these activities may
provide added value for other sectors, such as trade and the tourism sec-
tor. In general, all these activities will contribute to boosting sustainable
economic development in the Tramuntana area.

For tourists interested in hiking, adventure, ecological and cultural pur-
suits, this is a potential market to which priority will be given. Efforts will
be made to offer suitable activities complementing the conservation and
maintenance of the asset in terms of accommodation, amenities, routes
and gastronomic attractions. In addition, the management body will pro-
mote actions aimed at supporting the local commercial fabric.

                                                                                                Figure 95. Olive trees are one of the
                                                                                                most widespread, important crops
                                                                                                in the Tramuntana area




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The main actions to be carried out within the framework of this pro-
gramme are as follows:

1) The development of protective and management mechanisms for main
   sections of irrigated farmland in the Tramuntana area: the Sóller valley
   (citrus fruit, vegetables) and the hillside terraces at Banyalbufar (the pro-
   duction of Malvasía grapes, vegetables). In both cases, efforts will be made
   to establish strategic planning mechanisms (such as the concept of an
   agricultural park) in close co-operation with the agricultural co-operatives
   operating in both municipalities and, through these, to try to recover and
   maintain farming activities and make them financially sustainable.

2) The improvement of plans currently in place with regard to the grow-
   ing of olive trees and the production of olive oil throughout the core
   area, as well as developing strategies for the marketing and improve-
   ment of these products.

3) The development of a strategy to boost local trade thanks to local tra-
   ditional products.

4) Within the field of tourism, developing a common brand throughout the
   Tramuntana area linked to cultural, gastronomic and nature tourism.

This programme will therefore be deployed in three areas: farming and
livestock activities, trade and tourism.

Agriculture and livestock farming

•	 The	creation	of	a	development	plan	for	agricultural	and	livestock	
   farming in the Tramuntana area focusing on traditional crops, local
   fruit and vegetable varieties and on the breeding of autochthonous
   livestock. This plan will be able to count on the collaboration of the
   University of the Balearic Islands in the development of projects related to
   the conservation of agricultural and livestock production in the Tra-
   muntana area. This plan will, in turn, be included within the strategy
   set out in the Rural Development Plan (2007-2013), already approved
   by the Regional Government’s Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries.
•	 Economic	and	technical	support	for	the	refurbishment	and/or	adapta-
   tion of traditional agricultural and livestock installations.
•	 The	development	of	a	programme	to	foster	the	maintenance	of	olive	
   groves in the Tramuntana Mountains and conservation of olive trees
   planted on hillside terraces in order to maintain their productive activ-
   ity and as a major tool for the prevention of forest fires.




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•	 A	service	for	the	processing	and	monitoring	of	financial	aid	from	the	
   Balearic Regional Government’s Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries
   intended for improving the quality of agricultural production and its
   classification for estates located in the Tramuntana area.
•	 The	design	of	a	training	plan,	based	in	the	Raixa	estate,	aimed	at	ag-
   ricultural and livestock farmers in order to encourage the recovery of
   traditional crops and improve systems and mechanisms for agricul-
   tural and livestock production.
•	 The	consolidation	of	the	Mediterranean	Advisory	Service,	offering	diag-
   nostic, consultancy, labour integration, monitoring and support services
   for entrepreneurs through the execution of these activities at Raixa.
•	 Economic	advisory	services	for	the	marketing	of	local	products	and	
   the development of rural tourism projects aimed at farm-owners.
•	 The	creation	of	incentives	for	farmers	implementing	organic	farming	
   projects or grouping together to form local co-operatives, particularly
   those investing in the cultivation and marketing of local varieties.
•	 The	preparation	and	monitoring	of	projects	that	are	candidates	for	
   co-finance through the European Agricultural Regional Development
   Fund (EARDF) or the local Agriculture and Fishing Guarantee Fund
   (FOGAIBA in Spanish).
•	 Administrative	formalities	in	connection	with	the	obtainment	of	the	
   Producte Balear and Producte Balear Selecte quality labels for farming,
   livestock and industrial products, granted by the Government of the
   Balearic Islands.
•	 Support	for	initiatives	in	the	fields	of	research,	training,	marketing	and	
   dissemination undertaken by associations of agricultural and livestock
   farmers and entrepreneurs in the Tramuntana area. Particular regard
   will be given to the development of a research centre into food and
   agriculture in the Sóller valley, currently in the design stage.
•	 The	creation	of	a	Tramuntana	Land	Stewardship	Network	for	the	conser-
   vation of nature, the landscape, and the cultural heritage of private and
   municipally-owned estates, involving the authorities, bodies, associations,
   owners and users of the Tramuntana area. This network will provide
   advice to landowners on specific conservation issues for the stewarded
   area, potential sources of funding, sustainable management models and
   economic advantages to the setting up of projects (such as crops offering
   tax benefits, or tax deductions for the maintenance of dry-stone construc-
   tions) so that farmers and owners are compensated for the environmental
   and cultural services they provide, thus generating synergies among the
   different social agents; contact details of environmental and cultural vol-
   unteers and the preparation of informative materials.
•	 The	development	of	projects	for	the	agricultural	parks	of	Banyalbufar	
   and Sóller.




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Trade

•	 The	creation	of	a	brand	for	the	marketing	of	products	made	in	the	
   Tramuntana area, with distinctive labels referring to its capacity as a
   Cultural Landscape.
•	 The	co-ordination	and	boosting	of	entrepreneurial	initiatives	for	the	
   marketing and exportation of local food and craft products in local,
   national and international markets.
•	 Support	and	the	authorization	of	projects	for	the	creation	of	estab-
   lishments related with the sale of local products, particularly the “Oli
   de Mallorca” protected designation of origin, the “Vi de la terra Serra
   de Tramuntana” brand for Malvasía wine, citrus fruits from Sóller,
   tomatoes, almond-based products, certified meat and other food prod-
   ucts from the Tramuntana area.
•	 The	promoted	use	of	local	food	products	by	tourist	establishments	in	
   the Serra de Tramuntana.
•	 The	co-ordination	and	acceleration	of	administrative	formalities	for	
   obtaining the “Establiment d’Or” quality label, aimed at retailers with the
   purpose of encouraging the sale of products from the Balearic Islands.
•	 Encouragement	and	support	for	trade	associations	engaging	in	actions	
   supporting local products.
•	 Advice,	support	and	the	co-ordination	of	activities	related	with	the	
   values of the Tramuntana area taking place at fairs held at different
   towns in the Tramuntana area in the course of the year.

Tourism

•	 Inter-sectoral	agreement	on	the	development	of	tourism	products	and	
   services that highlight natural, cultural and landscape values, and the
   promotion of the Tramuntana Cultural Landscape brand image at na-
   tional and international tourism fairs.
•	 The	development	of	measures	to	consolidate	and	de-seasonalize	the	
   existing accommodation network, supporting the development of
   complementary services related to events and activities taking place
   throughout the year in the Tramuntana area, such as weekend breaks
   coinciding with thematic fairs or other cultural events.
•	 The	promotion	of	complementary	tourism	activities	for	the	winter	
   season linked to the needs and interests of European social tourism.
•	 Support	for	the	creation	and	consolidation	of	rural	tourism	and	in-
   land tourism establishments that, in addition to providing customized
   family-oriented service for guests, also collaborate in the maintenance
   of architectural heritage through the conservation of buildings and
   estates, as well as making financial profits.




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•	 Support	for	the	external	marketing	of	the	network	of	rural	tourism	
   accommodation centres in the Tramuntana area.
•	 Boosting	the	network	of	publicly	run	hostels,	extending	their	services	
   and fostering the optimization of available places and their on-going
   maintenance.
•	 Incentives	for	social	and	cultural	amenities	in	the	Tramuntana	area	
   so as to offer a co-ordinated, complementary range of activities that
   would be attractive to both visitors and residents.
•	 The	re-organization,	for	greater	efficiency	and	co-ordination,	of	visits	
   to specific sites of tourist interest, such as Valldemossa Monastery, the
   Palace of King Sancho, the Coll Bardolet Foundation and Costa Nord
   Cultural Centre in Valldemossa; La Granja at Esporles; the house and
   museum of Robert Graves in Deià; the Botanical Garden and Maritime
   Museum in Sóller; Raixa and the gardens of Alfàbia in Bunyola; or the
   shrine and museum of Lluc in Escorca. One of the measures to be im-
   plemented is a combined ticket, offering cut-price admission to two or
   more cultural amenities in the Tramuntana area.
•	 The	creation	of	a	network	of	Interpretation	Centres,	including	existing	
   centres funded privately or publicly and new amenities that, in combi-
   nation, would ensure a better understanding of the cultural landscape
   (please refer to point 5.8.).
•	 Incentives	for	accommodation	and	catering	establishments	that	in-
   corporate local products into their culinary goods and contribute to
   the dissemination of the said products’ history, characteristics and
   relevance through leisure and gastronomic activities aimed at residents
   and tourists.
•	 Support	for	the	consolidation	of	the	wine	and	olive	oil	tourism	routes	
   and the inclusion of visitor attractions along the routes related to the
   preparation of local gourmet products (honey, preserves, dried sausag-
   es, desserts etc.), either fostered by the regional authorities or produc-
   ers themselves in the Tramuntana area.
•	 The	implementation	of	thematic	routes	focusing	on	water	supply	
   networks, hillside terraces, traditional crops, natural springs, scenic
   points that inspired writers and painters, as well as other significant
   features of the cultural landscape of the Tramuntana area.
•	 Promoting	innovative	business	activities,	particularly	sustainable	ones	
   aimed at tourists developed by the local population, based on the val-
   ues of this cultural landscape, such as the preparation and marketing
   of local products (olive oil, wine, almonds etc.) and the provision of
   services related to the Tramuntana’s tourist attractions (cultural tour
   guides or hiking guides, collective transport, translations, environmen-
   tal assessments etc.).




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5.e.4. Dissemination Programme

The goal of this programme is to foster awareness of the exceptional
scenic, ethnological, natural and cultural values that characterize the
Tramuntana area and make it unique. The actions to be carried out are
grouped into four areas: education, training, dissemination and research:

•	 Education:	educational	actions	aimed	at	teachers	and	students.
•	 Training:	professionalization	programmes	for	different	groups.
•	 Research:	aimed	at	scientists,	whether	at	the	University	of	the	Balearic	
   Islands (UIB) or from local social, educational or environmentalist bodies.

Priority will be given to those initiatives implying shared involvement, par-
ticipation and support on the part of civil society with the aim of bringing
about a better, more widespread understanding of the environment, togeth-
er with initiatives that will contribute to the protection and conservation
of this cultural, heritage-related and ethnological asset and may also, in the
longer term, lead to environmentally-friendly attitudes among citizens vis-
à-vis the landscape and also the local culture. These are aspects that might
help, in future, to enrich the decision-making process regarding the asset.

This programme implies three initiatives held at Raixa estate, the head-
quarters of the management body:

•	 The Tramuntana Classroom: A permanent educational forum devoted
   to teaching, dissemination and awareness raising among children and
   teenagers from the area and the rest of the island with respect to the
   Tramuntana’s values, their sense of local belonging and the need to
   take care of the environment.

•	 The Tramuntana Landscape Observatory: A meeting place bringing together
   the authorities, organizations and society in general to co-ordinate ac-
   tions and carry out studies into this cultural landscape. The goals of
   this Observatory are: (1) to establish criteria defining the landscape units
   that characterize the Tramuntana area; (2) to adopt protective, manage-
   ment and landscape planning measures; (3) to establish mechanisms for
   observing the evolution and transformation of the landscape; (4) to pro-
   pose actions aimed at improving, restoring or creating scenic landscapes;
   (5) to foster social awareness campaigns with respect to the landscape,
   its evolution, its functions and transformation; (6) to establish work-
   ing methodologies on landscape issues; (7) to stimulate scientific and
   academic collaboration on landscape issues, and to engage in European
   landscape initiatives; (8) to disseminate completed studies and reports.




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Education

•	 The	implementation,	in	the	Tramuntana	area,	of	the	UNESCO	pro-
   gramme World Heritage in Young Hands, through the distribution of
   materials already produced by the UNESCO to raise the awareness of
   young people and their teachers. The dissemination of the project’s
   logo (“Patrimonito”).
•	 The	creation	of	a	travelling	exhibition	touring	schools	in	the	Tramuntana	
   area to explain what the UNESCO is, what it means to form part of
   this organization, what the values of the Tramuntana are are, what the
   advantages of being a World Heritage Site area, what a Cultural Landscape
   means, and what other cultural landscapes exist in the world.
•	 The	creation	and	co-ordination	of	a	network	of	educational	centres	
   that will work together on concepts related to the heritage of the
   Tramuntana area.
•	 The	creation	and	co-ordination	of	the	Youth	and	Heritage	Programme,	
   focusing on young residents between 16 and 30 years of age in order to
   engage them in the maintenance and dissemination of the cultural land-
   scape, particularly by means of training and volunteer tasks related to
   monitoring, conservation, heritage restoration, visitor management and
   participation in activities carried out by the management body. Through
   an agreement with the UIB, a decision will be made as to how many hours
   of volunteer work can be counted towards university credits.
•	 The	creation	of	a	programme	aimed	at	reviving	memories	of	the	past	
   and oral traditions. The population who still conserve this knowledge
   is now elderly and so this is a unique opportunity to keep memories of
   the past and the oral traditions that make up a large part of the Serra
   de Tramuntana’s intangible heritage alive.
•	 The	design	and	implementation	of	a	stable	daily	provision	of	guided	
   tours and educational workshops on the Raixa estate, focusing on the
   concept of Cultural Landscapes and on the theme of this interpreta-
   tion centre (rural estates and traditional agriculture).
•	 The	development	of	a	programme	of	visits	to	other	interpretation	cen-
   tres (Sóller, Lluc, Costa Nord, Son Marroig, Miramar, Estellencs), with
   prior booking.
•	 The	creation	of	back-up	teaching	materials	for	teachers	on	subjects	
   dealing with the historic evolution and construction of the cultural
   landscape, fauna and flora, geology, hydrology, traditional agriculture
   and organic farming related to possible visits that could be organized
   for students.
•	 The	preparation	of	teaching	units	for	various	school	levels	(pre-school,	
   primary and secondary education) on the cultural and landscape val-
   ues of the Tramuntana area. These will be made available as paper cop-




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      ies for those schools requesting them and also in digital format on the
      management body’s website.
•	    The	encouragement	of	other	local	social	and	cultural	bodies	and	in-
      stitutions in the production of specific teaching units on the Tramun-
      tana area. For example, the Balearic Museum of Natural Sciences in
      Sóller could be asked to develop the unit on flora.
•	    The	dissemination	of	a	co-ordinated	complementary	range	of	activi-
      ties by the management body, together with educational programmes
      developed by other institutions (the Environmental Education Pro-
      gramme of the Consell de Mallorca, the Botany and Natural Sciences
      Education Programme of the Balearic Museum of Natural Sciences
      and Botanical Garden in Sóller, or the La Trapa Educational Pro-
      gramme by “Sa Nostra” Savings Bank’s Social Department and the
      Balearic Ornithology Group (GOB)).
•	    The	production	of	an	interactive	educational	DVD	with	the	history,	lo-
      cation and composition of the Tramuntana area to be sent to schools
      all over the island.
•	    The	development	of	interactive	games	for	the	management	body’s	
      website.
•	    The	design	and	execution	of	leisure	and	educational	activities	for	open	
      days, weekends and school holidays at the interpretation centres.
•	    The	development	of	a	short-stay	environmental	discovery	programme	
      in co-ordination with the network of publicly run hostels.
•	    Visits	to	farms	or	places	processing	farming	and	livestock	products,	
      such as wineries with the Costa Nord designation of origin, the Sóller
      Co-operative and olive press of country estates.
•	    Visits	to	wherever	teams	of	margers (dry-stone wall builders) are work-
      ing to understand more about hillside terraces, what features they con-
      tain, how the stones are placed, their function on hillside terraces and
      the effects of erosion.
•	    The	organization	of	a	drawing	competition	on	the	values	of	the	
      Tramuntana Cultural Landscape, aimed at schoolchildren on the
      island of Mallorca.

Training

•	 The	design	of	a	teacher-training	programme	to	enable	teachers	
   to convey the cultural heritage and ethnological wealth of the
   Tramuntana area. This training programme will be co-ordinated by
   the Tramuntana Classroom.
•	 Support	for	training	programmes	aimed	at	farmers	given	by	other	au-
   thorities, collaborating in their dissemination and carrying out initia-
   tives that complement current programmes.




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•	 The	development	of	a	training	programme	on	self-employment,	focus-
   ing particularly on the creation of micro-companies and co-operatives
   devoted to food production, the development of services, marketing of
   local products etc.
•	 Support	for	dry-stone	training	programmes	and	the	school	for	margers
   (dry-stone wall builders), contributing to the training of profession-
   als ready and able to help in the restoration of items of heritage in the
   Tramuntana area.
•	 The	training	of	personnel	aimed	at	the	recovery	of	traditional	crafts	so	
   as to foster new jobs focused on recovering, conserving and protecting
   this important legacy.
•	 The	training	of	personnel	specializing	in	the	care	and	maintenance	of	
   historic gardens and in the future implementation of specialist crops
   and botanical gardens.
•	 The	training	of	personnel	for	the	recovery	of	traditional	forestry	jobs	
   involving the regeneration, maintenance and protection of woodlands.
•	 Training	in	catering	services	to	meet	specialist	demands	in	the	added-
   value tourism sector.
•	 Specialist	training	for	personnel	attending	to	the	public	and	tour	
   guides showing visitors round monuments open to the public and
   other local features.
•	 The	training	of	tourist	guides	in	general	so	that	they	can	give	appro-
   priate information on the concept of a Cultural Landscape and on the
   values of the Tramuntana area.
•	 The	training	of	future	building	professionals,	architects,	surveyors	etc.	in	
   understanding traditional architecture and traditional ways of building.
•	 Practical	internships	for	university	students	at	the	end	of	their	under-
   graduate degree or master’s course in the understanding, management
   and use of cultural and natural heritage.

Research

So far, three events have been held in connection with the study and dis-
semination of the Tramuntana Cultural Landscape:

- Activities commemorating the European Landscape Week (October, 2008):
These include the 7th Seminar on Spatial Planning, Landscape Protection
and the European Landscape Convention; the presentation of a landscape
intervention project involving the power station at Alcúdia; a seminar
on “Daily Landscapes, Exceptional Landscapes: the European Landscape
Convention” and the Tramuntana area’s nomination a World Heritage
Site; the meeting of the Executive Board of the European Network of Lo-
cal and Regional Authorities for the Application of the European Land-




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scape Convention (RECEP-ENELC); and a guided tour of Mallorca’s land-
scape units to analyze their problems.

- The Tramuntana Workshop (March to May 2009) during the course of
which a score of students from the Master’s Degree in Urban Planning
run by the Polytechnic University of Catalonia made an in-depth analysis
of the Tramuntana area and its current situation, coming up with differ-
ent proposals for its interpretation and pertinent interventions. Within
the framework of this workshop, the lecturers and students on this Mas-
ter’s degree carried out a 4-day visit to the Tramuntana Mountains, ac-
companied by specialists in this field, to gain a first-hand insight into the
reality of the Tramuntana area and learn about experiences to date. The
results of this workshop will be displayed in an exhibition and publica-
tion that will appear in September 2009.

- International Seminar on Cultural Landscapes: the Case of the Tramuntana Area
(May, 2009), with participation of several specialists from Spain and abroad
in the field of cultural landscapes, as well as local researchers familiar with
the cultural, natural and scenic reality of the Tramuntana area.

Proposed activities from now on include:

•	 The	creation	of	the	Tramuntana	Landscape	Observatory	and	the	
   implementation of projects and actions aimed at the achievement
   of the aforementioned goals, particularly in connection with water-
   based and dry-stone landscapes, the conservation of heritage and
   the environment, and an understanding of past life in the area.
   These will include:
•	 The	development	of	an	experimental	project	for	the	conservation	and	
   restoration of a chosen dry-stone ensemble comprising certain water
   engineering features, in order to evaluate which methods and tech-
   niques may be applied afterwards to the rest of the site.
•	 The	announcement	of	the	First	Annual	Tramuntana	Award	to	ac-
   knowledge and reward the activities of researchers and experts in
   Spain and abroad whose careers have had a favourable impact on the
   conservation of the area.
•	 The	announcement	of	aid	for	the	development	of	research	
   projects conducted by associations and not-for-profit bodies in the
   Tramuntana area.
•	 The	announcement	of	aid	for	research	projects	by	different	research	
   groups at the University of the Balearic Islands (UIB): the Climatol-
   ogy, Natural Hazards and Territory group; Hydrology, Sedimentation
   and Tectonics group; Rural Changes, Human Mobility, Tourism and




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   Territory group; Sustainable Mobility, Information Society and Terri-
   tory group; Territorial Studies and Tourism group; Sustainability and
   Territory group; Geographical and Territorial Information Systems
   Department; Historic Science and Art Theory group; Environmental
   Education and Heritage, Tourism and Islamic Archaeology Interpreta-
   tion group etc.

•	 Through	the	Tramuntana	Landscape	Observatory,	financial	aid	can	be	
   channelled from other institutions for research into the Tramuntana
   area. This research includes research projects applied to agriculture,
   livestock farming and fishing, financed by the Balearic Regional
   Government’s Agricultural and Fishing Guarantee Fund (FOGAIBA
   in Spanish); complementary research activities in the 26 thematic
   areas of the Ministry of Science and Technology’s National Evaluation
   and Foresight Agency (ANEP); introductory research scholarships in
   matters concerning agricultural and livestock farming and fishing,
   financed by the Balearic Government’s Agricultural and Fishing
   Guarantee Fund (FOGAIBA).

5.e.5. Heritage Programme

This programme is directly intended to re-enhance, maintain and pro-
mote a set of heritage-related, scenic and ethnological features of the
Tramuntana area that characterize this cultural landscape and reflect its
uniqueness. Direct actions are proposed for the conservation and restora-
tion of cultural, natural and scenic heritage, in addition to complemen-
tary actions for the cataloguing and mapping of movable and immovable
heritage (through databases, inventories, cartography) prior to the delim-
itation of areas and classification of landscape units within the cultural
landscape of the Tramuntana area.

All this restoration work must respect these elements, promoting the use
of traditional building techniques and materials, and giving priority to
the training and employment of residents, contributing particularly to
the generation of stable skilled jobs.

Priority will be given to those features whose current state of conserva-
tion requires urgent action or which contribute to the preservation of
the rural and agricultural landscape of the Tramuntana area, as well as
those that, due to their accessibility or relevance, may contribute to the
awareness raising and education of residents and to the promotion of
cultural tourism.




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The management body will strive to co-ordinate and optimize available
financial resources in order to contribute more effectively to heritage pro-
tection and conservation, as well as seeking out additional funding to be
able to carry out its own programmes. In this sense, it is of fundamental
importance to work in collaboration with other institutions at regional,
state and international levels.

Conservation and restoration

•	 The	co-ordination	and	reinforcement	of	existing	training	and	labour	
   integration programmes by the “Taller d’Ocupació” and “Escuelas
   Taller” schemes, in order to harmonize the restoration and promoted
   value of dry-stone ethnological features and adopt a comprehensive
   co-ordinated approach to those located in publicly-owned properties
   managed by the Consell de Mallorca (Son Amer, Tossals Verds, Son
   Fortuny, La Mola–Son Massip, sa Dragonera and Raixa). In fact, in
   2009 the Consell de Mallorca embarked on the restoration of the “en
   Galileu” ice stores, the first experience of its kind on the island, al-
   though it must be extended to hillside terraces, walls and paths, as well
   as forest conservation work that can contribute to the maintenance of
   shelters used by charcoal-makers (carboners) or ice collectors (nevaters),
   or the charcoal wood stores (rotlos de sitja) and lime kilns (forns de calç).
•	 In	the	towns	of	Estellencs	and	Banyalbufar,	the	development	of	a	
   multi-year programme for the restoration and recovery of traditional
   water storage tanks and channels that carried water to different hill-
   side terraces, as well as their characteristic vegetation, through the
   use of traditional dry-stone techniques, earth-and-water walling tech-
   niques and local labour.
•	 The	channelling	of	1%	of	the	Ministry	of	Education	and	Culture’s	cul-
   tural budget (originating from work to create infrastructure put out
   to tender by the Ministry of Public Works), dedicated to historic and
   cultural heritage, into the execution of a multi-year project for the res-
   toration of hillside terraces and paths in the Tramuntana area.
•	 Preferential	attention	for	applications	regarding	items	of	heritage	in	
   the Tramuntana area, in connection with the Consell de Mallorca’s
   Historic Industrial Heritage Programme, which gives financial assist-
   ance to owners and private individuals starting restoration processes
   on a monument catalogued as an Item of Cultural Interest (BIC) or an
   example of rural ethnological heritage, located at a site they own.
•	 The	reinforcement	of	the	current	programme	of	technical	consultancy,	
   technical projects and support for the direct restoration of items of
   rural heritage already under way by the Consell de Mallorca.
•	 Swifter	administrative	formalities	for	the	restoration	of	items	of	heritage.	




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•	 The	consolidation	of	the	training	workshop	and	school	for	margers
   (dry-stone wall builders) operating on Mallorca, creating a specific bri-
   gade to work in the Tramuntana area all year round so as to maintain
   and restore dry-stone items of heritage in various points in the area.
•	 The	strategic	promotion	of	the	programme	under	way	for	the	recovery	
   of the Dry-Stone Route, with the cataloguing and restoration of other
   paths in the Tramuntana area. Priority will be given to traditional
   paths forming part of land originally owned by Archduke Ludwig
   Salvator and others held in public hands, so as to contribute to the
   improvement of accesses to the Dry-Stone Route (GR 221) and create a
   more diversified network of paths with alternative itineraries and ac-
   cess to cultural, natural and scenic attractions that also allow for the
   dispersion of visitors engaged in hiking activities. In the same way, the
   restoration of botadors (stone stiles) pedres passadores (stepping stones)
   and other structures associated with the paths will also be fostered so
   as to facilitate hiking activities.
•	 The	promotion	of	agreements	with	owners	to	allow	access	to	restored	
   items of ethnological heritage. If the authorities have contributed to
   the restoration of an item of heritage on a private estate, in exchange,
   within the framework of aforementioned land stewardship agree-
   ments, it shall be proposed that these items shall be open to the public
   under conditions established jointly by owners and the authorities.
•	 The	drafting	of	a	general	study	of	types	of	urban	structures	in	the	
   Tramuntana area so as to understand the relationships between urban
   areas and their settings, as well as the potential for the integration of
   new buildings and the refurbishment of existing constructions.
•	 The	reinforcement	of	the	financial	aid	programme	run	by	the	Balear-
   ic Regional Government’s Directorate-General for Architecture, in-
   tended for architectural heritage declared Items of Cultural Interest
   (BICs), so that buildings in the Tramuntana area classified as such
   can be given priority and receive aid in the short term. The manage-
   ment body will also help with the processing and receipt of aid re-
   quested by owners of these items.
•	 The	drafting	of	a	good	practices	manual	for	the	maintenance	of	buildings	
   characteristics of Tramuntana architecture, both with respect to their differ-
   ent types and building systems and materials, through written, graphic and
   photographic documentation on the construction and maintenance of this
   kind of architecture in the area. The manual must include recommenda-
   tions proposed by the UNESCO for the maintenance of monumental herit-
   age and those of the Mediterranean Commission for Sustainable Develop-
   ment with regard to heritage and its use for tourism-related activities.
•	 Support	for	the	historic	centres	of	Sóller	and	Pollença	to	be	declared	
   Items of Cultural Heritage (BIC) within the category of a historic




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      ensemble, as well as for the smaller-scale ensembles of Biniaraix and
      Galilea. Support for the extension of the Historic Ensemble of Vall-
      demossa, together with the preparation of related Master Plans.
•	    An	urban	planning	study	of	original	urban	layouts	derived	from	the	
      1300 Ordinances handed down by King Jaume II.
•	    The	restoration	of	the	emblematic	Oratory	of	Ramon	Llull,	currently	
      in a state of ruin having been hit by lightning, is proposed. The pro-
      gramme will also contemplate the inclusion of a lightning conductor
      to prevent the repetition of the incident.
•	    In	the	channelling	of	torrents,	special	emphasis	will	be	placed	on	the	
      use of dry stone. In the case of torrents whose waters have already been
      channelled, priority will be given to the use of dry stone over other
      modern techniques.
•	    A	study	of	scenic	quality	and	places	in	the	Tramuntana	area	that	could	
      be the focus of reintegration initiatives.
•	    Control	of	the	Serra	de	Tramuntana’s	goat	population.	It	is	proposed	that	
      these controls shall be carried out, if necessary, with the collaboration of
      hunter associations through action in both public and private estates.
•	    Promote	the	use	of	biomass	from	the	Tramuntana’s	forests	to	reduce	wild-
      fires. This biomass could be used to generate energy contributing, through
      this means, to improve the energetic sovereignty of the Tramuntana area.

This proposal deliberately excludes other actions that already form part
of the goals of the Plan for the Regulation of Natural Resources in the
Tramuntana Area. They will presumably be included in the future Man-
agement Plan of the Tramuntana Natural Landscape:

•	 The	maintenance	and	improvement	of	the	area’s	water	resources.
•	 The	protection,	conservation	and	promotion	of	plant	life	associated	
   with the area and its setting.
•	 The	creation	of	favourable	conditions	for	the	settlement,	maintenance	
   and reproduction of communities of fauna.
•	 Biological	links	with	other	protected	natural	spaces	nearby.
•	 The	global	protection	of	biotic	and	abiotic	ecosystems	and	communi-
   ties and their components, and the preservation of natural ecological
   processes occurring there.
•	 The	elimination	of	allochthonous	species.

Cataloguing and mapping

•	 The	Consell	de	Mallorca	will	continue	and	further	encourage	the	map-
   ping of byways and paths through the mountains, including private
   ones, and will then proceed to the full dissemination of these maps.




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•	 The	fostered	completion	of	the	catalogue	of	hillside	terraces	already	
   under way by the Consell de Mallorca, an analysis of the results, and
   the demarcation of preferential geographic scopes of action, both
   relating to the restoration of elements themselves and the recovery of
   traditional uses.
•	 Prior	to	the	drafting	of	a	multi-year	programme	for	the	restoration	of	
   architectural features on land belonging to Archduke Ludwig Salva-
   tor’s estates, a programme will be set in motion for the drafting of
   plans and a diagnosis of all the components of the ensemble.
•	 The	creation	of	a	multi-year	plan	for	the	drafting	of	plans	and	cata-
   loguing and diagnosis of items of heritage in the Tramuntana area:
   - defensive towers
   - historic gardens and unique trees
   - torrents with dry-stone work
   - archaeological heritage, incorporating the protective buffer area
       around each catalogued item
   - painted roof tiles
   - places of known geological and geomorphological interest, espe-
       cially karstic landscape and caves
•	 An	inventory	of	facets	of	the	Tramuntana	cultural	landscape	that	can	be	
   considered intangible heritage, i.e. aspects of traditions, techniques and
   oral heritage, such as toponyms and anthroponyms, legends, songs and
   improvised songs in verse. A terminological glossary for agricultural and
   livestock farming, fishing, food production and gastronomic activities,
   and items used in water engineering and dry-stone building work. An
   inventory of literary references to the Tramuntana area: novels, poetry,
   travel books, folk tales and improvised songs in verse. A study of artistic
   and religious expressions that have come into being locally and tradi-
   tional local events (feasts in honour of patron saints, religious holidays
   and festivities commemorating memorable dates in history).
•	 The	preparation	of	a	computerized	database	to	consult	existing	inven-
   tories on features of the Tramuntana area, also allowing for their geo-
   location through Google Earth.
•	 A	study	to	identify	the	limits	of	the	different	spatial	units	in	the	Tra-
   muntana area through identifiable features of the terrain, such as
   paths or tracks, walls, hillside terraces etc., and the preparation of spe-
   cific maps.
•	 Updated	municipal	plans	on	a	scale	of	1:1000	and	1:2000	and	the	digit-
   al scanning of these maps so that they can be shared. They will include
   the delimitation of classified land and items of heritage, such as hill-
   side terraces, paths, springs, shelters used by nevaters, roters, carboners
   (ice gatherers, share croppers, and charcoal makers), and other items
   of monumental heritage.




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5.e.6. Visitor Management Programme

The development of cultural tourism and hiking are two key aspects of
the economic model proposed for the Tramuntana area. An increase in
the number of visitors has been ruled out and the aim is to achieve an
optimal number of visitors able to bring economic wealth and develop-
ment to the region without harming its scenic, cultural and natural herit-
age. Historic data held by the UNESCO with regard to the assets included
in its different categories of protected heritage indicate that, should the
nomination for the Tramuntana area to be declared a World Heritage Site
be successful, the number of visitors would increase by 20%. This would
be a significant increase but would not threaten the setting or the herit-
age of the Tramuntana area.

The goals of this programme are linked, on the one hand, with a reduction
in vehicle traffic and vehicle concentrations in certain locations and, on the
other, with better visitor control and the dissemination of tourist informa-
tion vis-à-vis the various features that make up the cultural landscape.

In this respect, the Management Programme proposes certain means for
the reception of visitors and interpretation of the cultural landscape’s
values in order to facilitate the dispersal and redistribution of visitors.
Secondly, two measures (the creation of car parks and reinforcement of
public transport services) are proposed to reduce the presence of private
cars on the roads and in towns of the Tramuntana area, so as to avoid
overcrowding in certain places, protect the values of the cultural land-
scape and guarantee the quality of the experience.

Thirdly, vantage points and hiking/hill walking routes must be improved
and increased. These measures may contribute to a better distribution of
visitors in order to ensure the conservation of values and minimize the
anthropic impact on items of heritage, because an excessive number of
visitors might affect the quality of the experience.

Reception and interpretation

•	 The	creation	of	a	network	of	thematic	interpretation	centres	with	the	
   main goal of informing visitors of the Tramuntana area’s values while
   also contributing to the retention of visitors there by deterring them
   from visiting certain assets that must be preserved due to their fragil-
   ity and by avoiding overcrowding at other sites. These centres will offer
   visitors both general information on the situation of the Tramuntana
   area and specific details of the site in question at each centre. These




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interpretation centres will cover the whole of the Tramuntana area and
will also deal with different complementary themes:
- Raixa (Bunyola). This publicly-owned estate will focus on the theme
   of country estates or possessions, their typical architecture, life in a
   possessió and traditional agriculture. The visit will include both the
   rooms inside buildings and the gardens and rural area surrounding
   them, so as to allow visitors to be able to appreciate traditional crops
   and the way the fields were worked. In addition to providing work-
   shops for the preparation of traditional products (preserves, dried
   fig cake, almond milk etc.), visits will be arranged at Raixa to olive
   presses and wineries in the area. This centre will also act as the recep-
   tion centre for the Tramuntana as a whole, so it will devote part of its
   exhibition area to explaining the concept of this Cultural Landscape.
- Sóller. The creation of an interpretation centre is proposed, devoted
   to geological formations found in the Tramuntana area. More
   detailed information will be provided on the origin of the moun-
   tain chain, the composition of its mountains, its minerals, and the
   importance of the mountain range in the abatement of northerly
   winds. The centre’s location in the Sóller valley is justified by the
   fact that the area has important geological traditions and already
   has a Natural Science Museum where the formation of the earth is
   explained, along with geological changes in the Balearic Islands and
   the effects of glaciation. The interpretation centre will therefore co-
   ordinate its activities with this museum and with other museums
   already operating in the Sóller valley.
- Lluc (Escorca). The interpretation centre at Lluc will be devoted to
   explaining the natural setting of the Tramuntana area, holm oak for-
   ests and existing ecosystems. At this centre, the spotlight will focus
   on autochthonous, endemic and protected fauna and flora.
- The “Costa Nord” Cultural Centre and Son Marroig estate (Vallde-
   mossa). Both these places will allow visitors to delve deeper into the life
   of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria. At the “Costa Nord” interpre-
   tation centre, which already exists, a room will be devoted to the figure
   and work of the Archduke, and teaching and informative material will
   be available. From these amenities, visitors will be able to set out on
   journeys along the Route of the Archduke, so as to view some of the
   most important estates acquired by this Austrian aristocrat.
- Miramar (Deià): An interpretation centre devoted to the life and
   work of the philosopher Ramon Llull. The Miramar interpretation
   centre would allow visitors to gain a deeper insight into this his-
   toric figure’s literary and religious significance and bring visitors
   into closer contact with the scenic, religious and artistic values of
   Mallorca’s northern coast.




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Figure 96. Son Marroig, together             - Banyalbufar and Estellencs: The creation of an interpretation centre
with Costa Nord, will bring visitors
closer to the figure of the Archduke           devoted to water supply networks, dry-stone building techniques,
                                               and their importance in the conservation of the Tramuntana
                                               Mountains’ natural environment. Both municipalities offer visitors
                                               a unique landscape with dry-stone features on slopes covered in
                                               hillside terraces. In addition, these centres will deal with products
                                               associated with the various hillside terraces, whether irrigated or
                                               not, and also the traditional planting of Malvasía grapes. This
                                               centre will also act as the reception centre for vehicles entering the
                                               Tramuntana area from Andratx, since there is so far no reception
                                               and interpretation centre available on this route.

                                       •	 All	these	interpretation	centres	will	have	at	their	disposal	a	common	
                                          module devoted to explaining the work of the UNESCO in protect-
                                          ing world heritage and the values of this cultural landscape, although
                                          this subject will be dealt with more fully at the interpretation centre in
                                          Raixa (Bunyola).
                                       •	 In	the	municipalities	of	Alaró,	Andratx,	Banyalbufar,	Calvià,	Fornalutx,	
                                          Lloseta, Mancor de la Vall, Santa María del Camí and Puigpunyent,
                                          where there is currently no museum or interpretation centre and no
                                          new amenity is planned, an informative module will be prepared for




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                             5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




     installation in the reception area of the Town Council or cultural cen-
     tre. A similar one could be prepared for museums and interpretation
     centres already operating in the Tramuntana area.
•	   In	all	of	the	municipalities,	an	outdoor	information	panel	is	proposed	
     explaining about the Cultural Landscape and amenities and places
     that can be visited. This can be placed at the entrance to towns or any-
     where with a high frequency of visits by tourists.
•	   A	study	of	the	carrying	capacity	of	those	places	with	higher	numbers	
     of visitors, so that a maximum number of visitors to popular parts of
     the Serra de Tramuntana can be determined. With this data, pertinent
     regulations can be established, particularly with regard to tourists who
     travel to these places by motor vehicle.
•	   The	promotion	of	advantageous	agreements	for	owners	who	allow	pe-
     destrians right of way through their estates.
•	   The	creation	of	campsites	that	are	not	just	confined	to	the	Serra	de	
     Tramuntana but are also located close to the urban nuclei from which
     these visitors come, thus acting as a filter for those people who have
     hitherto just visited the Serra for leisure purposes and not with an in-
     terest in its natural or cultural values.

Transport

•	 A	plan	for	the	improvement	of	existing	car	parks	(Sóller,	Fornalutx,	
   Valldemossa) and the creation of new ones, both in access points to
   the Tramuntana area and in the proximities of towns. These car parks
   will act as both a deterrent and also as a structural base for activities in
   the area. Visitors will be able to walk to town centres or follow any of
   the country paths emerging from these towns.
•	 The	reinforcement	of	the	public	transport	system	in	the	Tramuntana	
   area. On the one hand, steps will be taken to interconnect all towns
   in the Tramuntana area and, on the other hand, the frequency of bus
   services will be increased to allow for greater mobility by those visiting
   and living in the area.
•	 The	creation	of	a	shuttle	service	using	electrically-powered	vehicles	for	
   30-35 passengers, departing from urban centres and visitor centres to
   take people to hiking routes and items of heritage. Consideration will
   also be given to the need to collect hikers finishing long rambles, such
   as the descent of the Barranc de Biniaraix gully.
•	 The	regulation	of	accesses	and	use-related	rights	of	way	for	certain	
   paths and tracks (for mountain bikes, hikers, motor vehicles etc) to
   ensure minimum disturbance and the conservation of the area.
•	 An	analysis	of	points	on	main	roads	where	uncontrolled	parking	nor-
   mally occurs (generally associated with the starting points of hiking




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                                        Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                           routes) and the implementation of one of the previous measures (car
                                           parks or public transport).
                                        •	 The	adaptation	of	a	network	of	information	panels,	distributed	
                                           throughout the area, to provide real-time information on occasional
                                           traffic jams at certain sites and on the occupancy of car parks so that
                                           visitors can judge which route to follow.

Figure 97. The extension of car parks
is proposed to encourage visitors to
walk or use public transport




                                        Visitor attention

                                        •	 The	creation	of	a	network	of	vantage	points,	including	both	the	
                                           updating of existing ones (Torre de Ses Animes, Son Marroig, Mirador
                                           de Ses Barques) and the rectification of current defects (collapsed
                                           sections, erosion or fallen trees as at Mirador des Pí, or insufficient
                                           space for parking, as at Mirador des Colomer), and the creation
                                           of additional vantage points (Sa Muleta, Sa Pedrisa, Llucalcari, la
                                           Trapa and Estellencs), so that all of them have an adequate car park,
                                           signposted pedestrian access, information on the significance of the
                                           landscape observable there and, where possible, a small rest area.
                                        •	 The	encouragement	of	hiking	as	a	healthy	recreational	practice	in	
                                           contact with nature through the establishment, in collaboration with
                                           companies and bodies from the Tramuntana area, of an annual pro-
                                           gramme of activities aimed at residents and tourists, so as to facilitate
                                           the dissemination of the natural and cultural values of the area as well
                                           as ensuring the better regulation of hiking activities and helping to
                                           boost local development.
                                        •	 In	the	case	of	existing	hiking	and	hill	walking	routes,	particularly	
                                           those that are best-known and most used at present, a study will be




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     carried out to monitor the frequency of visits, carrying capacity and
     impacts on the environment and cultural heritage. This will be accom-
     panied by a management plan for these places.
•	   The	preparation	of	informative	leaflets	(available	at	all	information	
     points, interpretation centres and tourist offices) on the starting and
     end points of different hiking and hill walking routes, showing how
     they link up with car parks, public transport and shuttle services. They
     will also show the timetables of places that can be visited and how
     long hikes last.
•	   The	preparation	of	informative	explanatory	panels	at	the	start	of	ram-
     bles, clearly indicating the level of difficulty, duration of each leg of the
     ramble, steepness, and existence of complementary features (signage
     along the hike, rest places etc.).
•	   The	improvement	of	the	signage	system,	safety	and	monitoring	of	the	
     Dry-Stone (GR221) and Artà-Lluc Routes (GR-222) where they pass
     through the Tramuntana area.
•	   The	extension	of	the	network	of	paths	and	tracks	closest	to	towns,	par-
     ticularly those with the lowest levels of difficulty and lowest impact on
     the nominated asset, so as to disperse visitors and prevent massifica-
     tion at specific sites.
•	   The	introduction	of	a	hiker’s	card	system	for	the	Tramuntana	area	in	
     order to control the potential number of visitors and insurance for ac-
     cidents and rescue services.
•	   At	the	most	fragile	locations,	the	restriction	and	monitoring	of	visitor	
     access through a pre-booking system or the establishment of a daily
     quota of visitors.
•	   A	plan	for	the	co-ordination,	improvement	and	promotion	of	public	
     activities, particularly guided tours, regulated itineraries, educational ac-
     tivities, bird watching and botanical sessions, landscape observation and
     interpretation activities, as well as other regulated leisure activities (hik-
     ing, cycling tourism, horseback riding, climbing, abseiling, hang-gliding,
     white water rafting on torrents and in gullies, potholing) that do not
     harm the nominated asset’s values and contribute to a greater awareness
     and appreciation of the natural setting, its ethnological heritage and the
     Mediterranean landscape. These activities will conform to the provisions
     of the Plan for the Regulation of Natural Resources in the Tramuntana
     Natural Site and subsequent regulations, such as the Master Plan for
     Management and Use, which will regulate the number of people, zon-
     ing, fire-fighting equipment, and allowed permits and licences.
•	   The	expansion,	co-ordination	and	promotion	of	the	existing	network	
     of public spaces for the purposes of tourism and recreation, such as
     publicly-owned estates, publicly-run hostels, recreational areas and
     campsites, providing they do not cause any negative impact on natu-




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                                          ral, cultural and scenic values. This network could be complemented
                                          by other associated places through collaboration or land stewardship
                                          agreements with private bodies or owners of estates. Through these
                                          agreements, as well as offering certain recreational activities, porxos
                                          d’olivar (olive grower’s stone shelters) or other traditional agricultural
                                          structures could be refurbished or campsites created .
                                    •	    An	initiative	for	the	dissemination	of	codes	of	conduct	and	exist-
                                          ing prohibitions and restrictions within the Tramuntana Cultural
                                          Landscape.
                                    •	    A	study	of	the	supply	and	demand	at	tourism	offices	in	the	
                                          Tramuntana area, as a preliminary step for the improvement of
                                          information provided by these information points.
                                    •	    Specific	studies	of	those	places	most	commonly	visited	by	tourists	in	
                                          order to identify conservation needs and regulate access.
                                    •	    Territorial	deployment,	the	adaptation	of	signs,	and	the	drafting	of	
                                          the contents of publications and information panels for the four cul-
                                          tural interest routes foreseen in the Mallorca Spatial Plan: the archaeo-
Figure 98: The network of vantage
points must be improved and               logical route, gothic route, castle route and baroque route. It would be
extended in order to showcase the         interesting to incorporate further attractions into routes in order to
Tramuntana area’s most noteworthy
attractions.                              consolidate them.




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5.e.7. Implementation of the management plan

The actions proposed in the Management Plan have been given a time-
frame reflecting all the initiatives to be undertaken, their respective tim-
ings and priority:

•	 High-priority	actions	will	be	those	corresponding	to	the	creation	of	
   the management body itself, the continuity of existing actions, citizen
   participation initiatives and those of interest in the conservation of
   the nominated asset.

•	 Medium	priority	will	be	given	to	those	depending	on	other	previous	ac-
   tions or ones involving extensive formalities or a search for resources.

•	 Minimum	priority	will	be	given	to	those	depending	on	other	initia-
   tives with a higher priority or else those that are advisable but not
   essential for the understanding, conservation or improvement of the
   nominated asset.

5.f. Sources and levels of funding

The funding for the management body will be made up of the following:

1) Finance provided by the authorities making up the body.

2) A sponsorship plan aimed at promoting and channelling financial
   contributions from institutions, organizations and companies wish-
   ing to collaborate with the management body either through a one-off
   donation or in the longer term.

3) International funding from European development programmes.

4) The sale of products and services related with the project, mainly at
   interpretation centres.




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                                     Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                     5.g. Sources of expertise and training in conservation
                                          and management techniques

                                     Education

                                     The following educational programmes are currently being carried out locally:

                                     On the one hand, the Environmental Education Programme run by the
                                     Consell de Mallorca, which includes modules devoted to the following
                                     subjects: children and the sea; Sa Dragonera Natural Park; the network of
                                     publicly run hostels and waterwheels.

                                     On the other hand, local institutions provide various educational programmes:

                                     •	 The	Botanical	Education	Programme	by	the	Botanical	Gardens	in	Sóller,	
                                        with many activities for schoolchildren of different educational levels.
                                     •	 The	Natural	Science	Education	Programme	by	the	Balearic	Natural	
                                        Science Museum in Sóller, which includes teaching units related to the
                                        Tramuntana area.
                                     •	 “La	Trapa”	Education	Programme.	An	environmental	awareness	pro-
                                        gramme prepared jointly by the “Sa Nostra” savings bank’s Social De-
                                        partment and the Balearic Ornithology Group (GOB), with the main
                                        goal of making all schools on the island aware of this scenic location.
                                        Various excursions are organized with explanations for attendant
                                        children of the importance of protecting the ecosystem and restoring
                                        heritage. There is currently a wide range of activities on offer: “Això era
                                        i no era Cala en Basset” and “Això era i no era La Trapa”, which take place
                                        in schools; and “El Bosc marí de La Trapa” and “La Trapa és viva” which
                                        take place at La Trapa.

Figure 99. The flora of the
Tramuntana area is dealt with in a
specific module on botany.




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                            5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




Thus, the Tramuntana area features in all levels of schooling, but it is still
possible to go further in this task of increasing awareness. To this end, it
is of vital importance for the management body to establish links with
schools and socio-cultural agents locally in order to implement aware-
ness-raising and educational measures for the resident school population.

Training

Local training activities currently under way focus on two main areas: dry-
stone work and farming activities.

A major training activity, in terms of its longevity and intensity, is the
Consell de Mallorca’s “Escuela de Margers” (dry-stone wall builders’
school), which was a response to an evident need since dry-stone building
is a technique that requires specific training. In 1986, there were hardly
any professionals left and the Consell de Mallorca promoted the creation
of an “Escuela de Margers”, offering two years of professional training
to young people between 16 and 24 years of age and 1-year occupational
workshops for those over 25 years of age.

                                                                                                Figure 100: Schools for dry-
                                                                                                stone wall builders have trained
                                                                                                professionals capable of conserving
                                                                                                this craft




In addition, the Palma Margers Employment Workshop, promoted by the
Institute for Training, Occupation and Public Works (IMFOF in Spanish),
also introduced a course for the recovery and conservation of dry-stone
features. Thus, multiple activities at a practical level will be used to train
young people in a variety of skills.




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                                     Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                     Additionally, a vocational training programme in agriculture is being
                                     run by the Balearic Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, which offers
                                     numerous training activities to boost a marginal sector with great social
                                     benefits. Among the different courses on offer, key examples are those
                                     devoted to the incorporation of young farmers into agricultural ventures,
                                     agro-environmental training, specialization in agriculture and livestock
                                     farming, pruning and grafting, farm management, crop diversification,
                                     food technologies and training in the application of phytosanitary prod-
                                     ucts. These training activities are complemented by technical seminars
                                     on the determination of the shelf life of food products, autochthonous
                                     breeds, jaundice or piroplasmosis, western-style horse riding, advanced
                                     quality labels and designations, and possible drawbacks.
Figure 101. Aid programmes for
farmers represent a double benefit
for the Tramuntana area: a source
of employment and environmental
conservation.




                                     Research

                                     The main research actions implemented in the area are:

                                     Every year, the Spanish Government organizes a call for applications for
                                     complementary research actions in the field of the 26 thematic areas of
                                     the Ministry of Science and Technology’s ANEP programme. These allow,
                                     among others, for the development of the following:

                                     •	 The	organization	of	scientific	and	technical	conferences	and	seminars.
                                     •	 Concerted	scientific	and	technical	initiatives.
                                     •	 The	preparation	of	proposals	for	the	participation	of	Spanish	re-
                                        search teams in the EU Framework Programme, and complementary
                                        aid for approved research projects in execution of the 6th and 7th
                                        Framework Programmes.
                                     •	 Actions	on	scientific	and	technological	policy.




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Within the Balearic Islands, among other measures to stimulate research,
the Regional Government provides two major types of support to study the
Tramuntana area. On the one hand, there are ‘Introduction to Research’
scholarships in the fields of agricultural and livestock farming and fisheries
in the Balearic Islands, financed by the Agricultural and Fishing Guarantee
Fund (FOGAIBA in Spanish) of the Government of the Balearic Islands.

On the other hand, there is an annual call for financial aid for applied re-
search projects on agriculture and livestock farming and fisheries within the
Balearic Islands, financed by the Agricultural and Fishing Guarantee Fund
(FOGAIBA) of the Government of the Balearic Islands. The projects last for
twelve months (January-December) and must focus on the following aspects:

•	 Improvements	in	production	and	processing	in	the	fields	of	farming	
   and fishing.
•	 Obtaining	and	manufacturing	safe,	healthy,	high-quality	food	products.
•	 Agricultural	food	production	from	the	standpoint	of	environmental	
   conservation and the global use of the Tramuntana area.
•	 Improvements	in	food	product	marketing.
•	 Improvements	in	energy	savings,	and	the	harnessing	of	waste	and	ap-
   plication of renewable energy sources in agriculture.
•	 The	characterization	and	conservation	of	native	plant	species	in	the	
   Balearic Islands.
•	 Improved	awareness	of	the	fishing	industry	and	fishing	resources	in	
   the Balearic Islands.

For its part, the Consell de Mallorca has a scholarship programme for the
Sa Dragonera Natural Park, of which it has now organized ten editions to
honour two research projects each year, one focused on the park’s natural
values and the other on cultural issues, oral memory and ethnography.
In recent decades, local, island and regional authorities have been in-
volved in various European projects related to the recovery, study and
dissemination of the area’s heritage (TERRISC, REPS, MEDSTONE, PAT-
TER, PROTERRA, REPPIS, TRIMED (CULTURE 2000) and CULTURED
(INTERREG IIIC OEST). The Consell de Mallorca is currently still en-
gaged in the following projects:

•	 TCAST:	For	the	production	of	an	inventory	on	traditional	construc-
   tion techniques and the identification of ways of transmitting them
   and existing initiatives in Mallorca.
•	 COMMONS	(INTERREG	IVC)	“Common	land	for	sustainable	man-
   agement” for the reconciliation of regional policies and strategies for
   the management of public and communal estates.




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Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Furthermore, the Consell de Mallorca is currently chairing the Arco Latino
organization, one of whose working groups deals with the relationship
between cultural landscapes and World Heritage Sites.

Finally, mention must be made of the activities of the University of the
Balearic Islands (UIB). Its various research groups have promoted or par-
ticipated in - either jointly or with the public authorities - numerous re-
search projects relating to the Tramuntana area, from the standpoints of
physical and ecological issues, heritage, history, tourism, economics and
social issues, and the UIB is a key academic reference in understanding
the past, present and future of the area.

In addition, the Geographic Information Systems and Tele-detection
Service - a support body for teaching, exploration and development in the
fields of cartography, geographic information systems, spatial planning
(particularly with regard to tourism), territorial affairs and the environ-
ment, as well as other related fields that may be developed in future - has
taken part in various projects at a regional, national and international
level, specifically on the creation of territorial databases, the preparation
of telematic, synthesized and digital maps, the design and implementa-
tion of geographic information systems, an analysis of geographic infor-
mation and the digital analysis of satellite images.

5.h. Visitor facilities and statistics

The Tramuntana area currently has a large number of tourism accom-
modation establishments, including numerous rural and inland tourism
centres offering personalized service by small family-run businesses. This
influx of tourists has led to the development of trade and services bring-
ing wealth to the area.

In recent years, the number of rural or inland tourism accommodation
centres has seen a notable increase and the number of corresponding beds
available in the Tramuntana area now exceeds 2,500, although this figure
should be added to other beds in Pollença, Sóller and Andratx that are
counted as summer-holiday accommodation. While the small municipali-
ties of Deià and Valldemossa are consolidating their hotel supply, Mancor
de la Vall and Escorca have no accommodation for tourists.




304
                          5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




 Municipality        Total no. of establishments                   Total no. of beds          Figure 102. Accommodation
 Andratx                          8                                       306                 available in the Tramuntana area.

 Banyalbufar                      6                                       231
 Bunyola                          13                                      195
 Deià                              7                                      430
 Esporles                          5                                       90
 Estellencs                        4                                      137
 Fornalutx                         6                                      100
 Pollença                         11                                      404
 Puigpunyent                       6                                      106
 Selva                             9                                      152
 Sóller                            8                                      209
 Valldemossa                       8                                      251
 Total:                         203                                      2.611


The Balearic Regional Government is also setting its sights on European
social tourism. Mallorca is one of the destinations with the highest de-
mand among Spaniards over 65 years of age (represented by the
IMSERSO) and efforts are being focused on attracting this kind of tour-
ism from other parts of Europe. Through European-level agreements
of this kind, many more foreign tourists would be able to enjoy the
historic, cultural and environmental heritage of Mallorca, encouraging
the year-round opening of a larger number of establishments, a fact that
would favour hotels in the Tramuntana area.

Apart from regulated hotel accommodation, throughout the extensive
area covered by the Tramuntana, visitors can find a series of publicly-
owned hostels that offer accommodation to hikers and ramblers. These
hostels provide backup services for the network of hiking routes, with
cheap accommodation aimed mainly at hikers. Eleven such hostels are
currently operational in the Tramuntana area:




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                                     Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




 Name                                       Owner                         Managed by              Status                Beds
 Refugio de la Trapa                        Balearic Ornithology          Consell                 Under restoration     30
 (Andratx)                                  Group (GOB)                   de Mallorca
 Refugio de Can Boi                         Consell                       Consell                 In operation since    32
 (Deià)                                     de Mallorca                   de Mallorca             July 1st 2006
 Refugio Tossals Verds                      Consell                       Consell                 In operation.         30
 (Escorca)                                  de Mallorca                   de Mallorca             Open all year round
 Refugio de Can Josep                                                                                                   26
 (Escorca)
 Son Amer                                   Consell                       Consell                 In operation.         52
 (Escorca)                                  de Mallorca                   de Mallorca             Open all year round
 Refugio de Cúber                           Ibanat                                                                      10
 (Escorca)
 Refugio del Gorg Blau                                                                                                  5-10
 (Escorca)
 Refugio Pont Romà                          Consell                       Consell                 In operation.         38
 (Pollença)                                 de Mallorca                   de Mallorca             Open all year round
 Refugio Muleta                             Sóller                        Consell                 In operation.         30
 (Sóller)                                   Town Council                  de Mallorca             Open all year round
 S’Hostatgeria del                          Alaró Town Council            Castell d’Alaró         In operation          16-30
 Castell d’Alaró (Alaró)                    and the Bishopric of          Foundation
                                            Mallorca
 Refugio Son Moragues                                                                                                   15
 (Valldemossa)


Figure 103. Publicly owned hostels   A solid, extensive network of rural tourism establishments is being cre-
operating in the Tramuntana
area.                                ated in the Tramuntana area, providing tourists with the kind of accom-
                                     modation that the management body wishes to maintain and promote
                                     in order to contribute to the general economic development of the area.
                                     As well as offering accommodation and therefore contributing to the de-
                                     velopment of tourism, these rural tourism centres have a conservationist
                                     function in terms of the natural setting and traditional architecture. In
                                     addition, they can provide specialist gourmet cuisine.

                                     Over and above the good food available at rural tourism centres (an initia-
                                     tive still to be further developed), the Balearic Ministry of Tourism is en-
                                     couraging the enjoyment of typical Mallorcan cuisine by organizing a series
                                     of gastronomic routes. Two of these routes are currently active, thanks to
                                     the Institut d’Estrategia del Turisme (INESTUR, Tourism Strategy Institute):

                                     •	 Mountain	cuisine:	The	Tramuntana	Mountains	are	the	link	between	
                                        different towns that offer typical Mallorcan cuisine, based on the gas-
                                        tronomy of the island’s mountain range. This route begins in Binnis-




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                            5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




   salem, passes through Lloseta, Alcúdia, Mortitx valley, Lluc Monastery,
   the reservoirs of Cúber and Gorg Blau, and then Pollença, before fin-
   ishing in Fornalutx.

•	 The	Olive	Oil	Route:	Olive	groves	and	the	production	of	olive	oil	are	
   the common thread linking routes that visit ancient olive oil presses,
   with recommended restaurants specializing in traditional cooking.

Routes

The Tramuntana area offers a wide variety of scenery and attractive excur-
sions of cultural, natural and ethnographic interest, giving visitors added
value as they discover the historic and scenic reality of the area. More ex-
perienced hikers are already familiar with its hiking routes and know the
rambles that suit their tastes and abilities. But for those who wish to dis-
cover the world of hiking or tourists who do not know the Tramuntana
area, a series of thematic hill walking routes has been introduced to cover
such topics as dry-stone building and olive groves while climbing the
highest peaks in the chain or more general ones covering the whole range,
its towns and its picturesque corners. The Tramuntana Cultural Land-
scape’s management body will boost these initiatives and co-ordinate the
signage, monitoring and safety of these routes.

The hiking routes currently available in the Tramuntana area include
several that also offer an insight into the area’s values: its dry-stone archi-
tecture, traditional farm products, ethnological features, and natural and
scenic values.

The main route through the Tramuntana area is the Dry-Stone Route,
devised as a long hiking trail (GR 221) covering a distance of over 50
kilometres, appropriately signposted and approved by the Spanish
Federation for Climbing and Mountain Sports, with the backup of a
network of publicly-run hostels located in refurbished houses owned by
the Consell de Mallorca. The trail is divided into eight stages with ten
variants, and ramblers can take advantage of a hostel managed by the
Consell de Mallorca at the end of each stage.

This project has sown the seeds of major inter-institutional collaboration,
as the conservation of the Tramuntana area involves the conservation of
its dry-stone features, particularly its hillside terraces. Mountain paths
have been restored thanks to the co-operation of town councils and pri-
vate landowners, while the creation of publicly-run hostels has been sup-
ported by the GOB (Balearic Ornithology Group) in the case of the one at




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                                   Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




Figure 104. The Tramuntana area
receives large numbers of hikers
attracted by its views.




                                   La Trapa, Sóller Town Council (in the case of the Muleta one), the Castell
                                   d’Alaró Foundation (the s’Hostatgeria hostel) and Pollença Town Council
                                   (the Pont Romà hostel).

                                   Nowadays, this hiking trail is the most important of its kind in the
                                   Tramuntana area, attracting a million and a half ramblers every year.
                                   For this reason, the Consell de Mallorca is making concerted efforts
                                   to conserve the dry-stone constructions that are the backbone of these
                                   routes. Hillside terraces, water galleries, walls, huts and ice stores
                                   all form part of the heritage that can be enjoyed by hikers, as well as
                                   the villages that the routes pass through, encompassing the entire
                                   Tramuntana mountain range.

                                   The Dry-Stone Route is completed by and connects with the Artà-Lluc Route
                                   (GR-222), which runs through the municipalities of Artá, Capdepera,
                                   Santa Margalida, Petra, Ariany, Maria de la Salut, Muro, Llubí, and Inca,
                                   and, once in the Tramuntana Mountains, Selva and Escorca. The routes
                                   are based on the entire network of publicly-owned paths, some of which
                                   linked different villages until they were replaced by modern roads. Work
                                   is currently under way to recover and signpost other paths forming part
                                   of the route. The signposting of stage 2 between S’Arenalet des Verger and
                                   Betlem has now been completed and stage 5 in the part between Caimari
                                   and Lluc, following the old road to Lluc restored by the Consell de
                                   Mallorca between 1989 and 1994.

                                   Along the fifth stage of the trail, through the Tramuntana Mountains,
                                   the route runs through ecosystems comprising woods of holm oaks, wild




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                            5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




                                                                                                Figure 105. The olive oil routes
                                                                                                showcase the agricultural heritage
                                                                                                and olive production




olive trees, cliffs and agricultural land (particularly olive groves), offering
fine examples of Mallorca’s traditional architecture, ethnological features
(charcoal-making sites, mountain huts, reservoirs, and springs) associated
with farming and forestry uses and religious elements. Like the Dry-Stone
Route, the Mallorca Spatial Plan considers the Artà-Lluc Route to be a
scenic one whose creation and regulation are legally binding.

For its part, in its efforts to reduce the seasonality of tourism, the Balearic
Institute for Tourisme (IBATUR) offers a wide range of hiking trails on the
Balearic Islands. The Tramuntana area includes the Green Olive Oil Route,
the main goal of which is to showcase agricultural heritage and olive pro-
duction during the course of hikes through the oldest, most significant
groves. The specific routes are:

a. The Caimari-Binibona-Ses Figueroles-Coll de sa Batalla route: This
goes from the main square of Caimari, along Calle de Sant Jaume, to
Binibona. The trail runs alongside some country estates with traditional
rural architecture characteristic of the area, such as S’Alqueria, Son
Sastre, Son Riera and Subies, finishing up at Sa Vedelleta.

b. The Caimari-Puig de n’Alí route: This is one of the least frequented
routes, due to the difficulty of the climb. The name of the peak dates from
1037 and it is an example of the survival of Islamic culture and the Islamic
language in some of the toponyms associated with the village of Caimari.




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c. The Caimari-Lluc Monastery route: The trail begins by leaving Caimari
along Calle Nostra Senyora de Lluc (that is, the Ma2130 road from Inca to
Lluc), the site in olden days of many inns providing shelter for pilgrims
prior to their ascent to the shrine.

For its part, the Balearic Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries
promotes a series of Good Tasting Routes, with visits, in the case of the
Tramuntana area, to production sites to look round their facilities and
find out, in conversation with the producer, the characteristics of the
foods manufactured there. In particular, these routes facilitate a better
understanding of three products: olive oil, wine and sobrassada cured meat:

•	 The	“Oli	de	Mallorca”	Protected	Designation	of	Origin	Route	includes	
   stops in Esporles and Sóller.
•	 The	“Vins	de	la	terra	Serra	Tramuntana-Costa	Nord”	Wine-Producing	
   Route includes visits to wineries in S’Arracó, Estellencs, Banyalbufar,
   Alaró and Pollença.
•	 The	“Sobrassada	de	Mallorca”	Protected	Geographical	Indication	
   Route includes a visit to the firm Embotits Aguiló - La Lluna in Sóller.

The same ministry, through its Illes Balears Qualitat programme, is pro-
moting olive oil tourism routes, enabling visitors to explore nature
through some of the most emblematic olive groves on the islands. It
has already prepared 4 routes (Camino de Muleta, the Biniaraix ravine,
Camino de la Font Garrover and El Olivar de Comasema) as well as tours
of several oil presses in the Tramuntana area.

To conclude, mention must be made of the proposal in the Mallorca Spa-
tial Plan (2004) to create four cultural routes, currently in preparation,
following the publication by the Consell de Mallorca of an informative
guide on the features of these routes:

•	 The	Archaeological	Route:	The	only	included	landmark	in	the	
   Tramuntana area is the necropolis at Cala Sant Vicenç (Pollença).
•	 The	Gothic	Route:	In	the	Tramuntana,	the	route	includes	the	Church	of	
   Sant Miquel (Campanet), the parish church of Sant Llorenç (Selva), the
   Church of Sant Pere (Escorca) and the Church of Santa Llúcia (Mancor).
•	 The	Baroque	Route:	This	includes	several	places	in	the	Tramuntana	area,	
   such as the parish churches of Santa María del Camí, Alaró, Binissalem,
   Bunyola, Deià and Campanet; the convent and cloister of La Soledad
   or the Minims and Town Hall of Santa María del Camí; the gardens of
   Raixa and Alfàbia country estate in Bunyola; Sa Granja rural mansion in
   Esporles; the hamlet of Orient in Bunyola; the shrine of Lluc in Escorca;




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   Can Forcimanya in Deià; and the convent of San Domingo and convent
   of the Jesuits in Pollença.
•	 The	Castles	Route:	This	includes	the	two	fortifications	located	in	the	
   Tramuntana area: the Castillo del Rey (Pollença) and Castle of Alaró.

Museums and interpretation centres

The traditional roads and paths that pass through the Tramuntana area
lead to various places of cultural and natural interest and to a variety of
cultural and scientific amenities of interest to tourists that are open to
the public. By municipality, the most popular ones are:

Bunyola:
•	 The	estate	and	gardens	of	Raixa.
•	 The	estate	and	gardens	of	Alfàbia:	Visitors	to	this	estate	can	see	the	
   various rooms of the manor house and stroll through one of the most
   unique gardens in Mallorca.

Campanet:
•	 Biniatró	Inn:	A	former	inn	run	by	Messrs.	Biniatró,	currently	with	a	
   permanent display of the “Artists of the Mediterranean” collection,
   featuring more than two hundred works by artists from the Balearic
   Islands created in the last half century, including Miquel Barceló. It
   also arranges temporary exhibitions.

Deià:
•	 Deià	Archaeological	Museum:	Founded	in	1962	by	Dr.	William	H.	
   Waldren, this displays a collection of archaeological objects from digs
   carried out in nearby caves. It is housed in a converted mill, one of the
   oldest buildings in the mediaeval village of Deià.
•	 Ca	n’Alluny,	the	former	home	of	Robert	Graves	and	now	a	museum:	The	
   house and garden surrounding it still retain most of their original appear-
   ance and it is possible to visit the kitchen, lounge, printing works, writer’s
   study, the study occupied by writer Laura Riding between 1932 and 1936, and
   the study of Graves’s second wife, Beryl. The tour also allows visitors to see
   original documents, photographs, letters and personal documentation and
   it includes the projection of an audio-visual film about the author.
•	 Son	Marroig	House	and	Museum:	This	contains	objects	and	memen-
   tos belonging to Ludwig Salvator, a collection of ceramic articles and
   another of 19th century paintings from Mallorca. Outside the house,
   it is possible to visit a small neo-Classical temple in Carrara marble.
   Every year since 1978, Son Marroig has hosted the Deià International
   Festival, devoted to chamber music.




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Escorca:
•	 Lluc	Monastery.	
•	 Lluc	Museum:	Inaugurated	in	1952,	it	currently	has	several	rooms	devoted	
   mainly to archaeology, traditional jewellery, religious objects, sacred im-
   ages, ceramics, an art collection built up by Josep Coll Bardolet and an art
   gallery that mainly displays works from the 19th and early 20th centuries.
•	 Lluc	Botanical	Gardens:	It	currently	has	200	varieties	of	plants,	as	well	as	an	
   area devoted to aromatic and medicinal plants and a selection of fruit trees.

Esporles:
•	 Sa	Granja:	This	estate	boasts	an	ethnographic	museum	and	a	varied	range	
   of typical farm animals. During a visit to Sa Granja, you can learn about
   traditional farming activities and the mansion, courtyards and emblem-
   atic gardens of the estate. Visitors can also watch traditional craftsmen
   working, taste wines and nuts or learn the traditional dances of Mallorca.

Pollença:
•	 Dionís	Bennàssar’s	House	and	Museum:	The	home	where	this	artist	from	
   Mallorca spent half his life and produced his most important paintings.
   It houses a large part of his artistic legacy: oils on canvas, watercolours,
   post-Impressionist and Expressionist drawings as well as many personal
   objects, furnishings etc. It is also the headquarters of the foundation of
   the same name: a private not-for-profit foundation for the promotion,
   dissemination and defence of artistic and cultural expression in general,
   which organizes different activities such as temporary exhibitions, lec-
   tures, courses, seminars, publications, talks, musical concerts etc.
•	 Pollença	Museum:	Located	in	a	former	Dominican	convent,	it	is	cur-
   rently a cultural centre offering concerts of classical music and other
   musical performances. It also houses a contemporary art museum
   with works from the International Plastic Arts Competition, originally
   started 34 years ago, plus the collection of the landscape artist Atilio
   Boveri, resident on Mallorca between 1912 and 1915, and a collection of
   paintings from the first decades of the 20th century, particularly works
   by Anglada Camarassa and Tito Cittadini.
•	 Martí	Vicens	Museum:	Featuring	a	permanent	exhibition	of	this	art-
   ist’s oeuvre, along with a small ethnological collection with objects
   related to the textile industry.

Selva:
•	 The	former	oil	press	of	Cas	Menescal:	This	museum	and		oil	press,	
    located in the town of Caimari, offers an insight into traditional
    ways of pressing olives and the progression from ancient beam
    presses (driven by animals) to modern hydraulic systems. The ground




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   floor contains the oil press itself, comprising millstones to crush the
   fruit, two hydraulic presses, a mixer, cauldron for heating water and
   a centrifuge to separate the oil. The upper floor still has the olive
   stores with small tanks to store the different types of olives while
   awaiting their conversion into oil. It only operates during the Olive
   Fair (in November). The museum is complemented by a new oil press
   in a building at the entrance to the village with modern machinery
   and installations (Oli Caimari) where it is possible, during the olive
   harvesting season between November and February, to watch the
   process of producing olive oil.
•	 Caimari	Ethnological	Park:	This	offers	visitors	the	opportunity	to	see	
   several of the most representative constructions used in traditional
   activities locally and throughout the Tramuntana for centuries: the
   llosa and coll de tords for catching thrushes; the rotlo de sitja and barraca
   de carboner used by woodsmen to turn timber into charcoal; the casa de
   neu for storing ice; and forn de calç for producing lime.

Sóller:
•	 Sóller	Botanical	Gardens:	These	are	home	to	the	largest	collection	of	
    native species of flora from the Balearic Islands and other parts of
    the Mediterranean, with plants from Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta
    and Crete. The 13 collections of live plants included in the gardens are
    divided into three sections: Balearic flora, flora from other Mediter-
    ranean islands or places of Mediterranean influence, and ethnobotany,
    which comprises ornamental and medicinal plants and native fruit
    and vegetables of the Balearics. In addition, a seed bank has been cre-
    ated to preserve the genome of the species.
•	 The	Balearic	Natural	Science	Museum	in	Sóller:	The	ground	floor	
    houses a permanent exhibition devoted to the history of natural sci-
    ences in the Balearic Islands and the first floor contains the recently
    inaugurated Joan Bauzá Room, with a permanent display explaining
    the geological history of the archipelago through fossils. The museum
    holds different collections of fossils, rocks, fungi, insects and crusta-
    ceans, including collections by Guillem Colom Casasnovas and Joan
    Bauzá Rullan, naturalists from Sóller.
•	 Sóller	Museum:	This	occupies	a	manor	house	built	in	1740.	It	focuses	
    on the traditional history of the town, with a collection of archaeology
    and palaeontology, ethnology, ceramic and artistic works.
•	 The	Museum	of	the	Sea	(Oratory	of	Santa	Catalina):	An	interpretation	
    centre focusing on the history of Sóller and its port’s relations with the
    sea. The link between humans and the sea is presented in relation to dif-
    ferent contexts, highlighting the most widely differing characteristics of
    this relationship in the history of Sóller. Work is currently under way to




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   extend the museum’s collection so as to turn the oratory into a genuine
   exhibition, research and cultural centre.
•	 Can	Prunera	–	The	Museum	of	Modernist	Architecture:	Soon	to	be	
   opened, this museum is an initiative by the “Tren de l’Art” Foundation
   (a body linked to the company licensed to run the railway service to
   Sóller), Sóller Town Council and the Government of the Balearic Is-
   lands, with funding from the European Union. It will house a perma-
   nent collection of Modernist art by Spanish and international artists
   who formed part of the movement or were inspired by it, with work by
   local painters or artists related with the islands. In addition to exhibi-
   tion rooms with temporary displays, it will also have a library specializ-
   ing in art for the display of books illustrated by Joan Miró. Its gardens
   will host concerts and other cultural events.

Valldemossa:
•	 Valldemossa	Monastery:	Visits	to	the	Carthusian	buildings	include	
   the church (1751), cloister (one of the oldest parts of the current build-
   ings) and former pharmacy of the monks. The visit continues with the
   garden and prior’s rooms (chapel, library, reception room, bedroom),
   which conserve the historic and artistic legacy of the Carthusian or-
   der. Cells 2 and 4 contain documents and mementos of Chopin and
   George Sand’s stay in Valldemossa (1838-1839), such as original scores
   by the composer and literary manuscripts by G. Sand, alongside
   portraits, furniture and letters by both. This is also the venue of the
   F. Chopin International Piano Festivals.
•	 The	Municipal	Museum:	This	can	be	found	in	rooms	3	and	4	of	
   Valldemossa Monastery. It contains a collection of landscapes by 19th
   and 20th century local and non-local painters and a collection of
   contemporary art, with outstanding works by Juli Ramis, Picasso and
   Miró. In addition, it displays items from the former Guasp printing
   works, including its presses (among the best preserved in Europe) and
   part of the 1,450 xylographic plates in its collection. It also has a room
   devoted to Archduke Ludwig Salvator.
•	 The	Palace	of	King	Sancho:	This	currently	forms	part	of	the	visit	to	
   Valldemossa Monastry, as the music room hosts demonstrations of
   folklore by “El Parado de Valldemossa” and piano concerts.
•	 The	Coll	Bardolet	Foundation:	This	preserves	and	displays	the	legacy	
   of the late Catalan painter Josep Coll Bardolet (1912-2007), a resident
   of Mallorca, with particularly noteworthy landscapes and representa-
   tions of local folklore. It also contains works by Anglada Camarassa
   and Tito Cittadini, among others.
•	 The	Costa	Nord	Cultural	Centre:	An	interpretation	centre	dedicated	to	
   Archduke Ludwig Salvator. It organizes seasons of concerts, exhibitions




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   and creative and artistic activities. Costa Nord was an initiative by the
   actor Michael Douglas, who discovered, like many others before him,
   the charms of the island’s northern coast on his arrival in Mallorca, but
   today it is owned by the Balearic Government and is the headquarters of
   the Foundation for the Sustainable Development of the Balearic Islands.
•	 Miramar	Monastery:	It	contains	a	museum	with	objects,	documents	
   and works of art related to the worlds of Ramon Llull and Archduke
   Ludwig Salvator. Inside the house there is a sculpture by Tantardini in
   memory of Vratislav Vyborny, Ludwig Salvator’s first secretary, and a
   partial reproduction of the interior of the Nixe II, with some authentic
   parts of the Archduke’s ship. The visit also includes the Ramon Llull
   conference room, with various items of graphic work related to his
   work and thought, such as a reproduction of the 12 miniatures of the
   Breviculum, and a small library located in a former stable, containing
   books and objects related to the life and work of Ramon Llull.                                 Figure 106. Cultural amenities in
                                                                                                  the Tramuntana area.
                                                                                                  Source: Inventory of cultural amenities
Each town also has the following cultural amenities:                                              in the Balearic Islands, 1999


 Municipality           Cultural Amenities
 Alaró                  Municipal cultural centre, exhibition gallery in Calle Petit,
                        dispensary rooms, municipal library
 Andratx                Municipal theatre of Sa Teulera, municipal library
 Banyalbufar            Municipal library
 Bunyola                Parish hall, theatre of municipal cultural centre, municipal library
 Calvià                 Town Council exhibition room, El Toro cultural centre, Son Ferrer municipal cultural
                        centre, Palmanova-Magaluf cultural centre, Palmanova exhibition room,
                        eight municipal libraries
 Escorca                -
 Esporles               Municipal library
 Estellencs             -
 Fornalutx              Municipal library
 Lloseta                Lloseta theatre, Ca n’Hereu, ‘Sa Nostra’ cultural exhibition room, municipal library
 Mancor de la Vall      Mancor exhibition room, theatre of municipal cultural centre, municipal library
 Pollença               Llompart Gallery, cultural centre, Bennàssar Gallery, Joan XXIII Gallery, Actual Art,
                        “Galeria Mayor”, municipal library
 Puigpunyent            Exhibition room of municipal cultural centre, theatre, multipurpose building,
                        municipal library
 Santa Maria del Camí   “La Caixa” exhibition room, municipal library
 Selva                  Social club, municipal centre, Ca ses Monges, Selva municipal cultural centre,
                        Can Roig, 4 municipal libraries
 Sóller                 Municipal library
 Valldemossa            Municipal library




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Cultural activities

Every year, the Tramuntana area is the setting for countless cultural ac-
tivities, founded recently or longer ago, offering tourists with an interest
in culture the opportunity to discover the natural charms and heritage of
the Tramuntana area: cultural visits, gastronomic routes, music festivals
and popular celebrations. The regional authorities and local municipali-
ties strive to create initiatives that extend the cultural activities on offer
and attract a larger number of visitors.

Currently, the cultural amenities and historic monuments of the
Tramuntana area host major musical events, including the following
internationally renowned concerts and festivals:

The Pollença Festival is a musical season created in 1962 by the distin-
guished English violinist Philip Newman. Now in its 48th annual edition,
it is a classic event on the summer programme of activities in Mallorca. It
always includes a select programme of different styles of music (classical
music, jazz, gospel, pop and rock). Its concerts are held in the incompa-
rable setting of the cloister of the Dominican monastery, a 17th century
building with exceptional acoustics. Since 1998, the Pollença Festival has
been a member of the European Festivals Association, which unites the
most prestigious musical events on the continent.

The Rotger Villalonga Foundation, in collaboration with Pollença Town
Council and the family of the musician Miquel Capllonch (1861-1935),
organizes a tribute to the latter during the Nits de Capllonch (Capllonch
Evenings), normally held in the Church of Montisión in Pollença, during
the winter season.

The choral concerts held at the Torrent de Pareis have taken advantage of
the natural walls of the torrent since 1964 to ensure concerts with excel-
lent acoustics. In the beginning, they were intimate gatherings. Sa Nostra
savings bank later took over the organization of the concert and, year af-
ter year, the event has become better consolidated. The concert currently
attracts thousands of people, lured by the marvellous combination of the
beauty of the landscape and the harmony of the music.

The Sa Nostra International Folklore Festival in Sóller is an important
festival founded by the Aires Sollerics group in 1980. Since then, groups
from all over the world have gathered in the month of July in different
municipalities across the island. The festival lasts for eight days, during
which groups perform to audiences and also participate in a cultural




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exchange that allows them all to learn more about their art. The perform-
ances are free of charge and take place in different towns across the is-
land, with Sóller as the main hub.

Son Marroig, the house and museum devoted to Archduke Ludwig Salva-
tor of Austria, is the venue every year for the Deià International Festival,
specializing in chamber music. The festival is a wonderful chance to enjoy
classical music in the unparalleled setting of this emblematic location on
the north coast of Mallorca.

Since 1930, the cloister of Valldemossa Monastery has hosted the Chopin
Festival with the performance of works by Chopin and other compos-
ers. The main goal of this annual series of concerts, every Sunday in the
month of August, is for work by Chopin to be performed by prestigious
pianists and young talents. In addition to these musical activities, it or-
ganizes installations and exhibitions by avant-garde artists, performances
etc. in order to modernize and update the message of those heterodox
controversial Romantic figures, Chopin and Sand, who struggled in their
day to achieve greater individual and collective freedom.

A more recently-created event is the Costa Nord Mediterranean Nights
programme, which attempts to recreate the spirit of Archduke Ludwig
Salvator and so many other artists and writers who discovered and fell in
love with the Tramuntana area, its culture, scenery and customs. Through
a series of concerts characterized by a mixture of styles and traditions, a
respect for different cultures living in the Mediterranean and a curios-
ity for new ways of creating and experimenting, Mediterranean Nights
defines itself as a unique unprecedented event on Mallorca’s cultural
agenda. The concerts are held in the open air during the summer, under
the stars that guided sailors and under the branches of a centuries-old
olive tree.

To conclude, mention must be made of the programme of classical
music in Banyalbufar, organized each year since 1991 from June to
October by the Banyalbahar Cultural Association at the Parish Church
of Banyalbufar. It contributes toward enriching the island’s cultural
activities and allows audiences to enjoy music in one of the most
emblematic settings on the coast of Mallorca.

Finally it is also worth highlighting the existence of a varied programme
of activities designed to add to the programme of events for tourists in
the autumn and winter months, called Un Hivern a Mallorca (A Winter in
Mallorca). Since 1982, between the months of October and April, the Bal-




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earic Ministry of Tourism has organized and sponsored a series of activi-
ties for residents and visitors, including a noteworthy season of musical
and dance performances in different theatres and concert halls across the
island, and a season of organ music played on historic instruments by
musicians from numerous countries, performing works by different com-
posers in the island’s churches. In addition to these events, it sponsors
and collaborates in other cultural programmes so as to extend the avail-
able shows and performances and contribute to reducing the seasonality
of the tourist industry. This programme also includes excursions on foot
or bicycle in the company of specialist guides, guided cultural tours of
historic centres, as well as tastings of local dishes and wines.

Furthermore, the towns of Deià and Pollença also currently organize liter-
ary events, with the Hotel Formentor - in the case of Pollença - hosting the
direct successor of the Formentor Literary Conversations originally devised
by Camilo José Cela, at which poets and intellectuals from all over Europe
reflected on and discussed the situation of literature during the summers
of 1959 and 1961. Within the framework of these meetings, in 1961 the For-
mentor International Literature Award was founded, with subsequent edi-
tions in Corfu, Salzburg and Tunis, where it concluded in 1969.

Tourism-related services

The Tramuntana area offers tourism services that allow residents and
tourists to come and enjoy its local amenities and natural and cultural
attractions.

Particular reference must be made to the Sóller tourist train: a historic
train that has operated without interruption since 1912, connecting the city
of Palma with the town of Sóller. Many visitors disembarking there join
organized excursions that visit the area and return them to their hotels by
coach. Other visitors using this form of transport stay in the town of Sóller
or set off on hikes in the vicinity. In both these cases, they tend to use the
train to return to Palma. In addition, at the train station in Sóller, you can
take a tram to the Port of Sóller that crosses through groves of orange trees.

At the same time, several boats cross daily to Sa Dragonera Natural Park
from Sant Elm (a half-hour crossing, although some services sail right
round the island) and Santa Ponça (a five-hour round trip). There is also a
regular ferry service from the Port of Sóller to Sa Calobra (one hour each
way), Cala Tuent and Sa Foradada. From the Port of Pollença, there are
also boats to Formentor. There are occasional services between Sóller and
Formentor. There is no regular service by sea from Sant Elm to Sóller.




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In addition, there is a regular coach service interlinking different towns
and linking them with the island’s capital. These are normally used by
residents or ramblers, who use this form of transport to return after their
hike. Most visitors however make use of private vehicles, leading on many
occasions to congestion on the narrow roads of the Tramuntana area.
Limiting the use of private cars is a very complex issue, as the same roads
are also used by numerous residents in the area.

Finally, INESTUR offers a regular service of guided tours through the
most picturesque streets, squares and nooks and crannies, so that visi-
tors can explore places that witnessed the French writer George Sand and
Polish composer Frédéric Chopin’s time in Mallorca, as well as visiting
Valldemossa Monastery where they stayed.


5.i. Policies and programmes related to the nominated
     property’s restoration and promotion

Actions to recover the agricultural landscape

Of the actions currently being carried out by the Balearic Ministry for Ag-
riculture and Fisheries with co-funding from the European Agricultural
Rural Development Fund (EARDE), the Agricultural and Fishing Guaran-
tee Fund (FOGAIBA in Spanish) and Balearic Regional Government, the
following are noteworthy:

•	 Aid	to	increase	the	added	value	of	agricultural	produce:	Financial	as-
   sistance to encourage agricultural produce with increased added value
   is aimed at micro-companies that invest in the implementation of new
   technologies in their companies’ day to day activities and adjust their
   products in line with market demands.

•	 Aid	for	the	setting	up	of	new	farms:	Farmers	between	18	and	40	years	
   of age who set up an agricultural operation for the first time can apply
   for financial and training aid allowing them to execute their projects
   as efficiently as possible.

•	 Compensation	for	losses	derived	from	the	difficulties	of	mountainous	
   areas: Within the field of protection and in order to avoid environmen-
   tal hazards due to erosion and social risks arising from the lack of use
   and maintenance of the traditional landscape, financial resources are
   allocated to compensating farmers for loss of income due to natural
   difficulties posed by mountainous areas. These losses mean that ag-




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      ricultural and livestock farmers in the Tramuntana area are at a com-
      petitive disadvantage in comparison with other less rugged parts of
      the island.

•	 Aid	to	encourage	organic	farming	practices:	In	view	of	the	changing	
   demands of society, the Balearic Government’s Ministry for Agricul-
   ture and Fisheries encourages organic crop and livestock farming, not
   only as new practices, but also by promoting the conversion of conven-
   tional farms to organic crop and livestock ones.

•	 Aid	for	the	breeding	of	autochthonous	species	contributing	to	envi-
   ronmental sustainability and the conservation of traditional species
   on Mallorca or on the Balearic Islands (such as Mallorcan sheep, the
   Balearic ass, black pigs or Mallorcan horses) is available from the Bal-
   earic Government’s Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries.

•	 The	Consell	de	Mallorca	is	promoting	the	recovery	of	these	autoch-
   thonous breeds through the Board for the Recovery and Defence of
   Balearic Autochthonous Breeds and the various livestock farming as-
   sociations collaborating in the creation or consolidation of genetic
   registers of the different species.

•	 Plans	to	revitalize	agriculture	in	the	area	are	contributing	to	an	im-
   provement in hillside terraces affected by the march of time, as well as
   creating added value for farming activities. Public institutions are cre-
   ating routes to promote dry-stone architecture, olive-oil tourism and
   other ethnological and cultural values.

Nowadays, few companies located in the Tramuntana area are devoted to
the industrial sector and they mostly have strong links with tourism, ex-
cept for those devoted to the production of craftwork and the processing
of farm produce.

The Government of the Balearic Islands regulates quality accreditations
through the Instituto de Calidad Agroalimentaria (IQUA, Food and Agri-
culture Quality Institute). It has created a series of quality labels for prod-
ucts grown and/or manufactured in the Balearic archipelago and it aids
their commercialization by awarding them two distinctions: “Producte Ba-
lear” and “Producte Balear Selecte”. These distinctions identify products made
with autochthonous raw materials that have been processed or manufac-
tured partly or entirely in the geographical context of the Balearic Islands.
They also certify the provenance of the products, thus providing an element
of differentiation for both consumers and for their producers and retailers.




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                           5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




These accreditations have currently been awarded to the following food
products present in the Tramuntana area:




•	 “Vino de la Serra Tramuntana Costa Nord / Vi de la Serra
   Tramuntana, Costa Nord”. This is one of the protected designa-
   tions of origin for wines made on Mallorca and it was created in 2002.
   There are currently 10 wineries registered under this Tramuntana
   north-coast denomination, producing several varieties of red wine (Ca-
   bernet sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Monastrell, Tempranillo, Callet and
   Mantonegro) and white wines (Malvasía, Moscatel, Moll, Parellada,
   Macabeo and Chardonnay).

•	 “Aceite de Mallorca / Oli de Mallorca”. In order to comply with
   this designation of origin, the extra virgin olive oil has to have been
   produced on the island of Mallorca from olives of the Mallorquina,
   Arbequina and Picual varieties.

•	 Pork. PMS is a brand guaranteeing that the pork meat comes from
   selected breeds and crossbreeds of pigs chosen for their quality and for
   having been fed a diet based on grain, legumes and carob beans.

•	 Almendra Mallorquina / Ametla Mallorquina. Almonds from
   Mallorca have a unique flavour and oiliness.

•	 Lamb / Mè Mallorquí Selecte. Lamb with the MMS guarantee
   comes from animals bred on approved farms.

Other quality products prepared and/or marketed in the Tramuntana
area are:




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• The ensaimada de Mallorca (a typical Mallorcan pastry) has a rec-
      ognized Protected Geographical Indication. For some years now,
      ensaimadas de Mallorca have been monitored by a Regulatory Council
      to ensure the quality of the ingredients and the production process.
      Various bakers in the Tramuntana area make ensaimadas that con-
      form to this indication.
•	    Sobrasada de Mallorca (a cured pork meat) is also considered a Protected
      Geographical Indication, with two varieties: Sobrasada de Mallorca,
      made with pork, and Sobrasada de Mallorca de Porc Negre, made solely
      with pork from black Mallorcan pigs packed into natural tripe. The
      pigs are bred and fed on the island in accordance with traditional prac-
      tices. In the Tramuntana area there are some renowned sobrasada pro-
      ducers and of course their products can be purchased at shops in the
      district.
•     Almonds produced in Mallorca are marketed under the Ametlla de
      Mallorca guarantee. It is also possible to find products derived from the
      fruit and flowers of this unique tree in cosmetic stores.
•     The island’s Herbes de Mallorca (a herb liqueur) and Palo de Mallorca (an
      aperitif) are identified by a Geographical Indication.
•     The ESMEL guarantee, an initiative by the Agrupació per a la Defen-
      sa de l’Abella Autòctona Mallorquina, authorizes honey produc-
      ers and packagers to use this apiculture association’s distinction when
      the honey is of distinctive, guaranteed quality.

There is also a local denomination, Fet a Sóller (Made in Sóller), applied to
products from the valley of Sóller, citrus fruits and other traditional food
products, although it is also used on all kinds of handcrafted and manu-
factured products.

Informative materials

The different bodies involved in the management of the Tramuntana area
(the Regional Government, Consell de Mallorca, town councils, munici-
palities, and social, cultural and ecological organizations) have published
informative materials to explain the local values of the area and publicize
the services currently available. In addition to maps and leaflets for tour-
ists, several general guides have been published of the whole area, as well
as other thematic guides or specific local ones for certain areas.

In order to disseminate the values and available resources and services for
tourists, there are numerous websites promoting and providing informa-
tion about different cultural activities:




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                             5 . pro t e c tion and management of t he nominat ed p rop er t y




•	 www.artescenic.es, on theatrical activities
•	 www.illesbalears.es, devoted to museums and monuments open to visitors
•	 www.balearsculturaltour.es, proposing cultural and natural routes
•	 www.conselldemallorca.cat/altramallorca, proposing cultural routes
•	 www.conselldemallorca.cat/mediambient/molins/, focusing on wind-
   mills on Mallorca
•	 www.conselldemallorca.cat/mediambient/pedra/, devoted to dry-stone
   building techniques
•	 http://www.mallorcamedieval.com/, focusing on Mediaeval Mallorca
•	 http://www.possessionsdemallorca.es/, devoted to possessions (country estates)


5.j. Staffing levels (professional, technical, maintenance)

Human resources linked to the management of Tramuntana area can be
divided into two great groups:

1) Staff at Consell de Mallorca, which works under the legal framework
   provided by legal powers in the public administration of the island of
   Mallorca. The staff that has direct links to the Tramuntana area works
   in the Territory Department (Urban and Spatial Planning), Environ-
   mental Department, Heritage and Culture Department, and Economy
   and Tourism Department.

2) Management team linked to the management body, to be created.

     The management body’s team of staff will be made up of a multidisci-
     plinary team of individuals covering the following areas:

     1) Management (manager, administration, secretary),
     2) Technical Department (economic development programmes, dissem-
        ination, heritage protection and conservation, visitor management),
     3) Communication and Participation.




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6

Monitoring




324
                                                                           6. Monit or ing




6.a Key indicators in measuring states of conservation

The technical monitoring report will be based on an analysis of certain
pre-defined indicators or indices, with quantifiable analytical variables re-
lated to each of the programmes and goals stipulated in the management
plan. By way of indication, the assessed variables will be those shown in
the table below.

                               MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT INDICATORS
 Programme           Assessment Indicators
 Communication       •	The	number	of	people	attending	participatory	sessions	and	workshops	directly	associated	
 and participation     with	the	“Tramuntana	Cultural	Landscape”	project.
                     •	The	number	of	fora	related	to	the	Local	Agenda	21	programme	supporting	the	“Tramuntana		
                       Cultural	Landscape”	project.
                     •	The	number	of	proposed,	reviewed	actions	for	inclusion	in	the	management	plan	at	sessions	
                       and	workshops	involving	citizen	participation.

 Economic            •	The	evolution	of	the	annual	budget	for	actions	related	to	economic	development	programmes.
 development         •	The	number	of	agricultural	and	livestock	farms	participating	in	economic	development	programmes.
                     •	Variations	in	the	hectares	devoted	to	crop	growing	involved	in	programmes	for	the	recovery	of	
                       traditional	crops.
                     •	The	number	of	shops	included	in	economic	development	programmes.
                     •	Variations	in	tourist	occupancy	figures	at	accommodation	establishments	associated	with	the	
                       “Tramuntana	Cultural	Landscape”	brand.
                     •	Occupancy	of	tourist	accommodation	establishments	in	the	core	area	during	the	low	season.
                     •	Variations	in	employment	in	the	agricultural,	retail	and	tourism	sectors	in	the	core	area’s	
                       municipalities.

 Dissemination       •	The		impact	of	communication-related	actions	on	the	population	of	the	Tramuntana	area.
                     •	The	degree	of	awareness	of	the	world	heritage	nomination.
                     •	The		annual	number	of	publications	in	thematic	fields	relating	to	the	“Tramuntana	Cultural	
                       Landscape”	project.
                     •	The	impact	of	educational		and	teaching	initiatives	within	the	framework	of	the	“Tramuntana	
                       Cultural	Landscape”	project.

 Heritage            •	The		annual	budget	for	investment	dedicated	to	the	restoration	and	recovery	of	heritage.
                     •	The	number	of	restored	hillside	terraces	and	dry-stone	features.
                     •	The	number	of	professionals	engaged	in	the	restoration	and	refurbishment	of	heritage.
                     •	The	number	of	approved	applications	for	heritage	to	be	catalogued	and	declared	Items	of	
                       Cultural	Interest.
                     •	Variations	in	catalogued	and	inventoried	heritage.

 Visitor             •	The	number	of	visitors	to	interpretation	centres	in	the	Tramuntana	area.
 management          •	The	intensity	of	traffic	and	occupation	of	parking	areas	in	the	core	area.
                     •	The	number	of	hikers	on	hiking	trails	in	the	core	area.
                     •	The	occupancy	of	publicly-run	hostels	in	the	core	area.
                     •	The	degree	of	saturation	of	landscape	observation	infrastructure	(paths,	vantage	points)



6.b Administrative provisions for the monitoring
    of the nominated property

The management body of the nominated property shall be responsible
for establishing mechanisms ensuring the fulfilment of goals set out
in the management plan with regard to the development of strategies,




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programmes and projects intended to ensure the protection and dissemi-
nation of the asset’s unique exceptional values. This management body
will also be responsible for the execution of specific actions or tasks to
be decided, such as direct actions for the restoration and conservation of
cultural and scenic heritage, and, in particular, asset monitoring actions,
including the drafting of an annual technical control report as a funda-
mental tool in the monitoring and achievement of the said goals. This
annual report will also be used to verify which proposed goals are being
achieved from time to time.

In order to carry out the monitoring process, the management body will
count on the support of the scientific community of the Balearic Islands,
through an agreement signed between the authorities responsible for the
management body and the University of the Balearic Islands for the estab-
lishment of a scientific advisory committee to take charge of this monitoring.

In addition, the diagnosis and assessment made by the advisory commit-
tee - in which representatives of key economic and social agents in the
Tramuntana area shall be represented as a body for citizen participation
linked to the management body - must be validated.

6.c Results of previous reporting exercises

Main studies and reports related to the Tramuntana area can be classified
as follows:

1) Main reports about Tramuntana area and its landscape values

•	 BLÁQUEZ,	M.;	DÍAZ,	R.;	RULLÁN,	O.	(1998):	La	Serra	de	Tramuntana.	
   Natura	i	Cultura.	Ed.	Moll.	Palma.	p.	234.

•	 COLOMAR,	A.	(dir.)	(1997):	Guia	de	la	Serra	de	Tramuntana.	Fodesma.	
   Government	of	the	Balearic	Islands.	Consell	Insular.	Consortium	for	
   the	Economic	Vitalization	of	Rural	Zone	5B.	

•	 DIRECTORATE	GENERAL	FOR	BIODIVERSITY	(2005):	PORN	
   Tramuntana	[cartographic	material]:	Scope	PORN.	Department	of	
   the	Environment,	Directorate	General	for	Biodiveristy,	Geographical	
   Technical Team.

•	 EQUIP	SERRAT	(2002):	“Estudi	ambiental,	cultural	I	de	desenvoluopa-
   ment	sostenible	de	la	Serra	de	Tramuntana”.	Balearic	Ministry	of	the	
   Environment.	Palma.




326
                                                                   6. Monit or ing




•	 EQUIP	TRAMUNTANA	(1988):	Pla	territorial	parcial	de	la	Serra	de	
   Tramuntana	(6	Vols.).	Balearic	Ministry	for	Public	Works	and	Spatial	
   Planning	and	University	of	the	Balearic	Islands.	Palma	.

•	 GOVERNMENT	OF	THE	BALEARIC	ISLANDS,	MINISTRY	FOR	
   AGRICULTURE	&	FISHERIES	(1995):	Inventari	de	biodiversitat	de	les	
   finques	públiques		de	la	Serra	de	Tramuntana	(Mallorca).	Directorate	
   General	for	Agricultural	Structure	&	the	Environment,	1995.	p.	211	+	4	
   plans. Technical conservation documents. 2nd part. 2,3.

•	 GOVERNMENT	OF	THE	BALEARIC	ISLANDS,	MINISTRY	FOR	AGRI-
   CULTURE	&	FISHERIES,	DIRECTORATE	GENERAL	FOR	AGRICUL-
   TURAL	STRUCTURES	&	THE	ENVIRONMENT	(1995):	Inventari	de	bio-
   diversitat	de	les	finques	públiques		de	la		Serra	de	Tramuntana	(Mallorca).	
   Technical	conservation	documents.1st	part	;	1.	Vol.	I	(1st	Part).	p.	82.	

•	 GOVERNMENT	OF	THE	BALEARIC	ISLANDS,	MINISTRY	FOR	
   AGRICULTURE	&	FISHERIES	(1995):	Inventari	d	biodiversitat	de	les	
   finques	públiques	de	la	Serra	de	Tramuntana	(Mallorca).	Directorate	
   General	for	Agricultural	Structures	&	the	Environment.	Technical	
   Conservation	Documents.	2nd	part.	1.	p.165.

•	 RODRÍGUEZ	PEREA	A.	(coord.)	(1998):	La	Serra	de	Tramuntana	:	
   aportacions per a un debat.

•	 RUIZ	ALTABA,	C.	(1996):	Pla d’Ordenació dels Recursos naturals de la zona
   central de la Serra de Tramuntana (Unpublished	document).	Balearic	
   Ministry	of	Agriculture.	Palma.		p.161	+	map.	

2) Dry Stone works and catalogues:

•	 ALOMAR,	G.;	FERRER,	I.;	GRIMALT,	M.;	MUS,	M.;	REYNÉS,	A.;	
   RODRÍ–GUEZ,	R.	(2000): Les marjades i el medi ambient a la Vall de Sóller
   i Fornalutx.	Aubaïna.	Bulletin	of	the	Balearic	Museum	of	Natural	Sci-
   ences.	1:	13-17.	
   -	 (2000):	“Cartographie des espaces en terrasses dans la Serra de
       Tramuntana, Majorque, Baléare “ in	ACOVITSIOTI-HAMEAU	P.S.:	
       Regards Croisés.	Minutes	of	6th	International	Congress	on	Dry	
       Stone.	Brignoles-Var	:	A.S.E.R.	du	Centre-Var.	p.75-82.
   -	 (2000):	“Fonctionnement	hydraulique	des	champs	en	terrasses	de	
       la	Serra	de	Tramuntana–Majorque,	Baléares“	in	ACOVITSIOTI-
       HAMEAU,	Pierre Sèche: Regards Croisés. Minutes of 6th International
       Congress	on	Dry	Stone.	Brignoles-Var	:	A.S.E.R.	du	Centre-Var.	p.	83-86.	




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•	 FODESMA	(1997):	La Pedra en sec. Obra, paisatge i patrimoni. Minutes of
   4th	International	Congress	on	Dry	Stone.	Gràfiques	Miramar.	Palma.

•	 REYNÉS,	A.;	ALOMAR,	G.;	FERRER,	I.;	GRIMALT,	M.;	RODRÍGUEZ,	
   R.	(2000):	“The PATTER project, an innovative European initiative for the
   cataloguing and preservation of the terrace cultivation in the Mediterranean
   area” in	RUBIO,	J.	L.;	ASINS,	S.;	ANDREU,	A.;	DE	PAZ,	J.M.;	GI-
   MENO,	E.:	Man and Soil at the Third Millennium. Book of Abstracts.	Euro-
   pean	Society	for	Soil	Conservation.	Valencia.	p.	165.

•	 RODRÍGUEZ,	R.;	ALOMAR,	G.;	FERRER,	I.;	GRIMALT,	M.;	REYNÉS,	
   A.	(2000):	“Typologies	of	disposition	of	dry	stone	contention	walls	on	
   the	terrace	cultivation	area	of	Majorca	Island”	in	RUBIO,	J.L.;	ASINS,	
   S.;	ANDREU,	A.;	DE	PAZ,	J.M.;	GIMENO,	E.:	Man and Soil at the Third
   Millennium. Book of Abstracts.	European	Society	for	Soil	Conservation.	
   Valencia.	p.178.

•	 GRIMALT,	M.;	BLÁZQUEZ,	M.;	RODRÍGUEZ-GOMILA,	R.	
   (1992):	Physical factors, distribution and present land-use of terraces in the
   Tramuntana Mountain Range.	Pirineos.	139.	14-.5

3) Heritage paths reports

•	 COLOMAR,	A.	et al.	(1993):	Catàleg dels antics camins de la serra de
   Tramuntana.	Consell	Insular	de	Mallorca.	Palma.

•	 VERGER	POCOVÍ,	J.	(1992	&	1994):	Catàleg dels antics camins de la serra
   de tramuntana. Consell	Insular	de	Mallorca.	Palma.	p.	380	.	

4) Natural heritage

•	 ALCOVER,	J.	A.	(1979):	Els mamífers de les Balears in Manuals
   d’Introducció	a	la	Naturalesa.	Ed	Moll.	Palma.	p.	190.	

•	 ALOMAR	CANYELLES,	G.	(2006):	“Vegetació	dels	canyons	càrstics	de	
   la	Serra	de	Tramuntana	de	Mallorca	(Balears,	Espanya)”,	in	the	journal	
   Endins,	issue	30.	p.	109-120.	

•	 SASTRE,	V.	&	ROMAN,	A.	(1997):	El	ferreret:	tesoro	de	la	Serra	de	Tra-
   muntana.	Balearic	Ministry	for	Agriculture	&	Fisheries,	Directorate	
   General	for	Agricultural	Structures	&	the	Environment.




328
                                                                   6. Monit or ing




•	 TÉBAR,	F	J.	(1990):	La	Flora	y	los	ecosistemas	vegetales	en	Plan	de	
   ordenación	de	los	recursos	naturales	del	sector	norte	de	la	Serra	de	
   Tramuntana de Mallorca. Unpublished.

5) History and Cultural Heritage

•	 ARAMBURU,	J.;	GARRIDO,	C.;	SASTRE,	V.	(1995):	Guía	Arqueológica	
   de	Mallorca.	Olañeta	Editors.	La	Foradada	collection.

•	 BYNE,	A.	y	STAPLEY,	M.		(1982):	Cases	i	Jardins	de	Mallorca.	Palma.

•	 CAÑELLAS	SERRANO,	N.S	(1997):	El	paisatge	de	l’Arxiduc.	Institut	
   d’Estudis	Baleàrics.	Government	of	the	Balearic	Islands.	Palma.	

•	 CARBONERO	GAMUNDÍ,	M.	A.	(1984):	Terrasses	per	al	cultiu	irrigat	
   i	distribució	social	de	l’aigua	a	Banyalbufar	(Mallorca).	Geographical	
   analysis,	issue	4,	p.	31-68.	http://ddd.uab.cat/pub/dag/02121573n4p31.pdf
   -	 (1986):	“Els	molins	hidráulics	de	l’illa	de	Mallorca”.	In	Quinze	anys	de	
       premis	d’investigació	Ciutat	de	Palma.	Palma	City	Council.	p.	137-155.
   -	 (1992):		L’Espai	de	l’aigua.	Petita	hidràulica	tradicional	a	Mallorca.	
       Consell	Insular	de	Mallorca.	Palma.

•	 GORRIAS,	A.	(2001):	Les	Cases	de	neu	de	Mallorca.	El	Far.	Palma.

•	 KIRCHNER,	H.	et	al.	(1986):	“Molins	d’origen	musulmá	a	
    Banyalbufar”.	Estudis	Baleàrics,	21,	pp.	77-86.
   -	 (1994):	Espais	irrigats	andalusins	a	la	Serra	de	Tramuntana	de		
      Mallorca	i	la	seva	vinculació	amb	el	poblament.		711/1229,	Moslem	
      period	a.	Afers	(0213-1471),	vol.	9,	no.	18,	p.	313-336.
   -	 (1994a):	“Espais	irrigats	i	assentaments	andalusins	a	la	Valí	de	
      Bunyola	(Mallorca)”.	4th	Congress	on	Spanish	Medieval	Archaeol-
      ogy.	Societies	in	transition,	Alicante.	Vol.	H,	pp.517-523.	
   -	 (1994b):	“Espais	irrigats	andalusins	a	la	Serra	de	Tramuntana	de	
      Mallorca	i	la	seva	vinculado	amb	el	poblament”.	Afers.	IX-18,	pp.	313-336.
   -	 (1995a):	“Construir	el	agua.	Irrigación	y	trabajo	campesino	en	la	
      Edad	Media”.	Arbor.	CLI,	593,	pp.	36-64.
   -	 (1995b):”Espacios	irrigados	de	origen	andalusí	en	la	Serra	de	
      Tramuntana	de	Mallorca.	El	caso	de	Coanegra”,	1st	Congress	on	
      Peninsular	Archaeology.	Minutes	VI,	Oporto,	pp.	351-359.
   -	 (1996):	“Colonització	de	Lo	Regne	de	Mallorques	qui	és	dins	la	mar.	
      La	subversió	feudal	dels	espais	agraris	andalusins	a	Mallorca	,	in	
      P.	SÉNAC	(comp.):	Histoire	et	Archeologie	des	Terres	Catalanes	au	
      Moyen	Age,	Perpignan,	Perpignan	University	Press,	pp.	279-316.




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      -	 (1997):	La	construcció	de	l’espai	pagés	a	Mayurqa:	les	valls	de	
         Bunyola,	Orient,	Coanegra	i	Alaró.	University	of	the	Balearic	Is-
         lands.	Palma	de	Mallorca..

•	 MASCARÓ	PASARIUS,	J.	(1960-1965):	Corpus	de	toponimia	de	
   Mallorca.	Palma.	

•	 MURRAY,	D.	G.;	LLABRES,	J.	;	PASCUAL,	A.	(1990):	Jardines	de	
   Mallorca.	Tradición	y	estilo.	Ed.	Olañeta.

•	 SEGURA,	M.	&	VICENS,	J.	(1987):	Possessions	de	Mallorca.	Vol.	II	(113-
   116).	Teix.	Palma-Campos

•	 SEGURA,	M.	;	VICENS,	J.	(1988):	Possessions	de	Mallorca.	Vol.	1.	Teix,	
   Campos.

•	 SEGURA,	M.;	VICENS,	J.	(1992):	Possessions	de	Mallorca.	Vol.	IV.	Bit-
   zoc,	Palma.




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6. Monit or ing




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7

Documentation




332
                                                                            7. Documentat ion




      7.a Photographs, slides, inventory of images,
          photograph authorization form and other audiovisual materials

No    Format        Caption               Date of Photo   Photographer/     Copyright             Contact details of   Non
                                                          Director of the   owner                 copyright owner      exclusive
                                                          video                                                        cession of
                                                                                                                       rights

001   DVD           Serra                 October, 2008   Aina Lleuger      Consell               Consell              yes
                    de Tramuntana                                           de Mallorca           de Mallorca
                                                                                                  C/ General Riera,
                                                                                                  113
                                                                                                  07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España

002   Digital       Andratx – island of   November,       Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   Sa Dragonera          2007                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
003   Digital       Deià – Son Marroig March,             Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                      2007                                                       07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
004   Digital       Deià – Llucalcari     March,          Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                         2007                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
005   Digital       Font de Montcaire     November,       Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                         2002                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
004   Digital       Deià – Llucalcari     March,          Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                         2007                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
006   Digital       Valldemossa           February,       Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                         2007                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
007   Digital       Valldemossa           January,        Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                         2007                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
008   Digital       Valldemossa           July,           Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                         2007                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
009   Digital       Pollença –            June,           Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   Formentor             2008                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
010   Digital       Bunyola               February,       Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                         2008                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
011   Digital       Escorca               May,            Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                         2008                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
012   Digital       Valldemossa           July,           Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                         2007                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
013   Digital       Pollença              January,        Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                         2008                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
014   Digital       Banyalbufar           April,          Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                         1998                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
015   Digital       Valldemossa –         June,           Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   Son Marroig           001                                                     07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
016   Digital       Pollença              February,       Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                         1989                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España
017   Digital       Pollença              September,      Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                         1994                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                  (Mallorca) España




                                                                                            333
                         Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana


No    Format        Caption              Date of Photo       Photographer/            Copyright       Contact details of   Non
                                                             Director of the          owner           copyright owner      exclusive
                                                             video                                                         cession of
                                                                                                                           rights

018   Digital       Ariany               September,          Marcos Molina            Marcos Molina   Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                        1994                                                         07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España
019   Digital       Deià – Sa Foradada February,             Marcos Molina            Marcos Molina   Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography                      1994                                                           07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España
020   Digital       Raixa 013            December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


021   Digital       Raixa 047            December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


022   Digital       Raixa 070            December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


023   Digital       Raixa 145            December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


024   Digital       Biniaraix 009        December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


025   Digital       Biniaraix 018        December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


026   Digital       Biniaraix 020        December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


027   Digital       Biniaraix 075        December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


028   Digital       Biniaraix 085        December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


029   Digital       Biniaraix 101        December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


030   Digital       Biniaraix 115        December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España




                         334
                                                                      7. Documentat ion


No    Format        Caption         Date of Photo   Photographer/     Copyright           Contact details of   Non
                                                    Director of the   owner               copyright owner      exclusive
                                                    video                                                      cession of
                                                                                                               rights

031   Digital       Biniaraix 119   December,       Tolo Oliver       Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2009                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


032   Digital       Biniaraix 152   December,       Tolo Oliver       Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2009                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


033   Digital       Biniaraix 205   December,       Tolo Oliver       Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2009                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


034   Digital       Biniaraix 210   December,       Tolo Oliver       Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2009                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


035   Digital       Sóller 030      December,       Tolo Oliver       Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2009                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


036   Digital       Deià 056        December,       Tolo Oliver       Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2009                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


037   Digital       Deia 062        December,       Tolo Oliver       Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2009                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


038   Digital       Deia 072        December,       Tolo Oliver       Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2009                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


039   Digital       Deia 101        December,       Tolo Oliver       Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2009                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


040   Digital       Deia 120        December,       Tolo Oliver       Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2009                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


041   Digital       Deia 141        December,       Tolo Oliver       Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2009                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


042   Digital       Deia 146        December,       Tolo Oliver       Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2009                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España




                                                                                    335
                         Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana


No    Format        Caption              Date of Photo       Photographer/            Copyright     Contact details of   Non
                                                             Director of the          owner         copyright owner      exclusive
                                                             video                                                       cession of
                                                                                                                         rights

043   Digital       Valldemossa 052      December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                    General Riera, 113
                                                                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                    (Mallorca) España


044   Digital       Valldemossa 063      December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                    General Riera, 113
                                                                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                    (Mallorca) España


045   Digital       Valldemossa 100      December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                    General Riera, 113
                                                                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                    (Mallorca) España


046   Digital       Valldemossa 121      December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                    General Riera, 113
                                                                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                    (Mallorca) España


047   Digital       Valldemossa 131      December,           Tolo Oliver              Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                                         de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                    General Riera, 113
                                                                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                    (Mallorca) España


048   Digital       14 Capilla Alarò     December,           Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                        2009                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                    General Riera, 113
                                                                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                    (Mallorca) España


049   Digital       28 detalle baldosas November,            Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                       2007                 de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                    General Riera, 113
                                                                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                    (Mallorca) España


050   Digital       barraca              November,           Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                        2007                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                    General Riera, 113
                                                                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                    (Mallorca) España


051   Digital       casa de neu          November,           Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography   Fartàritx            2007                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                    General Riera, 113
                                                                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                    (Mallorca) España


052   Digital       casa de neu          November,           Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography   Tossals              2007                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                    General Riera, 113
                                                                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                    (Mallorca) España


053   Digital       Font es Verger       November,           Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                        2007                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                    General Riera, 113
                                                                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                    (Mallorca) España


054   Digital       Forn de calç         November,           Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography   (Santa Maria)        2007                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                    General Riera, 113
                                                                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                    (Mallorca) España




                         336
                                                                           7. Documentat ion


No    Format        Caption              Date of Photo   Photographer/     Copyright           Contact details of   Non
                                                         Director of the   owner               copyright owner      exclusive
                                                         video                                                      cession of
                                                                                                                    rights

055   Digital       margers              November,       Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                        2007            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                               General Riera, 113
                                                                                               07010 Palma
                                                                                               (Mallorca) España


056   Digital       molí de roda         November,       Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography   vertical             2007            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                               General Riera, 113
                                                                                               07010 Palma
                                                                                               (Mallorca) España


057   Digital       pedra en sec         November,       Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography   barranç, Biniaraix   2007            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                               General Riera, 113
                                                                                               07010 Palma
                                                                                               (Mallorca) España


058   Digital       Pont clot            November,       Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography   d’Almadrà            2007            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                               General Riera, 113
                                                                                               07010 Palma
                                                                                               (Mallorca) España


059   Digital       porxo olivar         November,       Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography   barran Biniaraix     2007            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                               General Riera, 113
                                                                                               07010 Palma
                                                                                               (Mallorca) España


060   Digital       Porxo olivar         November,       Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                        2007            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                               General Riera, 113
                                                                                               07010 Palma
                                                                                               (Mallorca) España


061   Digital       senderisme           November,       Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                        2007            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                               General Riera, 113
                                                                                               07010 Palma
                                                                                               (Mallorca) España


062   Digital       ses Rotes            November,       Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography   Fredes Alaró         2007            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                               General Riera, 113
                                                                                               07010 Palma
                                                                                               (Mallorca) España


063   Digital       Sínia                November,       Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                        2007            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                               General Riera, 113
                                                                                               07010 Palma
                                                                                               (Mallorca) España


064   Digital       Tafona               November,       Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography   Son Torrella         2007            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                               General Riera, 113
                                                                                               07010 Palma
                                                                                               (Mallorca) España


065   Digital       Torre de Lluc        November,       Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                        2007            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                               General Riera, 113
                                                                                               07010 Palma
                                                                                               (Mallorca) España


066   Digital       3 acequia Sóller     November,       Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                        2007            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                               General Riera, 113
                                                                                               07010 Palma
                                                                                               (Mallorca) España




                                                                                         337
                           Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana


No    Format        Caption                Date of Photo       Photographer/            Copyright     Contact details of   Non
                                                               Director of the          owner         copyright owner      exclusive
                                                               video                                                       cession of
                                                                                                                           rights

067   Digital       4 fuente pública       November,           Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                          2007                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


068   Digital       11 noria 4             November,           Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                          2007                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


069   Digital       12 desviador           November,           Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography   de agua                2007                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


070   Digital       13 acequia             November,           Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography   Coanegra               2007                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


071   Digital       16 fuente              November,           Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography   Escorca                2007                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


072   Digital       Ca N’Eixartell (8)     June,               Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


073   Digital       Calvari Pollença       June,               Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


074   Digital       Camí Barranç           June,               Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography   somera                 2008                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                    passadores                                                                        General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


075   Digital       Camps cultivats        June,               Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography   muntanya               2008                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


076   Digital       Deià                   June,               Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


077   Digital       Finestra               June,               Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


078   Digital       La Granja              June,               Consell                  Consell       Consell              yes
      Photography   Esporles               2008                de Mallorca              de Mallorca   de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España




                           338
                                                                      7. Documentat ion


No    Format        Caption         Date of Photo   Photographer/     Copyright           Contact details of   Non
                                                    Director of the   owner               copyright owner      exclusive
                                                    video                                                      cession of
                                                                                                               rights

079   Digital       Marges          June,           Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography   d’olivar        2008            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


080   Digital       Mirador         June,           Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography   Miramar         2008            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                    Foradada                                                              General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


081   Digital       Miramar         June,           Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2008            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


082   Digital       Origen          June,           Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography   Fonts Ufanes    2008            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


083   Digital       Possessió       June,           Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography   muntanya        2008            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


084   Digital       Possessió       June,           Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2008            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


085   Digital       S’Estaca        June,           Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography   possessió mar   2008            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


086   Digital       Templet         June,           Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography   Son Marroig     2008            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                    postasol                                                              General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


087   Digital       Torrent         June,           Consell           Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2008            de Mallorca       de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


088   Digital       PCE0093-042     June,           Govern Balear     Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2008                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


089   Digital       PCE0093-060     June,           Govern Balear     Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2008                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España


090   Digital       PCE0093-064     June,           Govern Balear     Consell             Consell              yes
      Photography                   2008                              de Mallorca         de Mallorca
                                                                                          General Riera, 113
                                                                                          07010 Palma
                                                                                          (Mallorca) España




                                                                                    339
                         Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana


No    Format        Caption                Date of Photo     Photographer/            Copyright       Contact details of   Non
                                                             Director of the          owner           copyright owner      exclusive
                                                             video                                                         cession of
                                                                                                                           rights

091   Digital       PCE0093-079            June,             Govern Balear            Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                                       de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


092   Digital       PCE0093-080            June,             Govern Balear            Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                                       de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


093   Digital       PCE0093-085            June,             Govern Balear            Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                                       de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


094   Digital       PCE0093-087            June,             Govern Balear            Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                                       de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


095   Digital       PCE0093-091            June,             Govern Balear            Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                                       de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


096   Digital       PCE0093-091            June,             Govern Balear            Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                                       de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


097   Digital       27777                  November,         Estop SA                 Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                                       de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


098   Digital       34837                  November,         Estop SA                 Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                                       de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


099   Digital       70212                  November,         Estop SA                 Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                                       de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


100   Digital       70216                  November,         Estop SA                 Consell         Consell              yes
      Photography                          2008                                       de Mallorca     de Mallorca
                                                                                                      General Riera, 113
                                                                                                      07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España


101   Digital       002 Calvià - Finca     September,        Marcos Molina            Marcos Molina   Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   Galatzó (façana)       2009                                                       07010 Palma
                    - presa                                                                           (Mallorca) España
102   Digital       005 Calvià             September,        Marcos Molina            Marcos Molina   Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - Finca Galatzó        2009                                                       07010 Palma
                    (aqueducte)                                                                       (Mallorca) España
103   Digital       013 Coll de Sóller,    December,         Marcos Molina            Marcos Molina   Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   finca Es Teix (font)   2008                                                       07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España
104   Digital       014 Coll de Sóller,    December,         Marcos Molina            Marcos Molina   Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   finca Es Teix (font)   2008                                                       07010 Palma
                                                                                                      (Mallorca) España



                         340
                                                                           7. Documentat ion


No    Format        Caption              Date of Photo   Photographer/     Copyright             Contact details of   Non
                                                         Director of the   owner                 copyright owner      exclusive
                                                         video                                                        cession of
                                                                                                                      rights

105   Digital       019 Alaró            March,          Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - Castell d’Alaró    2009                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                 (Mallorca) España
106   Digital       026 Caimari          September,      Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - Marjades           2009                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                 (Mallorca) España
107   Digital       031 Valldemossa      December,       Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - Miramar            2008                                                    07010 Palma
                    (els 13 ponts)                                                               (Mallorca) España
108   Digital       039 Sóller           December,       Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - Era de batre       2008                                                    07010 Palma
                    (Can Prohom)                                                                 (Mallorca) España
109   Digital       041 Sóller           April,          Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - finca Can Bardí/   2009                                                    07010 Palma
                    prensa olives                                                                (Mallorca) España
110   Digital       043 Sóller           March,          Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - Biniaraix,         2009                                                    07010 Palma
                    es Cornadors                                                                 (Mallorca) España
111   Digital       046 Sóller           December,       Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   – Fornalutx          2008                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                 (Mallorca) España
112   Digital       050 Sóller           December,       Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - Barranc            2008                                                    07010 Palma
                    de Biniaraix                                                                 (Mallorca) España
113   Digital       055 Escorca          September,      Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - Sa Canaleta des    2009                                                    07010 Palma
                    Massanella (Pont)                                                            (Mallorca) España
114   Digital       062 Escorca          September,      Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - Bosc des Prat      2009                                                    07010 Palma
                    - Sitja carboners,                                                           (Mallorca) España
                    Forn de calç

115   Digital       074 Escorca- Camí September,         Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   de sa Costera (Cala 2009                                                     07010 Palma
                    Tuent-Bàlitx)                                                                (Mallorca) España
116   Digital       080 Escorca          May,            Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - finca Albarca      2009                                                    07010 Palma
                    (Lluc)                                                                       (Mallorca) España
117   Digital       087 Escorca          December,       Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - Font de            2008                                                    07010 Palma
                    Montcaire                                                                    (Mallorca) España
118   Digital       093 Pollença         August,         Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - Castell del Rei    2009                                                    07010 Palma
                                                                                                 (Mallorca) España
119   Digital       101 Banyalbufar/     December,       Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   poble, marjades      2008                                                    07010 Palma
                    (panoràmica)                                                                 (Mallorca) España
120   Digital       102 Sóller           December,       Marcos Molina     Marcos Molina         Can Socies 46-Aª     no
      Photography   - Fornalutx/poble,   2008                                                    07010 Palma
                    marjades                                                                     (Mallorca) España
                    (panoràmica)




                                                                                           341
                                     Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                     7.b. Texts related to the protective designation,
                                          copies of management plans of the nominated property
                                          or documented management systems, and extracts of other
                                          plans applicable to the property


                                     SYSTEM OF PROTECTION FOR DESIGNATED
                                     PICTURESQUE SITES

                                     JOSÉ V. FERNÁNDEZ-VENTURA ÁLVAREZ
                                     Attorney at law of the Self-Governing Region of the Balearic Islands
                                     A PICTURESQUE SITE IN LEGISLATION GOVERNING HISTORIC
                                     HERITAGE

                                           1. The appearance of this designation in legislation pertaining to the Spanish
                                           Republic in 1931. Possible confusion with categories from other legislative fields.

                                          Scarcely one and a half years after the introduction of the Act of De-
                                     cember 10th 1931 regulating artistic, archaeological and historic property
                                     and objects of over one hundred years of age and transfer of ownership (N.
*
     Translator’s note: Número       Dicc. 23161*), in compliance with the provisions of article 18 of the said act,
     diccionario (reference to law
     collection by Arazandi and      an Act of May 13th 1933 was passed on the defence, conservation and accrual
     dictionary no.)                 of national historic and artistic heritage (RCL* 729 and N. Dicc 21163). Arti-
*
     Translator’s note: Reperto-     cle 3 of the latter assigns authority over everything relating to the defence,
     rio cronológico de legisla-
     ción. (Chronological statu-     conservation and accrual of the aforementioned heritage to the Directorate
     tory law collection)            General for Fine Art, entrusting it – amongst other duties – with the crea-
                                     tion of an inventory of the nation’s historic and artistic heritage, with the
                                     inclusion “… of all buildings worthy of it, and also urban ensembles and
                                     picturesque sites that must be conserved from destruction or harmful al-
                                     terations” in a Catalogue of Historic and Artistic Monuments

                                         Although it is clear that the 1933 legislator did not have a fully-defined
                                     idea of the new categories of assets to be protected, particularly the pic-
                                     turesque site category, his aim in this respect was evident, as can be seen
                                     in the provisions of article 33 of the said act, where the principles relating
                                     to an already well-known figure in legislation from the time – historic
                                     and artistic monuments – were extended to encompass certain urban and
                                     rural ensembles that fulfilled certain specified characteristics (beauty,
15
     See, among others, the          monumental value, or historical reminders).15
     Decree of June 3rd 1931 (N.
     Dicc. 23160) on historic and
     artistic monuments of na-       As for picturesque sites, the option chosen by the legislator was much
     tional artistic heritage.
                                     more daring, because it interfered with another scope of protection: legis-
                                     lation on national parks, defined in an Act of December 7th 1916 (N. Dicc.




                                     342
                                                                      7. Documentat ion




14509) as “outstandingly picturesque wooded or wild places in Spain”. In
this act, protected categories such as “national places”, “places of national
interest” and “national monuments”16 are described, with little or nothing                  16
                                                                                                 On this subject, see the Royal
                                                                                                 Decree of February 23rd 1917
to differentiate them from the not very highly esteemed concept of a pic-                        whereby the regulations of
turesque site contained in the Act of May 13th 1933.                                             the Act of December 7th of
                                                                                                 1916 are passed; the Royal Or-
                                                                                                 der of July 15th 1927 (N. Dicc.
  The confusion grew from the moment that, in some of the said legisla-                          14510) on the declaration of
                                                                                                 places and monuments of
tion that regulated the protection of what we would today call natural                           national interest; and the
                                                                                                 Decree of April 13th 1934
spaces, favourable circumstances for a place to be officially protected in-                      (N. Dicc. 14513) whereby the
cluded the fact that the beauty of the landscape to be protected and any                         regulations of the National
                                                                                                 Parks Committee are passed.
corresponding items of interest were enhanced by their “religious, scientific,
artistic, historic or legendary value”17, so that the protection of a certain               17
                                                                                                 Article 1 of the Royal Order
                                                                                                 of July 15th 1927, mentioned
“site” and its regulation under one law or another was totally up to the ad-                     in the previous note.
ministrative body that opened proceedings for its official protection.

2. Picturesque sites from 1939. The effective use of the designation through to Act
   15/1975 of May 2nd on protected natural spaces.

The situation did not improve much when, once the Spanish Civil War
was over and powers had been assigned to the Spanish Ministry of Educa-
tion for the defence of what was known as artistic heritage, former legisla-
tion on national parks was contained in forestry legislation. Article 1 of
the Act of December 7th 1916 was simply transcribed in article 78 of the
Forestry Act of June 8th 1957 (RCL 776 and N. Dicc. 21569), while article
190.5 of the Forestry Regulations, approved by virtue of Decree 485/1962
of February 22nd (RCL 1657), was a mere transcription of article 1 of the
Royal Order of July 15th 1927 with regard to the favourable circumstance                    18
                                                                                                 Nothing had been clari-
                                                                                                 fied by the regulations of
for the natural site’s protection being the enhancement of its beauty by                         the act, approved by virtue
those values indicated in the old law dating back to the days of dictator                        of a Decree of April 16th
                                                                                                 1936 (RCL 794 and N. Dicc.
Primo de Rivera.                                                                                 23164), which only contains
                                                                                                 the occasional reference to
                                                                                                 picturesque sites in articles
Due to a lack of any other definition of the concept that was not the lit-                       19 and 29.
eral one given in the 1933 legislation on historic heritage18, which contin-                19
                                                                                                 Decree 445/1973 of Febru-
                                                                                                 ary 22nd (RCL 451)
ued to remain in effect, and due to confusion with similar designations in
legislation on natural parks, the ‘picturesque site’ category went almost                   20
                                                                                                 Decree 308/1969 of Febru-
                                                                                                 ary 13th (N. Dicc. 23238)
unnoticed until the early 1970s. Until then, as well as the well-known
designation ‘a historic and artistic monument’ (of which there are thou-                    21
                                                                                                 Decree 307/1969 of Febru-
                                                                                                 ary 13th (N. Dicc. 23238) and
sands of examples in Spain), another form of protection was mainly used,                         Decree 2141/1974 of July
provided for in the Act of May 13th 1933 and its regulations: ‘a historic                        20th (N. Dicc. 2318).
and artistic ensemble’. This was applied to realities as widely differing as                22
                                                                                                 Decree 3710/1974 of Decem-
                                                                                                 ber 20th (N. Dicc. 23324).
the Plaza Mayor (main square) in Tembleque (Toledo)19, Jewish quarter of
Hervás (Cáceres)20, cities of Ibiza and Alcúdia21, old quarter of the town                  23
                                                                                                 Decree 2642/1972 of August
                                                                                                 18th (N. Dicc. 23290).
of Muro22, iron and ceramic manufacturing complex at Sargadelos23, and




                                                                                      343
                                      Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




24
     Decree 2224/1962 of Septem-      whole of the pilgrim route known as the Camino de Santiago24, to cite
     ber 5th (N. Dicc. 23193)
                                      some examples.

                                      It is true, however, that by virtue of a Decree of June 12th 1953 (RCL 840
                                      and N. Dicc. 23176), the Spanish Ministry of Education had been ordered
                                      to proceed with “the immediate formalization of a General Inventory
                                      of National Artistic Heritage”, reiterating the need to include, as stated
                                      in article 2, “prehistoric ruins or sites, buildings declared or registered
                                      as being national monuments, artistic gardens, urban ensembles and
                                      picturesque sites that must be preserved from destruction or damaging
                                      alterations”. There was now a comprehensive set of regulations that made
                                      it possible to take advantage of the extensive experience built up through
                                      the protection of historic and artistic ensembles and apply it to the prac-
25
     Among others, the Decree of      tically unused ‘picturesque site’ designation 25.
     July 22nd 1958 (RCL 794 and
     N. Dicc. 26164) on provincial
     and local monuments of           Another favourable factor that must be mentioned was the creation of
     historic and artistic interest
     and an Order of November         the Historic and Artistic Ensembles Service, by virtue of an Order of Janu-
     20th 1964 (N. Dicc. 23207),      ary 19th 1971 (RCL 530), with extensive powers in this matter (relating to
     by virtue of which institu-
     tions for the defence of his-    monumental cities, historic and artistic ensembles, historic gardens and
     toric and artistic ensembles
     are approved.
                                      picturesque sites), plus one circumstance that might initially seem irrel-
                                      evant but which, in our opinion, no doubt boosted the development and
                                      application of the ‘picturesque site’ category. This was the amendment, by
                                      virtue of Decree 3768/1972 of December 23rd (RCL 244) of articles 189 to
                                      201 of the aforementioned Forestry Regulations of 1962, which now came
                                      to contain the contents of former article 190.5 in a new article 192.3, with
                                      the following text:

                                               “3. A favourable circumstance for the declaration of national
                                      parks and natural places of national interest will occur when the reasons
                                      for this declaration are further enhanced by the religious, artistic, archae-
                                      ological, historic or legendary value of the place. However, these values
                                      will be complementary to the barely modified anthropic state of the natu-
                                      ral space to be protected, because otherwise it will be incumbent upon the
                                      Ministry of Education and Science to adopt the necessary legal measures
                                      to protect these values.”

                                      In this way, a clear criterion (or difference in grade) was introduced be-
                                      tween “picturesque sites” in legislation governing historic and artistic her-
                                      itage and protected designations in legislation governing natural spaces
                                      (albeit formally governing forestry): the greater or lesser human imprint
                                      on the place in question (through a variety expressions, including cultural
                                      and artistic ones).




                                      344
                                                                7. Documentat ion




With this decisive boost to Historic & Artistic Heritage Committees, which
had assumed authority in this field from the Directorate General for Fine
Art, and with the inclusion of the occasional mixed category (known as ‘ar-
tistic and picturesque ensembles’ and ‘historic and picturesque ensembles’),
it was from 1970 well into 1976 that most picturesque sites were declared in
Spain that can now be found in the pages of the Spanish Official Gazette
and in in-vogue collections and dictionaries of legislation.


THE NORTHWEST COAST OF MALLORCA
AS A PICTURESQUE SITE

Decree 984/1972 of March 24th

By virtue of Decree 984/1972 of March 24th, published in Spanish Official
Gazette no. 94 of April 19th, the northwest coast of the island of Mallorca
was declared a Picturesque Site. It appears in the Inventory of Spanish
Artistic and Archaeological Heritage, published in deluxe style in 1973 as
Spain’s contribution to European Architecture Year, held the same year.

In this inventory, in the section on declared historic and artistic monu-
ments and ensembles, picturesque sites and artistic gardens in the Balear-
ics, the northwest coast of Mallorca is cited as a Picturesque Site under
reference no. P-P:D0821P-P.

Justification for this designation is given in the preamble to Decree
984/1972 of March 24th, with the expressive, carefully chosen words repro-
duced here:

“The northwest coast of Mallorca, praised by Spanish and foreign pens,
transferred to paintings by eminent paintbrushes, the cradle of illustri-
ous figures, with marvellous landscapes of international renown where it
is hard to find a parallel for its rich monuments and historic assets, is an
appealing area of outstanding beauty, with a unique character worthy of
being conserved in its entirety.

Among its numerous rich variety of monuments, a special mention must be
made of the Gothic oratory of Sant Miquel in Campanet, the Gothic palace
of King Sancho and Valldemossa Monastery and, from a decorative point of
view, its gardens and vantage points, strategically situated mainly on the coast
of Miramar; its urban ensembles, monasteries and rural churches, and a mul-
titude of natural or scenic places of interest like the valleys of Son Brondo,
Sóller, Ternalles, Cala Tuent and so many others of incomparable beauty.




                                                                              345
                                   Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                   All this makes it advisable for the northwest coast of Mallorca to be
                                   placed under State protection by declaring it a Picturesque Site”.

                                   This was followed by the provisions of the decree, with the usual cautions
                                   regarding the delimitation of the Picturesque Site on a plan attached to
                                   the procedural documents, warnings to municipal councils and owners
                                   of affected property on the strict observance of legislation governing ar-
                                   tistic heritage and, finally, the declaration that the site came under State
                                   protection, under the direction of the Directorate General for Fine Art of
                                   the Ministry of Education and Science (later the Directorate General for
                                   Artistic and Cultural Heritage of the same ministry).

                                   The peculiarities of the Picturesque Site of Mallorca’s northwest
                                   coast
                                   There can be no doubt that the Picturesque Site of the northwest coast of
                                   Mallorca was the most extensive of all those declared within that category
                                   up until that point (and of all those declared afterwards), with a surface
                                   area that covered ten Mallorcan municipalities either totally or in part, all
                                   situated on the said northwest coast, largely coinciding with the Tramun-
26
     Going round the coast, An-    tana Mountain Range26.
     dratx (excluding the town),
     Estellencs, Banyalbufar,
     Valldemossa, Deià, Sóller     This picturesque site in turn included other assets protected under legis-
     (excluding the town), For-
     nalutx, Esccorca, Campanet    lation governing historic heritage, like Valldemossa Monastery, declared
     and Pollença (excluding the   a Historic and Artistic Ensemble under Decree 1856/1971 of July 8th (RCL
     town).
                                   1431 and N. Dicc. 23278).

                                   Evidently these municipalities were largely excluded, by virtue of the de-
                                   clared protection, from the model of development and prosperity that
                                   other municipalities on the island followed, mainly based on the con-
                                   struction of accommodation for visitors who started to flock to Mallorca
                                   in mass numbers to spend their summer holidays there.

                                   This was also the case of the owners of rural estates situated within this
                                   big protected area, without this sacrifice being properly compensated for
                                   by other measures to promote the area that might have alleviated, insofar
                                   as was possible, the drawbacks of such strong protection as that emanat-
                                   ing from legislation governing historic heritage (which was swiftly joined
                                   by other systems of protection).

                                   As a result, from the date that it was declared a Picturesque Site, the
                                   northwest coast of Mallorca has been marked by numerous attempts by
                                   affected municipalities and individuals with economic interests there to
                                   reduce the level of protection or to avoid protective measures. This high-




                                   346
                                                               7. Documentat ion




lights, among other things, the substantial legal conflicts that this protec-
tion has aroused.

THE NORTHWEST COAST OF MALLORCA, A CULTURAL ASSET
WITH THE CATEGORY OF A HISTORIC SITE. A FRUSTRATED AT-
TEMPT TO REDIRECT PICTURESQUE SITES TOWARD LEGISLA-
TION ON PROTECTED NATURAL SPACES

1. Act 15/1975 of May 2nd on protected natural spaces.
   The final and transitional provisions.

As explained in article 1 of Act 15/1975 of May 2nd on protected natural
spaces (RCL 914), the aim of the said act was to contribute toward nature
conservation, granting special protective regimes to those areas or spaces
in need of such protection due to their singular nature or the interest of
their natural values.

From the articles of the act, it can be inferred that the target of this pro-
tection coincided almost exactly with former legislation on natural parks
that had been incorporated in the 1957 Forestry Act. As a result, the con-
tents of section 1 of the final provision are plausible in terms of the in-
corporation of categories contained in the Forestry Act into the new legal
regime, together with the fact that, in the repeal clause, articles of the Act
of June 8th 1957 and its regulations, where these figures were contemplat-
ed, were repealed.

However, a problem arose from the moment that, in the final provision
of the act, the category of a picturesque site was added to typical figures
from natural parks regulations (national parks, natural places of interest,
and natural monuments of national interest). As we know, picturesque
sites came under the scope of protection of legislation on historic and
artistic heritage.

It was evident that the 1975 legislator thus overlooked the aforesaid dis-
tinction, established in article 192.3 of the Mountain Regulations (after
the amendment made by virtue of Decree 3768/1972 of December 23rd),
regarding the level of human imprint, human presence or anthropic
change to the area to be protected. Likewise, the legislator overlooked that
fact that, in accordance with this criterion, many picturesque sites that
had been thus declared were far removed from those almost “unspoilt”
places referred to in relation to new recently established categories, based
on the familiar model of a national park. This incompatibility was much
more evident in picturesque sites like the northwest coast of Mallorca (or




                                                                            347
                                   Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                   mountain of Montserrat), where the presence of human settlements and
                                   constructions of cultural or artistic importance was more than obvious.

                                   The legislator’s desire to modify the traditional system of protection gov-
                                   erning picturesque sites by shifting it toward categories included in the
                                   Natural Spaces Act was, however, clearly expressed, while in its transition-
                                   al provision the regulation of historic heritage (and forestry affairs) was
27
     In this respect, point 2 of   maintained until former categories were adapted and reclassified.27
     the additional provision
     of Royal Decree 2676/1977
     of March 4th (RCL 2298),            2. The first additional provision and transitional provision eight of
     by virtue of which the
     regulations of Act 15/1975          Act 16/1985 of June 25th on Spanish historic heritage. Its effects on
     were passed, stipulated             picturesque sites.
     that “as for places already
     declared Picturesque Sites
     in accordance with the
     National Artistic Heritage
                                   While the categories contained in forestry legislation were not hard to
     Act, at the proposal of the   adapt to the type of legislation of Act 15/1975 of May 2nd on protected
     Ministry of Education
     and Science, they shall       natural spaces (since it was, in essence, the same), what is true is that
     necessarily be reclassified   when Spanish Historic Heritage Act 16/1985 of June 25th (RCL 1547) en-
     in accordance with the
     provisions of point one of    tered into force, the respective final provisions of the Natural Spaces Act
     the final provision of the    and its regulations on picturesque sites had still not been fulfilled. (It is
     Natural Spaces Act”.
                                   very likely that the Ministry of Education and Science, which had been
                                   entrusted with the reclassification, did not put much effort into it).

                                   What is more, during 1976, when Act 15/1975 of May 2nd on protected natu-
                                   ral spaces was already in effect, the occasional picturesque site was still
                                   declared, like Valles de Gistain in Huesca.

                                   Although some already declared picturesque sites (like the mountain
                                   of Montserrat or the northwest coast of Mallorca) fitted in exactly with
                                   the definition of some of the new protective designations created in the
                                   Spanish Historic Heritage Act (particularly the category of a historic site
                                   in article 15.4), the desire of the1985 legislator seems to have followed the
                                   same thinking as before in noting the serious difficulties involved in the
                                   reclassification of picturesque sites in accordance with the typology estab-
                                   lished in the Protected Natural Spaces Act and the application of protec-
                                   tive regimes contemplated in the latter to the said sites.

                                   It is reflected thus in memories of Parliament’s drafting of the Spanish
                                   Historic Heritage Act, described by José Luis ÁLVAREZ in his work “Estu-
                                   dios sobre el Patrimonio Histórico Español” (Madrid: Civitas, 1989, page
                                   467), where he states:

                                          “With regard to picturesque sites, the 1985 act opted to leave them
                                   unregulated, because it was understood that they should be protected




                                   348
                                                                     7. Documentat ion




under the scope of legislation on natural spaces. However, as this could
give rise to an absence of protection, if the legislation repealed by the 1985
act no longer applied, and specific legislation governing them had still
not been created (what happened in reality could already be envisaged to
a certain extent), we could achieve the inclusion of transitional provision
eight through an amendment in the Senate.”

Indeed Spanish Historic Heritage Act 16/1985 of June 25th started out
from the premise of a mistaken reality: picturesque sites had not been
reclassified and the express repeal of the Act of May 13th 1933 and all pre-
vious legislation on artistic and historic heritage (sole repeal provision of
Act 16/1985) left them with no adequate legal coverage.

It was in this way that the new Historic Heritage Act adopted two meas-
ures that we must regard as fully appropriate:

In its first additional provision, it declares that all assets previously de-
clared to be of historic or artistic interest or included in the Inventory of
Spanish Artistic and Archaeological Heritage (we have already seen that
picturesque sites were included) become regarded as and designated items
of cultural interest.

Transitional provision eight states that picturesque sites “shall conserve”
the condition of items of cultural interest (obviously that granted in ad-
ditional provision one, since before this protected category did not exist)
provided that they were not reclassified in accordance with the final provi-
sion of Protected Natural Spaces Act 15/1975 of May 2nd.

As indicated in legal grounds number five of the ruling by the High Court
of January 26th 1999 (Ar. * 356), it was thus that, without the need for an ad-          *
                                                                                             Translator’s note: Arazandi.
                                                                                             Published collections of
ministrative declaration for each of the picturesque sites, they all achieved                jurisprudence.
the condition of items of cultural interest “through legal effect” (a possibil-
ity expressly admitted in article 9 of the same Historic Heritage Act).

3.   Act 4/1989 of March 27th on the conservation of natural spaces and wild flora
     and fauna and its effects with regard to picturesque sites. The northwest coast
     of Mallorca: an item of cultural interest with the category of a historic site.

The transitional situation of picturesque sites as items of cultural interest
was resolved with the entrance into force of Act 4/1989 of March 27th on
the conservation of natural spaces and wild flora and fauna (RCL 660),
whose repeal provision expressly repeals former Protected Natural Spaces
Act 15/1975.




                                                                                  349
                                    Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                    In the new act, reference is no longer made to picturesque sites (which
                                    were still not reclassified in accordance with the categories contemplated
                                    in Act 15/1975 of May 2nd) and still less is there any mention of a hypo-
                                    thetical reclassification, even within the protective framework of new
                                    regulations.

                                    With the repeal of Act 15/1975 of May 2nd, as we see it, the stipulations con-
                                    tained in the transitional and final provisions of the latter therefore became
                                    null and void, making it impossible to reclassify picturesque sites in accord-
                                    ance with categories that no longer existed and invalidating the caveat con-
                                    tained in transitional provision eight of Act 16/1985 of June 25th. This meant
                                    that picturesque sites once and for all assumed the condition of items of
                                    cultural interest, protected by legislation governing historic heritage.

                                    This is how the law courts saw it too. They systematically rejected appeals
                                    by development companies and town councils that questioned the sur-
                                    vival of picturesque sites by arguing that the repeal of Protected Natural
                                    Spaces Act 15/1975 and consequently the repeal of transitional provision
                                    eight of Spanish Historic Heritage Act 16/1985 meant that, from then on,
                                    the regulations and protective regime of legislation governing historic
                                    and artistic heritage could not be applied to picturesque sites.

                                    As for all the above and its relation to the northwest coast of Mallorca,
*
     Translator’s note: Court       the following rulings by the Contentious Administrative Chamber* of the
     that hears appeals against
     administrative decisions.      Balearic High Court of Justice all speak for themselves: rulings no. 434 of
                                    December 11th 1989 (on the subject of the path to Llucalcari; no. 459 of
                                    October 31st 1991 (on the subject of Cala Tuent); no. 179 of May 6th 1992
                                    (which allowed an appeal filed by the Grup de Ornitologia i Defensa de la
                                    Natura); and no. 275 of June 17th 1992 (on the subject of the construction
                                    of homes in Valldemossa).

                                    The same is true of a ruling by the High Court made on January 23rd
                                    1995 (Ar. 64), confirming that of December 11th 1989 of the Balearic High
                                    Court of Justice; a ruling of January 26th 1998 (Ar. 334) confirming that of
                                    the Balearic High Court of Justice of October 31st 1991; and another rul-
                                    ing of January 26th 1999 (Ar. 356), rejecting an appeal by Deià Town Coun-
28
     With reference to pictur-      cil against a ruling by the said court of May 6th28.
     esque sites, see too the
     rulings of the High Court
     of June 9th 1979 (Ar. 2377),   Also understanding that the protective regulation of pictur-
     January 23rd 1980 (Ar. 267),
     February 22nd 1982 (1332),     esque sites could no longer be any other than that of the Spanish
     November 24th 1983 (Ar.        Historic Heritage Act, the State authorities proceeded to fulfil
     6090) and February 20th
     1984 (Ar. 1063).               the stipulations of article 12.1 of the said act, which makes it com-
                                    pulsory for all declared items of cultural interest to be record-




                                    350
                                                                   7. Documentat ion




ed in a general register dependent on this body and, furthermore,
to do it in one of the categories established in article 14.2 of the
same legal text.

For this purpose, once a Register of Items of Cultural Interest had been
created and regulated by virtue of Royal Decree 111/1986 of January 10th
(RCL 275), which partially develops the Spanish Historic Heritage Act, the
Picturesque Site of the northwest coast of Mallorca was recorded in it,
now as an Item of Cultural Interest in the category of a Historic Site with
a new reference number, R-I-54-0038, corresponding to this category29.                 29
                                                                                            During the submission
                                                                                            of evidence of appeal no.
                                                                                            1435/1994 before the Con-
THE BALEARIC HISTORIC HERITAGE ACT                                                          tentious Administrative
                                                                                            Chamber of the Balearic
AND PICTURESQUE SITES                                                                       High Court of Justice, at
                                                                                            the request of the defend-
                                                                                            ant self-governing region,
    First additional provision of Act 12/1998 of December 21st, and the northwest           the Inventory Service of the
                                                                                            Sub-Directorate General for
    coast of Mallorca. The typology of article 6 of the act.                                the Protection of Historic
                                                                                            Heritage issued a certificate
                                                                                            dated March 13th 1995 cer-
During the process of drafting Balearic Historic Heritage Act 12/1998 of                    tifying this circumstance.
December 21st, the last attempt to exclude the northwest coast of Mallor-                   The appeal had been filed
                                                                                            by ARCA with the well-
ca from falling under the protective regime governing artistic and historic                 intentioned aim that the
heritage was made.                                                                          Deià-Sóller section of
                                                                                            secondary road 710 (which
                                                                                            already formed part of the
                                                                                            Item of Cultural Interest
In one of the final drafts of the bill, it had five additional provisions (in-              and Historic Site known as
stead of the four in the finally approved text). The second said:                           the northwest coast of Ma-
                                                                                            llorca) should be declared
                                                                                            an Item of Cultural Inter-
        “SECOND                                                                             est. The appeal was turned
                                                                                            down in ruling no. 525 of
                                                                                            September 27th 1996 by
         The Partial Spatial Plan for the Tramuntana area referred to in                    the Balearic High Court of
                                                                                            Justice.
article 9 of Act 1/1991 of January 30th shall include among its provisions
the following, in addition to those indicated in article 17 of Act 8/1987 of
April 1st:
         Specific rules for the protection of immovable property included
as cultural heritage.
         The delimitation of places of archaeological interest.
         Building guidelines aimed at ensuring the survival of traditional
architecture in the area.
         When the Plan mentioned in the previous section comes into
force, the Tramuntana area’s declaration a Picturesque Site shall finally
become null and void.
         Powers held by the Mallorca Historic & Artistic Heritage Commit-
tee stemming from the area’s designation a Picturesque Site shall be under-
stood to be assumed by the Mallorca Cultural Heritage Island Committees
until the Partial Spatial Plan for the Tramuntana Area enters into force”.




                                                                                 351
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




We shall not comment on this provision, the aim of which was clear. We
shall simply point out that the author confused the northwest coast of
Mallorca with the Tramuntana area (which only partly coincide from a
spatial point of view) and that the author did not bear in mind that the
northwest coast of Mallorca had stopped being a “Picturesque Site” and
become an Item of Cultural Interest within the category of a ‘Historic
Site’, as explained in the previous section.

Fortunately, in our opinion, the aforementioned additional provision was
not integrated in the final text of Balearic Historic Heritage Act 12/1998 of
December 21st, which, in its recitals, expressly declares itself to be the con-
tinuation of the Spanish Historic Heritage Act insofar as the techniques
and principles that mainly give shape to it. This continuity is emphasized
both in the third provision of the regional act, where the subsidiary appli-
cation of the State act is declared, and in its first additional provision:

“First additional provision

Items in the Balearic Islands declared to be of cultural interest or in-
cluded in the General Inventory of Moveable Property in accordance with
Spanish Historic Heritage Act 16/1985 of June 25th shall henceforth be
regarded as Balearic items of cultural interest or items listed as Balearic
historic heritage.
Items mentioned in the above point must be officially recorded in the fol-
lowing registers”.

In Act 23/1988 of December 21st, what is missing is a precept similar to
that contained in the additional provision of the regulations of the Span-
ish Historic Heritage Act in order to reclassify items of cultural interest
envisaged in the State act in accordance with the new typology estab-
lished in the regional one.

Notwithstanding this, the difference between the two typologies is of
such little importance that there is no noticeable difficulty in the “Histor-
ic Site” of the northwest coast of Mallorca, declared an Item of Cultural
Interest “by legal effect” as indicated in the ruling by the High Court of
January 26th 1999 (Ar. 356), being recorded in both the Mallorca Register
of Items of Cultural Interest (art. 12 of the act) and the Balearic Register
of Items of Cultural Interest (art. 13 of the act) within the category of a
“Historic Site”, which, in the classificatory system established in article
6 of the Balearic Historic Heritage Act, is no doubt the one it best fits in
with. Additionally, we believe that the definition given in the act (taken
essentially from the definition of “historic sites” given in article 15.4 of the




352
                                                               7. Documentat ion




Spanish Heritage Act) seems expressly dedicated to the northwest coast of
Mallorca as a “historic site” par excellence.

At the same time, this issue is not an insignificant one but a matter of
considerable importance, given the different level of protection given to
the different designations or types established in the regional act. Thus,
for example, the regulation of pre-emption rights granted to Island Coun-
cils (and in a subsidiary way to the Government of the Balearic Islands) in
the event of the financial transfer of property or any real right over items       30
                                                                                        Act 6/1994 of December
                                                                                        13th on the allocation of
of cultural interest is not applicable in the case of property forming part             powers to Island Councils
of “historic ensembles” (art. 32.5 of the act) but it is, we understand, in the         in matters concerning
                                                                                        historic heritage, socio-
case of “historic sites” like the northwest coast of Mallorca30.                        cultural promotion, socio-
                                                                                        cultural entertainment, the
                                                                                        legal deposit of books and
Multiple protection of the northwest coast of Mallorca                                  sports (Balearic Official Ga-
                                                                                        zette no. 159 of 29/12/1994)
                                                                                        had already granted Island
Act 1/1991 of January 30th governing natural spaces and the urban planning              Councils authority to exer-
                                                                                        cise pre-emption rights in
regime of areas under special protection in the Balearic Islands represented            the event of the transferred
more intensified protection of the northwest coast of Mallorca (under-                  ownership of items de-
                                                                                        clared as being of cultural
standing that the latter forms part of the Tramuntana area) under two dif-              interest.
ferent scopes of authority. We understand that it is complex and thus rein-        31
                                                                                        In practice, protective
                                                                                        measures in this sphere
forces the protection already granted under the Historic Heritage Act.                  have been introduced
                                                                                        within the framework of
                                                                                        the general activities of
On the one hand, under the specific scope of environmental protection, Act              the Balearic Ministry for
1/1991 of January 30th takes as a starting point basic legislation represented          Agriculture and Fisher-
                                                                                        ies (and later the Balearic
by the previously mentioned Act 4/1989 of March 27th governing the con-                 Ministry of the Environ-
servation of natural spaces and wild flora and fauna. In both title II of Act           ment) through the Nature
                                                                                        Conservation Service and
1/1991 of January 30th and its third additional provision, it contains some             public companies like
                                                                                        Servicios forestales de
of the “additional protective regulations” which, in article 149.123ª of the            Baleares, SA (SEFOBASA),
Constitution, self-governing regions are allowed to issue in this matter.               with regulations on fire
                                                                                        prevention (Decree 28/1995
                                                                                        of March 23rd), aid for re-
In what concerns us here, the third additional provision of the Natural                 planting woodland (Decree
                                                                                        98/1993 of July 29th and an
Spaces Act establishes that, in accordance with basic State legislation, the            agreement of the Cabinet
                                                                                        of the Government of the
Government of the Balearic Islands shall promote the declaration of pro-                Balearic Islands on March
tected natural spaces to encompass different areas of the islands of Mal-               13th 1995), limitations or
                                                                                        prohibitions on hunting
lorca, Menorca and Ibiza. These shall include, the said provision states,               in some parts of the Tra-
the declaration of “places representative of the Tramuntana area”31.                    muntana area (Order of
                                                                                        June 1st 2000), the drafting
                                                                                        of a Catalogue of Endan-
The most important impact of Act 1/1991 of January 30th on the north-                   gered Plant Species (Decree
                                                                                        24/1992 of March 12th) or
west coast of Mallorca occurs in more general scopes of authority, how-                 the acquisition of land for
                                                                                        a nature reserve of species
ever, like spatial and urban planning, given that in article 3 of the Natural           native to the area, like the
Spaces Act, the Tramuntana area (as defined spatially in Annexe I of the                well known toad, the “fer-
                                                                                        reret” (Alytes muletensis),
act) is declared to be an area under special protection (AEP according to               among other initiatives.
its acronym in Spanish) in turn made up of (article 6 of the act) other




                                                                             353
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




designated areas of established typologies, like natural areas of special
interest (ANEI), rural areas of scenic interest (ARIP) and settlement areas
in landscapes of interest (AAPI).

As for the different established designations, the Natural Spaces Act lays
down the minimum conditions for protection that all spatial and urban
planning instruments must comply with, although for the Tramuntana
area and Amunts in Ibiza at this point only developable land or land suit-
able for development is detailed (Annexe II of the act) pending definitive
regulations which will have to be done, according to article 9 of the act,
“through the creation of partial spatial plans”.

It was not clear whether, with this instrument and references to the Tra-
muntana area, the regional legislator aimed to comply with article 20 of
the Spanish Historic Heritage Act, which establishes that the municipal-
ity or municipalities where there is a declared item of cultural interest
(whether a historic ensemble, historic site, or archaeological site) will have
to draft “a special protective plan for the area affected by the declaration,
or another planning instrument contemplated in urban planning legisla-
tion, which fulfils in all cases the requirement of this Act”.

This imprecision is maintained in the fourth additional provision of De-
cree 54/1995 of April 6th by virtue of which the Plan for the Regulation of
Mallorca’s Tourism Supply is approved (Balearic Official Gazette no. 69
of 30/5/1995 and no. 79 of 22/6/1995), amended subsequently by Decree
98/1998 of November 6th (Balearic Official Gazette no. 147 of 17/11/19989),
which is written as follows:


      “FOURTH ADDITIONAL PROVISION

      1. Given that the Tramuntana area’s special conditions and singular
         values call for distinctive treatment, the regulation of the tourism sup-
         ply there must be incorporated in the provisions of the Partial Spatial
         Plan for this area, which must be created within a maximum of one
         year from the entering into effect of the Plan for the Regulation of the
         Tourism Supply (POOT according to its Spanish acronym).
      2. Until it is approved, no new buildings will be approved or exten-
         sions or improvements to existing buildings when they are aimed at
         a tourism use or activity.
      3. What is provided for in the previous point is not applicable to activ-
         ities that comply with the specific requirements of sections 1A and
         1B of article 19 of these regulations.”




354
                                                                 7. Documentat ion




It might be understood that any doubts would have been cleared up with
Act 6/1999 of April 3rd32 on planning guidelines and tax measures (Of-               32
                                                                                          This act was subsequently
                                                                                          amended by Act 9/1999 of
ficial Balearic Gazette no. 48 of 17/4/1999), which, with the backup of the               October 6th on preventive
precepts of the Constitutional Court expressed in ruling 149/1998 of July                 and emergency measures re-
                                                                                          lating to spatial and urban
3rd (partially transcribed in the recitals of the act) and in the development             planning in the Balearic Is-
of article 11 of Act 8/1987 of April 1st on Balearic Spatial Planning, estab-             lands (Balearic Official Ga-
                                                                                          zette no. 128 of 12/10/1999).
lishes the following, as we understand it:                                                In turn, Act 8/1987 of April
                                                                                          1st was repealed by the new
                                                                                          Balearic Spatial Planning
   a) That the spatial scope of partial spatial plans can no longer encompass             Act (Act 14/2000 of Decem-
                                                                                          ber 21st), the fourth ad-
      a specific area like the Tramuntana area but so-called “uniform areas               ditional provision of which
      of a trans-municipal nature”, coinciding with the islands of Mallorca,              indicates that references
                                                                                          contained in current regu-
      Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera (articles 6, 7 and 13 of the act).                    lations relating to partial
   b) That envisaged partial spatial plans shall be approved by decree by                 spatial plans regulated by
                                                                                          Act 8/1987 of April 1st must
      the Government of the Balearic Islands, with the prior notification,                be understood as being
                                                                                          made to island spatial plans
      in accordance with their respective scopes of authority, of Island                  regulated in the new act.
      Councils, the State representative to the Balearic Islands, and affect-
      ed group of municipalities and town councils (article 14 of the act).
   c) That partial spatial plans must contemplate, among other things,
      anticipated objectives relating to historic heritage, for which meas-
      ures must be established in all cases to complete catalogues of this
      heritage, promote restoration, research, refurbishment or possible
      uses, and regulate new activities related to the restoration and new
      uses of this historic heritage (article 15.1.d and 15.2.e of the act).
   d) That “the Partial Spatial Plan of Mallorca must regulate the entire
      area of the island of Mallorca and its islets and inland waters, bearing
      in mind that part of the Tramuntana area is a Picturesque Site and
      that, in consequence, the plan must regulate and protect monumen-
      tal and historic heritage, thus fulfilling article 9 of Act 1/1991 of Janu-
      ary 30th on natural spaces and the urban planning regime of areas
      under special protection in the Balearic Islands (article 41 of the act).

    Without prejudice to the incorrection of continuing to maintain the
    classification of a picturesque site for an item of cultural interest that
    currently corresponds to another typology, what is not said is wheth-
    er, with this Partial Spatial Plan of Mallorca, the provisions of article
    36 of Balearic Historic Heritage Act 12/1998 of December 21st will be
    complied with. With a similar drafting to article 20 of the Spanish
    Historic Heritage Act, this article states:

        “Article 36
        Urban planning
The terms under which a property is declared to be of cultural interest
shall bind any urban plans and regulations that affect the said property.




                                                                               355
                                     Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




                                     In the case of urban plans or regulations in force before the declaration,
                                     the town council shall carry out all necessary adaptations.

                                     When it is a historic ensemble, historic garden, historic site, place of
                                     ethnological interest, or archaeological or paleontological site, the corre-
                                     sponding town council must draw up a special plan of protection or pro-
                                     tective urban planning instrument or adapt a current one that fulfils the
                                     requirements of this act. The approval of this planning instrument shall
                                     require a favourable report by the Island Historic Heritage Committee. A
                                     favourable report shall be understood to have been issued if three months
                                     pass from the submission of the planning proposal.

                                     The respective Island Council may, at any time, propose with good mo-
                                     tives that the town council modify urban plans affecting items of cultural
                                     interest and it may suspend current plans insofar as is necessary to pro-
                                     tect historic heritage in the affected area”.


                                     Given that in another part of this work, a specific analysis is made of
                                     links between the Balearic Historic Heritage Act and legislation on spatial
                                     planning and land use, we simply outline the issue here and refer to expla-
                                     nations in the said section.

                                     To conclude this study, we must insist that the provisions of the decree
                                     by virtue of which the Mallorca Partial Spatial Plan is approved regarding
                                     the “Historic Site” and Item of Cultural Interest known as the northwest
                                     coast of Mallorca cannot contradict in any way the provisions established
                                     for this kind of asset in the Balearic Historic Heritage Act or reduce the
                                     amount of protection established in the said act. This is not only due to
                                     the different legislative levels of both the latter but also due to the pre-
                                     dominance that we believe must be granted to this area’s specific unique
                                     links for almost thirty years with the regime governing “the historic, cul-
                                     tural and artistic heritage of Spain’s people”, the components of which,
                                     according to article 46 of the Spanish Constitution, must be conserved,
                                     protected (and any harm to them sanctioned) “whatever the legal regime
33
     In this regard, see legal       and ownership”33.
     ground seven of the High
     Court ruling of January 26th
     1999 (Article 356), mentioned
     on different occasions.




                                     356
                                                             7. Documentat ion




ACT 5/2005 OF MAY 26th FOR THE CONSERVATION OF PLACES
OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPORTANCE (LECO ACCORDING TO ITS
SPANISH ACRONYM).

This act was approved in order to protect places of environmental impor-
tance and promote their sustainable development, making the conserva-
tion of natural resources compatible with their regulated use, taking into
account the rights of citizens and socio-economic progress.

General provisions

A general legal regime is established for the declaration, protection, con-
servation, restoration, improvement and proper management of places of
environmental importance in the Balearics.
The values that were taken into account are:
- The maintenance of essential processes and basic living systems.
- The preservation of the diversity, singularity and beauty of natural
   ecological systems and landscapes, particularly everything relating to
   native species of the Balearics.
- The sustainable use of the biodiversity and rational use of natural re-
   sources.
- The social, economic and cultural promotion of these areas.
- Stimulating the participation and collaboration of owners and title-
   holders of other rights in the declaration, conservation and manage-
   ment of these places.
- To promote environmental training and research.
The right of citizens to enjoy these places is acknowledged through a re-
spect for them, without this being detrimental to owners of property there.
Systems of finance are envisaged to fulfil established goals, including
funding by public authorities, loans from European funds, and contribu-
tions by people and legal entities. A Consultancy Committee on Places of
Environmental Importance is created. This consultative professional sci-
entific body provides information on planned provisions in matters con-
cerning places of environmental importance and provides the authorities
with guidance in decision-making when required.

The regulation of natural resources

As a management tool for places of environmental importance, plans for the
regulation of natural resources (PORN according to the Spanish acronym) will
be created that will comply with the provisions of Act 4/1989 of March 27th
on the conservation of natural spaces and wild flora and fauna. These plans
shall respect the scopes of authority of those bodies in charge of urban and




                                                                           357
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




spatial planning and fishing. Mechanisms for the participation, collabora-
tion and guidance of the affected population shall be established.
A description is given of the process for the approval of plans for the
regulation of natural resources, which shall be drafted by the competent
regional ministry of the Government of the Balearic Islands.

Protected natural spaces

They are places designated thus in accordance with the above act, taking
into account the representativeness, singularity, fragility or interest of
their elements.
With regard to the regulation of protected natural spaces, categories are
established depending on the assets and values to be protected:

•	 Natural	parks.
•	 Natural	sites.
•	 Nature	reserves.	
   - Integral nature reserves.
   - Special nature reserves.
•	 Natural	monuments.
•	 Protected	landscapes.
•	 Places	of	scientific	interest	and	micro-reserves.	

At a regional level, two new categories are created: natural sites and places of
scientific interest and micro-reserves, and a distinction is made between inte-
gral nature reserves and special nature reserves.

A natural landscape encompasses a relatively large area of land that con-
tains populations where traditional activities (agriculture, fishing, live-
stock farming) coexist with others that are compatible with sustainable,
harmonious development and an improvement in living conditions, in
addition to environmental values that must be conserved.

Places of scientific interest and micro-reserves are smaller places containing
threatened species of flora and fauna or which deserve special protective
measures, whether temporary or permanent.

The general regime governing uses and zoning is described and procedures
for the declaration of each of the categories. Natural spaces shall be approved
in accordance with article 31 and planned using the following instruments:
master plans for the use and management of natural parks, natural sites and na-
ture reserves, and regulations for the protection of natural monuments, pro-
tected landscapes, and places of scientific interest and micro-reserves.




358
                                                              7. Documentat ion




Master Plans for Use and Management must, as a bare minimum, contain
details of:
The zoning of the area, with the delimitation of priority uses in each zone.
Regulations regarding uses and activities (if necessary completing those
of the PORN).
Criteria and regulations for the protection, management and improve-
ment of natural values.
A communication strategy for the dissemination of the area’s natural values.
An economic and financial programme.
Measures to boost the quality of life of populations and compensatory
and incentive-related measures.
In the event of the existence of a marine area, basic criteria for the draft-
ing of a fisheries plan.
For the management and administration of protected natural spaces,
management authorities shall be constituted (with representatives of af-
fected town councils) and a representative body of owners and other title-
holders of rights within these places. Owners, representatives of affected
social and economic interests, and organizations may consult and take
part in the management and administration of natural spaces protected
by means of Consultancy Committees.

Integration in the ‘Natura 2000’ European Ecological Network

The legal regime is incorporated for places that form part of the ‘Natura
2000’ European Ecological Network: Special Areas of Conservation and
Special Protection Areas for Birds. They shall be declared by the Cabinet,
and a system for the assessment of the repercussions of plans or projects
in these places is contemplated.

National Parks in the Balearic Islands

Competent bodies attached to the Self-Governing Region of the Balearic
Islands are established for processes involving the declaration, manage-
ment and planning of national parks.

Regime governing offences, sanctions and administrative policies

Also contained and classified in this act are different types of administra-
tive offences committed within areas of environmental importance and
their respective sanctions and periods after which the offences lapse.
The Regional Ministry of the Environmental is granted powers of inspec-
tion and surveillance to ensure compliance with the act.




                                                                            359
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




BALEARIC ACT 1/1991 OF JANUARY 30th ON NATURAL SPACES
AND THE URBAN PLANNING REGIME FOR AREAS OF SPECIAL
PROTECTION IN THE BALEARIC ISLANDS

Balearic Act 1/1991 of January 30th on natural spaces and the urban
planning regime governing areas under special protection in the Balear-
ic Islands (LEN according to the Spanish acronym) represents the first
set of regulations, in terms of environmental protection in the Balearic
Islands, that expressly defines and delimits different areas of protection
in the Balearics based on their exceptional ecological, geological and
scenic values. Likewise, in innovative style, it establishes a protective ur-
ban development regime to facilitate conservation and prevent the deg-
radation of these places.

This need for protection was demanded by citizens of the Balearic Islands,
motivated by both the intrinsic values of this natural and scenic heritage
and in order to sustain the quality of life of a community. In this sense,
it must be highlighted that the LEN was preceded, among others, by Act
1/1984 of March 14th on the regulation and protection of natural areas of
special interest: the first Balearic act pronounced following the promulga-
tion of the Balearic Statute of Autonomy in 1983.

LEN is based on the definition of three different categories of protection
for land that falls under its scope, subject to conditions governing land
use and restrictive building conditions as follows:

Areas known as “Natural Areas of Special Interest” (ANEI), which include
and protect places of singular natural values. For the Tramuntana area,
we can find up to eight areas of this type, as well as areas corresponding
to islands, islets, stacks or crags and groves of holm oaks.

Areas known as “Rural Areas of Scenic Interest” (ARIP), which are mainly
the result of the land’s transformation through traditional activities
whose preservation is justified by their scenic interest.

The designation a “Settlement Area in a Landscape of Interest” (AAPI)
was also created for those urban nuclei whose singular scenic values or
situation in demarcated areas make them worthy of special treatment.
The act specifically defines the protected territorial scope of the Tramun-
tana area, which includes areas designated ANEI, ARIP and AAPI. The
former include:




360
                                              7. Documentat ion




A1. Mountains and peaks of the Tramuntana Mountain Range.
A2. Formentor and Sierra de Cavall Bernat.
A3. Sierra de Gaieta.
A4. Peña en Jeroni.
A5. S’Extremera.
A6. Punta de Sóller.
A7. From Punta de Deià to Port des Canonge.
A8. From Coma del Rei to Puig den Basset.




                                                            361
Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




SPECIAL PLAN FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE HISTORIC SITE
OF THE ESTATES OF ARCHDUKE LUDWIG SALVATOR April 8th
2002

In application of the provisions of Spanish Historic Heritage Act 16/1985
of June 25th and Balearic Historic Heritage Act 12/1998 of December 21st,
it is mandatory to protect the estates purchased by Archduke Ludwig
Salvator and their surroundings. These are situated in the municipalities
of Valldemossa and Deià and they are listed as Items of Cultural Interest
belonging to Balearic Heritage within the category of a Historic Site (place
or site that can be linked in with past events or memories or cultural or natural
creations, with an outstanding interest from a historic, artistic, archaeological,
industrial-historic, paleontological, ethnological, anthropological, social, scientific or
technical perspective).
In order to regulate the use and/or activities carried out in the Historic
Site and guarantee the conservation of its components, this Special Plan
was drafted.

GENERAL DETAILS OF THE SPECIAL PLAN

 Miramar – 1872                    Son Moragues - 1883          Sa Font Figuera – 1898
 S’Estaca – 1873                   Son Ferrandell – 1890        Sa Pedrissa – 1898
 Son Glaceran – 1875               Son Gual – 1894              Can Costa - 1901
 Son Marroig - 1877                Son Gallard – 1896


The Special Plan does not cover a continuous area, encompassing a total
of 1,756 hectares.

The estates that make up the Plan and their year of purchase are:

40 paths and 39 vantage points have also been catalogued.

METHODOLOGY

During an initial phase, a diagnosis of the estates and their buffer area
was made. During this basic stage of the Special Plan, the environmen-
tal indicators that form part of the surroundings were identified; items
of heritage that make up the Historic Site were chosen, like immovable
property of architectural and scenic value (houses, estate houses, out-
houses), vantage points, ethnological features (hillside terraces, silos,
kilns etc) and paths. Uses, types of protection and measures for their
conservation were proposed, and a map was drawn up that reflects all the
built and environmental features.




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All the data that was initially compiled served to draft the Special Plan
for the Protection of the Historic Site of the Estates of Archduke Ludwig
Salvator, which will contain regulations for the improvement and mainte-
nance of items of heritage with a view to preserving the architectural and
scenic values of the said heritage.

PROTECTIVE LEGISLATION
LANDSCAPE PROTECTION

In the first section, protective regulations for the landscape that comes
under the scope of the Special Plan are established in order to preserve it.
All activities within the territorial scope of the Special Protective Plan are
regulated and they must be compatible with the said landscape.

This protection refers to abiotic and biotic characteristics and to the an-
thropic and visual landscape.

Uses and activities that are compatible or incompatible in areas are listed
and defined, together with their corresponding limitations.

THE PROTECTION OF ELEMENTS THAT COMBINE TO FORM THE
HISTORIC HERITAGE

In this section, the elements that make up the Protective Catalogue of the
Special Protective Plan are defined: paths and vantage points, oratories or
chapels, acquired properties, movable property, gardens, constructions of
an ethnological nature and others associated with the landscape.

For each one, a file is opened in the Catalogue containing the following
sections:

•	   Identification	and	description.
•	   Protection	and	guidelines	for	intervention.
•	   Situational	plan	and	delimitation	of	area.
•	   Graphic	documents	and	photographs.

Protective ratings are established for the foresaid elements. They are:
•	 Total	global	protection	(architectural,	construction-related	and/or	en-
   vironmental and scenic): A1.
•	 Partial	global	protection	(architectural,	construction-related	and/or	
   environmental and scenic): A2.
•	 Structural	architectural	protection:	B.
•	 Environmental	and	scenic	protection.




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For each category, the intervention work and uses that can be carried out
are detailed. General regulations are also established, applicable to the
area on which the Special Protective Plan is focused, together with specific
regulations for paths.




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MALLORCA SPATIAL PLAN (DEFINITIVE APPROVAL 13/12/04)

   LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK AND GENERAL CRITERIA

   Spatial Planning Act 14/2000 of December 21st (LOT according to
   its acronym in Spanish) develops the powers that the Self-Governing
   Region of the Balearic Islands holds in matters concerning spatial
   planning and establishes the objectives, instruments and procedures
   for the effective exercise of these powers. In this way, current regional
   legislation creates three spatial planning instruments: the Spatial
   Planning Guidelines (DOT in Spanish), Island Spatial Plans (PTI) and
   Sectoral Master Plans (PDS). The DOT are currently the basic, highest
   planning tool for spatial planning in the Balearic Islands. The other
   spatial planning tools (the PTI and PDS) are plans that develop the
   DOT, except for some exceptional PDS.

   In accordance with the provisions of the LOT, the following points are
   cornerstones for action by the public authorities, thus affecting the PTI:

The regulation of the physical dimensions of settlements, including those
linked in with secondary and tertiary production sectors.
The regulation of the spatial distribution of production facilities from
the primary and secondary sectors by means of incentive-based or dissua-
sive procedures relating to existing or future facilities.
The identification of urban nuclei whose characteristics and potential make
them the driving force behind the socio-economic development of an area.
The definition of spatial areas whose current or potential suitability for
agricultural, forestry or livestock activities or whose scenic or ecological
value requires that they are the focus of special protection.
The regulation of infrastructure, installations, facilities and services and
the definition of their design criteria, functional characteristics and loca-
tion so that a rational configuration of these networks is achieved, struc-
tured each islands.
The establishment of a system for the coordination of different sectoral
policies by different members of the authorities so as to achieve their in-
tegration in a global vision of spatial problems.
The promotion and formalization of citizen participation in the process
of spatial planning so that this process meets the aspirations and needs
of the population.

   At the same time, the DOT contain specific guidelines for the drafting
   of the Mallorca Spatial Plan (PTI) in accordance with the island’s spe-
   cific characteristics, based on the following criteria:




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An inter-territorial balance.
Trans-municipal coordination among town and city councils, particularly
in the Bay of Palma.
The promotion of natural heritage and agricultural activities.
Territorial conversion and structured urban development processes.
The incorporation and planned envisagement of the island’s spatial struc-
ture in accordance with spatial planning instruments and the Balearic
Hydrological Plan, taking into account the Palma-Alcúdia and Palma-Ma-
nacor axes, based on the road, railway and motorway network, and their
integration into the landscape.
Likewise, the Plan bears in mind that part of the Tramuntana area is
designated a Picturesque Site and, in consequence, it specifically regulates
and protects its monumental and historic heritage.
Lastly, it regulates the tourism supply outside areas regulated by the Mas-
ter Plan for the Regulation of Mallorca’s Tourism Supply, particularly
that of the Tramuntana area.

The DOT establish uniform areas of a trans-municipal nature throughout
the whole of the Balearic Islands and define Mallorca as a single uniform
trans-municipal area “with the pertinent consideration of differences among
the Tramuntana area, Bay of Palma and west coast, Mallorca plain, Bays of
Alcúdia and Pollença, and south-east of Mallorca and Raiguer area”.

FUNDAMENTAL CONTENTS OF ISLAND SPATIAL PLANS (PTI)

The provisions of the PTI must be specified in relation to the LOT and
DOT. The DOT establish general criteria to be observed in Island Spatial
Plans when their contents are drafted. The LOT establishes the funda-
mental contents of all Island Spatial Plans (PTI), which the Mallorca Spa-
tial plan must comply with. These trans-municipal contents consist of:

•	 A	spatial	diagnosis	of	the	area,	particularly	in	relation	to	the	use	of	
   natural resources, the population, current urban planning and the
   socio-economic situation.
•	 A	study	of	the	potential	for	socio-economic	development	of	different	
   areas of uniform characteristics, with the specification of objectives.
•	 The	establishment	of	maximum	growth	limits	for	each	use	and	spatial	
   distribution.
•	 The	delimitation	of	natural	spaces,	areas	with	protected	buildings	or	
   places of historic or artistic interest, indicating the protective measures
   to be adopted.
•	 The	definition	of	land	devoted	to	agriculture	or	forestry	activities	of	
   special interest.




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•	 The	establishment	of	specific	criteria	for	the	drafting	of	Sectoral	Mas-
   ter Plans to be approved by the Islands Councils.
•	 The	location	of	infrastructure	of	trans-municipal	interest.
•	 The	location	and	characteristics	of	large	infrastructure,	with	special	
   attention to infrastructure that must be created or modified to boost
   socio-economic development.
•	 Indications	of	services	that	must	or	can	be	created	for	the	common	
   use of municipalities.
•	 The	establishment	of	criteria	for	the	regulation	of	land	adjoining	dif-
   ferent municipalities.
•	 Support	measures	aimed	at	encouraging	activities	that	help	achieve	
   the established goals of the DOT and plan itself.
•	 Basic	criteria	relating	to	the	sustainable	use	of	natural	resources.

As the basis for the plan, four strategies, defined by the Mallorca Commit-
tee for Urban Planning and Housing on December 18th 2998, were taken
as a starting point. They are:

•	 Spatial	Strategy	1:	The	regulation	of	the	accommodation	supply	as	a	
   mechanism to help limit and stabilize the growth of the population:
   - The regulation and redirection of the residential accommodation
     supply.
   - The categorization and management of second homes and tourist
     accommodation.

•	 Spatial	Strategy	2:	The	assessment	and	protection	of	agricultural,	for-
   estry and natural areas:
   - The management and assessment of natural spaces.
   - The reassessment of rural agricultural spaces.

•	 Spatial	Strategy	3:	The	reclassification	of	urban	and	tourist	areas:
   - The reclassification of inland nuclei.
   - The reclassification and limitation of coastal urban nuclei and
     tourism resorts.

•	 Spatial	Strategy	4:	The	adaptation	of	infrastructure	to	ensure	sustain-
   able development:
   - The spatial structuring of the island, bearing in mind the environ-
      mental carrying capacity and functional diversity of each area.
   - The dimensioning, design and location of infrastructure as backup
      features in the spatial structuring of the island.




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Based on these strategic criteria, five basic cornerstones have been devel-
oped that make up the global strategy behind the plan. They are:

1.    Coherently distributed growth.
2.    Global protection of the island.
3.    New parameters for settlements.
4.    Communication links between all points of the island.
5.    The promotion of a new economy. Focuses of activity.

By lending strategic importance to these five main points, the whole
project’s firm consolidation can be achieved, with clearly identified objec-
tives to be achieved. This does not mean that there are not other sectoral
and non-sectoral components of the Plan, but that these are the five main
cornerstones on which all the rest is based.
The Plan bears in mind the fact that part of the Tramuntana area is designated
a Picturesque Landscape and, in consequence, it regulates and protects its monu-
mental and historic heritage in a specific way, thus complying with the provisions
of article 9 of Act 1/1991 of January 30th on natural spaces and the urban planning
regime for areas under special protection.
Within the regulations of the Spatial Plan specifically associated or re-
lated to the Tramuntana area, we can find:

SPECIFIC REGIME GOVERNING THE TRAMUNTANA AREA, Regulations
30 to 33, with the following contents:

•	 Delimitation.	For	the	purposes	of	the	Plan,	the	Tramuntana	area	is	
   defined in Natural Spaces Act 1/1991.
•	 Catalogued	elements.
•	 Regime	of	uses	on	rural	land.
•	 Types	of	uses	on	rural	land.	

SPATIAL CONVERSION AREA (ART according to its Spanish acronym). Regu-
lation 39

In order to free land; introduce new facilities, infrastructure and services
or make improvements to them in urban development areas; and make
improvements to urban and rural landscapes, the Plan creates a number
of Spatial Conversion Areas. These include:




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ART 1. ANEI (Natural Area of Special Interest). Tramuntana Area, ecologi-
cal and environmental assessment and restoration.

A- For this area, the creation of Special Plans for the management of ac-
   cesses, leisure and tourism are foreseen. A Special Plan for each ART will
   be drafted to regulate it, establishing planning guidelines and a system of
   activities in accordance with the availability of infrastructure there and
   the backup capacity of the area in question, without this representing a
   threat for the natural environment. General regulations will be drafted
   with regard to public use and access and the development of cultural,
   educational and recreational activities in the area will be regulated (visits,
   outings, environmental education activities, picnics, camping etc). Among
   the activities to be taken into account, the regulation of internal accesses
   to each ANEI must be mentioned, through the creation of dissuasive car
   parks close to the protected area, with informative posters on the subject,
   the creation of recreational areas, the adaptation and signing of footpaths
   for the most commonly used routes, and the prohibited or controlled ac-
   cess to paths that might pose a threat for local species of flora and fauna.

B- In the application or development of the above measures, it is also rec-
   ommended that the following activities are taken into account:

   a. The delimitation, protection and monitoring of protected areas. The
      creation of a guard-based surveillance service is proposed, with coercive
      powers in matters relating to agriculture, the environment, forestry
      activities and hunting. It could act in coordination with SEPRONA.
   b. The prevention and fight against forest fires. Fires are a constant
      threat for Mallorca’s natural environment, aggravated in summer
      by the coincidence of factors like high temperatures, low rainfall,
      high numbers of people, the presence of substantial dead combus-
      tible material in certain areas that has not been removed, a steep
      topography, and the presence of continuous woodland not well
      adapted to the local environment. There are also chance fires origi-
      nating in rubbish dumps or places where human waste has built up
      and much less common fires in the subsoil in hygromorphic areas.
   c. Sustainable maintenance, within the framework of priority initia-
      tives to be carried out in areas whose size, situation, characteristics
      or current state displays a high degree of vulnerability or areas that
      have been used in such a way that their biotic potential and/or ca-
      pacity for self-maintenance has been altered or reduced. The main
      measures that are proposed are: physical links, the development of
      management and finance instruments, and reclassification, with
      collaboration agreements between owners and the authorities.




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C- Management and finance. The management of these activities could be
   performed by using existing planning instruments (spatial improvement
   projects, special plans, management plans etc) and by means of collabo-
   ration agreements among local, island and regional authorities. The par-
   ticipation of private institutions and civil society in general is advised.
   The funding of this programme could be achieved by means of public
   funds or contributions by different authorities, and there is the possibil-
   ity of EU co-funding via programmes like LIFE - Nature or Interreg.

URBAN AND ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE IN THE MALLORCA
SPATIAL PLAN (PTM)
The SPECIFIC REGULATION of ethnological elements and routes of
cultural and scenic interest. Regulations 48, 49, 50.

In order to make the reality of this heritage known, promote its conserva-
tion and foster a better knowledge and understanding of it, among other
things, nature routes have been created:

- The Dry-Stone Route

Without prejudice to the possible drafting of Special Plans by the Consell
de Mallorca for the development of these provisions, the itineraries of
these routes must be included in municipal plans and they will be bind-
ing when making adaptations to urban plans or drafting new ones. A
buffer zone must be envisaged around each of the elements, where activi-
ties are forbidden that might damage listed heritage, views, the environ-
ment or the scenic value of the route and, at the same time, they must be
maintained in usable condition and kept open to the public.

HISTORIC HERITAGE IN THE MALLORCA SPATIAL PLAN (PTM).
ADDITIONAL PROVISIONIA

It is proposed that proceedings be opened to declare the historic towns of
Sóller, Pollença, Biniaraix, Ullaró and Galilea Items of Cultural Interest
within the category of Historic Ensembles.




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DECREE 19/2007 OF MARCH 16th WHEREBY THE PLAN FOR THE
REGULATION OF THE TRAMUNTANA AREA’S NATURAL RE-
SOURCES IS APPROVED

This decree is an application of article 7 of Act 5/2005 of May 26th for the
conservation of places of environmental importance (LECO according
to the Spanish acronym), which urged the Government of the Balearic
Islands to plan and regulate natural resources via plans for the regulation
of natural resources.

The whole of the Tramuntana area is declared a Natural Site in order to
conserve its landscape and its existing natural and ethnological values
and, at the same time, to ensure the sustainable development of towns
and villages there.
In turn, the following categories of protected natural spaces are declared:

•	 Integral nature reserves – seeking to ensure the protection and conserva-
   tion of different species of flora and fauna. Human occupation is only
   allowed for scientific purposes.
•	 Special nature reserves – containing sites, geomorphological formations
   and habitats that must be preserved for their interest appeal and sin-
   gularity.
•	 Places of scientific and technical interest.
•	 	The	Fonts	Ufanes,	Torrente	de	Pareis,	Gorg	Blau	and	Lluc	continue	to	
   be declared natural monuments.
•	 The	main	objectives	of	the	Plan	for	the	Regulation	of	Natural	Resourc-
   es (PORN according to the Spanish acronym) are:
•	 The	protection	and	conservation	of	natural,	scenic	and	ethnological	
   assets and values and the improved living conditions of the population
   residing in the area.
•	 The	conservation	of	rural	estates	and	maintenance	of	agricultural,	
   livestock, forestry and environmental uses to avoid their abandon-
   ment, with the promotion of traditional and complementary uses and
   activities, seeking the involvement of owners in the environmental
   management of their land.
•	 The	promotion	of	public	activities	in	the	field	of	environmental	edu-
   cation to allow people to get to know and value the environment and
   Mediterranean landscape.
•	 The	promotion	of	scientific	and	research	tasks	to	achieve	a	deeper	in-
   sight into the area.
•	 A	biological	link	with	other	nearby	protected	natural	spaces.




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To establish general regulations, the area is zoned according to its
level of protection and permitted uses and activities:

•	 Exclusion zones
   - Fragile, very rich areas biologically. The main function of these ar-
      eas is the global protection of ecosystems. Scientific and technical
      activities are allowed.
•	 Zones of limited use
   - Areas of high biological value, where limited public use is allowed
      based on traditional means, with no permanent facilities in order
      to preserve the quality of the landscape and maintain traditional
      activities.
•	 Zones of compatible use
   - Conservation work is compatible with human activities that are not
      detrimental to the environment (environmental interpretation and
      education, the primary sector, and recreational activities).
•	 Zones of general use
   - Given their lesser relative value, facilities and services are allowed
      for the benefit of nearby local communities.
•	 Zones with a socio-economic influence
   - Aimed at involving those municipalities that are integrated to a
      greater or lesser extent in the plan in goals relating to conservation,
      maintenance and the management of natural resources.

A Master Plan for Management and Use (PRUG according to its Spanish acro-
nym) will be created that regulates and manages different natural resourc-
es and related activities. This plan will list, locate, and catalogue on-land
and marine resources, define permitted and prohibited activities, and es-
tablish measures to guarantee the sustainable use of these resources, their
protection, conservation and management.

Provisions common to on-land and marine areas.

Historic, archaeological, ethnological and cultural heritage.
The necessary measures will be adopted to protect and conserve items of
heritage, regulating visits and activities. Their deterioration or alteration
will be forbidden. The PRUG will catalogue items of heritage and make
an inventory that gives special attention to ethnological, archaeological
and paleontological heritage. Collaboration agreements will be sought
with the owners of properties containing items of heritage.




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Environmental research and education.
The authorities will promote and foster research, with the establishment
of priority fields of research that might receive aid and subsidies.
Environmental education and interpretation will be integrated in the
management of protected areas, with the promotion of social participa-
tion. The necessary routes, facilities and activities will be defined to help
transmit the values of the Tramuntana area.

Tourism.
Eco-friendly tourism will be promoted (bird watching, botany, hunting)
and cultural tourism. New initiatives in the field of sustainable tourism
will be facilitated. The PRUG will establish guidelines so that tourist es-
tablishments limit their environmental impacts.

Provisions regarding on-land areas.

The decree will tackle the protection of on-land areas, classifying resourc-
es by type.

Protection of the physical environment.
Regulations will be established for the protection of geological, geomor-
phological and edaphic resources, prohibiting new quarries and the de-
struction or rocks and minerals unless it is done for scientific reasons.
The PRUG will locate sensitive areas, such as scree, limestone pavements,
watercourses, areas of rocky ground and other karstic units and morphol-
ogies. It will also regulate quarrying and earthworks, indicating where
this is possible and in accordance with what measures.
The protection of underground systems like caves, potholes and other
karstic cavities will be one of the main goals of the PRUG. This will also
regulate accesses and protective measures, and collaboration may be
sought with affected federations and scientific bodies.

Water resources

One of the main goals is the conservation and recovery of natural springs
and the maintenance of aquifers. Activities are prohibited that might
damage them. The dumping of wastewater or industrial water is forbid-
den without its prior treatment.
The PRUG will catalogue existing springs (their state of conservation and an
analysis of the water) for their conservation and protection. If applicable, protec-
tive perimeters will be established that include traditional dry-stone structures.
The restoration and recovery of springs in private estates will be encour-
aged and collaboration agreements will be sought.




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Initiatives to maintain, clean and improve torrents will be carried out,
paying special attention to riparian vegetation and adjoining dry-stone
structures. The use of heavy machinery will require the authorization of
the management body of the natural space. As for the extraction of wa-
ter supplies and pertinent licences, authorization will be required by the
authority in charge of water. The PRUG will regulate the requirements
that must be complied with for pertinent installations. The possibility of
the construction and/or adaptation of swimming pools will also be con-
sidered, although they will be forbidden in exclusion zones. Water tanks
must be tied in with farming activities.

Flora, natural vegetation and their use.
The aim is to eradicate the existence of invasive allochthonous species
and give priority to the use of native non-invasive species of flora. The
PURG will list species of flora considered to be native or allochthonous
and, among the latter, invasive and non-invasive ones. Plant protection
criteria will be established in order to guarantee the recovery, regeneration
and restoration of native species of vegetation.

The PRUG will determine those species and plant communities that are a pri-
ority in terms of their protection, conservation and recovery, and the necessary
measures to ensure their predominance over invasive allocththonous species.

On-land fauna.
Species of fauna that are a priority in terms of their protection, conserva-
tion and recovery will be listed in the PRUG, together with all necessary
measures to eradicate the impact of allochthonous species. In the drawing
up of the catalogue, special attention will be given to migratory birds and
the native fauna found on islets.

Criteria governing genetic affinity will be established for the creation of
any plan for the reintroduction and control of populations.

Forest fires and resources.
The public authorities will promote forestry activities compatible with
the conservation of natural characteristics that also contribute to the re-
generation of woodland, and the use of forestry waste will be encouraged.
Through the PRUG, forestry management instruments will be estab-
lished, together with criteria for the recovery of crops and other spatial
planning criteria, like land protection, the preservation of the biodiversity
and sustainable use of resources.
Extended groves of holm oaks (Quercus ilex) will be promoted in suitable
places, as a species characteristic of the landscape of the Tramuntana area.




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Forest hydrology restoration initiatives will be incorporated in the PRUG,
which shall also establish replantation priorities.
Special plans for the prevention of forest fires shall encompass preven-
tive, surveillance and fire extinction activities and they shall be declared of
general interest. They will contemplate silvicultural treatments, fire bar-
riers, and accesses and water collection points in the area. In this section,
controlled fires will also be regulated.

Agricultural and livestock activities.
Traditional agricultural and livestock activities will, in general, be permit-
ted, except in exclusion zones. The competent authorities will promote
the introduction of good practices in the agricultural and livestock sector,
seeking to sensitize individual farmers and offering technical guidance.
One of the objectives of this plan is maintenance as a characteristic fea-
ture of the olive grove scenery of the Tramuntana area, with protective
mechanisms developed by the PRUG. The use of fertilizers and plant
protection products will be regulated, together with the livestock carrying
capacity.

Hunting.
The PRUG will determine the contents of technical hunting plans. It may
establish hunting timetables and seasons for safety purposes and the
compatibility of zones.

Leisure activities.
Any activity carried out under the scope of this plan shall be done in such
a way that it is not detrimental to the environment, heritage or people in
any way. The authorities shall establish areas and routes for public use in
accordance with any involved owners. Environmentally-friendly sporting
and recreational activities will be promoted. A table of permitted and for-
bidden recreational and sporting uses will be drawn up, depending on the
zone in question. The PRUG will establish general criteria and the per-
mitted characteristics of sports, risk activities, camps, festivities, concerts,
and shooting areas.

Provisions relating to marine areas.

The removal of aggregates for building purposes, sand and other sedi-
ments shall be forbidden. Marine transport and different types of fishing
(professional, recreational and underwater) will be regulated, together
with anchoring and scuba diving. In accordance with the competent
body, the PRUG may establish more exhaustive regulations relating to the
aforementioned activities.




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SUMMARY OF THE SPECIAL PLAN REGULATING THE DRY-STONE
ROUTE.

The Special Plan for the Regulation and Protection of the Dry-Stone
Route is based on the need for a legal and technical document aimed at
regulating uses and activities within the framework defined by the Plan.

SCOPE

The Dry-Stone Route is a long footpath that crosses Mallorca’s Tramuntana
Mountains. Its eight stages cover a total of 135.26 km, while the combination
of its ten variants cover 156.27 km. In total, this comes to about 291,43 km.

The width of the paths along the Dry-Stone Route must vary, with a buff-
er of 15 metres on each side, measured from the middle.

The route crosses the municipalities of Andratx, Calvià, Puigpunyent,
Estellencs, Banyalbufar, Esporles, Valldemossa, Bunyola, Alaró, Mancor,
Deià, Sóller, Escorca and Pollença.

OBJECTIVES

The main objectives to be achieved with the approval of the Plan are:

•	 To	regulate	the	area	affected	by	the	Dry-Stone	Route	in	accordance	
   with guidelines derived from the Mallorca Spatial Plan and other plan-
   ning instruments.
•	 To	establish	provisions	relating	to	the	protection	and	conservation	of	
   the path-based heritage that the Dry-Stone Route comprises and the
   natural and rural environment, ethnological features and items of her-
   itage along the route.
•	 To	guarantee	users’	safety.
•	 To	promote	local	sustainable	development	in	the	Tramuntana	area.	

The end product is an open-ended route, with a series of services, which
promotes an activity that has a low environmental impact and encour-
ages local development in the Tramuntana area. In this way, a sustainable,
environmentally-friendly, complementary form of tourism is also fostered
that contributes to the revitalization of non-coastal areas.

The Plan starts with a spatial analysis of the area, taking into account the
climate; geomorphological, hydrological and edaphological features; veg-
etation, flora and fauna.




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It analyses one of the most important conditioning factors of the Plan:
ownership of the rural estates that the route crosses. Most sections run
through publicly owned estates, but there are also sections that pass
through private ones. In such cases, an agreement is reached with the
owners for rights of use.

Subsequently, the Plan is set within the context of current legislation,
analysing State and regional legislation and other laws and decrees that
affect paths, hiking and activities in the natural environment. Obviously
it is also set within the context of the Mallorca Spatial Plan.

An analysis is made of the effects of the approval of the Special Plan and
aspects relating to its formalization, validity and review.

In the development of the Special Plan, a description is made of the
different stages of the route and its variants and established sections,
defining the type of paths, how they are zoned, and the application of
the route.

Factors are also analysed that affect the fragility of the route and its po-
tential use in stages, variants and sections.

Accesses, services and facilities relating to the route are listed and defined,
together with associated items of historic heritage and publicly run hos-
tels. Their location along the route is defined.

Lastly, the body in charge of managing the Special Plan is established and
the attached staff, together with the system of surveillance and control.
That is, impact indicators of public use of the Dry-Stone Route.




                                                                            377
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7.c. Form and date of registers or inventories
     of the most recent assets

A list of the last inventory of cultural heritage in the Tramuntana area
(Inventario de Bienes de Interés Cultural, Consell de Mallorca), with de-
tails of classification and date of declaration, is attached as Annex C.

7.d.Address where the inventory,
    registers and archives can be found

Consell de Mallorca
Departament de Cultura i Patrimoni

C/ Via Roma,1 (Centre Cultural La Misericordia)
07012. Palma de Mallorca.
Illes Balears
Spain




378
                                                                 7. Documentat ion




7.e. Bibliography

Dry Stone
•	 ALCARAZ,	F.	(1999):	Les terrasses méditerranéennes, entre terroirs et paysages (Nord-Ouest du Bassin
   Méditerranéen). Thesis for PhD in geography. University of Toulouse-Le Mirail. 2 volumes, p.
   659.
•	 ALOMAR,	G.;	FERRER,	I.;	GRIMALT,	M.;	MUS,	M.;	REYNÉS,	A.;	RODRÍGUEZ,	R.	(2000): Les
   marjades i el medi ambient a la Vall de Sóller i Fornalutx. Aubaïna. Bulletin of the Balearic Museum
   of Natural Sciences. 1: 13-17.
•	 (2000):	“Cartographie des espaces en terrasses dans la Serra de Tramuntana, Majorque, Baléare “ in ACO-
   VITSIOTI-HAMEAU P.S.: Regards Croisés. Minutes of 6th International Congress on Dry Stone.
   Brignoles-Var : A.S.E.R. du Centre-Var. p.75-82.
•	 (2000):	“Fonctionnement	hydraulique	des	champs	en	terrasses	de	la	Serra	de	Tramuntana–Ma-
   jorque, Baléares“ in ACOVITSIOTI-HAMEAU, Pierre Sèche: Regards Croisés. Minutes of 6th Interna-
   tional Congress on Dry Stone. Brignoles-Var : A.S.E.R. du Centre-Var. p. 83-86.
•	 AMBROISE,	R.	;	FRAPA,	P.;	GIORGIS,	S.	(1989):	Paysages de terrasses. Ed. Édisud. Aix-en-Pro-
   vence. p.176.
•	 FODESMA	(1997):	La Pedra en sec. Obra, paisatge i patrimoni. Minutes of 4th International Con-
   gress on Dry Stone. Gràfiques Miramar. Palma.
•	 PROVANSAL,	M.	(1990):	Les terrasses de culture méditerranéennes. Méditerranée, Vol. 71, no. 3-4,
   Minutes of seminar held on 03/02/1990 in Aix-en Provence. 94 p.
•	 REYNÉS,	A.;	ALOMAR,	G.;	FERRER,	I.;	GRIMALT,	M.;	RODRÍGUEZ,	R.	(2000):	“The PATTER
   project, an innovative European initiative for the cataloguing and preservation of the terrace cultivation
   in the Mediterranean area” in RUBIO, J. L.; ASINS, S.; ANDREU, A.; DE PAZ, J.M.; GIMENO, E.:
   Man and Soil at the Third Millennium. Book of Abstracts. European Society for Soil Conservation.
   Valencia. p. 165.
•	 RODRÍGUEZ,	R.;	ALOMAR,	G.;	FERRER,	I.;	GRIMALT,	M.;	REYNÉS,	A.	(2000):	“Typologies	of	
   disposition of dry stone contention walls on the terrace cultivation area of Majorca Island” in
   RUBIO, J.L.; ASINS, S.; ANDREU, A.; DE PAZ, J.M.; GIMENO, E.: Man and Soil at the Third Mil-
   lennium. Book of Abstracts. European Society for Soil Conservation. Valencia. p.178.
•	 TATONI	T.	(1992):	Évolution post-culturale des agrosystèmes de terrasses en Provence calcaire. Doc-
   toral thesis at the University of Provence. Laboratoire de Biosystématique et Écologie Méditer-
   ranéenne. Marseille. p. 191.

Hiking.
•	 BLÁZQUEZ,	M.	&	ROIG,	M.	(1999):	L’abast de l’excursionisme a Mallorca. Bolletí de Geografia
   Aplicada 1. p. 11-31.
•	 MASSOT		TEJEDOR,	J.;	ORDINAS	MARCÉ,	G.;	REYNÉS	TRIES,	A.	(1998):	“Els camins tradicion-
   als a la Serra de Tramontana” in Serra de Tramuntana : aportacions per a un debat. Grup Excursioni-
   sta de Mallorca (GEM). Ed. SA NOSTRA. p. 86-98.
•	 ORDINAS	MARCÉ,	G.:	Les rutes de la neu: els camins de nevaters a la Serra de Tramontana. La pedra
   en sec. p. 513-530.




                                                                              379
                           Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




•	 ORDINAS	GARAU,	A.	(2000):	“El	camí	vell	de	Lluc	:	un	exemple	de	les	potencialitats	del	senderisme	
   com a modalitat turística a la serra de Tramunta”, in Evolució turística de la darrera dècada i disseny de
   futur. p. 399-404
•	 VERGER	POCOVÍ,	J.	(1992	&	1994):	Catàleg dels antics camins de la serra de tramuntana. Consell
   Insular de Mallorca. Palma. p. 380 .

Biogeography.
•	 ALCOVER,	J.	A.	(1979):	Els mamífers de les Balears in Manuals d’Introducció a la Naturalesa. Ed
   Moll. Palma. p. 190.
•	 ALOMAR	CANYELLES,	G.	(2006):	“Vegetació	dels	canyons	càrstics	de	la	Serra	de	Tramuntana	
   de Mallorca (Balears, Espanya)”, in the journal Endins, issue 30. p. 109-120.
•	 ALTABA,	C.	(1999):		La diversitat biológica. Manuals d’Introducció a la Naturalesa. Ed. Moll. Palma.
•	 BATAGLINI,	P.	(1967):		“Un	nuovo	procedimento	per	estrarre	la	meso	e	macrofauna	del	suolo”.	
   Ann. Ist. Mus. Zool. Napoli.
•	 BONAFÉ,	F.	(1977):	Flora de Mallorca (4 vols). Ed. Moll. Palma.
•	 BONNER,	A.	(1976):	Les Plantes de les Balears. Manuals d’Introducció a la Naturalesa. Ed. Moll.
   Palma. p. 154.
•	 BOLÓS,	O.	de	;	MOLINIER,	R.	(1958):	Recherchesphytosociolologiques dans l’ille de Majorque in Col-
   lectania Botanica, V. Phases 3-4.
•	 COLOM,	G.	(1957):	Biogeografía de las Baleares. La formación de las islas y el orígen de su flora y su
   fauna. Ist Local Studies Seminar. Estudio General Luliano. p. 568.
   - (1964): El medio y la vida en las Baleares. Gráficas Miramar. Palma de Mallorca. p. 292.
   - (1975): “Nuevas nociones sobre la evolución paleogeográfica del archipiélago balear desde el
       Eoceno al Cuaternario”. Revista Balear, 10. p. 38-39.
   - (1978). Biogeografía de las Baleares. Institut d’estudis Baleàrics. Palma.
   - (2003): Insectes de les Illes Balears. in Manuals d’Introducció a la Naturalesa. Ed. Moll. Palma.
•	 CANYELLES,	X.	&	MAS,	X.	(2003):	Peixos de les Illes Balears in Manuals d’Introducció a la Natu-
   ralesa. Ed. Moll. Palma.
•	 GOLDSMITH,	F.B.	(1974):		An assessment of the Nature Conservation. The Value of Majorca. Biologi-
   cal Conservation, 6(2).
•	 IUCN	(1983):	The UICN invertebrate red data book.
•	 JAUME,	D.	&	GARCIA,	LL.	(1993).	“Burrimysis	Palmeri,	a	new	genus	and	species	of	Hetero-
   mysini (crustacea; Mysidacea) from an anchialine cave lake of Cabrera (Balearic Islands, Medi-
   terranean)”. Bijragen tot de Dierkunde, 62 (4). p. 227-235.
•	 JAUME,	D.	(1995):	“Una	llista	de	crustaceos	de	s’Albufera”	in	Martínez-Taberener,	A.	&	Mayol,	J.:		
   S’Albufera de Mallorca. Ed. Mon. Soc. Hist. Nat. Balears, p. 4. p. 119-124.
•	 IMANOL,	E.;	PÉREZ-OBIOL,	R.;	JULIÀ,	R.	(1994):	Vegetation change in the Balearic Islands (Spain)
   during the Holocene. Historical Biology. Vol 9, p. 83-89.
•	 KNOCHE,	H.	(1921-23):	Flora Balearica. Étude phytogeografique sur les illes, 4t + liste alphabetique
   des	localités.	Montpeller.	Romégous.	Zurich.	Int	Polygraphiques-	Leipzig.	534,585,	VX.411	XLVII	
   illustration, 3 maps.
•	 MAY,	R.M.	(1992):	“Número	de	especies	que	Habitan	en	la	Tierra”.	Investigación y ciencia. p. 6-12.




                           380
                                                                7. Documentat ion




•	 MAYOL,	J.	(1978):	Els aucells de les Balears. Manuals d’introducció a la Naturalesa. Ed. Moll. Palma.
•	 PALAU,	P.	(1981):	Les Plantes Medicinals Baleàriques. Manuals d’introducció a la Naturalesa. Ed.
   Moll. Palma.
•	 PONS	BUADES,	G.	(1998):	“Fauna	de	la	Serra	de	Tramuntana,	l’espai	amb	major		biodiversitat	
   de les Balears”. Serra de Tramuntana: aportacions per a un debat. p. 70-85.
•	 RITA	LARRUCEA,	J.	(1998):	“Els	pisos	de	vegetació	de	la	Serra	de	Tramontana”.	Serra de Tramun-
   tana : aportacions per a un debat. p. 59-69.
•	 SASTRE,	V.	&	ROMAN,	A.	(1997):	El ferreret: tesoro de la Serra de Tramontana. Balearic Ministry
   for Agriculture & Fisheries, Directorate General for Agricultural Structures & the Environment.
•	 TÉBAR,	F	J.	(1990):	La Flora y los ecosistemas vegetales en Plan de ordenación de los recursos naturales
   del sector norte de la Serra de Tramuntana de Mallorca. Unpublished.
•	 GABRIEL,	V.	;	BONET,	G.	(2001)	:	La flora de la serra de Tramuntana : guia d’itineraris botànics. Grà-
   fic Art. DL 2000. p. 223.
•	 XIMENA	TERRASA,	J.	(1994):	Análisis de algunos compartimentos y flujos biogeoquímicos en el encinar
   mediterráneo de Menut (Serra de Tramuntana) [Tesis]. University of the Balearic Islands. Depart-
   ment of Environmental Biology. Palma. p. 439.

Climatology. Hydrogeography. Natural Hazards.
•	 ALOMAR	GARAU,	G.;	CLAR,	B.;	SIQUIER,	M.	(2007):	“El	sistema	de	parats	del	torrente	de	
   Capocorb Nou (Mallorca). Análisis y funcionalidad”, in Jornades sobre terrasses i prevenció de riscos
   naturals. Consell de Mallorca. Palma.
•	 BARCELÓ,	M.	et al. (1986): Les aigües cercades: els qanat(s) de l’illa de Mallorca. Institut d’Estudis
   Baleàrics. Palma.
•	 CAÑELLAS,	N.	(1993):	L’aigua, el vent, la sang. L’ús de les forces tradicionals a Mallorca. Documenta
   Balear. Palma.
•	 CARBONERO,	M.	A.	(1992):	L’espai de l’aigua. Petita hidràulica tradicional a Mallorca. Consell Insu-
   lar de Mallorca. Palma.
•	 FONT	TULLOT,	I.	(1988):	Historia del clima en España. Cambios Climáticos y sus causas. Spanish In-
   stitute for Meteorology. Madrid.
•	 GRIMALT	GELABERT,	M.	&	RODRÍGUEZ	PEREA,	A.	(1991):	VII Jornadas de campo de Geografía
   Física. University of the Balearic Islands, Department of Earth Sciences. Mallorca.
•	 GRIMALT	GELABERT,	M.	(1988):	“Precipitacions	diàries	a	la	Serra	de	Tramuntana,	Mallorca”	in	
   Treballs de geografia	(113-181X),	issue	40.	p.	51-60.
   - (1992): Geografia del Risc a Mallorca. Les Inundacions. Institut d’Estudis Baleàrics. Balearic Min-
       istry for Culture, Education and Sports (Government of the Balearic Islands). Palma.
•	 GRIMALT	GELABERT,	M.	et al. (1998): “L’home com a factor geomorfològic a Mallorca.
   L’enginyeria	popular	amb	finalitat	antierosiva”,	in	FORNÓS,	J.	(ed.):	Aspectes geològics de les
   Balears, edition to commemmorate the 10th Symposium on the Teaching of Earth Sciences
   (AEPECT). University of the Balearic Islands. Palma. P. 423-434.
•	 JANSÀ	CLAR,	A.	(1995):	“Peculiaritats	meteorològiques	de	la	Mediterrània	Occidental”	in	I Jor-
   nades de Meteorologia Eduard Fontseré. S.C.G.




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                          Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




•	 KIRCHNER,	H.	(1997):	La construcció de l’espai pagès a Mayurqa: les valls de Bunyola, Orient, Coane-
   gra i Alaró. University of the Balearic Islands, Publications & Scientific Exchange Service.
•	 RIERA,	M.	M.	&	SOBERATS,	N.	(1991):	“Introducció	a	l’estudi	del	sistema	hidràulic	d’Alaró	
   (Mallorca)” in BSAL, issue 47. p. 61-73.
•	 RASO	NADAL,	J.	M.	(1985):	“Los	tipos	de	tiempo	asociados	con	las	advecciones	procedentes	de	
   Europa continental en Baleares”, in XI Jornadas Científicas. I Congreso de Meteorología Mediterránea.
   p. 193-212.
•	 SERVERA	NICOLAU,	J.	(1991):	Morfometria fluvial del sector sud-occidental de la Serra de Tramun-
   tana. University of the Balearic Islands. Geography Department. Palma. p. 339.

Geology. Geomorphology. Stratigraphy.
•	 ÄR,	W.F	(1989):	“Atlas	internacional	del	Karst”	Sheet	5:	Lluc	/	Sierra	Norte.	Mallorca	in	Endins,
   issues 14-15. Palma.
•	 BERGADÀ,	M.	M.	et al. (2005): “Primeras evidencias de estabulación en el yacimiento de Son
   Matge (Serra de Tramuntana, Mallorca) a través del registro sedimentario de valldemosa (Bale-
   aric Islands)”, in Mayurqa (0301-8296). p. 153-180.
•	 CARDOSO	da	SILVA,	G.	&	CUSTODIO,	E.	(2007):	Aspectos hidrodinámicos del sector NE de la Serra
   de Tramuntana, Mallorca, España. Water engineering. Vol. 14, issue 4, p. 319-336.
•	 CARDOSO	da	SILVA,	G.	(1997):	Comportamiento de los manantiales del karst nororiental de La Serra
   de Tramuntana, Mallorca. Thesis by Gerson Cardosa da Silva Junior, directed by Emilio Custo-
   dio Gimena. Catalonia Polytechnic University.
•	 COLOM,	G.	(1975):	Geología de Mallorca. Palma. Institut d’Estudis Baleàrics.
•	 CRESPÍ	BESTARD,	D.	(1997):	Roques i paisatges del sector sud-oest de la Serra de Tramuntana de Ma-
   llorca. Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports of the Government of the Balearic Islands.
   Quaderns de Geologia. Roques i Paisatges de les Illes Balears
•	 FORNÓS,	J.	J.	(1998):	“El	trànsit	Triàsic	superior	-	Juràssic	inferior	al	sector		central	de	la	serra	
   de Tramuntana de Mallorca (cala Tuent - sa Calobra): aspectes estratigràfics, estructurals, geo-
   morfològics i vulcanismo” in Aspectes geològics de les Balears.
•	 GELABERT,	B.	(1998):		“L’estructura	geològica	de	la	serra	de	Tramuntana	de	Mallorca” in As-
   pectes geològics de les Balears. p. 95-116.
•	 GINÉS,	A.	&	GINÉS,	J.	(eds.)	(1995):	“El	Carst	i	les	coves	a	Mallorca/	Karst and caves in Mallorca”,
   in the journal Endins, issue 20, Mon. Soc. Hist, Nat. Balears, 3. Palma.
•	 GINÉS	GRACIA,	À.	(1998):		“L’exocarst	de	la	serra	de	Tramuntana	de	Mallorca”		in	Aspectes Geo-
   lògics de les Balears. p. 361-389
   - (1998): “Dades morfomètriques sobre les estries de lapiaz dels Alps calcaris suïssos i la seva
       comparació amb les estries de la Serra de Tramontana” in Endins, issue 22, p. 109-118
   - (2000): “Morfologia càrstica i vegetació a la Serra de Tramuntana: una aproximació ecològi-
       ca a la dinàmica de l’exocarst” in Endins. Issue 23, p. 101-110.
•	 GINES	GRACIA,	J.	(1998):	“Geomorfologia	de	la	Serra	de	Tramontana”	in		Serra de Tramuntana :
   aportacions per a un debat. p. 22-33.
   - (1998): “L’endocarst de la serra de Tramuntana de Mallorca”. Aspectes geològics de les Balears. p.
       391-421.




                          382
                                                                7. Documentat ion




•	 MATEOS	RUIZ,	R.	M.	(1998):	“Diversos	aspectes	geotècnics	de	la	serra	de	Tramuntana	de	Ma-
   llorca : riscs geològics associats”. Aspectes geològics de les Balears. p. 435 – 456.
•	 POMAR,	L.	(1979):	“La	evolución	tecnosedimentaria	de	las	Baleares:	Un	análisis	crítico”	in	Actas
   Geológica Hispánica, 14.

Informative Publications, Environmental Interpretation
and Regional Works
•	 BALLESTER,	A.	(1991):	La comarca de la Sierra de Tramuntana de Mallorca. Ed. Anaya. Madrid.
•	 BALLESTER	VALLORI,	A	(1991):	La serra de Tramuntana. Guia per a l’estudi de la comarca. CIM.
   Palma.
•	 BARCELÓ	PONS,	B.	(1973):	“Aspectos	geográficos	de	Mallorca”	in	Historia de Mallorca. Coordi-
   nated by Mascaró Pasarius. Palma.
•	 BIBILONI	JAUME,	P.	(2000)	:	Tramuntana a l’abast dels escolars. Consell de Mallorca. Mallorca
   Nature Conservation Association . Palma. 222 p.
•	 BLÁQUEZ,	M.;	DÍAZ,	R.;	RULLÁN,	O.	(1998):	La Serra de Tramuntana. Natura i Cultura. Ed. Moll.
   Palma. p. 234.
•	 BLÁZQUEZ	MARTÍNEZ,	J.	M.	(2000):	Los pueblos de España y el mediterráneo en la antigüedad. Es-
   tudios de arqueología, historia y arte. Ed. Cátedra. Madrid. p. 727 .
•	 BRUNET,	P.J.;	GRIMALT	GELABERT,	M.;	SERVERA	NICOLAU,	J.	(1991):	“Excursión	a	la	Serra	
   de Tramuntana y el Raiguer.” Seminar on Railways (I). Palma de Mallorca. Palma : UIB. p. 96.
•	 CASTELLÓ	MAS,	M.;	SASTRE	ALBERTÍ,	F.(dir.)	(2004):	Espais Naturals Protegits. El paper de la
   propietat privada. INESE. Palma. p. 239.
•	 COLOMAR,	A.	(1997):	Guia de la Serra de Tramuntana: Mallorca. Government of the Balearic Is-
   lands. Palma.
•	 CORS	IGLESIAS,	M.;	LUCAS;VIDAL,	A.M.	(2002):	“Introducción	Geográfica	de	la	Serra	de	
   Tramontana” in Geografía y Territorio. El Papel del Geógrafo en la Escala Local. University of the Bal-
   earic Islands. Publications and Scientific Exchange Service. Palma. p. 431.
•	 CURIEL,	J.	;	CANTO,	J.	;	CALVO,	M.	A.	(1998):	“Las	ordenanzas	municipales	en	la	Edad	Media”.	
   Minutes of 2nd National Congress on the History of Construction, A Coruña, October 22nd-24th. Eds.
   F. Bores; J. Fernández; S. Huerta; E. Rabasa, Madrid: I. Juan de Herrera, SEdHC, U. Coruña,
   CEHOPU, p. 107-109 http://gilbert.aq.upm.es/sedhc/biblioteca_digital/Congresos/CNHC2/
   CNHC2_015.pdf
•	 GUAL	CARBONELL,	J.	(2002):	Mallorca, la Serra / Photos by Jaume Gual ; text by Miquel Rayó.
   Ed. Di7. Palma. p. 95.
•	 LARRUCEA,	J.R.	et al. (2003) : L’esperit de Tramuntana. Illustrations by Vicenç Sastre. Palma.
•	 HEINRICH,	H.	(1997):	Mallorca : 12 excursiones-aventura por la Serra de Tramuntana: con mapas pa-
   norámicos especialmente claros y detallados y muchas ilustraciones. Ed. Moll. Palm. p.136.
•	 JAUME	WALKERE,	J.	(2003):	Tramuntana de norte a sur : los 54 miles de la sierra en 142 itinerarios :
   guía de montaña. Calima. p. 293.
•	 LLANO,	C.	(2004):	Serra de Tramuntana; Una Isla dentro de la Isla. The Tramuntana Mountains: an
   island within the island. Trasmediterránea Shipping company. Extract from: Azul marino: maga-
   zine by the Trasmediterránea Group. Madrid.
•	 FERRER	LÓREZ,	M.	(1974):	Población y Propiedad en la Cordillera Provincial de Baleares.




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                           Cu ltu r a l L a nds c a pe of t he Ser r a de Tr amuntana




•	 LLINÀS	FERRÀ,	B.	(1990):		Binifaldó : un camp d’aprenentatge a la Serra de Tramuntana de Mallorca.
   MEC. Centre for Teaching Resources and Compensatory Education. Palma.
•	 OLIVER,	J.	&	RODRÍGUEZ,	M.C.	(coord.)	(1997):	El Paisatge a les Balears, in Quaderns
   d’Educació Ambiental. GOVERNMENT OF THE BALEARIC ISLANDS. Ministry of the Envi-
   ronment. Spatial and Coastal Planning. p. 96.
•	 PEÑA	BARCELÓ,	A.	(2005):		Sa moleta de Binifaldó : Itinerari 3 / text and photos: Antoni Peña
   Barceló ; Map: Vicenç Sastre. Government of the Balearic Islands. Ministry of the Environment.
   Palma.
•	 PERKINS	MARSH,	G	(1874):	Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as modified by human actions
•	 PICORNELL,	C.	(1980):	Localització Industrial a les Illes Balears. La Caixa. Barcelona.
•	 PICORNEL,	C.	y	SEGUÍ,	J.M.	(1989):	Geografia humana de las Islas Baleares. Oykos TAU. Barcelona.
•	 QUINTANA	PEÑUELA,	A.	(1979):	El sistema Urbano en Mallorca. Ed. Moll. Palma.
•	 RAMIS,	S.:		A pie por la Sierra de Tramuntana : impresiones de un viaje a “la montaña” mallorquina /
   text by Sergi Mas; photos by Oriol Alamany. Península issue no. 15. p. 70-75.
•	 RIBA,O.	et. al. (1975): Geografia física dels Països Catalans. Cutres. Barcelona.
•	 RODRÍGUEZ	PEREA	A.	(coord.)	(1998):	La Serra de Tramuntana : aportacions per a un debat.
•	 ROSSELLÓ	VERGER,	V.	M	(1964):	“El	regadío	en	la	Isla	de	Mallorca”	in	Spanish contribution to
   the 20th International Geographical Congress, London.
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