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INVENTORY - Kona Airport


									Chapter One

  To produce a realistic and adequate plan
  for future growth at Kona International
  Airport at Keahole (KOA), it is essential
  to understand the framework within
  which the airport exists. An initial task
  within this master plan update consists
  of gathering data to provide a clear               • Interviews with airport management,
  definition of the airport's aviation                tenants, and users
  environment, including facilities, users,
                                                     • Federal, state, and local publications
  and activity levels. The information that
  follows formed the baseline for                    • Project record drawings
  developing this report.
                                                     This chapter briefly describes the physi-
  The initial action necessary in updating a
                                                     cal facilities at KOA. Aviation-specific
  master plan is the collection of all
                                                     information on the airspace, aviation
  pertinent data that relates to the area
                                                     activity, and role of the airport are
  served by the airport, as well as the
                                                     described. The chapter also describes the
  airport itself.     This inventory was
                                                     environment in which the airport oper-
  conducted using the following sources of
                                                     ates, including surrounding land uses
                                                     and the socioeconomic characteristics of
  • Previous airport master plan and other           the region.
    planning since then
  • On-site visits                                   AIRPORT SETTING
  • Aerial and ground photography                    KOA is classified under the National
                                                     Plan of Integrated Airport Systems

                                               1-1                                     DRAFT FINAL
(NPIAS) as a primary commercial ser-              CLIMATE
vice small-hub airport, reporting
1,519,345 total passenger enplane-                The climate of Hawaii County and the
ments (boardings) for 2007.       This            Kailua/Kona       area    is   primarily
equates to approximately 0.20 percent             tropical, consisting of a dry (November
of the total annual enplanements in               to March) and a wet season (April to
the United States. The percentage of              October).    There are local climatic
annual enplaned passengers for small-             differences across the island due
hub commercial airports must be at                primarily to the mountainous terrain
least 0.05 percent, but less than 0.25            created by Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa,
percent of the total enplanements for             Kilauea, Hualalai, and the Kohala
the United States. In 2007, KOA                   Mountains. The tradewinds that af-
ranked 76 out of 575 commercial ser-              fect the east side of the island are
vice airports, and ninth of 73 small-             blocked by the mountains, leaving the
hub airports.                                     west side drier and more subject to
                                                  ground heating and cooling.

LOCALE                                            As the location of the active Kilauea
                                                  volcano, the island can be subjected to
As shown on Exhibit 1A, KOA is lo-                volcanic smog, or “vog.” Vog is formed
cated on the western coast of the is-             when sulfur dioxide emitted by an
land of Hawaii. Commonly called the               erupting volcano mixes with oxygen
“Big Island” because it is the largest            and moisture in the presence of
island within the state, it is also the           sunlight. Vog creates a haze in the
eastern and southernmost island.                  atmosphere that can become thicker
                                                  or lighter depending upon the level of
The airport is situated on approx-                emissions, the direction and strength
imately 3,450 acres within the City of            of wind, and other weather conditions.
Kailua/Kona corporate limits, ap-
proximately nine miles northwest of               The vog mostly affects the west coast
the central business district (CBD).              of the island as prevailing trade winds
Exhibit 1B depicts the airport prop-              blow the vog to the southwest, where
erty in its immediate surroundings.               other wind patterns then send it north
Queen Kaahumanu Highway (Route                    along the Kona-Kohala coast line.
19) is located along the east side of the
airport. State Route 19 is a link in the          The Kona coast on the northwest side
principal highway system that circles             has a distinctive climate from that of
the island. Keahole Street provides               the rest of the island and the state.
primary on-airport access from the                The area including KOA experiences a
highway to the passenger terminal as              diurnal    land/sea   wind    pattern,
well as other airport landside facili-            especially in the summer. The land
ties.                                             warms during the day, causing the

                                            1-2                            DRAFT FINAL

                         Upolu Airport

                                         270                 250

                                                                   Waimea           Waimea-Kohala                                19
                                                                                                 A      KUA

                                                    KOHALA                                H
                                                                                           Mauna Kea                                       Pepeekeo

                                                                                                                    NORTH                                                                   Papaikou
                    Kona International
                    Airport at Keahole
                            Kailua/Kona N O R T H
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Hilo International
                              Holualoa   KONA
                                                                                                                    Mountain View
                                      Kealakekua                           Mauna Loa                   Hawaii National
                                                                                                        Volcanoes Park            PUNA
                                       Captain Cook
                                                             SOUTH                                                  Hawaii National
                                                             KONA                                            11      Volcanoes Park

                                                                                                                                                                                                   Principal Highway
                                                                                              Pahala                                                                                               Secondary Highway
                                                                           KAU                                                                                                                     County Road
                                                                                                                                                                                       11          State Highway

                                                                                                                                Kekaha Kai
                                                                            Naalehu                                             State Park
                                                                                                                                              KONA INTERNATIONAL                                                      Bel
                                                                                                                                              AIRPORT AT KEAHOLE

                                                    Ka Lae (South Point)                                                                                                   Ka                                Golf Club
                                                                                                                                                                                                   p Rd.
                                                                                                                                                                              hun       Puukala Loo
                                                                                                                        Keahole St.                                                aA
                                                                                                                                                                                        R   d.
                                     Kauai                                                                                                      ama

                                                                                                                                                         ka S

                                                                                                                                          Kaim               t.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   i St

                                                                                                                     Otec Rd.                                       t.

                                                                                                                                                              Hau S


                                                                                                                                                                       a St
                                               Oahu                                                                                                              Kukun

                                                            Hon        Molokai
                                                                             i                                                   19





                                                                                                                                  en K

                                                                                                          PACIFIC                                                   na





                                                                                                                    National Hist. Park
                                                                                                                                                                                   o Pl.




                                                                                                                                      LOCATION MAP                                                                            Exhibit 1A

                                                                     Queen K
                                                                                   u   Hwy

                                                                                                   Keahole St.
                                                                                                                 Pao‘o St. (Road N)

                                                                                   Kupipi Street
                                                                                                                       U‘u Street

                                                  Airport Property
                                                  Non-Ceded Lands

                    0       2000           4000

                        SCALE IN FEET

                                                                                             AIRPORT CEDED LANDS                      Exhibit 1B
winds to blow in from the ocean. As            less than 74 miles per hour) are more
the ground cools in the evening, the           frequent, but still occur less than once
winds shift to blow from the land to           per year. They usually occur during
the ocean. Summer rainfall exceeds             the    months     of    June     through
winter rainfall, with a high frequency         December. These storms generally
of late afternoon or early evening             originate off the coast of Mexico and
showers. Annual precipitation aver-            travel west or northwest toward the
ages less than 22 inches per year.             Hawaiian Islands. Often times when
High temperatures typically range              hurricanes meet the cooler water of
from 80 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (F),          the North Pacific near the Hawaiian
with October being the hottest month.          Islands, they will lose much of their
                                               strength before hitting the islands.
Hurricanes are rare but possible.              Table 1A summarizes climatic data
Tropical storms (sustained winds of            for KOA.

 1971-2000 Monthly Climate Summary
 Kona International Airport at Keahole
                               Monthly Temperature
                                      Averages                    Precipitation
 Month                   Maximum (F)         Minimum (F)          Mean (inches)
 January                      80.9               65.5                  2.40
 February                     81.3               65.8                  1.65
 March                        81.5               66.8                  1.64
 April                        81.9               68.0                  2.19
 May                          82.3               68.7                  2.34
 June                         82.9               69.9                  1.83
 July                         83.6               70.6                  2.31
 August                       85.2               71.3                  1.80
 September                    85.8               71.3                  2.14
 October                      85.7               70.8                  1.43
 November                     81.5               67.0                  0.91
 December                     80.6               65.7                  1.23
 Annual                       83.0               68.7                 21.87
 Source: Western Regional Climate Center

ISLAND TRANSPORTATION                          Hawaii Belt Road which circles the
NETWORK                                        island. The Belt Road is comprised of
                                               State Highway 11 to the south and
Highway System                                 State Highway 19 to the north. Queen
                                               Kaahumanu Highway (Highway 19)
The island of Hawaii is served by a            that provides access to KOA is part of
network 1,393 miles of public roads.           the Hawaii Belt Road. While most of
This includes 394 miles of state               the roadway is two-lanes, it widens to
highways. As displayed on Exhibit              four lanes in and around some of the
1A, the backbone of the system is the          island’s larger cities.

                                         1-3                            DRAFT FINAL
Palani Highway and Mamalahoa                     45 passengers. The bus service stops
Highway (Route 190) is a state route             twice daily (once northbound and once
within the Belt Road that extends                southbound) at the airport terminal.
from Kailua/Kona north to Waimea;
Saddle Road (Route 200).          Akaka
Falls Road (Route 220) extends west              Water Transportation
from the Belt Road at Honomu to
Akaka Falls. Saddle Road (Route 200)             As an island state, both air and water
is also an interior road that extends            transportation are critical to Hawaii
from Waikoloa to Hilo.         It is not         and its economy. With 80 percent of
currently part of the state’s highway            the state’s food and merchandise
system, but is being considered for              imported, 98.6 percent of those
upgrade and modernization improve-               imports arrive by sea. The Hawaii
ments by the federal, state, and                 DOT maintains a harbor system on
county governments. This improve-                each of the islands. There are two
ment has the potential to reduce the             deep draft harbors serving the island
commute between the east and west                of Hawaii. Hilo Harbor is located on
sides of the island by 20 to 30 minutes.         the east side of the island at Hilo
                                                 approximately 95 miles from KOA.
The Queen Kaahumanu Highway is                   Kawaihae Harbor is located on the
one of the primary arterials serving             west side, approximately 29 miles
the North and South Kona Districts.              from KOA.
This road is currently being widened
from Kailua/Kona towards the airport.            Hilo Harbor is the older harbor and
Kaiminani Drive is a collector road              has historically been the main port for
that extends east from Queen                     the island, having a 35-foot draft and
Kaahumanu Highway to Mamalahoa                   three commercial piers.      There is
Highway (Route 190).       The 2005              limited loading and back-up space, as
Hawaii County General Plan recom-                well as limited room for expansion of
mended the widening of both Queen                harbor industrial uses.      Plans do
Kaahumanu and Mamalahoa High-                    include expansion within the limited
ways.                                            area available.

                                                 Kawaihae Harbor in South Kohala
Public Transportation                            was established to relieve congestion
                                                 at Hilo as well as to provide service for
The Hawaii County Mass Transit                   the growing west Hawaii comm-
Agency provides public transportation            unities. The Kawaihae Harbor is not
around the island on the Hele-On bus             as developed as the Hilo Harbor. It
system. Service is provided to the               currently has two commercial piers
major urban centers on the island via            with 14 acres of cargo handling and
the main roadways. There is also                 storage, but has room for expansion.
shuttle service available in Hilo and            The Hawaii Commercial Harbors 2020
the Kona District. The Hele-On uses a            Master Plan calls for additional pier
fleet of buses with a capacity of 33 to          construction, an overseas container

                                           1-4                             DRAFT FINAL
terminal,    an    interisland cargo             feet and 150 feet wide. Northeast-
terminal, liquid and dry bulk cargo              southwest Runway 3-21 is 5,600 feet
facilities, military cargo terminal,             long and 150 feet wide. There are 50
ocean research accommodations, as                aircraft based at Hilo International
well as an alternate cruise ship                 Airport.   Avgas, Jet A fuel, flight
terminal.                                        training, aircraft rentals, charters,
                                                 and maintenance are available at the
In addition to the deep draft harbors,           airport. Annual operations as counted
cruise ships visiting Kailua/Kona                by the ITO ATCT in CY 2006 totaled
anchor off-shore in Kailua Bay and               97,892.
shuttle passengers to the Kailua/Kona
Wharf.                                           Upolu Airport (UPP) is located
                                                 approximately 33 nautical miles north
                                                 of KOA. The airport’s lone Runway 7-
Other Big Island Airports                        25 is 3,800 feet long, 75 feet wide,
                                                 lighted, and constructed of asphalt.
A review of other public-use airports            The airport bases one aircraft.
besides KOA has been made to                     Annual operations are estimated at
identify and distinguish the type of air         700.
service provided on the island. There
are three other airports on the island.
As with KOA, all are state-owned.                AIRPORT HISTORY
Information pertaining to each airport
was obtained from FAA records, and               In 1947, the Hawaiian legislature
each is identified on Exhibit 1A.                approved state funding to develop the
                                                 Kailua Airstrip, which at that time,
Waimea–Kohala Airport (MUE) is                   was being used primarily for small
located approximately 26 nautical                aircraft operations. Over the next two
miles northeast of KOA. The airport              years, the runway was upgraded and a
has a single northeast-southwest                 terminal building opened.
asphalt runway that is lighted.
Runway 4-22 is 5,197 feet long and               In 1968, all airports in the State of
100 feet wide. The airport has nine              Hawaii were placed under the control
based aircraft and an estimated 3,650            of the Hawaii Department of
annual operations.                               Transportation.     A year later, the
                                                 Department of Transportation decided
Hilo International Airport (ITO) is              to replace the original airport and
located approximately 56 nautical                began construction on the new
miles east of KOA. ITO is the other              Keahole Airport, seven miles north of
commercial service airport on the is-            the existing airport. The new airport
land and handled 1.45 million                    was completed and dedicated in 1970.
passengers in calendar year (CY)                 The Keahole Airport’s FAA airport
2006. The airport has two lighted                traffic control tower (ATCT) was
asphalt runways.      The east-west              constructed shortly after the opening
Runway 8-26 is the longest at 9,800              of the airport in 1971.

                                           1-5                           DRAFT FINAL
In 1974, the Hawaii State Legislature           CEDED LANDS
created      the    Natural   Energy
Laboratory of Hawaii (NELH) on 322              In the State of Hawaii, there are
acres of land on Keahole Point makai            approximately 1.8 million acres of
of the new airfield.      NELH was              land that were once the crown lands of
mandated to provide a support facility          the Hawaiian monarchy. After the
for research on the ocean thermal               overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom
energy conversion (OTEC) process and            in 1898, the crown lands were ceded to
its related technologies.                       the U.S. government. When Hawaii
                                                became a state in 1959, these crown
In 1985, the Legislature created the            lands now known as ceded lands were
Hawaii Ocean and Science Technology             transferred to the state by a federal
(HOST) Park on an adjacent 548 acres            act. These ceded lands are held in
at Keahole in anticipation of                   trust for the Native Hawaiians.
expansion needs of NELH’s growing               Lands,     proceeds   and    revenues
businesses. In 1990, HOST Park and              generated from the use of these ceded
NELH were melded into one agency,               lands are to be managed and disposed
the NELH Authority (NELHA),                     of for one or more of the following
attached to the state’s Department of           purposes:
Business, Economic Development &
Tourism.                                        1.   Support of public education
                                                2.   Betterment of the conditions of
The airport handled interisland traffic              Native Hawaiians as defined in
almost exclusively until 1983, when                  the Hawaiian Homes Commission
United Airlines began direct flights.                Act of 1920
In 1988, the runway was extended                3.   Development of farm and home
from 6,500 feet to 9,500 feet and the                ownership on as widespread a
terminal was expanded by three gates.                basis as possible for the making of
                                                     public improvements
The name of the airport was officially          4.   Provisions of lands for public use.
changed to Keahole-Kona Inter-
national Airport on April 26, 1993. In          At the 1978 Hawaii State Consti-
1994, the runway was extended to its            tutional Convention, the Constitution
current length of 11,000 feet. This             of Hawaii was amended to create the
provided enough runway length to                Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA) to
allow wide-body aircraft to operate             better address the second purpose.
fully loaded.                                   Through OHA, Native Hawaiians
                                                make their own decision as to the
On June 16, 1997, the name of the               investment of ceded lands and
airport was changed to its current              collection of revenues from said lands.
name - Kona International Airport at

                                          1-6                            DRAFT FINAL
As shown on Exhibit 1B, Kona                     improvements at KOA over the past
International Airport is comprised               nine years.
almost entirely of ceded lands. There
is one Ahupua`a that is north of the
terminal (Mahele Award) that is not              AIRPORT ADMINISTRATION
ceded land. In 1997, Public Law 105-
66    from    the     Department     of          Like all public airports in the state,
Transportation and Related Agencies              KOA is owned by the State of Hawaii.
Appropriations Act, 1998, ruled that             The system of airports is operated by
airport revenues for claims related to           the   Airports     Division    of   the
ceded lands were not subject to                  Department of Transportation. The
payment citing the provisions of 47107           mission of the Airports Division is to
of title 49, United States Code.                 develop, manage, and maintain a safe
Currently, the United States Supreme             and efficient global air transportation
Court will hear the State’s appeal on            organization.
the State’s ability to sell or exchange
any of the ceded lands. This could               Exhibit 1C presents the organization
impact the development of any of the             of the Airports Division. The Airports
ceded lands on airport property.                 Administrator heads the Division.
                                                 There are five offices within the
                                                 division, including the Staff Services
FAA AIRPORT IMPROVEMENT                          Office, Visitor Information Program
PROGRAM (AIP) PROJECTS                           Office, Information Technology Office,
                                                 Airports Operations Office, and the
To     assist   in    funding    capital         Engineering Branch. The airports and
improvements, the Federal Aviation               facilities operated by the Airports
Administration (FAA) has provided                Division are divided into four districts,
funding assistance to KOA through                including:    Oahu     District;   Maui
the Airport Improvement Program                  District; Hawaii District; and Kauai
(AIP). The AIP is funded through the             District.
Aviation Trust Fund, which was
established in 1970 to provide funding           Kona International Airport at Keahole
for    aviation    capital   investment          is included in the Hawaii District,
programs      (aviation    development,          which also includes the other airports
facilities and equipment, and research           on the island (Hilo International
and development). The Trust Fund                 Airport, Waimea-Kohala Airport, and
also finances a portion of the operation         Upolu Airport). The Hawaii District
of the FAA. It is funded by user fees,           manages, operates, and maintains all
taxes on airline tickets, aviation fuel,         State airports on the island of Hawaii
and various aircraft parts.                      in conformity with State and Federal
                                                 laws, requirements, and rules, as well
Table 1B summarizes FAA AIP                      as established policies and procedures
grants for Fiscal Year (FY) 2000                 of the Department of Transportation
through FY 2008.    The FAA has                  and those of the Airports Division.
granted $27.3 million for airport                The District Manager oversees the

                                           1-7                             DRAFT FINAL
four district airports from offices at              is located      at    Hilo   International
KOA. An Assistant District Manager                  Airport.

 FAA Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Grants
 Kona International Airport at Keahole
                      AIP Grant                         Project                     Total
   Fiscal Year         Number                         Description                Grant Funds
      2000                 15           Expand General Aviation Apron             $5,000,000
      2001                 16           Wastewater Treatment Plant (Ph. II)       $7,319,586
      2001                 17           Construct Ramp K                          $1,620,000
      2002                 18           Security Requirements                      $247,909
      2002                 19           Perimeter Fence, Perimeter Service        $1,935,000
                                        Road, GA Lighting
      2003                 20           Security Access Control & CCTV            $2,371,500
      2003                 21           Rehab Runway 17-35 Lighting                $526,050
      2004                 22           1,500 Gallon ARFF Vehicle                  $712,500
      2004                 23           Airfield Guidance Sign; Rehab Access       $558,196
                                        and Peripheral Roads
      2005                 24           Rehab Taxiway B; Access Road              $1,322,897
      2005                 25           3,000 Gallon ARFF Vehicle                  $840,500
      2006                 26           Master Plan and Part 150                  $1,800,000
      2006                 27           1,500 Gallon ARFF Vehicle                  $599,975
      2007                 28           Safety Management System Study             $100,000
      2008                 29           Rehabilitate Taxiways A and G,            $2,354,287
                                        portions of Runway 17-35, and portions
                                        of the north and south aprons.
 Total AIP Grant Funds                                                           $27,308,400
 Source: FAA - Honolulu Airports District Office (ADO)

AVIATION ACTIVITY                                   aviation activity will be provided and
                                                    discussed in the next chapter on
Records of airport operational activity             airport forecasts.
are essential for determining required
facilities (types and sizes), as well as
eligibility for federal funding. Airport            AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS
staff and the FAA record key opera-
tional statistics, including aircraft               Aircraft operational statistics at KOA
operations, enplaned passengers, and                are recorded by the airport traffic
cargo shipments. Analysis of histori-               control tower (ATCT) that is operated
cal activity levels aid in projecting               daily between 6:00 a.m. and 10:00
future trends which will enhance the                p.m. Among other duties, the ATCT
airport’s ability to plan for facility              counts aircraft operations, which are
demands in a timely manner. The                     defined as either a takeoff or a
following     sections    outline  basic            landing.     Aircraft operations are
operational activities at KOA. More                 segregated     into    four     general
detailed breakdowns and analyses of                 categories: air carrier, air taxi,

                                              1-8                                DRAFT FINAL

                                                               F TRAN
                                                           T O        SP


                                       D E PA R T M

                                                                               AT I O N



                                                           TE              A
                                                                O F H AW

                                      AIRPORTS DIVISION

                                                                                          OAHU DISTRICT
                    STAFF SERVICES OFFICE                                        Honolulu International Airport (HNL)
                                                                                       Kalaeloa Airport (JRF)
                                                                                      Dillingham Airfield (HDH)

                    VISITOR INFORMATION                                                   MAUI DISTRICT
                      PROGRAM OFFICE                                                        Hana Airport (HNM)
                                                                                          Kalaupapa Airport (LUP)
                                                                                           Kahului Airport (OGG)
                                                                                           Kapalua Airport (JHM)
                                                                                            Lanai Airport (LNY)
                                                                                           Molokai Airport (MKK)
                    TECHNOLOGY OFFICE

                                                                                          HAWAII DISTRICT
                                                                       Kona International Airport at Keahole (KOA)
                         AIRPORTS                                            Hilo International Airport (ITO)
                     OPERATIONS OFFICE                                       Waimea-Kohala Airport (MUE)
                                                                                   Upolu Airport (UPP)

                                                                                          KAUAI DISTRICT
                    ENGINEERING BRANCH                                                      Lihue Airport (LIH)
                                                                                          Port Allen Airport (PAK)

                                                                 HAWAII DOT-A ORGANIZATION                           Exhibit 1C
  military, and general aviation. Air                       operations are those made by aircraft
  carrier operations are performed by                       which arrive from or depart to
  commercial airline aircraft with more                     destinations     outside     the   local
  than 60 seats. Air taxi operations are                    operating area. Local operations are
  generally associated with commuter                        associated primarily with touch-and-
  aircraft, but also include for-hire                       go or pilot training activity. Table 1C
  general aviation aircraft.                                presents a summary of the ATCT
                                                            operations count since 1997.
  Operations are further sub-categorized
  as either itinerant or local. Itinerant

Historical Aircraft Operations By Category
Kona International Airport at Keahole
                               Itinerant                                        Local
           Air         Air    General                               General
Year    Carrier       Taxi    Aviation   Military        Subtotal   Aviation   Military    Subtotal    Total
1996     29,195      16,556     9,485      2,368          57,604     12,106      7,315      19,421     77,025
1997     27,462      14,912    13,250      1,999          57,623     24,299      5,394      29,693     87,316
1998     27,068       9,346    13,987      2,084          52,485     23,150      5,570      28,720     81,205
1999     27,500       8,860    14,853      2,359          53,572     22,666      6,648      29,314     82,886
2000     29,483       9,545    18,011      2,856          59,895     29,010      9,069      38,079     97,974
2001     27,183      10,926    19,570      3,176          60,855     35,544     11,414      46,958    107,813
2002     24,146      15,464    21,170      4,203          64,983     45,310     13,411      58,721    123,704
2003     22,317      14,524    19,894      4,227          60,962     46,904     11,344      58,248    119,210
2004     22,147      20,903    20,122      3,070          66,242     60,105     11,571      71,676    137,918
2005     22,497      22,540    19,737      3,686          68,460     73,055     13,456      86,511    154,971
2006     29,224      21,700    18,340      3,453          72,717     54,650     15,851      70,501    143,218
2007     32,352      19,646    17,766      3,248          73,012     58,000     13,558      71,558    144,570
2008     29,455      20,021    18,783      2,888          71,147     51,489      8,072      59,561    130,708
Source: FAA Airport Policy and Plan Office (APO) Tower Records

  PASSENGER ACTIVITY                                        mainland, and overseas international
                                                            arrivals (flights to international
  KOA is one of the five major                              destinations from KOA, currently
  commercial service airports in the                        depart via HNL). The travel sectors
  state and one of two on the Island of                     appear distinct, though residents of
  Hawaii. KOA serves the West Hawaii                        Hawaii and visitors use all for travel
  region, including the major population                    between the islands and overseas.
  center    Kailua/Kona    and     visitor
  industry hotel properties along the                       Passenger traffic is collected and
  Kohala Coast and within the                               analyzed by recording the number of
  Kailua/Kona region.      Hilo Airport                     passengers who arrive (deplane) or
  (ITO) serves the East Hawaii region                       depart (enplane) commercial service
  and its major population center, Hilo.                    aircraft. Passenger activity figures
                                                            are the planning yardstick utilized to
  Three travel sectors define passenger                     determine terminal building space
  traffic at KOA: interisland, overseas                     capacities,   automobile      parking

                                                      1-9                                 DRAFT FINAL
requirements,      automobile    access           presents historical total passenger
capacities, etc.      Also, the FAA               levels at KOA since 1996.
earmarks annual entitlement funds
based upon the annual level of                    With over 3.03 million passengers in
enplanements at each commercial                   2007, KOA is the third busiest airport
service airport. Passenger levels on              in the state behind Honolulu
each flight are recorded by the airlines          International Airport and Kahului
and reported to the airport and the               Airport.
FAA on a monthly basis. Table 1D

Annual Passenger and Cargo Activity
Kona International Airport at Keahole
Airline Passenger Activity
                   Interisland     Overseas           Total      International
     Year          Passengers     Passengers       Passengers       Arrivals
     1996           2,248,511        275,891        2,524,402        29,371
     1997           2,257,218        370,939        2,628,157        40,988
     1998           2,241,765        411,190        2,652,955        87,521
     1999           2,215,953        452,229        2,668,182        80,087
     2000           2,271,216        570,881        2,842,097        78,895
     2001           2,009,138        631,180        2,640,318        65,141
     2002           1,940,181        661,558        2,601,739        66,871
     2003           1,824,130        718,436        2,542,566        65,652
     2004           1,807,289        846,273        2,653,562        78,918
     2005           1,913,344      1,046,383        2,959,727        86,111
     2006           1,984,319      1,048,893        3,033,212        69,650
     2007           2,185,698        992,780        3,216,642        67,549
     2008           1,672,596        857,989        2,530,585        83,879
Air Cargo Activity (U.S. Tons)
     Year             Air Freight          Air Mail           Total Cargo
     1996                22,486              2,448               24,934
     1997                24,636              2,222               26,858
     1998                22,085              2,994               25,079
     1999                23,317              5,889               29,206
     2000                15,223              6,450               21,673
     2001                21,540              5,907               27,447
     2002                27,323              4,038               31,361
     2003                25,836              4,710               30,546
     2004                25,588              5,130               30,718
     2005                24,477              6,290               30,767
     2006                23,878              8,512               32,390
     2007                22,349              8,067               30,416

As of August 2008, there were nine                with scheduled service to and from
commercial passenger airline carriers             KOA.     Aircraft utilized by the

                                           1-10                           DRAFT FINAL
commercial airline carriers range from           AIRFIELD FACILITIES
the Canadair Regional Jet CRJ-200 to
the Boeing 777.       The commercial             Airport facilities can be functionally
passenger airlines included: Hawaiian            classified into two broad categories:
Airlines, Island Air, Go! (Mesa                  airfield and landside. The airfield
Airlines), American Airlines, Delta              category includes those facilities
Airlines,  Japan     Airlines   (JAL),           directly associated with aircraft
Northwest Airlines, United Airlines,             operations.     The landside category
and US Airways.                                  includes those facilities necessary to
                                                 provide a safe transition from surface
Interisland    airport     destinations          to air transportation and support
included Kahului and Honolulu.                   aircraft parking, servicing, storage,
Mainland United States destinations              maintenance, and operational safety.
included Los Angeles, San Francisco,             This section describes the airfield
Chicago, Oakland, Phoenix, and                   facilities, including runways, taxi-
Seattle. The only scheduled inter-               ways, lighting, marking, navigational
national destination is Tokyo, which is          aids, weather reporting, and the air
served by JAL.                                   traffic control tower. Airfield facilities
                                                 are depicted on Exhibit 1D. Table
                                                 1E summarizes key airfield facility
CARGO ACTIVITY                                   data.

Air cargo is an encompassing term                The following section will then outline
used to describe the combined                    the landside facilities, including the
activities of air mail and air freight           passenger terminal, air cargo, general
operations. The air cargo industry               aviation, military, support, and
includes a diverse range of businesses           utilities.
providing a variety of different
services supporting the movement of
air freight. This includes air cargo             RUNWAYS
transported     by    dedicated  cargo
airlines, passenger airlines, freight            KOA has a single runway, as shown
forwarders and custom brokers, and               on Exhibit 1D. Runway 17-35 is
air freight truckers.                            11,000 feet long by 150 feet wide; it is
                                                 oriented     north-south     and      is
Cargo carriers currently conducting              constructed of grooved asphalt. The
operations at KOA include Aloha Air              runway is equipped with 35-foot wide
Cargo (FedEx contractor), UPS, and               paved shoulders, and both runway
United Cargo. Annual cargo totals                ends have paved blast pads.
handled at KOA since 1996 are shown
on Table 1D.                                     The load bearing strength of the
                                                 runway are shown in Table 1E.
                                                 Single wheel loading (SWL) refers to
                                                 the design of certain aircraft landing
                                                 gear which has a single wheel on each

                                          1-11                             DRAFT FINAL
main landing gear strut. Dual wheel               double tandem sets of dual wheels
loading (DWL) refers to the design of             (eight wheels) on each main landing
certain aircraft landing gear which               gear strut.
has two wheels on each main landing
gear strut.       Dual tandem wheel               The runway gradient describes the
loading (DTL) refers to the aircraft              average slope of a runway.        The
landing gear struts with a tandem set             gradient is determined by dividing the
of dual wheels (four wheels) on each              runway’s high and low points by its
main landing gear strut. Dual Double              length. Runway 17-35 has a 0.086
Tandem Wheel Loading (DDTL) refers                percent gradient.
to the aircraft landing gear struts with

 Airfield Facility Data
 Kona International Airport at Keahole
                                                              Runway 17-35
 Length (feet)                                                    11,000
 Width (feet)                                                      150
 Surface Material                                             Asphalt/Grooved
 Load Bearing Strength
   Single Wheel Loading (SWL)                                    75,000 lbs.
   Double Wheel Loading (DWL)                                   200,000 lbs.
   Dual Tandem Wheel Loading (DTL)                              400,000 lbs.
   Dual Double Tandem Wheel Loading (DDTL)                      850,000 lbs.
 Instrument Approach Procedures                               ILS/DME CAT I
                                                             LOC, RNAV (GPS)
                                                            VOR/DME or TACAN
 Approach Aids                                        RW 17                    RW 35
                                                      PAPI-4                   PAPI-4
 Pavement Markings                                                Precision
 Pavement Lighting                                                  HIRL
 Weather Reporting                                                 ASOS
 Air Traffic Control Tower                        Federal Contract Tower (0600 to 2200 hrs)
 Radar                                                            ATCBI-5
 Fixed Wing Aircraft Traffic Pattern                   Left                      Left
 ASOS:           Automated Surface Observing System
 ATCBI-5         Airport Traffic Control Beacon Interrogator
 CAT:           Category
 DME:            Distance Measuring Equipment
 GPS:           Global Positioning System
 HIRL:           High Intensity Runway Lighting
 ILS:            Instrument Landing System
 LOC:            Localizer
 MALSR:          Medium Intensity Approach Lighting System w/Runway Alignment Indicator
 PAPI:           Precision Approach Path Indicators
 RNAV:          Area Navigation
 VOR:            Very-High Frequency Omni-Directional Range

                                           1-12                              DRAFT FINAL

                         ATCBI-5          ATCT and Airport Beacon                             Queen Kaahuman
                                                                                                            u Highway


                                                                                                                                                          Keahole Street
                                                                                                                        RENTAL CAR
                                                                                   ARFF Training                         FACILITIES
                          ASOS                                                       Facilities

                                                                                                                                                                                      ATCT &
                                                                                                                                                                                  Airport Beacon

                                                                                                   Segmented Circle &
                    Lighted Windcone                                                                Lighted Windcone                                                              D
                                                                                                                         B                                                 B                 B
                                                 Holding Apron               75’     Taxiway A                                                                                                                            Holding Apron

                                                  Blast Pad        A                                            G                E            H                                       ARFF               C          A      Blast Pad
                                                                                    PAPI-4           887’                    (Abandoned)                                              Service Road
                                                                 North                                                                                                                                            South
                                         MALSR                                                        Runway 17 - 35 (11,000’ x 150’)

                                                                                   Windcone                                                                                               PAPI-4
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Windcone                      Localizer
                                                              Glideslope Antenna                 Fence Line                                                                                                     Anemometer &
                                                                                                                                             ASOS                                                                 Windvane
                    Glideslope Antenna
                                                                                                         Airport Property Line                                                                                                   Ot
                                                                                                                                                                                       Cyanotech Algae Farm

                         PAPI-4                  Localizer

                                                                                                                         0                 1200                            2400

                                                                                                                                     SCALE IN FEET

                                                                                                                                                                           EXISTING AIRFIELD FACILITIES                    Exhibit 1D
TAXIWAYS                                         Airport Identification Lighting:
                                                 The location of the airport at night or
Taxiways on the airfield are identified          during low-visibility weather is uni-
by a single letter and include the               versally identified by a rotating
following:                                       beacon. A rotating beacon projects
                                                 two beams of light, one white and one
•   Taxiway A – Parallel taxiway to              green, 180 degrees apart. The airport
    Runway 17-35.                                beacon is located on top of the air
                                                 traffic control tower (ATCT).
•   Taxiway B – Abandoned taxiway
    now used as ramp.                            Runway Pavement and Edge
                                                 Lighting: Pavement edge lighting
•   Taxiway C– High-speed          exit          utilizes light fixtures placed near the
    taxiway for Runway 17-35.                    edge of the pavement to define the
                                                 lateral limits of the pavement. This
•   Taxiway D – Connecting taxiway               lighting is essential for safe operations
    for south general aviation ramp to           during night and/or times of low
    Taxiway A.                                   visibility in order to maintain safe and
                                                 efficient access to and from the
•   Taxiway E – Abandoned taxiway.               runway and aircraft parking areas.
                                                 Runway 17-35 is equipped with a high
•   Taxiway G – Exit taxiway for                 intensity runway lighting (HIRL)
    Runway 17-35.                                system.

•   Taxiway H – Exit/connecting                  Taxiway Lighting:          All airfield
    taxiway from terminal apron to               taxiways, the apron edge taxilanes, as
    Runway 17-35.                                well as associated connector taxiways,
                                                 are equipped with blue medium
The airfield taxiways are all at least           intensity taxiway lights (MITL).
75 feet wide with 35-foot wide paved
shoulders. The centerline separation             Obstruction Lighting:          Objects
between the runway and the parallel              which obstruct the Federal Aviation
taxiway is 887 feet.                             Regulation (FAR) Part 77 imaginary
                                                 surfaces are marked with red lights.
                                                 Obstructions marked at KOA include:
AIRFIELD LIGHTING                                wind    cones;    weather    reporting,
                                                 navigation, and approach aid systems;
Airfield lighting systems extend an              and the airport control tower.
airport’s usefulness into periods of
darkness and/or poor visibility.  A              Visual Approach Lighting: Visual
variety of lighting systems are                  approach aids have been installed at
installed at the airport for this                the airport to assist pilots in
purpose.    They are categorized by              determining the correct descent path
function as follows:                             to the runway end during an approach
                                                 to the airport. Precision approach

                                          1-13                             DRAFT FINAL
path     indicators   (PAPI-4s)    are           protected from signal disruption
available on both Runways 17 and 35.             through the installation of a set-back
The PAPIs provide approach path                  Category I hold line and an “ILS” sign
guidance with a series of light units.           displayed adjacent to Taxiway A
The four-unit PAPIs give the pilot an            North. Signs are located at runway
indication of whether their approach is          safety areas (RSAs) adjoining the
above, below, or on-path, through the            critical area to service operators
pattern of red and white light visible           against inadvertent entry.
from the light units.

Instrument Approach Lighting:                    AIRPORT MARKINGS
Runway 17 is equipped with a
medium intensity approach lighting               Pavement markings aid in the
system with runway alignment                     movement of aircraft along airport
indicator lights (MALSR).           The          surfaces and identify closed or
medium intensity approach light                  hazardous areas on the airport. KOA
system (MALS) begins at the runway               provides and maintains marking
end and extends into the approach for            systems in accordance with Part
1,400 feet with stations every 200 feet          139.311(a) and Advisory Circular
along the runway centerline.        The          150/5340-1, Standards for Airport
runway alignment indicator lights                Marking.
(RAIL) begins at the end of the MALS
and extends another 1,000 feet into              Runway 17-35 has precision instru-
the approach with light stations every           ment runway (PIR) markings that
200 feet, for a total distance of 2,400          identify the runway centerline, thres-
feet. Runway 35 has no approach                  hold, designation, touchdown point,
light system.                                    and aircraft holding positions.

                                                 In addition to pavement markings,
AIRFIELD SIGNAGE                                 wind cones are available at the
                                                 approach end of each runway.
Airfield identification signs assist
pilots in identifying runways, taxiway           All taxiways at KOA are marked with
routes, and critical areas. All runways          yellow centerline and taxiway hold
are identified with lighted signs                markings. Centerline markings assist
located at each taxiway intersection.            pilots in maintaining proper clearance
Taxiways are identified using lighted            from pavement edges and objects near
location, directional, and inform-               the taxiway edges.      A continuous,
ational signs. Lighted signs are in-             double yellow taxiway line is used to
stalled at all taxiway and runway                the taxiway edge from the shoulder or
intersections.      These signs also             other contiguous paved surface not for
identify the aircraft holding position.          aircraft use. A dashed, double yellow
                                                 taxiway line is used where there is an
The glide slope critical area at the             operational need to define the edge of
approach end to Runway 17 is                     a taxiway or taxilane where a

                                          1-14                           DRAFT FINAL
contiguous paved surface is intended              The Kona VORTAC serves the Kona
for use by aircraft, such as an aircraft          area, including KOA. The Kona VOR-
apron or run-up pad.                              TAC is located approximately five
                                                  nautical miles south of KOA. The
Aircraft hold positions are also                  FAA is currently planning to relocate
marked at each runway/taxiway inter-              the facility to a new site within the
section. All holding position markings            airport boundaries within the next five
are located 280 feet from the runway              years.
centerline and are yellow, glass-
beaded, highlighted in black, and                 The NDB transmits non-directional
double-sized in accordance with FAA               radio signals, whereby the pilot of a
standards.                                        properly    equipped     aircraft   can
                                                  determine the bearing to or from the
                                                  NDB facility and then “home” or track
NAVIGATIONAL AIDS                                 to or from the station. Pilots flying to
                                                  or from the airport can utilize the
Navigational aids are electronic                  Bradshaw NDB located approximately
devices that transmit radio frequen-              25 nautical miles east of KOA.
cies, which pilots of properly equipped
aircraft translate into point-to-point            GPS was initially developed by the
guidance and position information.                United States Department of Defense
The types of electronic navigational              for military navigation around the
aids available for aircraft flying to or          world. However, GPS is now used
from KOA include the VOR, the                     extensively for a wide variety of
nondirectional beacon (NDB), and                  civilian uses, including the civil
global positioning system (GPS).                  aircraft navigation.

The VOR provides azimuth readings                 GPS uses satellites placed in orbit
to pilots of properly equipped aircraft           around the globe to transmit
by transmitting a radio signal at every           electronic signals, which pilots of
degree to provide 360 individual                  properly equipped aircraft use to
navigational courses.       Frequently,           determine    altitude,   speed,   and
distance measuring equipment (DME)                navigational information. This pro-
is combined with a VOR facility to                vides more freedom in flight planning
provide distance as well as direction             and allows for more direct routing to
information to the pilot.      Military           the final destination. The present
tactical air navigation aids (TACANs)             GPS provides for enroute navigation
and civil VORs are commonly                       and instrument approaches with both
combined to form a VORTAC.            A           course and vertical navigation. KOA
VORTAC provides distance and                      has GPS approaches available to both
direction information to civil and                runway ends.
military pilots.

                                           1-15                            DRAFT FINAL
WEATHER REPORTING                                airfield. The ATCBI-5 is a long-range
                                                 radar used in enroute air traffic
KOA is served by an automated                    control.
surface observing system (ASOS). The
ASOS provides automated aviation
weather observations 24 hours per                LANDSIDE FACILITIES
day. The system updates weather
observations       every      minute,            PASSENGER TERMINAL
continuously reporting significant
weather changes as they occur. The               Kona International Airport at Keahole
ASOS system reports cloud ceiling,               was relocated from its original site to
visibility, temperature, dew point,              the current airport location on July 1,
wind direction, wind speed, altimeter            1970.    The existing KOA terminal
setting (barometric pressure), and               buildings were built at that time, and
density altitude (airfield elevation             their design character has been
corrected for temperature). The ASOS             celebrated as unique architecture –
is located on the west side of the               expressive of Hawaii, connected to the
runway near the perimeter fence.                 natural environment of the region,
                                                 and thus successfully representing
                                                 West Hawaii. The airport terminals
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER                        were designed to accommodate inter-
                                                 island travelers arriving on smaller-
The KOA air traffic control tower                sized jet aircraft such as the Boeing
(ATCT) is currently located east of the          737 and McDonald Douglas DC9 (now
runway along the flight line south of            Boeing 717).
the airline terminal. It is operated as
a federal contract tower daily from              In December of 1990, a memorial
6:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m.                          building was added to the center of the
                                                 terminal buildings in remembrance of
The current tower is a multi-level               Col. Ellison Onizuka, son of West
wood structure with a cab height of              Hawaii and NASA astronaut, who
approximately 50 feet. The tower cab             perished aboard the space shuttle
does not meet current standards, is              Challenger on January 28, 1986.
undersized, and has line-of-sight
issues with northern portions of                 The terminal facilities were expanded
Taxiway A. A new ATCT has been                   in 1996. This project included the
programmed by the FAA for KOA to                 addition of gate holdroom areas. The
be in service by 2012-13. The siting of          airport now serves passengers on
this tower is discussed in later                 direct overseas flights from the
chapters of this Master Plan.                    mainland United States as well as
                                                 international passengers from Japan.
An airport traffic control beacon                They arrive on aircraft that are much
interrogator (ATCBI-5) is located on             larger – such as Boeing 747 – than the
the airport. This facility is located            airport terminals were designed to
mauka (east) of the north end of the             handle. Consequently, processing of

                                          1-16                           DRAFT FINAL
passengers and the boarding of                     The terminal area includes 358,901
aircraft has led to capacity, safety, and          square feet divided as shown in
convenience issues.      The events of             Exhibit 1F.
September 11, 2001, have also
changed airport requirements which                 The main terminal facilities are
have affected the operation of KOA.                divided into a north terminal and
Airport capacity, level of service,                south terminal, each serving both
safety, and security issues requires               interisland and overseas travel
KOA to plan for current changes and                sectors. Approximately equal in size,
future needs.                                      the north and south terminals are
                                                   separated by the Onizuka Memorial
                                                   Space Center. Though the terminals
Terminal Area Overview                             each have a linear pier layout, the
                                                   individual buildings comprising each
The passenger terminal area at KOA                 terminal are turned on a grid 45
is depicted on Exhibit 1E.         This            degrees to the aircraft apron and
includes the aircraft parking apron,               terminal drives.
passenger terminal facilities, terminal
curbs and drives, terminal roadways,               The terminal curbs are linear from
and public parking within the                      north to south and form the western
terminal roadway loop. Generally, all              edge of the counterclockwise travel
terminal area facilities are on one                terminal roadway loop. There are two
level, beginning with the apron on the             parallel drives with inner and outer
airside, through the terminals, to the             curbs; the inner curb is used for
parking and roads on the landside.                 private vehicle drop-off and pick-up of
                                                   passengers, and the outer for use by
The aircraft apron at KOA is linear,               commercial vehicles such as rental car
parallel to the runway, and begins                 shuttle vehicles.
adjacent to the General Aviation area
to the south and continues to the                  Public parking is located within the
international arrivals buildings to the            terminal roadway loop and includes
north. Passenger terminal facilities at            revenue control systems. Entrance is
KOA are located in two areas. The                  on the approach located along the
main terminal facilities are for                   northeast side of the roadway loop,
interisland and overseas (mainland                 and exit is to the airport departures
and international) travel sectors and              drive on the southwest side of the
are centrally located.         Directly            roadway loop.
adjacent to the north are airport
administration buildings, and north of             The terminal roadway loop is
those are temporary sprung structure               connected to regional access, Queen
type    facilities  for   international            Kaahumanu Highway via Keahole
arrivals processing of passengers.                 Airport Road, the airport entrance/exit

                                            1-17                           DRAFT FINAL
Employee parking is located directly              two terminals. The North Terminal
adjacent to and east of the terminal              apron is open to the north.
roadway loop and is currently being               Consequently, international and wide-
expanded. The rental car facilities are           bodied aircraft park to the north as
located between the employee parking              well as to the west of the North
areas and the highway. The following              Terminal. Airlines include Japan
subsections discuss each of these areas           Airlines, United, US Airways, and Go!.
in more detail.                                   The smaller interisland aircraft park
                                                  to the west and south and power
                                                  in/power out.
Aircraft Apron
                                                  Aircraft using the South Terminal are
The air carrier aircraft apron at KOA             somewhat constrained as all wide-
is designed for 10 aircraft positions of          bodied aircraft must park to the west
various sizes from turboprop to B-747.            of the terminal. Airlines include
Some interisland “narrowbody” type                American, Northwest, Delta, Hawaii-
aircraft operate in a “power-in/power-            an, and Island Air. Interisland aircraft
out” mode. Other interisland aircraft             use Gate 6 as well as the apron west
and most of the overseas aircraft                 and south of the terminal for power
power-in, but use aircraft tugs to                in/power out operations.
                                                  At peak hours, the aprons can become
Aircraft are serviced by vehicles; there          quite congested with maneuvering
are no in-ramp services such as                   aircraft,   ramp     equipment,   and
hydrant fueling.      All aircraft are            passengers boarding or leaving their
ground-boarded using air stairs (lifts            aircraft. Rain makes this situation
are used for wheel chair access); there           more difficult. Security of the apron
are no passenger loading bridges at               area is also an issue.
the airport. As such, passengers are
exposed to the weather elements as                In addition, seasonal peaks of general
they walk between the terminal and                aviation corporate air can also congest
aircraft.                                         aircraft parking.

                                                  Passenger Safety:         There is a
•   Apron Operations                              passenger safety issue whenever
                                                  traversing an operating aircraft apron.
Aircraft Movement on Apron:                       Ground service vehicles operate on the
Commercial passenger aircraft land-               apron and some transfer fuel to
ing at KOA either to the north or                 aircraft as well as service aircraft
south exit the runway to Taxiway A                lavatories. Also of concern is use of air
then proceed to the terminal apron.               stair boarding versus level access type
While the apron is continuous on the              boarding provided by aircraft boarding
west side of the terminal area, it is             bridges. Some of the aircraft that are
divided into two functional areas,                ground boarded using stairs have very
North and South, corresponding to the             high aircraft sill heights. Boarding

                                           1-18                             DRAFT FINAL

                                                                                                                                                                             Recent Parking Additions

                                                                                                                                            Recent Parking
                                                                                 0              300                600

                                                                                           SCALE IN FEET

                    1 JTB Building                     2 Parking Lot
                                                                                                                                            Employee Parking

                                                                                                1                                                        Public Automobile Parking         2

                                                                                                              Mangement                                           5          6                                    10
                    3 Airline Equipment Storage Area   4 International Federal       3
                                                         Inspection Facility
                                                                                                                            International                                                                     9

                                                                                                              4                                            North Passenger
                                                                                         Vehicle                                                           Terminal                    7
                                                                                         Wash Rack

                    5 Onizuka Memorial Museum          6 Airport Cafe

                    7 South Passsenger Terminal        8 Terminal Apron          9 ATCT                    10 Kupipi Road                     11 Keahole Street

                                                                                                                                                                          EXISTING TERMINAL AREA FACILITIES              Exhibit 1E

                                                           SOUTH TERMINAL                                                     NORTH TERMINAL

                                                                  Gate                                                                 Gate
                                                          Gate     8         Gate                                            Gate       3              Gate
                                                           9                  7                                               4                         2
                                                         Gate                    Gate                                       Gate                       Gate
                                                                                  6                                                                     1                               AIRPORT
                                                          10                                                                 5                                                   ADMINISTRATION


                                                  Bag                                                                                                       Claim
                                                 Claim                            Ticketing                                Ticketing                          A
                                                                                              ONIZUKA MEMORIAL

                                                                                                                                                                                    Kupipi Street

                           Parking Exit

                                                                                               PUBLIC PARKING

                                                                                                        Parking Entrance
                                                                 Kupipi Street

                                          3-D MODELING OF TERMINAL AREA

                                                                                                                                         Public Area                171,753 SF
                                                                                                                                         Holdroom                    17,713 SF
                                                                                                                                         Airline                     54,968 SF
                                                                                                                                         Ticket Queuing              11,793 SF                      NORT

                                                                                                                                         Concessions                 16,534 SF
                                                                                                                                         Aviation Department         12,788 SF
                                                                                                                                                                                             0              160          320
                                                                                                                                         Security                     2,674 SF
                                                                                                                                         Security Queuing             2,376 SF
                                                                                                                                                                                                    SCALE IN FEET
                                                                                                                                         Restroom                     5,043 SF
                                                                                                                                         Baggage Tug Drive           45,129 SF
                                                                                                                                         Customs/Border Protection 18,130 SF
                                                                                                                                         Total                      358,901 SF

                                                                                                                                                                                   EXISTING TERMINAL PLAN                      Exhibit 1F
passengers in wheelchairs requires               approach are baggage claim areas,
use of mechanical lifts.                         followed by ticketing areas.

Weather Exposure: Although KOA                   Departing passengers approach ticket-
receives very small amounts of annual            ing areas from the terminal curbs or
rainfall, when rain occurs it tends to           from public parking.       Within the
be heavy and becomes an issue for                ticketing areas there is the U.S.
boarding passengers.     On occasion,            Department of Agriculture (USDA)
passengers have departed with damp               screening stations (all checked bag-
clothes on air-conditioned aircraft for          gage leaving the State must be USDA
long haul flights.                               screened and tagged prior to check-in)
                                                 with one x-ray unit. There are 110
Aircraft noise and Jet-A fumes:                  linear feet available for check-in
Passengers are exposed directly to               counters with space for 18 to 20 agent
aircraft engine noise when in the                positions. Ticketing includes standard
holdroom areas and as they traverse              check-in counters and automated self-
the apron during arrival or departure.           service check-in stations.     Checked
The open-air holdrooms can also                  baggage security screening is done
subject passengers to fuel fumes from            after check-in. Beyond ticketing is a
ramp operations.                                 TSA passenger screening checkpoint
                                                 with two lanes and two sets of
                                                 magnetometers and x-rays. Beyond
North Terminal                                   the checkpoint is a courtyard with
                                                 restrooms and concessions. There are
The North Terminal is first on                   five holdrooms serving the five gates.
approach from the terminal drives                Gates 1 – 4 can be secured for
with air carrier passenger service               overseas departures to the mainland
provided by United Airlines, Japan               after passengers clear the single
Airlines, and Go! Airlines. In 2006,             USDA station for screening hand-
the north terminal also included Aloha           carried bags prior to entering the
Airlines and accommodated 58 percent             seating area.
of the airline passenger traffic.
                                                 Arriving passengers walk alongside
The North Terminal serves Gates 1 –              the holdroom seating areas on their
5. Gates are numbered (i.e., 1A and              way through the courtyards, passing
1B) and configured to allow two                  beyond the security exit control point
simultaneous passenger flows.                    and out to the baggage claim
                                                 buildings. Greeters gather outside the
The terminal is comprised of separate            security exit control point in areas
small sloped peaked roof structures,             that include visitor information
some connected by flat-roofed walk-              booths, lei stands, and restrooms. The
ways and infill covered areas.                   baggage claim area has two claim
Exhibit 1F depicts the floor plan for            areas with one claim device each.
the terminals. The first buildings on            Once baggage is claimed, passengers

                                          1-19                           DRAFT FINAL
proceed to the terminal arrivals curb              are flying to the mainland at this
for pick-up or for boarding rental car             terminal are checking in at the
shuttles or they proceed to public                 United Airlines counters, which are
parking. Exhibit 1G presents some of               located past the agricultural check.
the survey photos of the terminals.                As a result, the passengers walk
                                                   past the agricultural check and the
•   North Terminal Operations                      agents can alert those who are not
                                                   aware      of    this    processing
    Departures:                                    requirement and advise them to
                                                   check their bags. On average, the
    Departures Courtyards - A                      time     spent    processing     per
    midday peak was observed during                passenger was relatively low at 0.3
    the period of 11:30am to 12:30pm.              minutes (18 seconds).
    During the observation period in
    November 2006, both Aloha and                  Ticketing – During the obser-
    United Airlines passengers arrived             vation time, both Aloha and United
    to check in for their flights. In the          ticket lobbies were full with
    departure courtyard, which is open             passengers queuing for check-in. At
    unprotected space in front of                  the United lobby, there was one
    ticketing, passengers were queuing             lane for first class passengers and
    for security checkpoint processing.            one lane for coach class passengers.
    At this time, the queue extended to            There were eight check-in counters,
    the edge of the curb where other               each with an electronic kiosk in
    passengers were unloading from                 front, and four airline agents
    vehicles. As a result, the effective           servicing passengers. For the first
    curb area for passenger unloading              class lane, the average time spent
    was reduced. In addition to                    per passenger in queue was 1.7
    security checkpoint queuing, there             minutes. In the coach class lane, it
    was also another queue for                     was 0.6 minutes (36 seconds). Most
    agricultural    check     that   also          passengers were carrying large
    extended into the courtyard. When              suitcases for check-in.
    these queues merge there is
    confusion for passengers who don’t             United States Department of
    know which line they were                      Agriculture Screening (Hand
    supposed to be in. Queues also                 Carried Baggage) – There is one
    extend beyond the roof line causing            x-ray unit for USDA screening of
    discomfort for passengers standing             departing mainland passengers’
    in the sun and heat.                           hand-carried baggage. This screen-
                                                   ing point serves Gates 1A, 2, and
    United States Department of                    3B. The queue was not observed to
    Agriculture Screening (Check-                  be extensive, less than four
    ed Baggage) – The location of the              minutes. First time passengers
    agricultural check station with                were often unaware that they
    regards to visibility is good in the           would be required to undergo a
    north terminal. Passengers who                 second USDA screening, this time

                                            1-20                        DRAFT FINAL


                             DEPARTURE FACILITIES FOR                NORTH TERMINAL: UNITED AIRLINES
                               AMERICAN/ISLAND AIR                          CHECK-IN QUEUING


                                KOA AIRCRAFT APRON                      TERMINAL DRIVES AND CURBS

                                                                  TERMINAL SURVEY PHOTOS      Exhibit 1G
for carry-on baggage, and were not            and Go! Airlines, and claim device
aware of the regulations regarding            A-2 was used by Aloha Airlines.
fruits they had carried for eating            The walking distance to baggage
on the plane.                                 claim is relatively short, as was
                                              delivery time of the first bags to
Gate Holdrooms - The holdrooms                arrive at the claim device,
are arranged so that Gates 1A, 2,             approximately eight minutes from
and 3B can be secure following                arrival of the aircraft. The baggage
USDA carry-on baggage inspection.             claim devices are flat-plate type
The combined holdroom can                     laid out in a typical “T” shape with
become very crowded when mul-                 the long stem of the “T” as the
tiple mainland flight departures              main claim frontage. Each device
are scheduled close to each other.            has 30 feet of stripping belt and
When mainland flights are not                 160 feet of claim frontage. Claim
scheduled, these gates are used for           devices are adequately sized for
interisland departures, as are                smaller “narrow-body” aircraft
Gates 1B, 3A, 4, and 5. The railing           though they are substantially
at the middle of each gate allows             under-sized for the larger “wide-
simultaneous departures through               body” type aircraft that serve the
one half and arrivals through the             overseas mainland market. Floor
other at the same gate. The flight            space around the devices (observed
information display system (FIDS)             during off-peak time of year) would
units do not list all flights. This           be very inadequate to serve large
condition can cause some confusion            aircraft during peak travel periods.
as to which holdrooms are assigned            Part of Claim A-1 is cordoned off to
to which gates. Additionally, these           stage unclaimed bags resulting in
were very difficult to read due to            decreased device frontage for active
glare.    There     is   no   flight          claiming of bags.            Baggage
information      (flight    number,           information is provided above the
destination, and departure time) at           claim device on CRT screens.
the counter where passengers exit             During      the    November      2007
to the apron to board their flight.           observation period, however, they
Flight announcements for boarding             appeared to be out of service. The
provide this information.                     positive claim railings that deter
                                              theft limit available floor space and
Arrivals:                                     free movement within the claim
                                              area.       Passengers who have
Baggage Claim A1 and A2 – The                 claimed their bags cannot leave the
baggage claim areas were observed             claim area due to the choke point
during peak arrivals for the day of           at the head of the device, and they
the visual survey. It should be               also do not move to the far side of
noted, however, that the month of             the device for same reason. The
the survey (November 2006) was                light level is inadequate; the claim
not the peak month. Claim device              area is very dark at nighttime and
A-1 was used by United Airlines               reasonably so during the day.

                                       1-21                         DRAFT FINAL
   Additionally, the claim areas would          service is provided by Hawaiian
   benefit from reducing clutter                Airlines, Northwest Airlines, Delta
   within the floor space caused by             Airlines, and American Airlines. The
   miscellaneous free-standing case-            South Terminal serves Gates 6 – 10.
   work. Seating benches are pro-
   vided within the claim area as are           South     Terminal   structures    are
   baggage cart rental stands.                  identical to those in the North
                                                Terminal and appear to be sym-
   Arrivals Courtyards – The                    metrical in layout about the airport
   courtyard spaces are located                 center, though not exactly. The first
   between     the   baggage    claim           buildings on approach are ticketing
   buildings and the terminal arrivals          areas followed by baggage claim areas.
   curbs and are formed by the
   geometry of the linear curb and              Departing passengers approach ticket-
   diagonal placed buildings.     The           ing areas from the terminal curbs or
   spaces include landscaping and               from public parking.        Within the
   seating both at curb pick-up and             ticketing areas are two USDA
   for baggage claim.      The trees            screening stations, each with a single
   provide shade, and the courtyard             CTX machine. One is located at the
   spaces are pleasant places to wait           center of the ticketing lobby, the other
   and are valuable amenities for               on the south side of the roadway
   passengers.                                  behind the Onizuka Space Center.
                                                There is linear frontage for twelve
                                                agent positions. Ticketing includes
Onizuka Memorial Space Center                   check-in counters and automated self-
                                                service check-in stations. The TSA
Centrally located between the North             screening of checked baggage occurs
and South Terminal is the Astronaut             adjacent to the ticketing area. Beyond
Elison S. Onizuka Memorial Space                ticketing is a TSA passenger screening
Center. The Center is a two-story               checkpoint. Beyond the checkpoint is
facility which is completely handi-             a courtyard with restrooms and
capped accessible. It has a prominent           concessions. There are five holdrooms
central tower including a large                 serving the five gates. Gates 7 and 8
skylight.   A roadway behind the                can be accessed after clearing the
Center provides access to American              single USDA station for screening
Airlines and Island Air check-in                hand-carried bags prior to entering
counters.                                       the seating area.

                                                Arriving passengers walk alongside
South Terminal                                  the holdroom seating areas on their
                                                way through the courtyards, passing
The South Terminal is second on                 beyond the security exit control point
approach from the terminal drives               and out to the baggage claim
after passing the Onizuka Memorial              buildings. Greeters gather outside the
Space Center at the center of the               security exit control point in areas
terminal area. Air carrier passenger
                                         1-22                            DRAFT FINAL
that include a visitor information                depth. As a result, when ticket
booth, lei stand, and restrooms.                  queuing extends out to the
Additionally, there is a ground                   courtyard, vehicles need to unload
transportation area to the south of               passengers a distance before or
baggage claim used for taxi, limo, and            after the ticket lobby.
shuttle bus staging.      The single
baggage claim area has one claim                  United States Department of
device.   Once baggage is claimed,                Agriculture Screening (Check-
passengers proceed to the terminal                ed Baggage) – At the South
arrivals curb for pick-up or for                  Terminal, there are two locations
boarding rental car shuttles or to the            for agricultural check. One of them
public parking area.                              is in the main ticket lobby where
                                                  Hawaiian, Northwest, Delta, and
                                                  Japan Airlines are located. At this
•   South Terminal Operations                     location, the station is situated in
                                                  the     queuing     area    between
    Departures:                                   Hawaiian and Japan Airlines.
                                                  Their visibility is an issue since
    Departures Courtyards Hawaii-                 Hawaiian Airlines passengers do
    an/Northwest/Delta/ Japan Air-                not pass by the agricultural check
    lines - The departures courtyard at           before queuing for ticketing. Many
    the South Terminal is identical in            of the mainland bound passengers
    area to the North Terminal. During            do not know that they have to
    observation of a peak time, queuing           screen their bags. The reason is
    from      ticketing    or   security          partly due to lack of adequate
    operations did not overflow into the          signage and station configuration.
    departures courtyard. Generally,              The     other   agriculture    check
    there was adequate space for                  location is behind the museum
    passengers to unload from vehicles            south of the American ticket lobby.
    with their baggage and walk                   It is not located within the
    directly to ticketing.                        American departures courtyard,
                                                  and therefore is not visible to
    Departures Courtyard Amer-                    passengers who unload in front of
    ican Airlines/Island Air - The                ticketing. Despite some signage,
    ticketing lobby for American is               most mainland bound passengers
    located    directly   behind    the           do not know that they have to
    Onizuka Space Center. The vehicle             screen their bags until they are
    drive splits at the museum,                   told by the airline agent at check-
    allowing    vehicles   to    unload           in.
    passengers in front of the
    American departures courtyard.                Ticketing – Hawaiian, Northwest,
    Because there is inadequate depth             and    Delta    Airlines    check-in
    overall between the ticket counters           operations are located in the South
    and the curb, the courtyard area              Terminal ticketing area. There are
    currently measures six feet in

                                           1-23                        DRAFT FINAL
110 lineal feet available for check-           imately 1.43 minutes, and queuing
in with space for 18 to 20 agent               time was 1.47.
positions. Hawaiian Airlines occu-
pies half of the total check-in                United States Department of
frontage in this terminal. They are            Agriculture Screening (Hand
further subdivided into interisland            Carried Baggage) – There is one
and mainland check-in with                     x-ray unit for USDA screening of
queuing to match. There is a bank              departing mainland passengers
of electronic check-in kiosks                  hand    carried     baggage.   This
perpendicular to and south of the              screening point serves Gates 7 and
counters. Japan Airlines has six               8. The queue was not observed to
check-in positions with one of them            be extensive, less than four
dedicated    to    executive    class          minutes. Some passengers may be
passengers. Delta has one check-in             unaware that they are required to
counter and four electronic kiosks             undergo a second USDA screening,
located perpendicular to and south             this time for carry-on baggage, and
of the counters. At the time of                were not aware of the regulations.
observation, the Delta electronic
kiosks were out of service.                    Gate Holdrooms - The holdrooms
Northwest operates with two                    are arranged so that Gates 7 and 8
check-in counters - one electronic             can be secured following USDA
kiosk in front of the counters and             carry-on baggage inspection. The
two against the side wall. During              combined holdroom can become
peak departure times, passenger                very crowded when multiple
processing at the counters was                 mainland flight departures are
efficient, and queuing remained                scheduled close to each other.
relatively short. Ticket lobby space           When mainland flights are not
appeared adequate for queuing.                 scheduled, these gates are used for
                                               interisland departures as are Gates
Centrally located between the                  6, 9 and 10. The railing at the
terminals and behind the museum                middle of each gate allows
is the ticketing area for American             simultaneous departures through
and Island Air. Covered lobby                  one half and arrivals through the
depth in this area is inadequate.              other at the same gate. The flight
When the queues extend beyond                  information display system (FIDS)
the tensile barriers, passengers are           units were not in operation. This
exposed to rain and sun. American              condition can cause some confusion
has six check-in counters and no               as to which holdrooms are assigned
electronic kiosks. During a main-              to which gates. There is no flight
land departure, there were a total             information (flight number, destin-
of six agents. Queuing was divided             ation, and departure time) at the
into two lanes: one for first class            counter where passengers exit to
and another for coach class. On                the apron to board their flight.
average, the processing time per               Flight announcements for boarding
passenger for check-in was approx-             provide this information.

                                        1-24                        DRAFT FINAL
Arrivals:                                      International Arrivals Building

Baggage Claim B – As with the                  At KOA, passengers arriving on
North Terminal, the baggage claim              international originating flights pro-
area was observed during peak                  ceed through Customs and Border
arrivals for day and time of day of            Protection (CBP) processes within a
the survey and not during peak                 temporary type building structure.
airport operations time of year.               The building is a metal arched
The walking distance to baggage                “sprung type” structural frame that is
claim is similar to the North                  covered in fabric material for
Terminal as was delivery time of               enclosure, includes air-conditioning,
the first bags to the claim device,            and has adequate lighting for
approximately eight minutes from               functions.    The building currently
arrival of aircraft.     The single            occupies an area of approximately
baggage claim device is a flat-plate           18,000 square feet. There are two
type approximately 136 feet in                 connected buildings of this type, as
actual claim length and is sized for           well as other ancillary temporary
small     “narrow-body”      aircraft          wood-framed small structures. There
similar to Baggage Claim A1/A2.                is a fabric-covered metal arch open-
Floor space around the devices                 aired structure where passengers are
would be very inadequate to serve              greeted upon exit that is also used for
larger aircraft during peak travel             tour bus staging and boarding.
periods. Part of the device frontage
is cordoned off for storage of                 Japan Airlines provides direct service
unclaimed bags.      Positive claim            to KOA from Narita International
railings limit floor space and free            Airport.    Departing passengers on
movement within and out of the                 Japan Airlines flights process through
claim area. Like at Claim A1 and               ticketing in the North Terminal and
A2, inadequate lighting is an issue.           board the aircraft from Gate 1. This
Clutter within the floor space                 flight is considered an interisland
caused by miscellaneous free-                  departure to Honolulu International
standing casework is worse than at             Airport, where it will pick up
the North Terminal claim areas.                additional    passengers    prior   to
The Hawaiian Airlines baggage                  departing for Japan.
office is easily accessible and
outside of the claim area.
                                               Passenger Services
Arrivals Courtyards – The
arrivals courtyard spaces are                  Concessions – Post-security con-
similar to those at the North                  cessions include basic food and
Terminal. They provide a conven-               beverage restaurant, gift shop, and
ient and pleasant place for waiting            news/sundries shop. The concessions
at the curb for pick-up after                  are located at the edges of the open air
arrival.                                       courtyard with good exposure to

                                        1-25                            DRAFT FINAL
passengers. Concessions are small,                not adequate. It is difficult to find
and consequently, the size and variety            these restrooms on approach to the
of offering is limited. Circulation               baggage claim area.
within the spaces is very tight and
inconvenient when several passengers
are within shops. Larger floor area               TERMINAL PARKING
would help increase inventory offering            AND ACCESS
as well as improve movement within
the stores. The concessions are air-              Terminal Access Roadways
                                                  The airport is afforded regional access
Pre-security concessions are located              via Queen Kaahumanu Highway that
immediately after passing from the                runs along        the east property
secure departure areas on the path to             boundary. The terminal entrance is at
baggage claim.       They have good               a signalized intersection of the
visibility and include lei stands and             highway.      Keahole Street is the
visitor industry greeter’s services.              airport entrance road. As shown on
Vending machines are also available,              Exhibit 1E, it is a two-lane paved
though not highly visible. A food and             roadway that extends west towards
beverage concession is located across
                                                  the terminal area. The two 12-foot
the terminal drives in the center of the
                                                  lanes with 10-foot wide shoulders have
airport within the former rental car
                                                  a design speed of 45 miles per hour
                                                  and extends for 3,050 feet to the
                                                  terminal loop where the two-way lanes
Restrooms – There are five pairs of
                                                  splits to form a one-way loop road that
public restrooms – two each in the
                                                  flows counterclockwise around the
North and South Terminal areas, one
                                                  parking lot.
each in the non-secure and secure
areas, and a single pair in the
International Arrivals area. The                  The loop or periphery road is named
restrooms have serviceable layouts                Kupipi Street. It begins with a two-
and during the times observed, appear             lane road on the east side of the
to be in good condition and adequately            parking lot that widens to four lanes
sized. The restrooms would benefit                in the curve around the north end.
from modernization that would                     After the road turns to the south to
increase their size and improve layout            approach the North Terminal, it
to meet current travel needs such as              widens to six lanes with a median
larger stalls with out-swinging doors,            curb.
increased number of towel dispensers
located between sinks, and family                 The median curb and the outside lanes
restroom. Post-security restrooms are             are dedicated to commercial transport-
also located at the edge of the                   ation providers (e.g., rental car and
courtyard and are visible to the public.          hotel shuttle buses, taxis, and limou-
Pre-security restrooms are located on             sines). The outer drive is 23 feet wide
the path to security between ticketing            (one thru lane and one loading lane).
and baggage claim, though visibility is           The median curb is 11 feet wide with a

                                           1-26                           DRAFT FINAL
canopy cover and bench seating. The              Vehicle Parking
three sections of median curb provide
850 feet of frontage for loading and             Exhibits 1E and 1F also depict the
unloading passengers, as well as for             locations of the vehicle parking related
staging taxis.                                   to the passenger terminal. There are
                                                 706 spaces located in the public
The three inside lanes are reserved for          parking lot within the terminal loop
private automobiles dropping off or              road. Access to this parking lot is
picking up passengers and baggage.               available from the loop road through
The inner drive is 42 feet wide (two             the ticket booth on the east side of the
thru lanes, one maneuver lane, and               lot. A toll booth exit is located on the
one loading lane). The curb is 20 feet           west side near the south end of the lot.
wide and includes seating along                  Exiting vehicles turn left out of the lot
landscaped area walls. The inner curb            then proceed on the loop road to
does not have a continuous canopy for            return to the terminal or exit the
shade or protection from rain.                   airport.

The North and South Terminals each               Mauka and accessible from Kupipi
have approximately 690 feet of curb              Street is a recently expanded
front available.     This includes a             employee/long term parking lot. With
section of curb front that branches off          completion of construction, the lot has
behind the Onizuka Memorial. Taxis               758 spaces. A second lot, accessible
are permitted to drop off departing              from Pao`o Street, has 432 spaces.
passengers at the terminal curb, but             This lot is used primarily for monthly
must return to the median curb to                and overflow parking.
await arriving passengers.
                                                 Parking for the staging of tour buses
Landscaping along the drives and                 is available at all three terminals.
curbs is extensive and includes large            There are five loading spaces located
trees, creating a pleasant experience            at the International Terminal. There
and needed shade.                                are an additional four spaces farther
                                                 north for storage or staging of buses.
At the south end of the terminals, the           The North Terminal bus parking is
roadway gradually begins to reduce in            located at the north end and has six
the number of available 12-foot lanes.           spaces available. A similar lot is
One lane continues directly south to             available off the south end of the
the air cargo and general aviation               South Terminal.
facilities, turning into U`u Road. The
remaining loop roadway continues to
narrow down to two lanes around the              Rental Car Facilities
south curve. One then continues east
bound to tie back into Keahole Street            There are no longer rental car
to exit the airport while the other              counters or ready/return spaces
turns to the north to return to the              available at the terminal. As depicted
terminal.                                        on Exhibit 1D, all rental car facilities

                                          1-27                             DRAFT FINAL
are remote and are located on the                 docks and parking are provided on the
north side of the airport entrance road           land side of the buildings. This space
between Queen Kaahumanu Highway                   is approximately 850 feet long and 125
and the terminal. Arriving rental car             feet deep.
customers proceed from the terminal
to the median curb where they are                 A parking apron approximately 280
picked up by shuttles operated by each            feet deep is available on the airside of
of the eight rental car companies on              the buildings. This is used primarily
the airport. These currently include              by Boeing 737 aircraft, smaller cargo
Alamo, Avis, Budget, Dollar, Harper,              aircraft, and for ground service
Hertz, National, and Thrifty.                     equipment storage. The cargo apron
                                                  is not sufficient to handle larger
All rental car transactions are                   widebody aircraft. Widebody cargo
conducted on the leasehold of the                 aircraft are currently handled and
respective rental car companies. The              serviced at the terminal apron. The
leasehold not only includes the rental            only regular widebody aircraft cargo
car counter, offices, and ready/return,           service as of early 2007 was by UPS,
but also all service and storage. There           which operates one flight six days a
are approximately 14 acres currently              week using either a Boeing 767 or
leased to the rental car companies.               Boeing 747 aircraft.

AIR CARGO FACILITIES                              GENERAL AVIATION
In 2006, KOA handled over 30,000
tons of air cargo (freight and mail).             While designated a commercial service
FedEx (contracted through Aloha Air               airport, KOA remains a vital link to
Cargo), United Parcel Service (UPS),              general aviation on the island.
and United Cargo serve the airport as             General aviation operations account
cargo carriers.    Air cargo is also              for approximately half of the airport’s
handled as belly freight by several of            annual operations.        The general
the other passenger airlines serving              aviation facilities at KOA are located
the airport.     Freight forwarders               along the south flight line, as depicted
located on the airport include Big                on Exhibit 1H.
Island Parcel, Commodity Freight
Forwarders, and Direct Freight                    Based general aviation aircraft are
Services.                                         primarily stored on the ramp and in
                                                  the two 48-foot wide by 203-foot long
Two air cargo buildings are located               T-hangars immediately south of the
south of the terminal between the                 ARFF.     There are seven tie-down
general aviation facilities, as shown on          spaces on the ramp immediately in
Exhibit 1H.        The northernmost               front of the ATCT, and 36 spaces in
building is 19,828 feet and the                   front of and immediately south of the
southernmost is 20,482 feet. Truck                T-hangars.

                                           1-28                            DRAFT FINAL

                         1 ARFF                            2 T-Hangars                      3 North General Aviation Apron     4 Maintenance Facility             5 Tropicbird Flight Service       6 Air Cargo Facilities        7 Cargo Apron

                                                                                                                             Civil Air Patrol
                                                                                                                                           8         11
                                                                                     4                                                                                                      Uu Street
                                                                                                                                                            Bradley Pacific

                                        ATCT                                                                                         9          10                    e ipads
                                                     1      2

                                                              3                          Blast Wall


                     0                 300           600

                                  SCALE IN FEET

                         8 Air Service Hawaii              9 Commuter Air Terminal          10 Paradise Helicopters            11 Hawaii Flight Academy /        12 Mauna Loa Helicopters          13 Fuel Farm                   14 South GA Apron
                                                                                                                                  Island Hoppers

                                                                                                                                                                          EXISTING CARGO AND GENERAL AVIATION FACILITIES                      Exhibit 1H
Additional ramp for general aviation                    There are nine general aviation/air
uses is located to the south of the air                 taxi service operators located on the
cargo area. There are 15 parking                        airport. All utilize building space in
positions on the ramp in front of the                   the 2,240 square foot Commuter Air
Commuter Air Terminal that are used                     Terminal and/or surrounding build-
primarily by air tour, charter, rental,                 ings, as identified on Exhibit 1H.
flight training, and other aircraft                     These operators and the basic services
associated with the general aviation/                   they provide are outlined in Table 1F.
air taxi businesses on the airport.
There are also three helipads at the
south end of this ramp.                                 SUPPORT FACILITIES

Further to the south is the newest                      Several support facilities serve as
section of apron known as the South                     critical links in providing the
General Aviation Ramp. This pave-                       necessary efficiency to aircraft ground
ment encompasses approximately                          operations, such as aircraft rescue and
37,000 square yards and is utilized                     firefighting (ARFF), airport admini-
primarily to park and service                           stration, airport maintenance, and
transient corporate aircraft visiting                   fuel storage.
the island.

General Aviation Services Operators
Kona International Airport
                              Air                    Flight           Ground      Parts/
                             Tours      Charter     Training   Fuel   Handling   Supplies   Rentals
Air Service Hawaii             X                                X        X                    X
Big Island Air                 X            X
Bradley Pacific                                                 X        X
Hawaii Flight Academy                       X          X                                      X
KOAA – Service                              X          X                            X         X
Mauna Loa Helicopters          X            X          X
Mokulele Flight Service        X            X
Paradise Helicopters           X
Tropicbird Flight Service      X
Sources: Airnav; Operators’ websites; Interviews November 2006

Aircraft Rescue and                                     personnel. There are five indices, A
Firefighting Facilities (ARFF)                          through E, with E the largest based on
                                                        aircraft length. KOA maintains ARFF
Part 139 airports are required to                       Index D.
provide aircraft rescue and fire
fighting (ARFF) services during air                     The 6,034 square-foot ARFF facility is
carrier operations.   Each airport                      centrally located on the airfield to the
certificated under CFR Part 139                         south of the ATCT.          The major
maintains aircraft rescue and fire                      equipment stored and maintained at
fighting (ARFF) equipment and                           the facility includes one 3,000-gallon

                                                 1-29                               DRAFT FINAL
storage capacity fire fighting vehicle            hangar also provides          additional
and two 1,500-gallon storage capacity             equipment storage.
fire fighting vehicles. Each of these
vehicles is new within the past three
years. Other vehicles on-site include:            Fuel Storage
a chief vehicle, a captain truck, and a
reserve 1,500-gallon Oshkosh T-series             There is currently one active fuel farm
vehicle. A mobile incident command                on the airport. As depicted on Exhi-
post vehicle is programmed to be                  bit 1H, the 2.8-acre fuel farm located
added to the fleet in fiscal year 2008.           south of the terminal area has a total
                                                  storage capacity of 90,000 gallons of
An ARFF training facility is located on           Jet A fuel and 12,000 gallons of Avgas
airport property to the northeast of              (100LL).
the terminal area and is used for live-
fire exercises. This facility currently
                                                  The Jet A fuel storage is owned by
meets the Index D requirements.
                                                  Hawaii Fuel Facilities Corporation
                                                  and operated by Bradley Pacific
                                                  Aviation.    Fuel is distributed to
Airport Administration
                                                  aircraft using several fuel trucks by
                                                  Bradley Pacific Aviation and Air
The airport administrative offices are
located in two buildings between the              Service Hawaii.
passenger terminal and the inter-
national arrivals building. Each 2,674            The Avgas storage is part of a self-
square-foot building is designed in the           service fuel facility. It is owned and
architecture of the adjacent terminal.            operated by Douglas Aviation.
The southernmost building includes
the office of the District Airport
Manager and other related admini-                 Utilities
strative personnel as well as the
airport police and security offices. The          The availability and capacity of the
adjacent building includes a training             utilities serving the airport are factors
room as well as the office of the                 in determining the development
District Airport Engineer.                        potential of the airport property, as
                                                  well as the land immediately adjacent
                                                  to the facility. Of primary concern in
Maintenance Facilities                            the inventory investigation is the
                                                  availability of water, gas, sewer, and
The      airport   field maintenance              power sources. Exhibit 1J depicts
facilities are located mauka (east) of            the utilities in the core of the terminal
the general aviation and cargo area of            area.
the airfield. Security gates permit
access to the airside of the airport.             Electric Power - Electricity is
This building has approximately                   provided to the airport by Hawaiian
15,000 square feet which provides                 Electric Light Company (HELCO) via
office space and storage of some                  two 1,247 kilovolt (kV) feeder lines
equipment. A 7,800 square-foot shade
                                           1-30                             DRAFT FINAL
from the Keahole substation located              Sanitary Sewer - Wastewater is
east of Queen Kaahumanu Highway.                 collected and transferred via a
The power lines extend along Keahole             collection line which runs parallel to
Street and enter the electrical control          Kupipi Street to an on-site wastewater
building located adjacent to the air-            treatment plant located north of the
port traffic control tower to the east           terminal area. The wastewater treat-
and distributed to the various airside           ment plant has the capacity to handle
and landside facilities. A 175 kilowatt          100,000 gallons per day and is
(KW)      diesel   engine    emergency           maintained under contract. Second-
generator is located in the electrical           ary treatment is provided through an
control building. A 1,000-gallon diesel          extended aeration operation followed
storage tank located adjacent to the             by clarification and chlorination. The
control     building    supplies    the          effluent is disposed through 20-foot
emergency generator with fuel. A                 deep injection wells into the porous
second 23 kilowatt diesel engine                 lava rock.       Maintenance of the
generator      provides   a    separate          treatment facility is provided under
emergency power system to the                    contract.
                                                 Drainage System - Storm runoff in
Water – The North Kona Water                     the airfield and parking areas is
Master Plan prepared in 1994                     collected using a system of swales,
established the current plan for                 ditches, and concrete bridge culverts.
improvement and expansion of the                 A system of pipelines and intake boxes
water system to economically serve               provide drainage for the terminal
state projects in North Kona. The                facility. The water runoff is then
airport’s water supply is provided by a          injected into dry wells or porous
one million gallon tank which also               depressions on property for disposal.
serves the NELHA facilities to the               This is regulated by State of Hawaii
south of the airport.        A 12-inch           Department of Health Underground
municipal water main along Queen                 Injection Control permits.
Kaahumanu Highway supplies the
tank.     A 12-inch line follows the
airport access road in from the                  AREA AIRSPACE AND
highway then extends north along the             AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
periphery road to feed the airport’s
distribution system. An eight-inch               The Federal Aviation Administration
line extends south along the U`u                 (FAA) Act of 1958 established the FAA
Street to serve the air cargo and                as the responsible agency for the
general aviation facilities. Pressure            control and use of navigable airspace
for fire flows in the areas are created          within the United States. The FAA
by a 0.5 million gallon storage                  has established the National Airspace
reservoir at 280 feet above mean sea             System (NAS) to protect persons and
level    mauka     (east)   of   Queen           property on the ground and to
Kaahumanu Highway.                               establish a safe and efficient airspace

                                          1-31                           DRAFT FINAL
environment for civil, commercial, and           MSL) over the contiguous 48 states
military aviation. The NAS covers the            and Alaska. There is no Class A
common network of U.S. airspace,                 airspace over Hawaii. This airspace is
including air navigation facilities;             designated     in    Federal    Aviation
airports and landing areas; aero-                Regulation (F.A.R.) Part 71.33, for
nautical charts; associated rules,               positive control of aircraft. All aircraft
regulations, and procedures; technical           must be on an instrument flight rules
information; and personnel and                   (IFR) clearance to operate within
material. The system also includes               Class A airspace.
components shared jointly with the
military.                                        Class B Airspace: Class B airspace
                                                 has been designated around some of
                                                 the country’s major airports, such as
AIRSPACE STRUCTURE                               Honolulu International Airport, to
                                                 separate all aircraft within a specified
Airspace within the United States is             radius of the primary airport. Each
broadly classified as either “con-               Class B airspace is specifically tailored
trolled” or “uncontrolled.” The differ-          for its primary airport. All aircraft
ence between controlled and uncon-               operating within Class B airspace
trolled airspace relates primarily to            must have an ATC clearance. Certain
requirements for pilot qualifications,           minimum aircraft equipment and pilot
ground-to-air communications, navi-              certification requirements must also
gation and air traffic services, and             be met. This airspace is the most
weather conditions. Six classes of               restrictive controlled airspace rou-
airspace have been designated in the             tinely encountered by pilots operating
United States, as shown on Exhibit               under visual flight rules (VFR) in an
1K. Airspace designated as Class A,              uncontrolled environment. There is no
B, C, D, or E is considered controlled           Class B airspace in the vicinity of
airspace. Aircraft operating within              KOA.
controlled airspace are subject to
varying requirements for positive air            Class C Airspace: The FAA has
traffic control.                                 established Class C airspace at
                                                 approximately 120 airports around the
The KOA Class D airspace is effective            country that have significant levels of
only during the time the ATCT is                 IFR traffic. Class C airspace typically
operational, which is from 6:00 a.m. to          consists of a five nautical mile (nm)
10:00 p.m. daily. At all other times,            radius shelf extending from 1,200 feet
the airport is in Class E airspace.              AGL to 4,000 feet AGL. In order to fly
Airspace in the vicinity of KOA is               inside Class C airspace, the aircraft
depicted on Exhibit 1L.                          must have a two-way radio, an
                                                 encoding transponder, and have
Class A Airspace: Class A airspace               established communication with an
includes all airspace from 18,000 feet           ATC facility. Aircraft may fly below
mean sea level (MSL) to flight level             the floor of the Class C airspace or
(FL) 600 (approximately 60,000 feet              above the Class C airspace ceiling

                                          1-32                             DRAFT FINAL

                                                                                                     AGL      - Above Ground Level

                                                                                                      FL      - Flight Level in Hundreds of Feet

                                                                                                     MSL      - Mean Sea Level

                                                                                                                  NOT TO SCALE

                      CLASSIFICATION                                           DEFINITION
                               CLASS A         Generally airspace above 18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 600.

                               CLASS B         Generally multi-layered airspace from the surface up to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the
                                               nation's busiest airports.

                               CLASS C         Generally airspace from the surface to 4,000 feet AGL surrounding towered airports with
                                               service by radar approach control.

                               CLASS D         Generally airspace from the surface to 2,500 feet AGL surrounding towered airports.

                               CLASS E         Generally controlled airspace that is not Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D.

                               CLASS G         Generally uncontrolled airspace that is not Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E.

                     Source:       "Airspace Reclassification and Charting Changes for VFR Products," National Oceanic and Atmospheric
                                   Administration, National Ocean Service. Chart adapted by Coffman Associates from AOPA Pilot, January 1993.

                                                                                       AIRSPACE CLASSIFICATION                            Exhibit 1K

                                    V 23                                                                                                                            V2
                                                                       Upolu Point



                                                                                                                                                         V 25



                                                               V                                                 HAKALAU FOREST
                                                                                                             NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE
                     V                                                                                                                           HILO
                                                                                          Bradshaw                                               INTERNATIONAL
                                                 KONA INTERNATIONAL/                        NDB
                                                       KEAHOLE                                             BRADSHAW

                                                                                        R-3103                                                                     Hilo


                                                                                                                         HAWAII VOLCANOES
                                                                                                                           NATIONAL PARK

                                  Airport with hard-surfaced runways                     Compass Rose                                  12,000 - 13,796
                                  1,500' to 8,069' in length
                                                                                         Wilderness Area                                9,000 - 12,000
                                  Airports with hard-surfaced runways
                                  greater than 8,069' or some multiple                   Class D Airspace                                7,000 - 9,000
                                  runways less than 8,069'                               Class E Airspace                                5,000 - 7,000
                                  VORTAC                                                 Class E Airspace with floor
                                                                                                                                         3,000 - 5,000   ELACS OT TON
                                  VOR-DME                                                700 ft. above surface
                                                                                                                                         2,000 - 3,000
                                  Non-Directional Radiobeacon (NDB)                      Victor Airways

                                                                                         Restricted Area                                 1,000 - 2000

                                                                                                                                             0 - 1,000
                                              Source: Hawaiian Islands Sectional Charts, US Department of
                                              Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

                                                                                                                       ISLAND AIRSPACE                     Exhibit 1L
without establishing communication                 can only be conducted if minimum
with ATC. Kahului Airport on Maui                  visibility and cloud ceilings exist.
has Class C airspace. There is no
Class C airspace at KOA or any of the              Airports with Class E airspace in the
other Big Island airports.                         vicinity of KOA include Waimea-
                                                   Kohala, Upolu, and Hilo International.
Class D Airspace: Class D airspace                 Class G Airspace:         Airspace not
is controlled airspace surrounding                 designated as Class A, B, C, D, or E is
airports with an ATCT. The Class D                 considered uncontrolled, or Class G,
airspace    typically   constitutes   a            airspace. Air traffic control does not
cylinder with a horizontal radius of               have the authority or responsibility to
four or five nautical miles (NM) from              exercise control over air traffic within
the airport, extending from the surface            this airspace. Class G airspace lies
up to a designated vertical limit,                 between     the   surface    and     the
typically set at approximately 2,500               overlaying Class E airspace (700 to
feet above the airport elevation. If an            1,200 feet above ground level). Class
airport has an instrument approach or              G airspace extends below the floor of
departure, the Class D airspace                    the Class E airspace at KOA.
sometimes extends along the approach
or departure path. KOA (as indicated               While aircraft may technically operate
earlier) and Hilo International Airport            within this Class G airspace without
both operate in Class D airspace. The              any contact with ATC, it is unlikely
Class D airspace extends for                       that many aircraft will operate this
approximately four nautical miles                  low to the ground.        Furthermore,
around the airport, from the surface to            federal regulations specify minimum
2,500 feet MSL. When the ATCT at                   altitudes for flight.      F.A.R. Part
KOA is closed, the airspace reverts to             91.119, Minimum Safe Altitudes,
Class G or E.                                      generally states that except when
                                                   necessary for takeoff or landing, pilots
Class E Airspace: Class E airspace                 must not operate an aircraft over any
consists    of   controlled     airspace           congested area of a city, town, or
designed to contain IFR operations                 settlement, or over any open-air
near an airport and while aircraft are             assembly of persons, at an altitude of
transitioning between the airport and              1,000 feet above the highest obstacle
enroute environments. Unless other-                within a horizontal radius of 2,000 feet
wise specified, Class E airspace                   of the aircraft.
terminates at the base of the overlying
airspace.    Only aircraft operating               Over less congested areas, pilots must
under IFR are required to be in                    maintain an altitude of 500 feet above
contact with air traffic control when              the surface, except over open water or
operating in Class E airspace. While               sparsely populated areas. In those
aircraft conducting visual flights in              cases, the aircraft may not be operated
Class E airspace are not required to be            closer than 500 feet to any person,
in radio communications with air                   vessel, vehicle, or structure. Finally,
traffic control facilities, visual flight          this section states that helicopters

                                            1-33                            DRAFT FINAL
may be operated at less than the                   Victor Airways:          For aircraft
minimums prescribed above if the                   arriving or departing the regional area
operation is conducted without hazard              using very high frequency omni-
to persons or property on the surface.             directional range (VOR) facilities, a
In addition, each person operating a               system of Federal Airways, referred to
helicopter shall comply with any                   as    Victor    Airways,    has    been
routes    or    altitudes    specifically          established.     Victor Airways are
prescribed for helicopters by the FAA.             corridors of airspace eight miles wide
                                                   that extend upward from 1,200 feet
                                                   AGL to 18,000 feet MSL and extend
Special Use Airspace                               between VOR navigational facilities.
                                                   Victor Airways are shown with solid
Special use airspace is defined as                 blue lines on Exhibit 1L.
airspace where activities must be
confined because of their nature or                For aircraft enroute or departing the
where limitations are imposed on                   Kona area, there are several Victor
aircraft not taking part in those                  Airways available. The Kona VOR-
activities. These areas are depicted on            TAC, located approximately five
Exhibit 1L with the use of green                   nautical miles (nm) south of the
shading.                                           airport at the Old Kona Airport State
                                                   Park, is the converging point for Victor
State Park/Wilderness Areas: As                    Airways in the Kona area.
depicted on Exhibit 1K, the Hakalau
Forest National Wildlife Refuge and                Restricted Airspace:        Restricted
the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park                 areas are depicted on Exhibit 1L with
are located east of KOA. Hakalau                   blue hatched lines. There is a single
Forest National Wildlife Refuge                    restricted area (R-3103) on the island
encompasses 32,733 acres and is home               to the east of KOA.         Restricted
to many endangered forest birds and                airspace is off-limits for public-use
plant species.      Hawaii Volcanoes               unless granted permission from the
National Park encompasses 323,431                  controlling agency.
acres and features two of the world’s
most active volcanoes (Mauna Loa and
Kilauea). Aircraft are requested to                AIRSPACE CONTROL
maintain a minimum altitude of 2,000
feet above the surface of designated               The FAA has established 21 Air Route
National Park areas, which includes                Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC)
wilderness areas and designated                    throughout the continental United
breeding grounds.       FAA Advisory               States to control aircraft operating
Circular 91-36C defines the “surface”              under IFR within controlled airspace
as the highest terrain within 2,000                and while enroute. An ARTCC as-
feet laterally of the route of flight or           signs specific routes and altitudes
the uppermost rim of a canyon or                   along federal airways to maintain
valley.                                            separation and orderly traffic flow.

                                            1-34                            DRAFT FINAL
The Honolulu Control Facility (HCF)               The capability of an instrument is
controls IFR airspace enroute over                defined by the visibility and cloud
KOA and areas west.      The HCF                  ceiling minimums associated with the
performs some of the functions                    approach. Visibility minimums define
associated with an ARTCC, but                     the horizontal distance the pilot must
primarily serves as an Approach                   be able to see in order to complete the
Control Facility.                                 approach. Cloud ceilings define the
                                                  lowest level a cloud layer (defined in
The HCF delegates certain airspace to             feet above the ground) can be situated
local terminal facilities which assume            for the pilot to complete the approach.
responsibility for the orderly flow of            If the observed visibility or loud
air traffic arriving and departing                ceilings are below the minimums
major terminals. The HCF is also                  prescribed for the approach, the pilot
charged with radar approach and                   cannot complete the instrument
departure control in the KOA terminal             approach.      Table 1G summarizes
area. The KOA ATCT is responsible                 instrument approach minima for
for providing aircraft with proper                KOA.
separation and guidance for landing
and departure stages. As discussed in
the airfield section, the current ATCT            Visual Flight Procedures
at KOA is located to the east of the
runway, south of the terminal. The                Most flights at KOA are conducted
KOA tower operates daily from 6:00                under visual flight rules (VFR).
a.m. to 10:00 p.m.                                Under VFR flight, the pilot is
                                                  responsible for collision avoidance.
                                                  Typically, the pilot will make radio
Instrument Approach Procedures                    calls announcing the position of the
                                                  aircraft relative to the airport and the
Instrument approach procedures are a              intentions of the pilot.
series of predetermined maneuvers
established by the FAA using                      In most situations, under VFR and
electronic navigational aids that assist          basic radar services, the pilot is
pilots in locating and landing at an              responsible    for   navigation     and
airport, especially during instrument             choosing the arrival and departure
flight conditions. There is currently             flight paths to and from the airport.
                                                  The results of individual pilot
one published precision instrument
                                                  navigation for sequencing and collision
approach and seven published non-
                                                  avoidance are that aircraft do not fly a
precision instrument approaches into
                                                  precise flight path to and from the
KOA.      Precision instrument app-               airport. Therefore, aircraft can be
roaches provide vertical descent                  found flying over a wide area around
information and course guidance                   the airport for sequencing and safety
information to the pilot.          Non-           reasons.
precision approaches only provide
course guidance to the pilot.                     While aircraft can be expected to
                                                  operate over most areas of the airport,

                                           1-35                            DRAFT FINAL
the density of aircraft operations is                              aircraft landing or taking off from an
higher near the airport. This is the                               airport. The components of a typical
result of aircraft following the                                   traffic pattern are upwind leg,
established traffic patterns for the                               crosswind leg, downwind leg, base leg,
airport. The traffic pattern is the                                and final approach.
traffic flow that is prescribed for

 Instrument Approach Data
                                                  WEATHER MINIMUMS BY AIRCRAFT TYPE
                              Category A         Category B   Category C   Category D                        Category E
                              CH     VIS         CH     VIS   CH     VIS   CH     VIS                        CH     VIS
 Straight-In ILS              200        0.5     200        0.5       200       0.5      200        0.5       200        0.5
 Straight- In Localizer       400        0.5     400        0.5       400       0.5      400       0.75       400       0.75
 Circling                     500        1.0     500        1.0       500       1.5      600        2.0       600        2.0
 LNAV/VNAV DA                 500       1.25     500       1.25       500       1.25     500       1.25       N/A       N/A
 LNAV MDA                     600        0.5     600        0.5       600       1.0      600        2.0       N/A       N/A
 Circling                     600       1.75     600       1.75       600       1.75     600        2.0       N/A       N/A
 LNAV MDA                     400        1.0     400        1.0       400       1.0      400       1.25       400       1.25
 Circling                     500        1.0     500        1.0       500       1.25     600        2.0       600        2.0
 LNAV/VNAV DA                 500       1.75     500       1.75       500       1.75     500       1.75       500       1.75
 LNAV MDA                     600        1.0     600        1.0       600       1.75     600        2.0       600       2.25
 Circling                     600       1.75     600       1.75       600       1.75     600        2.0       600       2.25
 Straight-In                  600        0.5     600        0.5       600       1.5      600       1.75       600        2.0
 Circling                     600        1.0     600        1.0       600       1.5      600        2.0       600        2.0
 Straight-In                  400        1.0     400        1.0       400       1.0      400       1.25       N/A       N/A
 Circling                     500        1.0     500        1.0       500       1.25     600        2.0       N/A       N/A
 Straight-In                  600        1.0     600        1.0       600       1.5      600       1.75       600        2.0
 Circling                     600        1.0     600        1.0       600       1.5      600        2.0       600        2.0
 Straight-In                  600        1.0     600        1.0       600       1.5      600       1.75       600       1.75
 Circling                     600        1.0     600        1.0       600       1.5      600        2.0       600        2.0
 Aircraft categories are based on the approach speed of aircraft, which is determined by 1.3 times the stall speed in landing
 configuration. The approach categories are as follows:
 Category A          0-90 knots (Cessna 172)
 Category B          91-120 knots (Beechcraft KingAir)
 Category C          121-140 knots (Canadair Challenger)
 Category D          141-165 knots (Gulfstream IV)
 Category E          Speed greater than 166 knots (F-16)

 CH:      Cloud Height (in feet above ground level)        RNAV: Area Navigation
 GPS:     Global Positioning System                        VIS:  Visibility (in statute miles)
 ILS:     Instrument Landing System                        VNAV: Vertical Navigation
 LNAV: Lateral Navigation                                  VOR:   Very High Frequency Omni-directional Range
 LOC:     Localizer                                        TACAN: Tactical Air Navigation
 MDA:     Minimum Descent Altitude
 N/A:     Not Available
 NDH:     No Decision Height
 Source: U.S. Terminal Procedures

a. Upwind Leg - A flight path parallel                             b. Crosswind Leg - A flight path at
   to the landing runway in the                                       right angles to the landing runway
   direction of landing.                                              off its upwind end.

                                                           1-36                                          DRAFT FINAL
c. Downwind Leg - A flight path                   traffic pattern, and meteorological
   parallel to the landing runway in              conditions. The actual ground location
   the direction opposite to landing.             of each leg of the traffic pattern varies
   The downwind leg normally                      from aircraft operation to aircraft
   extends between the crosswind leg              operation for the reasons of safety,
   and the base leg.                              navigation, and sequencing described
                                                  above.      The distance that the
d. Base Leg - A flight path at right              downwind leg is located laterally from
   angles to the landing runway off its           the runway will vary based mostly on
   approach end. The base leg                     the speed of the aircraft.        Slower
   normally     extends    from    the            aircraft can operate closer to the
   downwind leg to the intersection of            runway as their turn radius is
   the extended runway centerline.                smaller.

e. Final Approach - A flight path in              The FAA has established that small
   the direction of landing along the             piston-powered aircraft operating in
   extended runway centerline. The                the KOA traffic pattern fly at 800 feet
   final approach normally extends                MSL when on the downwind leg.
   from the base leg to the runway.               Larger turbine-powered aircraft fly
                                                  the downwind leg at 1,500 feet MSL.
Essentially, the traffic pattern defines          The traffic pattern altitude is
which side of the runway aircraft will            established so that aircraft have a
operate on. For example, at KOA,                  predictable descent profile on base leg
Runway 17 has an established right-               to final for landing.
hand traffic pattern. For this runway,
aircraft make a right turn from base
leg to final for landing. Therefore,              SOCIOECONOMIC PROFILE
aircraft operating to Runway 17
remain west of the runway. When                   The following sections will analyze the
landing to Runway 35, aircraft make               population, employment, and income
left-hand turns.     This also allows             of the island as it compares to state
aircraft to remain west of Runway 17-             and national figures.        Historical
35.                                               socioeconomic figures were obtained
                                                  from the U.S. Census, the U.S.
While the traffic pattern defines the             Department of Labor, the Bureau of
direction of turns that an aircraft will          Economic Analysis, the County Social,
follow on landing or departure, it does           Business and Economic Trends in
not define how far from the runway an             Hawaii: 1990 – 2005, and the State of
aircraft will operate. The distance               Hawaii Data Book, 2006.
laterally from the runway centerline
an aircraft operates or the distance
from the end of the runway is at the              POPULATION
discretion of the pilot, based on the
operating characteristics of the                  Historical population information for
aircraft, number of aircraft in the               the Kona/Kohala Districts, Hawaii

                                           1-37                             DRAFT FINAL
County, and the State of Hawaii is                     past 25 years.     The Kona/Kohala
summarized in Table 1H.           As                   Districts have grown in each decade
indicated in the table, the western                    and experienced a higher average
districts of Hawaii County comprised                   annual growth percentage than both
of North Kona, South Kona, North                       Hawaii County and the State of
Kohala, and South Kohala have                          Hawaii.
experienced growth steadily over the

Population History
North Kona, Hawaii County, and State of Hawaii
              Kona/Kohala               %        Hawaii            %            State of         %
 Year            Districts          Change       County        Change           Hawaii        Change
  1980             27,518             N/A         92,900         N/A            968,500         N/A
  1990             43,373            57.6%       121,572        14.8%          1,113,491       7.1%
  2000             56,301            29.8%       149,261         6.2%          1,212,670       1.3%
  2005             63,001            11.9%       163,000         9.2%          1,277,950       5.4%
Average Annual % Change               3.4%                       2.3%                          1.1%
Source: The State of Hawaii Data Book,2006
Kona/Kohala Districts: Comprised of the western Hawaii County Districts of North Kona, South Kona, North
Kohala, and South Kohala.

EMPLOYMENT                                             County has experienced an average
                                                       annual growth rate of 1.9 percent
The major industries on the island of                  since 1990.       A breakdown of
Hawaii area include retail trade,                      employment by sector for Hawaii
accommodation, and state govern-                       County is presented in Table 1J.
ment. Total employment in Hawaii

Employment By Sector
Hawaii County
                                                                                       Avg. Annual
            Sector                 1990      1995      2000      2005      % Change     % Change
Natural Resources/Mining/
Construction                       3,600     2,800     3,100     4,850        34.7%       2.0%
Manufacturing                      2,400     1,700     1,600     1,450       -39.6%       -3.3%
Wholesale Trade                    1,300     1,200     1,300     1,650        26.9%       1.6%
Retail Trade                       6,900     7,600     7,900     8,900        29.0%       1.7%
Warehousing/Utilities              2,400     2,200     2,200     2,850        18.8%       1.2%
Information                         600       700       700       650          8.3%       0.5%
Finance/Insurance/Real Estate      2,300     2,300     2,200     2,600        13.0%       0.8%
Professional/Business Services     2,500     3,200     4,100     4,750        90.0%       4.4%
Educational Services                300       400       600       950        216.7%       8.0%
Health Care/Social Assistance      2,500     3,500     4,900     5,850       134.0%       5.8%
Arts/Entertainment/Recreation       600       900      1,100     1,550       158.3%       6.5%
Accommodation                      6,200     5,500     7,100     7,100        14.5%       0.9%
Food Service/Drinking Places       3,900     3,700     4,200     5,250        34.6%       2.0%
Other Services                     1,300     1,300     1,300     2,000        53.8%       2.9%
Federal Government                  800       900      1,000     1,250        56.3%       3.0%
State Government                   5,600     7,100     7,600     8,000        42.9%       2.4%
Local Government                   2,000     2,100     2,300     2,350        17.5%       1.1%
Agriculture                        3,500     2,450     2,700     2,450       -30.0%       -2.3%
Total Employment                  48,700    49,550    55,900    64,450        33.3%       1.9%
Source: County Social, Business and Economic Trends In Hawaii 1990 – 2005, (2006)

                                                1-38                                  DRAFT FINAL
Unemployment rates are also a good              However, the county unemployment
indicator of the state of the local             has historically been higher than that
economy. Hawaii County has experi-              of the state as a whole. The historical
enced    a   lower   than   average             unemployment rate comparisons since
unemployment rate when compared to              1990 can be found in Table 1K.
the United States in recent years.

Historical Unemployment Rate
Hawaii County, State of Hawaii, United States
(Percentage of Labor Force)
      Year            Hawaii County            State of Hawaii            U.S.
      1990                   3.5                      2.4                 5.6
      1991                   4.5                      2.8                 6.9
      1992                   7.5                      4.2                 7.5
      1993                   7.6                      4.4                 6.9
      1994                   9.2                      5.1                 6.1
      1995                   9.6                      5.5                 5.6
      1996                   9.2                      5.9                 5.4
      1997                   9.3                      5.8                 4.9
      1998                   8.7                      5.7                 4.5
      1999                   7.8                      5.0                 4.2
      2000                   4.7                      4.0                 4.0
      2001                   5.0                      4.2                 4.7
      2002                   4.6                      4.1                 5.8
      2003                   4.6                      3.9                 6.0
      2004                   3.9                      3.3                 5.5
      2005                   3.3                      2.8                 5.1
Source: Hawaii County and State of Hawaii, County
       Social, Business and Economic Trends in
       Hawaii: 1990 - 2005, (2006)
U.S., U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics

INCOME                                          pace than that of the State of Hawaii.
                                                However, both the County and the
Table 1L, Historical Per Capita                 State are growing at a slower pace
Personal Income, compares the per               than the United States. The Hawaii
capita income (PCPI) for Hawaii                 County PCPI was approximately 76
County, the State of Hawaii, and the            percent of the national average, while
United States between 1990 and 2004.            the State of Hawaii was approxi-
As illustrated in the table, Hawaii             mately 99 percent of the national
County’s PCPI has grown at a faster             average.

                                         1-39                           DRAFT FINAL
Historical Per Capita Personal Income
Hawaii County, State of Hawaii, United States
            Year                Hawaii County          State of Hawaii             U.S.
            1990                    $16,477                $22,186               $19,477
            1991                    $17,032                $22,895               $19,892
            1992                    $17,478                $24,089               $20,854
            1993                    $17,903                $24,555               $21,346
            1994                    $18,134                $24,777               $22,172
            1995                    $18,166                $25,004               $23,076
            1996                    $18,505                $25,024               $24,175
            1997                    $18,650                $25,587               $25,334
            1998                    $19,648                $26,132               $26,883
            1999                    $20,324                $26,937               $27,939
            2000                    $21,404                $28,422               $29,845
            2001                    $22,217                $28,748               $30,574
            2002                    $23,020                $29,464               $30,810
            2003                    $23,771                $30,536               $31,484
            2004                    $25,096                $32,625               $33,050
Avg. Annual % Change                 3.1%                    2.8%                 3.8%
Source: Hawaii County and State of Hawaii, County Social, Business and Economic Trends in
Hawaii:        1990 – 2005 (2006)
U.S., Regional Economic Information System, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Table CA 1-3

ENVIRONMENTAL                                    AREA LAND USE
                                                 The sections below provide a general
Available information about the                  description of the existing land use
existing environmental conditions at             and the current General Plan for the
KOA has been derived from internet               area surrounding the airport. A more
resources, agency maps, and existing             specific description of existing and
literature including the Final Environ-          planned developments in the airport
mental Assessment for the Kona Inter-            area is provided in Appendix D.
national Airport at Keahole Master
Plan Update completed in November
of 2000. The intent of this task is to           Existing Land Use
inventory potential environmental
sensitivities that might affect future           The area immediately surrounding the
improvements at the airport. These               airport is largely undeveloped with
resources are discussed further within           scattered industrial and governmental
the following sections.                          uses. The area north of the airport is

                                          1-40                            DRAFT FINAL
undeveloped and owned by the State               Land Uses outlined within the 2005
of Hawaii. Queen Kaahumanu High-                 General Plan are depicted on Exhibit
way borders the airport to the east.             1N.
Land uses east of the highway include
residential, agricultural, and conser-           Beyond the Urban Expansion areas to
vation lands. Directly west of the               the south of the airport there are
airport is the National Energy Lab of            parcels planned for low and medium-
Hawaii and the Pacific Ocean. South              density urban development. These
of the airport, land uses include light          areas could include village, neighbor-
industrial uses as well as government            hood, and convenience retail uses,
facilities and conservation lands.               public uses, and single and multiple
Exhibit 1M displays the existing land            family dwellings ranging between one
uses of the areas surrounding the                and 35 dwelling units per acre.
                                                 The areas along the coast and near the
                                                 highway are designated as open space
General Plan                                     and are to remain undeveloped.

According to the 2005 County of
Hawaii General Plan, land north and              NATURAL RESOURCES
east of the airport is planned for
agricultural uses. Typical agriculture           Fish, Wildlife, and Plants
operations include livestock, crops,
and nursery products. In addition to             The Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
agricultural uses, these lands may be            and the National Marine Fisheries
also used as open space or as a green            Service (NMFS) are charged with
belt to provide a buffer between uses            overseeing the requirements contained
or to preserve areas as undeveloped.             within Section 7 of the Endangered
                                                 Species Act. This Act was put into
Land south of the airport portions and           place to protect animal or plant
east of Queen Kaahumanu Highway                  species    whose    populations      are
are planned for Urban Expansion.                 threatened by human activities. In
According to the plan, the Urban                 coordination with the FAA, the FWS
Expansion areas could include “a mix             and the NMFS review projects to
of high density, medium density, low             determine if a significant impact to
density, industrial, industrial-comm-            these protected species will result with
ercial and/ or open designations in              implementation of a proposed project.
areas where new settlements may be               Significant impacts occur when the
desirable, but where the specific                proposed action could jeopardize the
settlement pattern and mix of uses               continued existence of a protected
have not yet been determined.” This              species or would result in the
land could be developed with a variety           destruction or adverse modification of
of land uses both compatible and non-            federally designated critical habitat in
compatible with airport operations.              the area.

                                          1-41                            DRAFT FINAL
In a similar manner, states are                  posed,    or   candidate    avian   or
allowed to prepare statewide wildlife            mammalian species. The results of
conservation plans through authori-              the survey indicated a lack of habitat
zations contained within the Sikes Act.          for any federally listed species. Only
Airport improvement projects should              one mammalian species (Indian
be checked for consistency with the              Mongoose) was encountered on airport
State Wildlife Conservation Plan                 property. A total of 14 avian species
where such a plan exists.                        were detected, 13 of which are alien
                                                 species to the Hawaiian Islands. The
Hawaii has the largest number of                 only native species recorded was the
listed endangered and threatened                 Pacific Golden Plover, a common
species in the nation. There are 329             indigenous migratory species. The
threatened and endangered species in             endangered Hawaiian Stilt has
the State of Hawaii, of which 273 are            previously been recorded within
plants. The 56 endangered animals                airport boundaries in 2000 and 2001.

•   32 species of birds                          Floodplains
•   Four sea turtle species
•   Hawaiian monkseal                            Floodplains are defined in Executive
•   Humpback whale                               Order 11988, Floodplain Management,
•   Hawaiian hoary bat                           as “the lowland and relatively flat
•   Two species of snails                        areas adjoining inland and coastal
•   Twp arthropods                               waters…including at a minimum, that
•   Blackburn’s sphinx moth                      area subject to a one percent or
•   12 Hawaiian picture-wing flies               greater chance of flooding in any given
                                                 year” (i.e., that area would be
The vegetation within the study site is          inundated by a 100-year flood).
characterized as a Lowland Vegetation            Federal agencies, including the FAA,
Community. The habitat is dominated              are directed to “reduce the risk of loss,
by fountain grass, an alien African              to minimize the impact of floods on
grass.   Additionally, several native            human safety, health, and welfare,
plants are present in small numbers.             and to restore and preserve the
There is little vegetation on the lava           natural and beneficial values served
flows, especially along the western,             by floodplains.” According to Federal
northern, and portions of the                    Emergency       Management      Agency
northeast side of the airfield.                  (FEMA) Federal Insurance Rate Map
                                                 (FIRM) panel number 155166 0681C,
A faunal survey was completed at, and            airport facilities are not located in a
in the vicinity of, the airport in               100-year floodplain or floodway. A
December of 1999 to determine if                 100-year floodplain is located west of
habitat is present that would support            the airfield along the coast.        The
the existence of any state or federally          location of this floodplain is depicted
listed endangered, threatened, pro-              on Exhibit 1P.

                                          1-42                             DRAFT FINAL


                        0               1500              3000

                                    SCALE IN FEET

                     Source: County of Hawaii, Planning Department
                             Geographic Information System.

                                                                     GENERALIZED EXISTING LAND USE   Exhibit 1M


                        0               3000              6000

                                    SCALE IN FEET

                     Source: County of Hawaii, Planning Department
                             Geographic Information System.

                                                                     STATE LAND USE DISTRICT   Exhibit 1N

                                               Tsunami Evacuation Area


                                               Anchaline Pond

                      CLASS AA            0            1800                3600

                                                   SCALE IN FEET


                     CLASS AA

                            CLASS AA
                                       WATER RESOURCES              Exhibit 1P
The County of Hawaii, Civil Defense               system (approximately 58 feet by 62
Tsunami Evacuation Zone is also                   feet), located at the southern end of
depicted on Exhibit 1P. As illus-                 the runway was identified.          The
trated on the exhibit, the limits of the          location of this wetland is depicted on
evacuation zone are west of the                   Exhibit 1P.
existing runway. The terminal build-
ings at the airport are located outside
of the evacuation zone.                           Farmlands

                                                  The Farmland Protection Policy Act
Wetlands and Waters of the U.S.                   (FPPA) authorizes the United States
                                                  Department of Agriculture (USDA) to
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers                  develop criteria for identifying the
regulates the discharge of dredged                effects of federal programs on the
and/or fill material into waters of the           conversion of farmland to nonagri-
United States, including adjacent                 cultural uses. Farmland protected by
wetlands, under Section 404 of the                the FPPA is classified as either unique
Clean Water Act.         Wetlands are             farmland, prime farmland (which is
defined in Executive Order 11990,                 not already committed to urban
Protection of Wetlands, as “those areas           development or water storage), or
that are inundated by surface or                  farmland which is of state or local
groundwater      with    a    frequency           importance (as determined by the
sufficient to support and under normal            appropriate government agency and
circumstances does or would support a             the Secretary of Agriculture). The
prevalence of vegetation or aquatic life          Land Study Bureau, Detailed Land
that requires saturated or seasonably             Classification Report for the Island of
saturated soil conditions for growth              Hawaii has designated the land at the
and reproduction.”       Categories of            airport as Class E, which is land that
wetlands include swamps, marshes,                 is very poor and least suited for
bogs, sloughs, potholes, wet meadows,             agriculture. No soils designated as
river overflows, mud flats, natural               supporting prime or unique farmlands
ponds,      estuarine    areas,    tidal          have been identified on airport
overflows, and shallow lakes and                  property.
ponds with emergent vegetation.
Wetlands exhibit three characteristics:
hydrology, hydrophytes (plants able to            Geology and Soils
tolerate various degrees of flooding or
frequent saturation), and poorly                  Hawaii is located in a region which is
drained soils.                                    subject to earthquakes and volcanic
                                                  eruptions. The soil type at the airport
The FWS interactive wetland mapper                has been classified as predominately
did not identify any wetlands on                  ʻaʻā and pāhoehoe lava flow. ʻAʻā is
airport property. However, during a               characterized by a rough or rubbly
site survey completed in December of              surface composed of broken lava
1999, a small anchialine wetland                  blocks called clinker. The surface is

                                           1-43                           DRAFT FINAL
characterized as being loose, broken,             compares federal and state air quality
sharp, and spiny. Pāhoehoe is basaltic            standards.
lava that has a smooth, billowy,
undulating, or ropy surface. Pāhoehoe             As mentioned earlier in this chapter,
can turn into ʻaʻā if it becomes                  air quality on the west coast can be
turbulent due to meeting impediments              affected by vog (volcanic smog). The
or steep slopes.                                  combination of the volcanic emissions
                                                  with trade winds and other weather
                                                  conditions can create spikes in sulfur
Both ʻaʻā and pāhoehoe lava flows
                                                  dioxide to alert levels.
have little to no soil covering and are
virtually devoid of vegetation with the
exception of mosses, lichens, ferns,
                                                  Water Quality
and small ohia trees.
                                                  The stormwater runoff generated from
                                                  the airport rapidly percolates through
Air Quality
                                                  the cracks and crevasses of the lava
                                                  flow that lies beneath the airport and
The Environmental Protection Agency
                                                  surrounding area.      Water Quality
(EPA) has adopted air quality
                                                  Monitoring was included as part of the
standards that specify the maximum
                                                  November 2000 Environmental Ass-
permissible short-term and long-term
                                                  essment. According to the results of
concentrations    of    various   air
                                                  the monitoring, the sampled water fell
contaminants. The National Ambient
                                                  within an acceptable water quality
Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
                                                  parameter. There were no unexpected
consist of primary and secondary
                                                  features found within the water.
standards for six criteria pollutants
which include: Ozone (O3), Carbon
                                                  A new monitoring well is planned by
Monoxide (CO), Sulfur Dioxide (SOx),
                                                  the Palamaui development makai
Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), Particulate
                                                  (west) of Queen Ka`ahumanu High-
Matter (PM10), and Lead (Pb).
                                                  way near the ATCBI-5. This data will
                                                  be incorporated into the airport’s
Primary air quality standards are
                                                  monitoring    program    to   include
established at levels to protect the
                                                  potential effects migrating onto the
public health and welfare from any
                                                  airport property from this new offsite
known or anticipated adverse effects
of a pollutant. All areas of the country
are     required     to    demonstrate
                                                  The coastal nearshore waters have
attainment with NAAQS. According to
                                                  been identified by the Hawaii State
the EPA website, the entire State of
                                                  Department of Health as Class AA
Hawaii is in attainment for all federal
                                                  waters. Class AA waters are intended
criteria pollutants.
                                                  to remain in their natural pristine
                                                  state as nearly as possible with an
Hawaii has adopted air quality
                                                  absolute minimum of pollution or
standards which are more stringent
                                                  alteration of water quality from any
than federal standards. Table 1M
                                           1-44                           DRAFT FINAL
human caused source or actions.                      stringently regulated of open coastal
Class AA waters are the most                         water classifications.

 Ambient Air Quality Standards
         Air Pollutant                        Hawaii                         Federal
 Carbon Monoxide
    1-hour                                    9 (ppm)                        35 (ppm)
    8-hour                                   4.4 (ppm)                        9 (ppm)
 Nitrogen Dioxide
    1-hour                                        -                               -
    24-hour                                       -                               -
    Annual                                  0.04 (ppm)                      0.05 (ppm)
 Sulfur Dioxide
    3-hour                                   0.5 (ppm)                            -
    24-hour                                 0.14 (ppm)                      0.14 (ppm)
    Annual                                  0.03 (ppm)                      0.03 (ppm)
    1-hour                                        -                    0.12 (ppm [limited])
    8-hour                                  0.08 (ppm)                      0.08 (ppm)
                                                       3                               3
    24-hour                                  150 µg/m                        150 µg/m
    Annual                                    50 µg/m                        Revoked
    24-hour                                       -                           35 µg/m
    Annual                                        -                         15.0 µg/m
                                                      3                               3
    Quarterly Average                        1.5 µg/m                        1.5 µg/m
 Hydrogen Sulfide
    1-hour                                    35 µg/m                             -
 Source: Environmental Protection Agency, Hawaii State Department of Health
 Abbreviations: ppm = parts per million; µg/m = micrograms per cubic meter

CULTURAL AND                                         (APE) to determine if any properties
SECTION 4(f) RESOURCES                               in or eligible for inclusion in the
                                                     National Register of Historic Places
Historical, Architectural,                           are present in the area.
and Cultural Resources
                                                     The coastal area, once a significant
Determination of a project’s impact to               settlement area for the native
historic and cultural resources is made              Hawaiians, exhibits medium to high
in compliance with the National                      archaeological site densities, generally
Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of                  within 100 meters of the shore.
1966, as amended for federal                         Typical sites that are found include
undertakings. The NHPA requires                      permanent house structures, subsi-
that an initial review be made of an                 dence sites, heiau, petroglyph clusters,
undertaking’s Area of Potential Effect               temporary shelters, and coastal trails.

                                              1-45                               DRAFT FINAL
The airport and its environs have been            historic site of national, state, or local
surveyed     numerous      times     for          significance. Exhibit 1Q depicts the
historical and cultural sites. In April           Sec-tion 4f properties located in the
of 2000, an archaeological survey was             vicini-ty of Kona International Airport
conducted to validate prior findings,             at Keahole.
identify potential new sites not
previously studied, and to collect                The Mamalahoa Trail runs from
information on traditional native                 Kailua/Kona north about seven miles
Hawaiian uses of the airport site. Six            to the 1801 lava flow near Keahole
previously recorded sites were re-                Point. The Mamalahoa Trail is a
evaluated and it was confirmed within             straight, curbed, cut and fill path that
the Archaeological Survey that these              was built by labor forces conscripted
sites are no longer significant. Three            by the is-land governors to transport
previously unidentified areas consist-            food and other goods to the
ing of near-circular one- and two-                neighboring ahupuaas and the harbor
course cobble and boulder alignments              of Kailua/Kona. The Trail was also a
were found.         These sites were              major route along the west side of the
described and photographed, and their             island.
locations were established for the
record. The sites were evaluated due              Numerous public recreation areas are
to the significant information regard-            located in the vicinity of the airport.
ing Hawaiian history and prehistory               Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historic
that they have yielded. Sufficient                Park is located approximately 3.5
information has been gathered and                 miles south of the airport and is
documented       from    these    sites.          managed by the National Park
According to the 2000 Archaeological              Service.     North of the airport
Survey, the sites are now considered              approximately two miles is the
“no longer significant.”                          Kekaha Kai State Park which is also
                                                  managed by the State of Hawaii
                                                  Department of Land and Natural
Department of Transportation                      Resources.
Act: Section 4(f)
                                                  Additionally, there are three sites
Section 4(f) properties include publicly          listed on the National Register of
owned land from a public park,                    Historic Places near the airport.
recreation area, or wildlife and                  These include Kalasa Permanent
waterfowl refuge of national, state, or           House,     Hulihee   Palace,   and
local significance; or any land from a            Makualkava Church.

                                           1-46                             DRAFT FINAL

                                  National Historic Register Site
                             Parks and Reserves
                                  National Historic Park
                                  State Park/Recreation Area                                         KEKAHA
                                  Forest Reserve (Not 4f)                                           KAI STATE
                                  Airport Property Line                                               PARK
                                  Mamalahoa Trail
                             Major Roads
                                                                             Mahaiula    KEKAHA
                                  Secondary Roads
                                                                                        KAI STATE


                                                    House Site
                                                                  C                                                                                                HONUAULA
                                                                             35                                                                                     FOREST


                                                                                               al a



                                                                      HISTORICAL PARK



                         0              1                     2

                                                                                                  OLD KONA
                                                                                                AIRPORT STATE
                                                                                               RECREATION AREA        Kailua
                                                          Miles                                                    Hulihee   !
                     0               1                     2             3              4                           Palace   ! Mokuaikaua
                                                                                                                             C Church           Kai
                                                                                                                                                        K   ona

                                                                                                              SECTION 4(f) PROPERTIES                             Exhibit 1Q
                                                                                                                                                                     Exhibit 1P

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