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Chapter 8


									    Chapter 8

Learning Theory
     Part 2
 Pop Quizzes So Far This Exam

Count        18           23
Average      3.6          3.0   5.4
Max           5            5    10
Min           2            0     0
                   Mode          7
What is Learning?
          Learning Defined

A relatively permanent change in the
   behavior of an organism due to
Classical Conditioning

Pavolov (p. 316)
What was Pavlov’s Original Field
          of Study?

Figure 8.3 P. 317
Pavlov’s Research
Prior to Conditioning
After Conditioning
                 Basic Concepts
 Unconditioned                      Conditioned
    US  = Unconditioned                CS  = Conditioned
     Stimulus: the US reliably           Stimulus: a CS is a
     produces the UR                     neutral stimulus prior to
                                         conditioning but produces
    UR = Unconditioned                  CR after conditioning
     response: usually based in         CR = Conditioned
     physiology such as                  Response: same type of
     salivation, sweating,               response as UR but
     blinking, or other reflexive        occurs in response to
     responses;                          CS

 Know that re-acquisition of a learned
 behavior is typically faster than
initial acquisition of that same
           learned behavior
 Acquisition and Re-Acquisition
“I haven’t done   it in years, but I picked it up
 almost immediately.”
Bad habits can resume with the same intensity
 as they had when initial efforts to extinguish them
If addiction is “drug seeking behavior,” then
 what implications for addiction?

What is it?

Diminished Responding When
the CS No Longer Signals an
       Impending US

     Said Differently:
When the CS is no longer
paired with the US (p. 319)
  Makayla developed an intense fear of
 flying five years ago when she was in a
plane crash. The fact that she can again
fly without distress indicates that her fear
          has undergone ______?
The tendency to respond to a stimulus
      similar to the CS. (p. 320)
  Pavlov and his students noticed that a
dog conditioned to the sound of one tone
also responded somewhat to the sound of
  a different tone never paired with food.
Generalization can be adaptive, as when
toddlers taught to fear moving cars in the
   street resond similarly to trucks and
Generalization Examples (p. 320)
Toddlers, cars, motorcycles, & trucks
Argentine Writer who    was tortured & black shoes.
Abused Children and Angry Face of Unknown
[All of these are in the text on p. 320]
Generalization Examples (p. 320)

     What diagnosis is associated with
        Stimulus Generalization?
Generalization Examples (p. 320)

     (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
        CC and PTSD: PopQuiz
14.  Months after she was attacked and robbed,
 Courtney’s heart pounds with fear merely at the
 sight of the place in which she was attacked. The
 location of here attack is most likely a(n)
Conditioned     Stimulus (CS-US-UR/CR)

The learned ability to distinguish between
     a two similar conditions (p. 320)
        (One is the CS; One is not)

                  Retrievers (p. 320)
Pit Bulls v. Golden
What other examples of discrimination?
Discrimination (Tones)
     Applications of Classical
       Conditioning (p. 324)
Former Crack Cocaine Users & “Triggers”
Alcohol Use and Consequences
Taste that accompanies drug & immune
What else?
Operant Conditioning (p. 326)

  Target behavior operates on
  the environment to produce
         “rewarding” or
      “punishing” behavior
Operant v. Classical
      Operant Conditioning
v. Classical Conditioning (p. 326)
                              Operant  Conditioning
  ClassicalConditioning      “Operates” on
  Response to Environment     Environment
  Organism doesn’t have      In theory, the organism
   any “control”               can “choose” to respond
  CS-US-UR Produces CR        or not
  Conditioned Stimulus       r-R
   PRECEDES response          Reinforcement
   (Before)                    FOLLOWS response
  Pavlov                      (AFTER)
                                              Skinner
Classical v. Operant p. 339
Respondent v. Operant (Popquiz)
The study of          Bandura;  Pavlov
                      Skinner; Bandura
                      Bandura; Skinner
 behavior is to
 __________ as the    Pavlov;    Skinner
 study of operant
 behavior is to
     Operant Conditioning:
  Reinforcement v. Punishment

                   stimulus that increases the
A reinforcer is any
 frequency of the target behavior
A “punishment” is any stimulus that decreases
 the frequency of the target behavior
     Operant Conditioning:
  Reinforcement v. Punishment

Skinner’s Work was  Built on Thorndike’s
From last time, remember the “Law of Effect”?
 (p. 327)
  Skinner Built on Thorndike

B. F. Skinner’s   Shaping
work elaborated   Observational learning
what E. L.        Latent learning
Thorndike         The law of
called:            effect
Thorndike, Again (Video)
Thorndike, Again (Graphic, p. 327)

 Trial and Error:
 Successive Trials Resulted in Faster Responses
 Operant Conditioning

Skinner Boxes (p. 327)
           Operant Conditioning:
              Skinner Boxes
Skinner developed a   special tool to study operant
 conditioning called an “operant chamber”
Virtually everyone calls an “operant chamber” a
 “Skinner Box”
Can you think of any “real life” Skinner Boxes?
What about “Video Poker”?
What about certain webpages?
Operant Conditioning:
Skinner Boxes (p. 327)
Skinner Boxes (Again)
           Operant Conditioning:
              Skinner Boxes

Can you think of any “real life” Skinner Boxes?
What about “Video Poker”?
What about certain webpages
What other examples?
           Operant Conditioning:
              Skinner Boxes

What is“Second Life”? Do people get lost in it?
What about “World of Warcraft”?
What about other websites? MySpace? Facebook?
What other examples?
     Operant Conditioning:
  Reinforcement v. Punishment

                   stimulus that increases the
A reinforcer is any
 frequency of the target behavior
A “punishment” is any stimulus that decreases
 the frequency of the target behavior
Reinforcement: Two Types (p. 329)
 What about Addiction?

Dragging on a cigarette will reduce a
  nicotine addict’s pangs. (p. 329)
     Negative Reinforcement
      Punishment: Two Types
Positive Punishment: ADDs a     stimulus
 (similar to Positive Reinforcement):
 Example: Electric Shock
Negative Punishment: SUBTRACTs a stimulus
Punishment: Two Types
  Operant Conditioning

Shaping (and Auto-Shaping)
Operant Conditioning: Shaping

An operant conditioning procedure
in which reinforcers guide behavior
     toward closer and closer
    approximations of the target
         behavior (p. 329)
  Operant Conditioning:
Successive Approximations
Responses that are progressively
 closer to the final target behavior
are reinforced; other behaviors are
          ignored (p. 329)
      Operant Conditioning:
   Successive Approximations
Criminality: lie, cheat, steal,
 property crimes, crimes to person
 (assault, robbery, rape, murder)
 Caffeine, Nicotine, Alcohol, THC,
 Cocaine / Heroin, etc.
       Doobie Brothers

“What Were Once Vices are Now Habits”
      Operant Conditioning:
   Successive Approximations
Animal Training
 (please read the book)
Shaping and Whinning Children
Shaping and Development of
 Athletic Skill
Operant Conditioning: Continuous
    v. Partial Reinforcement
Behavior is  most quickly established by
 Continuous Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement most
 vulnerable to Extinction
Partial Reinforcement is most resistant
 to Extinction (p. 331)
So What?
Operant Conditioning: Continuous
    v. Partial Reinforcement
Use Continuous    Reinforcement During
 Autoshaping / Establishment of
Switch to Partial Reinforcement once
 the behavior is established
Lean Schedules are most resistant to
              Ratio Schedules
1.   Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response
     only after a specified number of responses.
     e.g., piecework pay.

2.   Variable-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response
     after an unpredictable number of responses.
     This is hard to extinguish because of the
     unpredictability. (e.g., behaviors like
     gambling, fishing.)
         Interval Schedules
1. Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforces a
   response only after a specified time has
   elapsed. (e.g., preparing for an exam only
   when the exam draws close.)
2. Variable-interval schedule: Reinforces a
   response at unpredictable time intervals,
   which produces slow, steady responses.
   (e.g., pop quiz.)
Fixed & Variable / Ratio & Interval
A fixed ratioof continuous reinforcement most
 quickly establishes the target behavior
But a variable interval schedule of partial
 reinforcement will produce the most steady
What is “video poker” and other gambling?
 (p. 332)
Figure 8.10
Reinforcement Schedules (p. 331)
  On the first day of class Professor Wallace
tells her geography students that pop quizzes
      will be given at unpredictable times
  throughout the semester. Clearly, studying
 for Professor Wallace’s surprise quizzes will
    be reinforce on a __________ schedule.

  Problems with Skinner’s Model
Evidence for   “Cognitive Maps” and
 “Latent Learning” is accumulating (p. 334)
“Intrinsic Motivation” v. “Extrinsic Motivation”
 (p. 335)
   But, is it really a “reinforcer” if it decreases the
    frequency of the target behavior?
“Biological Predispostions” (pp. 335-336)
   Skinner’s Work has
revolutionized many lives
  Skinner’s Legacy (pp. 336-337)
Skinner’s Ideas Provide a   Theoretical Foundation
 for modern “Computer Based Training”
Workplaces have been revolutionized by having
 “productivity” defined in specific and measurable
Behavior Modification in Treatment Settings
B-Mod and MRDD
Observational Learning

         Albert Bandura
and Social Learning Theory (SLT)
         (p. 343 et seq)
               Bandura’s SLT
Gave us  the idea of “modeling” behavior
No S-R, r-R, or other paradigm
Explains “Copycat” Events
 (Like Columbine Copycats)
Basis of criticism of TV Violence, Violent
In a well-known experiment, preschool
 children pounded and kicked a large
inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just
 beaten on. This experiment served to
      illustrate the importance of
           (p. 343)

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