The French Revolution - Download as PowerPoint

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					     Ms. Greto
Modern World History
Three Main Phases of the War:
   Old Regime (Ancient Regime)

   Estates General

   Radical Republic
          Stage I: Ancient Regime
I. Three classes
      A. First Estate - Clergy
               1. did not have to pay taxes
               2. owned 10% of land and wealth
      B. Second Estate - Nobles
               1. wealthy
               2. some struggled to maintain status
      C. Third Estate - Peasants
               1. bourgeoisie – middle class
               2. lawyers, doctors, journalists, royal
               3. 9/10 were rural farmers; 1/10 urban workers
               4. taxed heavily
 Ancient Regime Continued

II. Economy
       A. Harvests
              1. bad harvest ---> increased food prices
              2. hunger, riots, attacks on nobles
       B. Debt
              1. American Revolution and other wars
              2. nobles and kings kept a lot of money
              3. solutions
                      a. increase taxes
                      b. decrease expenses
       C. King Louis’ effects on government
              1. he was weak and indecisive
              2. had a good financial advisor, Jacques Necker,
              but fired him
Ancient Regime Continued
             a. decrease court spending
             b. reform government
             c. tax First and Second Estates (why he was fired)
             d. abolish tariffs on internal trade

====> Wealthy and powerful classes demanded the king to
summon the Estates General, which hadn’t been summoned in
175 years.
          Stage II: Estates General
I. Estates General prepared cahiers (notebooks to list grievances
   and demands)
II. Tennis Court Oath
       A. First and Second Estates worked together
               1. voted by order (vote by group not by person)
               2. voted 2-1 against Third Estate
       B. Third Estate wanted all three to meet together
               1. wanted to vote by head (vote by person not group)
               2. declared itself the National Assembly after weeks
               of indecision.
               3. invited the other Estates to come to help write a
               4. days later the National Assembly building was
               locked and guarded
Estates General Continued
                     a. met at a tennis court
                     b. oath to meet wherever circumstances led
                     them until they got a constitution
Estates General Continued

III. Storming of the Bastille
        A. tensions grew  protests outside of the Bastille (July
        14, 1789)
                 1. Bastille – medieval fortress used to hold prisoners
        B. crowd demanded weapons and gunpowder to protect
        itself from the royal troops
        C. Bastille commander refused to open gates and opened
        fire on crowd.
        D. mob broke through defense
                 1. killed commander and five guards
                 2. released prisoners but found no weapons
Estates General Continued
“Is it a revolt?”               “No sire, it is a revolution!”
          Bastille Day --> French National Holiday
Storming of the Bastille = Start of the French Revolution
Estates General Continued
IV. The March of Versailles
       A. financial crisis got worse after Storming of Bastille
              1. unemployment rose
              2. hunger increased
       B. 7,000 women marched from Paris to Versailles (12
       miles) on October 5, 1789
              1. invaded palace and killed several guards
              2. demanded bread
              3. king gave them bread
                      a. king and family went with them back to
                      b. king and his family never returned to the
                      Palace of Versailles
Estates General Continued
        Stage III: Radical Republic
I. Execution of Louis XVI
     A. royal family flees France (June 21,1791)
       1. caught a few miles from French border
       2. returned to Paris
     B. king signs Constitution of 1791
       1. proceeds to veto key revolutionary decrees
     C. National Convention
       1. Radical Government
       2. elected in September 1792
     D. incriminating royal documents found (Nov. 1792)
       1. showed King was secretly trying to restore his power.
       2. wanted to get rid of the Constitution
Radical Republic Continued

       E. National Convention voted to convict Louis XVI of treason
               1. sentenced to death January 1793, by one vote
               (361 of 720 members)
               2. proclaimed innocence
               3. queen executed in October 1793
II. Reign of Terror
       A. National Convention was led by Maximilien Robespierre
               1. Robespierre called for drastic measures
               2. at war with every major European power
                      a. Defeated them all by spring of 1794
       B. Robespierre
               1. taught French citizens the virtues of the new
Radical Republic Continued

              2. 1792 – year one of the Republic
                     a. created new calendar (new months,
                     weeks, and days)
              3. set up special revolutionary courts
                     a. responsible only to him
                     b. tried citizens for treason against revolution
                     c. two-year period -> 40,000 men and
                     women executed
              4. July 1794, Robespierre was executed by guillotine
                     a. Reign of Terror had already wiped out
                     many of his friends.
III. The Coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte
       A. Napoleon ruled France for 15 years (1799-1814)
Radical Republic Continued

             1. dictator and emperor
             2. turned France into a centrally controlled police
                     a. freedoms of speech and press violated
             3. kept some reforms of revolution
                     a. abolished feudal privileges
                     b. secured advances of middle class and
      B. Napoleon abdicated (gave up the throne) in 1814