Solar_heat_info by shuifanglj


SUN-LITE® Solar Airheater Kit

                                         Mounts to your outside wall and heats a
                                         standard size room when the sun is out.

Kit Includes:
2' x 5' x 4" deep .060" mill finish aluminum collector box
2' x 5' .019" black flat aluminum absorber plate
2' x 5' x .060" Sun-Lite® HP collector glazing
1 roll of pressure sensitive glazing tape
Fan, thermostat and backdraft damper
Complete assembly instructions
You assemble the components or order your airheater factory assembled. The sides and back of the collector box should be
insulated and can be finished to match your house. Use your imagination!
Order Now! Sun-Lite® Solar Airheater Kit - $369.00 + $45.00 UPS shipping
4' x 8' Solar-Kal® Airheater - $999.00 - call for freight quote - 603-668-8186
The collector performance curve below was plotted from test data taken according to ASHRAE 93-77.
When fitted to the south facing wall, the collector can be expected to produce the equivalent of about one gallon
of fuel oil per heating season (about 40 kWh?), for each sq. ft. of collector area. (so a 10 square metre collector
would save about 100 gallons, or at $1.50 per litre, perhaps $600).


                                         Solarway 6000
                                            Solar Airheater
                 Save money on your energy bills while helping save the earth's energy supply.


      Costs $1,995 (includes panel, fan, box,
       filter, controls and insulated duct on back)
      Qualifies for 30% Federal Tax Credit
      Galvanized sheet metal frame
      Uses 2" thick non-metallic solar absorber
      4 feet x 8 feet in size
      Weighs approximately 110 pounds
      Has 4" size ducts and a blower to circulate
       heated air into your house
      Collector output is approximately 6000
       BTU/hour (1.76 kW) in bright sunlight

Solarway 6000 uses the sun's energy

The sun's energy is clean, abundant, widespread and renewable. As it shines throught the Solarway 6000 panel,
air from your home is heated. A built-in fan returns the air with a temperature increase of as much as 70

It is simple - every gallon of fuel saved is one less gallon you have to pay for. And, one less gallon taken from
the earth and burned to pollute the enviroment.

Plus solar energy has a wonderful potential benefit to our nation by diversifying our energy supply, reducing
dependence on imported fuels, and improving the quality of the air we breath.
Frequently asked questions:

Q. Where should a Solarway 6000 be installed on my home?
A. The best place is attached to your house facing south, where the sun will shine on it from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.,
the maximum solar harvesting hours. But it can be faced east or west with some limitations on heat harvesting.
Solar panels may also be roof mounted or mounted in a free standing frame out in the yard.

Q. How is a Solarway 6000 installed?
A. The Solarway 6000 comes with complete instructions. It is easily owner installed with ordinary tools, and
requires minimal maintenance.

Q. How soon will I get a return on my investment in fuel saving?
A. Seasonal savings are difficult to calculate since each installation can be different. A properly installed
Solarway 6000 will have a payback of about 7 years. Additionally, a Solarway 6000 can add to the resale value
of your home.

Q. How much of my house can I heat with the Solarway 6000?
A. In our demonstration house one Solarway 6000 supplies all the heat for a 12' x 15' room. If every
homeowner used just one, it would create a large savings of our earth's energy. An array of heaters can be
installed to provide more heat. However, we wouldn't recommend trying to heat more than 50% of your house
with solar heating.

Solar Powered Furnace
                   Vinyl-Pane 8 mil Window Material

Vinyl-Pane® 8 mil thick UV stabilized vinyl material provides crystal clear clarity and is rated to -20 degrees
F. It's heavy weight provides long service. Available in widths of: 36, 48, 60, and 72 inches. Sold in 75' long

      Crystal Clear           Reusable Saves Heat
      Easy To Install         Heavy Duty UV Stabilized

Vinyl-Pane 8 mil Window Material

#01901 - 36" wide x 75' long roll - $90.00
#01911 - 48" wide x 75' long roll - $120.00
#01921 - 60" wide x 75' long roll - $150.00
#01931 - 72" wide x 75' long roll - $180.00


Two piece plastic molding has adhesive to mount in place permanently. Heavy duty HCM has a wide staple
flange for tacks or staples for outdoor use, holds 8 mil. film. HCM is UV stabilized. Paintable.

#01940 - 54" long Flex-O-Channel - $2.99 each
Rules of Thumb for Building a Solar Heating Pane

Rules of Thumb

When designing your own solar air heater, these rules will help keep you on the path to success.

1) Don't let the size of the collector exceed 20 percent of the house's heated floor area, assuming the home is
reasonably well insulated and you aren't using a heat storage system.

2) Baffle layout should be such that no single "air run," the distance between an inlet and outlet, exceeds 32
feet. Larger collectors should be divided into zones with more than one inlet and outlet, although it could still
be powered by a single fan. Or outlets could have openings into various parts of the house or ductwork.

3) Fan-powered air flow should equal an "actual" two cfm per square foot of collector at sea level, and 3 cfm
per square foot at an altitude of 7000 feet, because of decreasing air density. A square foot is defined as 1 foot x
1 foot x 1 inch deep. For a collector that's 4'x5'x2" deep, the formula would be cfm=(4x5x2)x3 for an answer of
120 cfms.

4) The air gap is a function of the air flow (volume over time) and the air velocity (speed over time). The
optimal air flow is 800 feet per minute (fpm). Divide the calculated cfm by 800 fpm to get the area (in square
feet) of the air gap cross-section. In the example in step 3, 120 divided by 800 = 0.15 square feet. To convert to
square inches, multiply 0.15 x 144 for an answer of 21.6 square inches.
The gap (size of pathways) is then found simply by dividing the cross-section area by the width of the collector
air way in one direction of air flow. In our example in number 3, the total cross-section width is 48". As we
calculated in step 4, each pathway should have an air gap of about 21.6 square inches. Now start dividing. 48
divided by 3 = 16. 16" wide x 2" deep = 32 square inches. Nope, that's more than 21.6 square inches. So divide
48 by 4 and you get 12. 12" wide x 2" deep equals 24 square inches. Now we're getting closer.

To make 4 pathways, you'll need 3 dividers. Let's say those dividers are made from 1x boards which are 3/4"
wide. With three dividers, you would subtract 1.5" from the total 48" width for a total width of 46.5". Divide
46.5 by 4 and you get 11.62 inches. Multiply that by two and you get 23.25 square inches which is as close as
you are going to get to 21.6 square inches in this example. However you could adjust the depth of the panel to
1.75" to get an even closer air gap of 20.33. If you are custom-cutting your own glass, you can size the collector
to the exact measurement. If you are already working from a piece of glass you've found, then all you can do is
get as close as possible. Again, adjusting the depth of your panel is also one way to control your air gap. Keep
in mind that the narrower your depth, the sooner your panel will heat-up. I would not go deeper than 2.5".

5) The collector inlets and outlets should be of a size equal in area to the air way (between dividers) they serve.
For example, our airways in the above example ended up being 23.25 square inches. If you collect to a round
duct, you'll need to find a size that gives you the closest area to 23.25 square inches. The formula for
determining the area of a round duct, first measure across the duct to get the diameter and then divide by 2 to
get the radius. So if you have a 5" duct, the radius would be 2.5". Then plug the radius of 2.5 into this formula
to get the area: (radius x radius)x 3.14159 = area OR (2.5 x 2.5)x 3.14159 = 19.63 square inches. If you run the
same numbers for a 6" duct, you'll get an area of 28.27. So ideally, you need a 5.5" duct which would give you
an area of 23.75 which would almost exactly match the 23.35 square inches you need. But you won't be able to
find round ductwork that's 5.5", so you would be OK to either use the 5" or 6" ductwork. If you plan on ducting
the air into different areas of the home, I would lean towards the 6" size because your ducts will be longer.

6) Storage. A rule of thumb on storage sizing calls for 50 -- 60 pounds of rock per square foot of collector.
Working with Btus, the specific heat of rock is such that one cubic foot stores 20 Btus for every 1 Degree F. it
rises in temperature. In the case of a 40 Degree F. rise, a cubic foot would store 20 X 40 or 800 Btus. Let's say
also that the collector output is 150,000 Btus per day. In order to store that much heat (at a 40§F. design
temperature rise): 150,000 Btu/day/800 Btu/cubic feet of rock = about 187.5 cubic feet of rock needed, or about
18,750 pounds of the stuff. That's roughly seven cubic yards, one cubic yard weighing 2700 pounds. The
storage bin also should be proportioned for minimum surface area to minimize storage heat loss. It should be
stressed that incorporating storage into the collector system is no simple task, and because of space limitations
we've by no means included all the information needed to do the work. Only the skilled craftsman who has
some experience with forced-air heating systems should make the attempt. A good source of information on
these air collectors and storage systems is the Domestic Technology Institute. Their publications available
through Solstice Publications, Box 2043, Evergreen, 80439. Ask for publication g BP-044 "Solar Forced Air
Heating System Plans," which is a set of six 18 X 24-inch blueprints available $16. Another source of plans for
an air heating collector and rock storage system is the Ayer's Cliff Center for Solar Research, Box 344, Ayer's
Cliff, Quebec, Canada JOB 1 CO. Phone: 819-838-4871.

7) The ideal angle to tilt the panel for the low winter sun is 62 degrees. With that in mind, it may be better to
mount your solar heating panel on a wall than a roof with a low pitch (3/12 roof pitch for example).

8) Aluminum and copper conduct heat much better than regular metal. Whichever you choose, use the same
type throughout your panel to prevent corrosion (the reaction between two different metals).
Some of the above guidelines have been developed by the Small Farm Energy Project and others working to optimize air-heating collectors.
40/41 Rodale's New Shelter May/June 1980 and 72 Rodale's New Shelter May/June 1981
                                             Building an inexpensive solar heating panel
                                           by Mark Bower of "mobile home"

Long before the start of the cold season, Jack Sage (JES) from Montana and I listened to news reports of how heating costs this
coming winter would be sky high. Paying last winter's heat bill was tough enough, so knowing we'd have even higher heat bills this
winter was, to say the least, scary. We both agreed to do something about it.

So throughout the summer Jack and I explored various options of creating "cheap heat." The most sensible solution we found was to
heat the air in our home using a solar heating panel. Yep, we decided to let the sun help heat our home.

We spent countless hours reading and searching the internet for information on building a solar heating panel. Solar power was big in
the 70's and early 80's, so you'd think finding good information would be easy. Well, it wasn't. We found a lot of information, but some
of the it contained errors, some information was incomplete, and others required parts which were either hard to find, no longer
available or expensive. So we put our heads together, tried this, tried that, and finally came up with a workable solar heating panel that
doesn't cost a lot to build. To see our version of the solar heating panel, read on...

How it Works

When you think "solar", you may first think about those expensive panels designed to create electricity.
We are talking about a completely different solar panel. Our solar heating panel is designed to heat air,
not create electricity. Other designs include heating liquid.

To heat, air is drawn into the bottom of the panel. The air zigzags through the panel and comes out of the
top 10-50 degrees warmer on sunny days. Air moves through the panel either by convection or by a fan located at the top. Sounds like
a simple concept, but do one thing wrong and you'll get less than desirable results.

Rules of Thumb

As we share with you how we built our solar heating panel, we'll introduce you to various options and ideas. Soon you'll begin to
formulate how your solar panel may look or operate. For a solar heating panel to operate effectively, you must keep in mind the
following Rules of Thumb.

Two Types of Solar Heaters

Depending upon what works best in your case, you can build the solar heating panels in two ways -- to work inside your home or
outside your home. Heaters that work outside your home can be fastened to your roof or the south side of your home. Heaters that
work inside your home will hang in a south-facing window. Generally, outside heaters will create hotter temperatures and will be bigger
than the inside heaters. Outside heaters will have double-pained glass and insulated on all sides. Inside heaters may have single-
pained glass and no insulation except for some in the back. For the purposes of this article, we will show you how to build the outside
solar heating panel.

Start with the Glass

Glass (or Plexiglas) is the most expensive piece to our solar heating panel. So we look for good discarded windows to help cut costs.
Double-insulated glass is a must for outside solar heaters. For the solar panel shown in this article, we found an old double-pained
window that measured approximately 4'x5'. If you are building an inside solar heater, then use Plexiglas so you can build the unit to the
size of the window it'll be hung next too.
Build the Frame
Using 1x4' or 2x4's, build a frame that will fit the glass you found. Nail a piece of 1/2" plywood to the back
of the frame. Since this solar heating panel would become a permanent fixture on the side of my house, I
covered the frame with a metal that matched the trim on the house.

Add Insulation and the Absorption Plate
Line the back of the panel with 1.5" insulation board. The insulation board comes in 4'x8' sheets and is
easily found at most home improvement stores. Cut to fit using a utility knife. Simply set in place. No glue
or fasteners needed.

Aluminum flashing is used as the heat absorption plate. Aluminum flashing is inexpensive and readily
available. If you don't use aluminum, you want something that will conduct heat well, like copper
The best absorption plates are those with selective surfaces, such as surfaces plated with nickel, then
covered by black chrome. They conduct heat superbly with hardly no long-wave emissivity (reflection).
But they are also very expensive, so we aren't using them here.
The aluminum flashing is available in many width and lengths. For this project, I used flashing that was
30" wide and 10' long. Cut to fit, overlapping in the middle is OK. No need to glue or fasten.

Screw Window Frame to Panel (optional)
The window I found came with a removable frame. So at this time I decided to screw the frame to the
panel. If your window must be permanently screwed to the panel, wait and do that as the very last step.
Keeping everything sealed is important for an efficient working panel. Before I screwed the window frame
to the panel, my son put down a layer of weather-stripping.
Set the window frame on the weather-stripping and screw into place.

Add the Baffles
Add strips of insulation board to the sides of the panel. On this panel, I used 3/4" insulation board.

Add the interior frame boards and baffles. Everything is held in place using these boards. When the
glass is added, these boards must seal to the top of the glass. That will make them approximately 2" tall.
Double check all measurements.
Screw the interior frame boards directly to the side of the panel. Keep everything at the same height.
If you haven't determined the size of your pathways (area between the baffle boards), you need to do
that now. Read these Rules of Thumb for help. In our panel, we determined we needed pathways
with equal 20 square inches. Our pathways are approximately 10" wide by 2" high.
The baffle boards are screwed in place by first drilling several holes down through the baffles. Apply
weather-stripping to the bottom of the baffle boards. Then a 4" screw is driven down the baffles, through
the 1.5" of insulation board, then into the plywood at the bottom.

Cut Out the Air Openings
Next step is to cut in the air openings. Normally you would have one opening in the lower left and the
other in the upper right (or vice versa). But in our case, we had to put the openings on the same side so
they wouldn't interfere with some cabinets on the wall. The opening size should closely match the
pathway size. In our case, we used a 5" opening as it's area was about 20 square inches. Again, read
these Rules of Thumb for more information. I used a jigsaw to cut my openings.

Hang the Panel
Whether you hang your panel on the wall or on the roof, you must first do some preplanning. Figure out
where the wall studs or roof rafters are. Your panel will be fastened to these studs or rafters. Plus, your
panel needs to be lined up so the air intake and outlet doesn't hit a stud or rafter. In our example, we
mounted the panel flat to a south wall. If you wish that the panel be pointed slightly up towards the sun,
that needs to be taken into consideration now.
Once we figured out exactly where the panel would be located, we screwed a board to the house which
would help hold up and support the panel as we screwed it in place.
We then screwed the panel to the side of the house using 3.5" screwed with washers. Of course the
screws went into the stud of the wall.
Air Delivery System
With the panel now secured to your wall or roof, next step is to install the parts needed to deliver air to and from your solar heating

We chose to equip our heating panel with a fan. We used a computer fan and hooked it up to a 20 watt solar panel. Most heating
panels will work fine without a fan as the air will move by convection -- meaning cold air will enter the bottom and rise out of the top as
it is heated. The air may not move as quick, but it will come out much hotter. If you wish to move even more air, then use a squirrel
cage blower instead of a computer fan.

Pictured are most of the parts we used to hook-up our air delivery system. Since we determined that our
opening had to be 5", all the parts are made to fit a 5" diameter hole. A
couple things not pictured would be a trap door to prevent back-drafts
at night and a temperature fan control switch. If you intend to build a
solar heating panel, some of the parts are available here.

Pictured to the right is how the pieces would assemble together inside
the wall and panel.

The 4.5" computer fan would need to fit snuggly inside the wall plate (right) by removing the back flange (below). A rotary tool works
great for this project. Doublecheck which flange you are cutting so the airflow blows out. No fan is needed for the air inlet (same parts
less the fan).

Cut your 5" hole through the wall using a 5.25" hole saw bit in your drill. If
you don't have such a bit available, use a jig-saw or sawz-all to make the

Measure the distance from the panel to the wall. Add the ear'd connector to
the ductwork and slide through hole.

Seal around the duct with silicone and bend the ears over to secure in

From the inside, add wall plate for a finished look. Secure plate to
wall with screws.

Insert the fan into the wall plate and mount the whole assembly into wall
and fasten with screws. Next we added an electrical box next to the fan for
an on/off switch. Run the wires from the fan to the electrical box.

Mount the 20 watt solar panel so it faces south and receives full sun. Run
the wire through the wall of the house and into the electrical box.
Operating your fan with a solar panel makes your heating panel/collector
more efficient because the fan will slow or stop on cloudy days keeping
cold air from circulating into your home.

Finish wiring the switch and screw on the switch plate. Flip the
switch and the fan should run if its mostly sunny outside.

Another option would be to replace the switch with a temperature fan controller (below) so it
only comes on when the temperature in the panel is 80 degrees or hotter.

click here to order a temperature fan control switch

We molded a trap door out of a scrap piece of aluminum. The door is light and easily swings open when the fan is activated. W hen the
fan shuts off, the door closes preventing a backdraft which would reverse the air flow and cool air back into the home.

Once the air delivery parts are installed, you should have a very clean, professional look on the inside. Add a filter to the bottom air inlet
to stop any dust particles from entering the panel. When you no longer require solar heat, the air inlet at
the bottom should be sealed with a plug made of foam or insulation.

Black Paint and Air Mixers

With the air delivery system installed, next is to finish the panel and screw
on the glass. First paint the insides black. Use a special high-heat flat                                     black. Black absorbs heat
and does not reflect it back.
Once the paint dried, we made air mixers out of scrap pieces of aluminum. As the air flows through the panel, the ridges in the
aluminum cause some turbulence for mixing. We stapled the aluminum air mixers to the sides of the baffles and the interior frame.

Apply weatherstripping to the top of the baffles and interior frame pieces (see above photos). Use a weatherstripping that can resist UV
rays. Screw glass to the panel. In the case of our example, the glass simply set into the frame we earlier added. The glass should set
tightly to the weatherstripping on the baffles and interior frame pieces so no air can pass over the top of the baffles. Carefully screw
glass in place.

Obviously, this solar heating panel is designed to stay fastened to the home. During the months that heat isn't needed, cover the glass
and plug the air inlet and outlet.

Other Designs
A search of the internet will reveal other solar heating panel designs. Shown at the right is another
popular design.

The biggest difference between their design and ours is the location of the black absorption plate. Their
design uses a black corrugated aluminum absorption plate (difficult to find) and places it over the top of
the baffles. The air moves through the baffles underneath the absorption plate. In our tests we found that
when the absorption plate is placed over the baffles, it requires much more heat for the panel to work as
all the heat has to be drawn from the absorption plate. In our design we retrieve heat both from the
absorption plate and the heated air in front of the absorption plate.

One advantage to their design is that the air would not contact the glass and would rarely require cleaning. (German make – different models)

                The most advanced solar air heater available!

   HOTBOX MODEL 1000 - 3'x6'                                                          SOLAR AIR HEATER

 SAVE ENERGY & MONEY THIS                                                     WINTER WITH A SOLAR HEATER!
 Let the sun provide you with free heat for                                   your home, camper, garage, barn or office.
 Our solar heaters are the most advanced                                             solar heaters ever produced.

                     Costs pennies per day to operate. Fan uses only 34 watts.
              Each panel heats up to 1000 sq. ft. Can be connected for larger spaces.
               Multi-stage heating process. Fan automatically turns on at 110 deg. F.
                             No wood to cut or expensive gas to burn.
                                An environmentally friendly product.
                         No moving parts. Panel will last 20 years or more.
                       Galvanized construction, insulated, unbreakable glass.
                               10 year warrantee from manufacturer.
                                 Freedom from your gas supplier.
                          Easy to install-similar to woodstove installation.
                 Save up to 20% or more on home heating for the next 20 + years.

 INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS: One 3'x6' solar heater for each 1000 sq. ft. of space. You can connect solar
   heaters together for larger areas. Requires inlet and outlet hole cut in south facing wall or roof. Uses standard 8"
     diameter stove pipe available at your local hardware store. Fan and mounting brackets included with heater

               SPRING SALE ON NOW! CALL 1-800-893-1553 FOR PRICING!
Environmental Solar Systems
SunMate™ (Hot Air Solar Panel)
Wall Mount Package
                                        Made in the U.S.A.!

The SunMate™ Solar Panel is the ideal choice for homeowners that want an environmentally
friendly, low-cost air heating option. The SunMate™ pulls cool air from your home, channels it
through the absorber plate where it’s warmed by energy from the sun, then circulates it back into
your home. A built-in thermostat automatically turns on the fan when the absorber plate reaches
110° F and shuts the fan off when the plate reaches 90°F.

What sets the SunMate™ apart from other solar panels is the design. One-piece construction
produces a streamlined appearance that doesn’t detract from your home’s appearance. Heavy-
duty, stainless steel and aluminum components provide quality construction that assures long life
and virtually no maintenance.

The SunMate™ by Environmental Solar System is efficient and affordable. A single panel heats up
to 750 square feet. Double-sealed solar glass eliminates air infiltration and water leaks. Polyisocyanurate insulation
results in extremely low heat loss and an 8.5 Watt fan operates for just pennies per day. You can run the SunMate
completely without AC power by connecting the fan to a 20 Watt solar module!

The SunMate™ is installed vertically and mounted on the side of your home or building. The design accommodates 2”
x 4” or 2” x 6” construction. Parallel installation allows you to integrate multiple panels for larger heating areas.

Package Includes:

       1 SunMate solar air heater
       1 Wall Mount Kit


                                                                             High efficiency and reliability
                                                                             Easy to install: wide variety of simple
                                                                             Can be used for fresh air intake for tight
                                                                             Brushless 100 CFM, 12VDC - 8.5 Watt fan
                                                                             Automatic thermostat automatically turns
                                                                              the fan on and off
                                                                             10-Year Warranty on Solar Panel
                                                                             One Year Warranty on fan, thermostat and

    SunMate Installed on the Side of a                              The View from Inside the House.

                                                 (A white transformer with a white wire is available for an additional
                                                                                cost. )

Tested by National Solar Test Facility                      Specifications
Energy Output 5.56 KWh/day - 19,000 BTU (Ti-Ta) 9°F
                                                                   Weight: net 86 pounds
OG-100 SRCC Collector Certified Specifications
                                                                   Triple sealed low iron tempered solar glass
                                                                   Extruded aluminum one piece frame
                                                                   One piece aluminum corrugated absorber plate
Electrical Specifications                                          No Maintenance anodized exterior finish
                                                                   Energy Output 19,000 BTU/(Ti-Ta) 9º F
Step down transformer from 120 VAC, 60 Hz to 12 VDC,               Fan: Brushless 100CFM 12VDC - 8.5 watt
Direct 12 VDC, 8.5 watts (fan)                                     Control: Digital thermostat
                                                                   Temp: 110º F
                                                                   Mounting on south side wall or roof
                                                                   Made in USA
                                                                   Dimensions: 4” x 35” x 77”

SM-14 SunMate solar panel wall mounting kit

      SMOS-1 Bottom mounting bracket
      SMOS-2 Top mounting bracket
      SMOS-3 Top panel flashing
      SMOS-4 Fan with air duct and finger guard
      SMOS-5 Return air duct with finger guard and air filter
      SMOS-6 Interior solar panel thermostat
      SMOS-7 Interior wall thermostat
      SMOS-8 Old work electrical work box
      SMOS-9 120 Volt AC to 12 Volt DC 1 amp wall transformer
      SMOS-10 - 5’ long thermostat wire
      SMOS-11 Stainless steel screws and hardware
                                 Fiberglass Solar Glazing
Many of our solar energy products are made from Sun-Lite® HP fiberglass glazing, a one-of-a-kind, high
performance solar glazing material. Developed by Kalwall Corporation, Sun-Lite® HP is a lightweight, shatter-
resistant low-cost solar glazing material that can be easily handled, cut and installed. Thousands of do-it-
yourselfers, builders, solar manufacturers, fish farmers, solar aquatic waste water treatment facilities and others
throughout the world are successfully using Sun-Lite® HP in a variety of applications. Sun-Lite® HP is the
only non-glass glazing product of its kind engineered to resist the causes of severe molecular deterioration
damaging to other plastics commonly used in solar applications.


Our product is a high performance solar glazing that is ideal for direct
   gain applications, water storage walls, solar attics, trombe walls,
 hydronic collectors, air collectors, batch heaters, greenhouses, cold
    frames, sunspaces and much more. Our product is lightweight,
  shatterproof, has a solar transmission of 85-90%, superior impact
  strength, and is easily cut, handled and installed. Sun-Lite® is the
         perfect solar glazing material for the do-it-yourself builder. Roll sizes range from
                      2' - 5' width x 6' - 50' long. Thickness of .040" and .060".

Size                   Catalog     Number   Price
.040"                  3'          8'       Sunlite   HP        #01400    69.00
.040"                  3'          10'      Sunlite   HP        #01410    76.00
.040"                  3'          25'      Sunlite   HP        #01420   185.00
.040"                  3'          50'      Sunlite   HP        #01430   364.00
.040"                  4'          8'       Sunlite   HP        #01500    82.00
.040"                  4'          10'      Sunlite   HP        #01510    95.00
.040"                  4'          25'      Sunlite   HP        #01520   238.00
.040"                  4'          50'      Sunlite   HP        #01530   414.00
.040"                  49.5 inch            8'        Sunlite   HP          87
.040"                  49.5 inch            10'       Sunlite   HP       $100.0
.040"                  49.5 inch            25'       Sunlite   HP       $241.0
.040"                  49.5 inch            50'       Sunlite   HP       $436.0
.040"                  5'          8'       Sunlite   HP        #01720      90
.040"                  5'          10'      Sunlite   HP        #01730    112.0
.040"                  5'          25'      Sunlite   HP        #01700    270.0
.040"                  5'          50'      Sunlite   HP        #01710    508.0
.060"                  4'          8'       Sunlite   HP        #01800    100.0
.060"                  4'          10'      Sunlite   HP        #01810    120.0
.060"                  4'          25'      Sunlite   HP        #01820    252.0
.060"                  4'          50'      Sunlite   HP        #01830    508.0
.060"                       49     1/2"     8'        Sunlite   HP       $102.0
.060"                       49     1/2"     10'       Sunlite   HP       $122.0
.060"                       49     1/2"     25'       Sunlite   HP       $263.0
.060"                       49     1/2"     50'       Sunlite   HP{1}    $524.0
Sun Lizard Solar Heat Collector -
Solar Heat Collector

Twin skinned, insulated coated metal box covered by
Low iron toughened solar glass.
Box interior heats to over 100C degrees Celsius. Air circulates through the angled baffles picking up
this heat and the returning air is around 50 degrees Celsius. It is mounted on the roof using supplied
square tube or L bracket
Width: 1520mm
Depth: 1220mm
Height: 120mm
Weight: 60kg

Inlet & Outlet Adaptor

To connect your ducting to the Solar Heat Collector
Opening: 150mm diameter

          Product » Solar Air Heating Systme
       Place of Origin                       China                       Model Number         SFG

        Price Terms                         FOB, CIF                      Brand Name       Sunlight

       Payment Terms                        T/T, L/C                     Minimum Order       1 sets

       Supply Ability                   2,500sets/month                  Delivery Time       20 days

                the area for heating of each heater is nearly 15 M

                             SUN-LITE® THERMAL STORAGE TUBES

     Question: Is your greenhouse or sunspace too hot during the day and too cold at night?
               Answer: Add thermal mass with Sun-lite® Thermal Storage Tubes.
 Water contained in low cost, non-pressurized cylinders has proven to be the most practical and
 effective approach to the capture and storage of thermal energy for space and hot water heating.
With over 35,000 units in use worldwide, Sun-Lite® Solar Storage Tubes are the most efficient and
                         cost effective way to store solar thermal energy.

Proven, Low Cost Solution
      Low cost containers designed to be the most economical
       per gallon of storage;
      Containers transmit natural daylight;
      Wide selection of diameters and heights available to
       compliment any design;
      Corrosion free fiberglass construction;
      Faster usable B.T.U. gain in 60% less space and 80%
       less weight than with rock or masonry;
      Self supporting containers require only flat, level floor;
      Easy to install or remove; largest tubes weigh less than
       20 lbs. empty!

The Solar Storage Tubes can be used in residential,
commercial, industrial, and agricultural applications.
Designs based on the following concepts have been proven             Direct Gain Clerestory
to provide up to100% of space heating and hot water needs
depending upon climate and site conditions.
Direct Gain Water Wall

Installed adjacent to a solar window, the tubes absorb solar
energy, store the energy, and transmit natural daylight. The
tubes temper both the heat and light from the sun by
removing the wide temperature fluctuations common to
other direct gain systems, and by reducing glare from the
solar window to workable levels.

The tubes may be filled with dyed water to increase
absorption efficiency and to provide design versatility.            Direct Gain Vertical Wall
Controllable Passive

A direct gain design can be modified to separate the Solar
Storage Tubes from the adjacent heated space to provide
more control over heat gain. movable or fixed, opaque or
light transmitting partitions are employed, depending upon
design requirements. Heat built up in storage is extracted
by natural convection
and/or a low power fan

Wall application: Solar Storage Tubes are positioned
adjacent to a multi-layered solar window with high solar
transmision and good insulation such as our Sun-Lite
Glazing Panels. In very cold climates, movable insulation
should be considered, analyzing the trade offs between                            Direct Gain Sloped Wall
additional costs and B.T.U.'s saved.

The Solar Storage Tubes are normally filled with black dye in
this configuration and placed vertically. Air for heat extraction
flows either horizontally or vertically over the tubes. A wall
application provides natural shading in the summer to reduce

                                                                                 Controllable Passive Wall

 Diameter Height Volume Weight                                      Heat Capacity Floor Loading      Floor Loading
 (inches)     (feet)   (gallon) (full)       litres     kWh         20° Rise (BTU) Lbs. Per Lin. Ft. Lbs. Per. Sq. Ft.
 12           4        23.5      204         89.07     1.1427       3,900           204              260
 12           8        47        404         178.1     2.2854       7,800           404              514
 18           5        66        567         250.1      3.223       11,000          378              321
 18           10       132       1122        500.3      6.446       22,000          748              635
Solar Storage Tubes 12" X 4'_________ #11010_______ $103.00
12' X 8'_________ #11020 _______ $159.00
18" X 5'_________ #11030_______ $174.00
18" X 10'________ #01330_______ $229.00

Friction Fit Caps
12"______________ #11100_______ $ 19.00
18"______________ #11110_______ $ 24.00

Increase Solar Gain With Our Decorator Dyes $5.00
Midnight Black, Solar Bronze, or Indigo Blue

                             SolarSheat 1500G

                             Product description: The SolarSheat 1500G is a glazed recirculation solar air
                             collector designed for space heating applications. Air is drawn from inside the room
                             through the bottom of the collector and blown out through a duct in the top. The
                             unit is self-powered. No electrical hook-up required. This unit is priced under

                             Call for price

                             Phone: 506 773-7873

                             cel: 506 210-2161

                             Email Address:

                             Solar Air Heating>

                             The Naturally Warm air heating system

The mounted panel
The SolarMax 240 can be mounted on any wall surface. We have installed panels on brick,
wood siding and vinyl siding. Installation is simple and requires few hand tools. We would
suggest to the DIYer hat you have two sets of hands to work the panel into position because
of the bulk size of the panel.
                                       ClearDome Solar Forced Air Heaters

                               Warm Your Home, Office, boat or RV for Free!


Building Integrated Solar Forced Air (BISFA)
           Heating Panels for Sunlit Wall & Roof
                                                                                               Specially configured for
                                                                                                stand-alone or built-in
                                                                                               wall or roof installations

                                                                                               The most economical and
                                                                                               most practical way to
                                                                                               reduce your utility bills
                                                                                               by 50-75% is by using
                                                                                               free solar thermal energy
                                                                                               to warm the air inside of
                                                                                               your home or business.

                                                    It's also the most
                                                    practical way for your
                                                    family to personally
                                                    reduce global warming
and air pollution by reducing the amount of non-renewable fossil fuel
consumption like gas, coal or oil.

NEW DISTRIBUTOR/INSTALLER UPDATE: We have recently started a new distributor/installer network around the USA that can install our
BISFA heating panels on residential, commercial and larger buildings. In coming weeks, we'll add more detailed information to this web page.
For more details, or if your renewable energy related company is interested in selling and installing our BISFA heating panels, please send
your email to Dan Gibbs, Exec. VP at ClearDome Solar Thermal: To qualify as a distributor/installer, you must have
an established company with contractor/solar installer experience.

Are you aware that you'll spend more money heating your home or office each year than heating the
water or using electricity? It's true, check your annual bills.

(Of course this assumes you haven't already turned off your gas, electric, oil or coal heater in winter
like many of our customers because it's become too expensive to stay comfortable in your own

Generating hot air from the sun's energy is the most efficient, least costly way of transforming solar
energy to domestic energy uses. After designing five previous generations of high quality solar space
heating collectors, ClearDome Solar Thermal has finally perfected the art of making free hot air from

Each linear foot of our new Building Integrated Solar Forced Air (BISFA) Ultra Black heating panels
will produce over 100 peak watts of heat energy, or 300 BTU's at nearly 80% efficiency on a sunny
day. This means that our eight foot long, 16" wide panel like the one shown above on the garage
roof edge will produce well over 800 watts, or over 2500 BTU per hour of pure peak heat energy
from the sun.

                              $1 per BISFA watt vs $9 per PV watt
BISFA Ultra Black panels can generate hot air for about $1 per usable watt, based on the purchase price of
the panels. Once you've received payback of your solar air heating system in a few years or less your annual
solar heating savings will increase each year as conventional energy becomes more scarce, causing it to rise
more and more.

If you live in the states of Maine or Georgia you can take advantage of their solar energy
rebate programs that refunds over 1/3 of the purchase price as a tax rebate on installed
solar forced air heating panels (including our BISFA panels). These are the first states in
the USA that have enacted rebate programs for solar forced air panels and we're
encouraging more states to include hot air panels in their solar rebate programs since
heating air is 50-60% of most annual utility costs.

Browse the Internet and compare the price and efficiency of our 80% efficient hot air panels to
typical 13% efficient solar electric (PV) panels that cost an average of $9 per installed watt, and
you'll see why taxpayer funding and mounds of government red tape is needed to be able to afford a
$20,000 rooftop PV array that makes enough electricity to power a hair dryer.

Now you know why solar PV electric is impractical for heating your home. It's just too expensive.

            Click to order $795, 8' long BISFA heating panel

                   Order $595, 6' BISFA heating panel

                   Order $449, 4' BISFA heating panel

      Click to buy optional $195, 15 watt PV electric panel-

 Direct DC power for fan. Free shipping when shipped with your
                       BISFA panel order!

Each of our 8 foot long large BISFA heating panels will increase
room temperatures by 10-15 degrees F or more, on all sunny days in well-insulated 500 square foot
rooms with 8' ceilings. So to make a 1,000 square foot home feel much more comfortable, even on
partly cloudy days, you would normally only need two panels, or add another to boost the heat even
more--especially if you live in a less sunny or sub-zero location. The more air heating panels you
install, the faster heating and warmer your home will be, and will remain warm well into the night.
For smaller rooms or limited wall space, use our 4' or 6' panels. Each 4' panel adds ample warmth to
100-150 square foot room, and the 6' panel is perfect for 250-300 sqare foot rooms, both with 8'

We've just posted a short PowerPoint presentation about the BISFA panel with new photos and more
details that's 2.4 MB large, and easy for most computers to view. Once you've downloaded the first
page that starts with "focus", use your right and left arrows and page up and down, home and end,
to move through the program. When finished, use your back button to get back to your last web
page. Click here to see the BISFA PowerPoint.

And if the price of our panels seems too high for your present budget, here's a more affordable way
to help keep your home warm, using south facing sunlit windows. Have a look at our popular Solar
Heating Drapes and Thermal Barrier Fabric for less than $100.

All day solar warmth that's been absorbed by the furniture, walls, floor and ceiling, is radiated back
into the room long after the sun sets, helping you save lots on conventional heating costs. Our solar
forced air heating system is not designed to be connected to existing heating systems. When enough
panels are installed on south facing walls or roofs, you'll normally only need to add conventional heat
late at night and early in the morning, unless you experience consecutive overcast days. Cold outside
air and wind has very little effect on solar heating with our panels.

                  Durable weather and heat resistant panel construction
Our standard 4, 6 or 8 foot long panels are industrial grade and made of sturdy custom-formed 16 (about
1/16" thick) gauge aluminum with a tough, baked-on black powder coating. We suggest using a contractor,
solar installer, qualified handyman or HVAC installer to mount your panels. They cost between $449 and $795
per panel plus shipping/handling, depending on the length. Purchase two panels and we'll pay the extra
shipping cost. This is quite a savings over our previous panels, since our fourth
generation metal framed exterior 8' panels were a few hundred dollars more and
generated 25% less heat per square foot.

The clear front side glazing is unbreakable heat and UV resistant 1/8"
thick, non toxic clear polycarbonate plastic and our top-rated selective
surface Ultra Blackflex 95% absorption, .05 emissive solar heat absorber is
the same as our previous Low Profile UB panels seen on the right
(now replaced by the BISFA heating panels). And we've been able to
squeeze out a few more degrees of heat by further improving the current

They are lightweight, at only about 3.25 lbs per linear foot, only 2-1/4"
thick and 15-1/2" wide at the base, with a 1" lip on each top side, and can
be connected together to increase the heating temperatures. For most
heating situations, it's more efficient to have a single fan for each panel to
increase the air flow.

                                    Each panel comes with a standard 110 CFM, 12 volt DC fan
                                    housed inside a sturdy metal enclosure that attaches to the intake
                                    4" vent. It also includes a plug-in 12 volt power supply, and for off
                                    the grid use, you can also power the fan with our custom
                                    designed optional 12 volt, 15 watt PV electric panel for $195, left
                                    photo, that plugs directly into the fan for off the grid use. Using
                                    the PV panel ensures sunny daytime heating even during grid
                                    power outages. This fan is designed for close mounting use with
ducts less than three feet long. For longer ducts, and more air flow with the 8' or multiple connected
panels, we suggest considering a low noise bathroom fan, available at most home supply stores. An
internally mounted on/off thermostat turns the fan on automatically when the heat absorber reaches
about 100 degrees F, and off around 70 degrees F so cold air can't be blown in at night.

We welcome your questions. Just click here:
Incoming and outgoing 4" vents are normally mounted on opposite ends of the back side of the
panel, but air flow can also pass through the opposite ends of the sides of the panel with an optional
modification for some types of special roof installations, especially when a mixture of fresh outside
air is added to the air circulation.

                                                             Heat in summer, cool in winter
                                                          Cover south facing sunlit roofs seen in the top
                                                          photo, or walls (seen in photo on the left)
                                                          of your house or business with as many panels
                                                          needed to heat the entire interior space--even
                                                          in work spaces or animal enclosures.

                                                          In summer, you can even vent the panels
                                                          to the outdoors for solar cooling on the roof
                                                          suface area covered by the panels. This
                                                          happens because nearly all of the solar
                                                          heat that otherwise saturates roofs or walls
                                                          is absorbed inside the panels and carried
                                                          back to the sky by moving air from the low
                                                          powered fan away from the surface.

More and more people around the world are shivering on freezing cold winter days --
not outdoors, but inside their own home!


They can't afford the increasingly high cost of keeping their home warm because it's
getting so expensive.

Non-renewable fuel sources like gas, oil and coal are getting so expensive that living
comfort has taken a back seat to other necessities like health care and food. Sadly, the
cost for staying comfortable at home using conventional fuel will never go down. It will
continue to rise through the years as heating fuel becomes more scarce and too
expensive for the majority of the population.

ClearDome Solar Themal has found a simple way to maximize the sun's free energy to
reduce heating costs by at least 50-75%. Transforming sunshine into warm air is
presently one of the most efficient uses (75-80% efficient) of solar energy if you have the
right componants.

Expensive Solar electric panels are about 12-15% efficient, while solar water heating
panels average 40%. Neither are normally used for home heating because of the high
product and installation costs.

Our durable, proven heat collectors are called solar forced air heaters because cool air is
forced by a fan through a specially designed solar heating panel that absorbs heat energy
generated by the sun. The solar energy to heat conversion is instant and constant as long
as the sun shines--even on light cloudy days. That heat that exits the panel is what will
warm your home, office, RV, boat, camper, or animal enclosure.
The only expense for sending the solar heated air inside is the cost to power the 12 volt,
.6 amp fan. When using the included plug-in power supply, we estimate it will cost less
than 18 cents per month to run 6 hours a day. Add an optional 15 watt solar electric
panel, and the warm air will be free!

And if you send outside fresh air through the panels, the inside of your house will lose the
                       stale, toxin-filled smells so common during winter months.

                           Consider the many uses of solar hot air

                        - Here's customer Terry holding one of his pampered chickens
                        after he installed one of our older 2x8 Exterior air heating panels
                        on a well-constructed A-frame animal enclosure that houses
                        dozens of chickens. Chickens won't lay eggs when it gets too cold,
                        but by adding lots of free heat from the sun, Terry's probably got
                        the happiest, best winter producing chickens in the midwest!

                         - In early 2001, we started testing our metal framed Exterior solar
                         forced air heater on ski lift shacks in the high sierra mountains. As
                         a result of these successful tests, Mammoth Mountain and June
Mountain are now the first USA Ski resorts to use our solar forced air heating panels to
help keep their hardy workers warm. They have seven of our 2x4 Exterior hot air
collectors. The first two were installed at the top of Chair lift 3 and 14, at nearly 11,000
foot elevation.

-The Los Angeles, California lifeguard department received a 2x4 Exterior air heating
panel, and one of our first 2x4 water heating panels to install on one of their lifeguard
towers in Venice Beach for testing. They require guard service even in winter months
when the towers stay very cold, and since most of the towers have no grid power, solar
energy will make like more comfortable for them and the people they rescue.

- US Park Service Rangers ordered two of our Exterior heating panels that are now
installed on a liquid waste dehumidifyer installation near a 10,000 foot trail junction in Mt.
Ranier National Park, Washington. It's likely the first solar waste dehumidifying
installation in active service.

-The US Forest service is our first customer to use four of the Low Profile UltraBlack solar
forced air heaters (shown above) on remote off-grid changing/rest rooms high in the
Colorado Rocky Mountains in the Gunnison National Forest.

The left photo below shows one of our earlier air heating panels mounted on a remote ski
building in Mammoth Mountain, California. Cold air and wind have only minimal impact on
solar air heating.
        A wall mounted 2X4 Exterior heating panel warms the Tamarack ski rental building in Mammoth Mountain on the left,
          and three connected Low Profile heating panels are roof mounted in the right photo for a 60+ degree heat gain.
Our fifth generation Low Profile solar forced air heating panels, seen on the right, have
been replaced by the BISFA heating panels,, and were designed to be connected in a
series to increase incoming fresh air cold air temps by an average of 22-25 degrees F for
each additional panel.

                          The first US ski area installation of a solar forced air heating panel took place
                             at the top of 10,400 foot chair lift 14 on the remote lift operator building
                          at Mammoth Mtn. See more photos and details of the panel mounting below.
Our solar thermal air products are among the most efficient, least expensive type of
renewable energy home appliances available today. In fact, they are so efficient, we've
recorded five degree temperature increases in the shade or on overcast days!

That means that for the solar energy absorbed, far less energy is lost in the heat
conversion, so you'll spend far less money to enjoy the benefits of the sun.

Even solar water heating is less efficient (30-40%), more expensive and most systems are
more complicated than our solar air thermal panels. A typical home installation complete
with tanks, heating panels, piping and professional installation can cost the homeowner
$3,000-$5,000, plus upkeep.
So if you're fed up with the expensive fees of living "on the grid" and are considering
clean renewable energy for quick and cheap air heating, our high quality active solar
thermal air collectors are an excellent way to start enjoying the savings and satisfaction of
preserving the environment without the high initial startup costs. For absolutely free solar
heat, your can order our optional 15 watt Direct DC solar electric panels or use the
included 12 volt power supply to power the fan.

Our fourth generation exterior mount ClearDome Solar Forced Air Heaters were made to
survive nearly any type of weather and temperature extremes, just like the BISFA panels.
                                  (One survived a tornado in the South). Our newest
                                  panels are even more durable. Incoming
                                   We welcome your questions. Just click here to send an

                                    These are photos of our first 2x4 Exterior panel
                                    permanent installation at the top of chair 14 ski
                                    operator's building at Mammoth Mountain in the High
                                    Sierras. Mounted above it is a 21 watt Unisolar PV
                                    electric panel that powers the 12 volt used to circulate
                                    and warm solar heated air through the panel and back
into the upper room of the building where the lift operator works during daylight hours.
The building is uninsulated cinder block and the windows are only single pane, so it does
not provide optimum heating conditions in the extreme weather.

Since there is no electrical grid power to this building, the PV panel was necessary for fan
power. On/off operation of heating panel fan is automatic because of the internal heat
absorber thermostat. After the first snow falls, the existing propane wall heater is turned
on to provide early morning and backup heating for
cloudy days when the lifts re-open. On the first full
day of operation after 30+ degree F overnight
temperatures, our heating panel warmed the inside to
68 degrees. The previous day's unheated room
temperatures stayed in the low 50's (about the same
as the outdoor temperature) inside before our heating
panel was installed.

It is the first of seven of our solar forced air heaters
that were installed at Mammoth Mountain, nearby
Tamarack cross country ski area (upper photo) and June Mountain ski area. The cost
savings where the panels are mounted is substantial during the winter, since most
daytime solar air heating will offset expensive electric or gas heating. Even with the
extreme weather and high snow packs, Mammoth averages over 300 sunny days per
year, so it's ideal for solar energy usage.

Our 2' x 8' metal exterior forced air heating panel for larger 500+ square foot rooms is no
longer available (shown above) since being replaced by BISFA panels. As with all solar
products, the more panels you use, the more heat or power you will generate. Questions?
Email Deris for more current details about this or any of our other top quality solar
heating and cooling products.

We can suggest an excellent low noise, ceiling mount bathroom fan for permanent
panel installations. One example is this Panasonic low noise fan avaiable from many
home supply stores or online. Air is pulled from the room through the square vent
opening, and is pushed out the 4" vent on the top left. Other air flows can be used if
rated at 80-125 CFM. For inexpensive automatic on/off operation of the Indoor/outdoor
panel using house current, add an inexpensive appliance plug-in wall timer to start the
fan when the sun hits the panel, and stop the fan when the sun has left. Wall mounted
digital timer/thermostats can also be used to regulate on/off control.
Home heating bills can be slashed even when using house current to power the fan on
the 2X4 heater. It costs less than 25 cents per month to operate six hours every day!
Compare that to a standard 800-1000 watt space heater, which costs about $22-$50 per
month for the same usage. In numerous test comparisons, our 2' X 4' solar space
heaters out-performed the typical 1,000 watt electric/fan portable room heaters set on
low or medium.
Imagine spending less than one cent per day to keep your bedroom warm. Our 2x4
exterior panel or a single Low Profile panel can be indoors used to heat rooms about
150-250 square feet (8' ceilings), behind to a large sunlit window or sliding glass door,
on RV's, boats or campers, or outdoors for temporary use outside to warm your hands
or face.

Only a very small amount of heat is absorbed by the glass when positioned inside the
widow. Use other power sources such as PV's or car power for the 12 volt, .6 amp fan
for free solar heating.

By constantly solar heating a room during the day, little or no conventional heating will
be required for 3-5 hours after sunset, or on cold days, resulting in lower heating costs
with higher room temperatures. Well insulated spaces stay hotter and retain heat for a
longer period of time. Smaller spaces will heat faster and hotter than larger spaces.
None of our heaters will pollute the environment or your lungs. And they are carefully
constructed of the finest materials, designed to withstand daily use, indoors and

All of our solar air heaters are reasonably priced and can pay for themselves in one to
two years with today's inflated utility costs.

Our solar heat collectors should be installed by a capable handyman, contractor or
professional solar installer. We provide tips, suggestions and technical support, but
because every installation is different, detailed instructions to install in your home are
not included.
The OM Solar System — Collecting Solar Heat Under the Roof
The OM Solar system is a passive solar-based system that      OM Solar's Integrated Roofing System
primarily uses air heated by the sun as its heat-transfer     The system consists of the following five components.
medium. The system does not use circulating hot water to
heat living spaces as in more common water-based solar
heating systems. Being air-based, the system therefore
eliminates the risk of hot water leakage inherent in the
heat transfer portions of the water-based systems. The
roof system includes panels made of tempered glass and
metal that offer no other special features — their function
is simply to raise the temperature of the air passing under

The OM Solar system creates a narrow air passage
sandwiched between the unfinished surface of the roof
and the roof's finishing material. As it heats, external air
inducted through an air inlet rises up under the finished
roof into an external ridge duct. The accumulated hot air then passes through an air-handling unit.

Hot air temperatures obtained by this process will obviously vary depending on the particular climate and
weather conditions, but temperatures between 122 and 158Fº (50 and 70Cº) have been registered even in
cold regions.

Heat collection with the OM Solar system can include the heat provided by windows, depending on their
appropriateness to the local climate. Window-provided heat is taken into account in thermal calculations
prior to system installation.

In some areas of the world — the Middle East, for example — windows might be eliminated because of
the sunlight's intensity. But even in very hot and sunny locations, homes may need to be heated in the
cooler winter months. In such cases, roof heat collection can be carried out using the OM Solar system's
roof panels and some control measures.

Although the OM Solar system is safer than conventional hot water-based solar heating systems, the
system still contains some elements that could be harmful in the event of accidents or misuse. For
example, users are cautioned that 1) the system can include a hot water supply that could leak in the event
of an accident or misuse; 2) the closed-loop heat transfer subsystem for the hot water supply may use
glycol which is potentially harmful if accidentally ingested; and 3) the system is not intended to function
as a ventilator for homes containing harmful vapors such as smoke, paint fumes, and the like.

                   External Duct System
This method involves superimposing the OM Solar system's air-handling unit on the roof's surface. This
system may offer cost advantages in terms of installation and overall performance, depending on
structural conditions and the local homebuilding culture.

Numbering in these diagrams follows the direction of hot air flow.
1. Exterior air inlet
    Inducting external air under the eaves.
2. Heat-collecting air layer
    The solar-heated air rises slowly to the top of the roof.
3. Glassless heat-collecting surface
    The use of sheet metal increases the temperature of the hot air.
4. Glass-covered heat-collecting surface
    Air temperatures are likely to rise quickly when the air passes under the glass-covered surface.
5. External ridge duct
    All the air passing upward under the roof collects here and is then sent to the air-handling unit.
6. Air-handling unit
    Moves the hot air into the interior air ducts by means of a small fan.
7. Photovoltaic panels
    Supply power to the air-handling unit.
8. Interior duct
9. Distribution unit
    Distributes the hot air into the vertical ducts. Effective hot air flow into and throughout interior
    spaces is assured by the distribution unit.
    * Effective hot air flow into and throughout interior spaces is assured by the distribution unit.
10. Vertical ducts
    Distribute the hot air into the interior.
11. Floor registers
    Distribute the hot air from the underfloor crawlspace.
12. Direct heat gain
    Heat from sunlight entering through windows is stored in the concrete or stone floor

We have not yet released our
solar energy range.
Our solar systems will generate
1 to 3 kW of electricity, as well
as provide hot water for the
household, at less than the cost
of a PV (Photovoltaic) solution.
The systems are modular and
can be readily expanded to
20kWe for larger power and hot
water requirements.
We will have field trial units operating in 2008 and production will commence in early 2009.
For more information on our technology see How our Technology Works.

                       Home Heating Systems that Generates Electricity

                      Our revolutionary Rankine cycle micro-cogeneration technology is unique in its
                      suitability for the residential and small commercial user. It provides all of the
                      heating and hot water needs of a home whilst also generating electricity for use
                      in the home. Surplus electricity can be sold into the grid. Micro cogeneration
                      systems, also known as micro CHP (Combined Heat and Power) systems, are
                      thus uniquely able to provide home heating whilst earning an income. Our
                      technology is simple and affordable and has been designed with the comfort of
                      the end user in mind - it runs very quietly and requires almost no
maintenance. Installation in the home is as easy as replacing the conventional boiler used in
hydronic heating systems.
This technology also reduces greenhouse gas emissions and saves energy. Widespread
implementation of micro-cogeneration is arguably the most significant change that can be made in
the short to medium term, to minimse climate change - refer to our micro-cogeneration discussion for
the reasons.
Our production release is still a couple of years away, however, our development time and system
reliability is aided by the simplicity of our technology. No exotic materials or working fluids or Swiss
watch manufacturing tolerances are involved. We are still seeking strategic partners to assist us in
getting our product into the marketplace as soon as possible.

Sales and Specifications
Unfortunately we are not yet taking orders. We envisage that market release of our products will be
in 2010.
We will have two sizes: a 2.5kWe unit for domestic applications; and a 10kWe unit for large
residential and small commercial use.
The preliminary specifications are as follows:
                         DOMESTIC                SMALL COMMERCIAL
            Electrical Output       240V 50Hz, 110V 60Hz 240V 50Hz, 110V 60Hz
            Electrical Power, kWe   2.5                      10
            Heating Power, kW       11 (22 boost mode)       44
            Overall Efficiency      90%                      90%
            Weight, kg              60                       175
            Dimensions, mm          870h x 600w x 400d       960h x 800w x 600d

Note: Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Please Download a Cogen Technology Brochure (.pdf) on our domestic applications.
Pricing of these systems has not been released but our systems will be significantly cheaper than
competing options.

Our Competitive Advantage
Unlike most competing technologies, we have designed specifically with the typical cogeneration
application in mind. Compared to Stirling cycle engines, our system is light and compact for ease of
home installation. And unlike internal combustion engines, it is inherently quiet, has low exhaust
emissions and requires almost no maintenance. In contrast to fuel cells, the technology is simple and
affordable and ready for volume manufacture using conventional processes.
We understand that home heating boiler replacement is often a distress purchase. It is thus critical
that our system can slot straight in where the boiler came out. And even more importantly, it must
cost not much more than a conventional boiler - otherwise the payback time will be unattractive. Our
system meets these critical requirements with its simplicity. Our innovative approach to Rankine
cycle engine design eliminates many moving parts and replaces them with electronic control and
actuation. Our system uses water as the working fluid, basically making it a small steam engine,
eliminating issues with exotic working fluids that require hermetic sealing and periodic replacement.
High efficiency ensures that it generates enough electricity to pay for itself rapidly. Our domestic unit
will produce 2.5kW of electricity whilst producing 11kW of heat, operating at an overall efficiency of
over 90% (based on higher heating value). Even more importantly, unlike almost all other competing
technologies, our system operates at high efficiency at part load. This is important, as heating
systems are generally sized for the coldest day, so operate at part load most of the time.
Our technology is protected by a comprehensive intellectual property protection strategy. This
includes patents that cover core aspects of the heat engine technology and the control system that
allows us to connect directly to the grid without the need for a costly inverter.
We also have one of the best technology development teams in the business. Our technical team
has a proven track record at developing and commercializing technology. The team has been
responsible for many successful products developed by our sister company Applidyne, a consulting
engineering company, for its commercial clients.
             Roll-A-Cover™ Retractable Enclosures

                     To request a brochure email us at:

                   Or visit our display showroom at 121 Valley Street, Manchester, NH

                                     Selective Solar Coating


SOLKOTE HI/SORB-II is an optical coating specifically formulated for solar thermal applications. Its
successful worldwide use since 1982 is based upon the following unique features:

         Low cost (50 – 75% cheaper than black chrome)
         Easy spray application (requiring very low capital investment)
         Excellent high temperature tolerance (to 1000°F [537°C])
         Excellent resistance to UV and moisture degradation
         Excellent long term durability (does not lose absorptivity over time)
         Excellent optical characteristics
         No out-gassing when correctly cured
         May be used in low to high temperature glazed applications including concentrating collectors
         Shipped premixed, ready to apply
         Excellent shelf life (one year from date of mfg.)
         Excellent coating for passive applications such as trombe walls
         Not recommended for exterior or unglazed applications


Binder:                                                        100% silicone polymer

Solvent:                                                       Xylene

Temperature Range:                                             - 100°F - +1000°F (530°C) (installed)

Storage Temperature:                                           - 50°F - 80°F (-45 - 27°C)

Viscosity:                                                     25 seconds #1 Zahn’s cup

                                                               400 – 900 square feet (40 – 90 square meters)/gallon
Coverage Rate:
                                                               depending on application equipment

Mixing:                                                        Shipped pre mixed, ready for use

Clean Up:                                                      Xylene, Toluene

   SOLKOTE is both thickness and substrate dependent. Ideal optical qualities for solar thermal applications
are best achieved by applying a thin coat on low emissivity substrates such as aluminum, copper or stainless
steel. Emissivity can range from .28 - .49, and absorptivity from .88 - .94, depending on the substrate and
thickness of the dried film. Passive applications on cementitious substrates will yield high absorptivities but
only moderate selectivity. Thicker applications on metallic substrates will yield high absorptivities and
excellent radiation properties for radiant heating applications.


SOLKOTE HI/SORB-II on Stainless Steel
AISI 304 Stainless Steel was dip-coated in SOLKOTE HI/SORB-II. After each coat, solar and infrared
hemispherical reflectances were measured to calculate solar absorptance: , and thermal emittance:  (400ºC).

                                    2 layers   3 layers       4 layers     5 layers   6 layers
                 Thickness (nm)        ----      800            900           ----       ----
                                 0.23274044 0.23986406     0.22446309    0.252773 0.27234121
                                 0.8703696 0.8971231       0.91374536   0.91630217 0.92443275

                                                                                      *Testing and results produced by:

                                                                                   Dr. Angel Morales & Eduardo Zarza

                                                                         CIEMAT - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, SPAIN



  Surface preparation on metallic substrates is extremely important. Not only does a clean substrate enhance
adhesion, it also lowers emissivity and improves overall optical properties. SOLKOTE exhibits excellent
adhesion on many substrates with little or no surface preparation, however, the following procedures are
suggested to insure the excellent optical properties and long term durability available from this product.

   Degrease metallic substrates using Xylene, Toluene, Acetone or other suitable solvents. This is generally
considered minimum surface preparation. Copper, aluminum and stainless steel may be lightly acid etched to
remove surface oxides and lower emissivity. Aluminum may also be conversion coated to lessen future
oxidation. Mild steel and galvanized surfaces should not be acid cleaned but may require priming. Use of
primers will increase emissivity and may also raise absorptivity.

  Any surface preparation questions not covered above may be referred to us by email for response from our
Technical Services Department.


   Masonry substrates for passive applications should be air cured for at least one month prior to application of
SOLKOTE. Surface should be free of all paint, loose grout and dust. SOLKOTE has a natural affinity for
most masonry and ceramic surfaces, but is extremely thin. Suitable primers or fillers may be used to extend
coverage. SOLKOTE will yield a highly absorptive and long lived surface on cementitious substrates, but
selectivity will be limited.


  SOLKOTE has been formulated specifically for air atomization spray application. Simple spray guns
normally used in automotive body repair facilities have proven to be quite adequate for application.
Electrostatic and HVLP equipment is also excellent but substantially more expensive. Gun pressures should be
kept fairly low to lessen overspray and allow good thickness control. Remote pressure supply pots should have
air driven agitators and the coating should be mixed as often as is practical during application. A wet film
thickness of .8 – 1.0 mils (.02 - .025mm) is ideal and may be easily measured using a wet film thickness gauge
during application. The coating should just cover the substrate and when dry, it may be possible to barely see
the substrate through the dry film.Airless application equipment is not recommended and substrate temperatures
should not exceed 90°F (32°C) during application. Good ventilation and operator protection is imperative.

  Any application questions not covered above may be referred to us by email for response from our Technical
Services Department.


    Curing is highly dependent upon substrate type and ambient temperature. Skin forms within 2-5 minutes;
coated absorber may normally be handled after 1-3 hours drying at room temperature. SOLKOTE will
naturally cure, to a point where no outgassing will occur, within 3 days at room temperature of 60°F (16°C) or
above. Curing may be easily accelerated by baking the coated absorber panel at temperatures ranging from
225°F (107°C) to 450°F (232°C) for a period of 15 minutes to one hour. Copper should not be cured at
temperatures above 400°F (204°C) as it will oxidize and cause a decrease in coating adhesion. However, other
metals, such as aluminum and stainless steel may be cured at temperatures up to 450°F (232°C). Coated
absorber plates may also be placed in bright sunlight to accelerate curing. Experimentation will determine the
best curing procedures for your particular environment.


SOLKOTE: Available in 1 Gallon and 5 Gallon steel pails

 Weights and Volumes:

            1 Gallons (3.785 Liters) - 8.2 lbs (3.73 Kg)

            5 Gallons (18.925 Liters) - 42.5 lbs (19.32 Kg)

*Flammable Liquid n.o.s., Class 3, UN1993, Packing Group III

*All packaging is certified for air freight and available for export. All freight charges FOB Ewing, NJ.
Packaging charges are extra and not included in our pricing schedule. MSDS information available upon
request. Contact factory for pricing via email, fax or phone.
 The secret to the Free Heats outstanding performance is Solaharts revolutionary multi-flow collector panel and
our superior Black Chrome Selective Surface.

 Current Research > Solar thermal energy

     > Sputtered Solar Absorbing Coatings

     1. Solar selective absorbing coatings

     All bodies emit thermal radiation. An ideal solar selective surface absorbs most of incident solar radiation
     while simultaneously suppressing emittance itself. Commonly quoted parameters of performance are solar
     absorptance and thermal emittance. Most solar selective coatings use metal-dielectric composites, known
     as cermets, as the absorber of solar energy. Electroplated black chromium is most popular solar selective
     absorber. Nicked-pigmented anodic Al2O3 solar absorber is another popular solar selective absorber. The
     costs of the production of these two kinds of solar coatings are low, so they are widely used in flat plate solar
     collectors for solar hot water application. However the emittance of both coatings is high, around 0.1 - 0.2 at

     2. Graded SS-C cermet solar coatings

     Magnetron sputtering technology has also been used for the deposition of solar selective absorbing coatings
     with improved solar performance, in particular, lower emittance and less environmental pollution than
     electrochemical methods. The School of Physics within the University of Sydney have achieved several
     innovations of solar selective coatings in the last two decades. Selective surfaces, incorporating DC
     reactively sputtered stainless steel-carbon (SS-C), were intensively studied in this school during 1970s to
     1980s. The all-glass evacuated solar collector tubes, incorporating DC reactively sputtered graded SS-C
     cermet selective coatings, have been mass-produced in Japan. A solar absorptance of 0.88-0.92 and
     emittance of 0.05 - 0.07 at 80°C have been archived for mass-produced SS-C cermet solar collector tubes.

     3. Graded Al-N cermet solar coatings

     Reactive sputtered Al-N cermet solar coating was initiated in this school in 1980s. The all-glass evacuated
     solar collector tubes, incorporating DC reactively sputtered graded Al-N cermet selective coatings, have
     been mass-produced in China in large capacities, more than 10 million tubes a year in 1999. A solar
     absorptance of 0.88-0.92 and emittance of 0.06 - 0.10 at 80°C have been archived for mass-produced SS-C
     cermet solar collector tubes.
     Cylindrical DC magnetron sputter coater has been used to manufacture economically the SS-C and Al-N
     cermet solar collector tubes.

     4. Graded Mo-Al2O3 cermet solar coatings

     Graded Mo-Al2O3 cermet solar collector tubes that were manufactured by Luz Co. Israel, were used for
     solar thermal power plants constructed in Southern California during 1984 -1990. Nine plants with a total net
     electricity capacity of 354 MW are under operation to feed electricity in the grid of the regional utility. Mo-
     Al2O3 cermet solar coatings were deposited by using conventional magnetron sputtering technology. The
     Mo metal component in the cermet is deposited using DC sputtering and the ceramic component is
     deposited by RF sputtering. A solar absorptance of 0.96 and emittance of 0.16 at 350°C were archived.

     5. Double cermet layer solar coatings - Achieving the highest solar performance

     Recently we have made two very significant innovations related to solar selective coatings, double cermet
     layer structure for achieving the highest solar performance and metal-aluminium nitride (M-AlN) solar
     selective coatings deposited by a novel two-target DC magnetron sputtering technology for reducing the
     costs of high-temperature solar coatings.
     Through fundamental analysis and computer modelling, we have developed a double cermet film structure
     for solar selective surfaces and achieved theoretically and experimentally better solar performance than
     surfaces using a homogeneous cermet layer or the conventional graded film structure. In the double cermet
     layer solar coatings, solar radiation is effectively absorbed internally and by phase interference. This
     innovation has been patented in Australia, USA and other several countries. A typical double cermet film
     structure, as schematically shown in Fig. 1, from substrate to surface consists of:

         1. a metal infrared reflecting layer;
         2. an absorbing layer composed of two homogeneous cermet sub-layers, the layer near the metal
       infrared layer has a high metal volume fraction (HMVF) and the layer near the anti-reflection layer
       has low metal volume fraction (LMVF); and
    3. an anti-reflection layer composed of a transparent dielectric material.

Fig.1. Schematic diagram of a solar selective absorber with double cermet layers, a low metal volume
fraction (LMVF) cermet layer on a high metal volume fraction (HMVF) layer on a metal infrared reflector with
a ceramic anti-reflection layer.

We have developed a computer modelling for design of solar selective coatings. As an example, a predicted
normal reflectance spectrum of a Mo-Al2O3 cermet selective surface is shows in Fig. 2. The reflectance
spectrum corresponds to a solar absorptance of 0.965 and normal emittance of 0.031 at 20°C. A near
normal reflectance spectrum of a deposited film (dot points) is also shown in Fig. 2. This reflectance
spectrum corresponds to a solar absorptance of 0.96, and near normal emittance of 0.03 at room
temperature. Both calculated and deposited films have the same film structure, Al2O3/Mo-Al2O3(LMVF)/Mo-

Fig.2. Two normal reflectance spectra for a calculated (solid line) and a deposited (o o o points) Mo-Al2O3
cermet solar coating. Both films have the same film structure: Al2O3/Mo-Al2O3(LMVF)/Mo-

6. M-AlN cermet solar coatings by a novel two-target DC sputtering - Reducing the costs of high-
temperature solar coatings

We have invented a series of new cermet materials for solar selective coatings deposited by a novel two-
target DC magnetron sputtering technology. The ceramic and metallic components in the cermet are
simultaneously deposited by DC sputtering, running two metallic targets. Ceramic component is deposited
by DC reactive sputtering and metallic component by DC non-reactive sputtering. A patent application
describing these new solar selective coatings has been lodged.

A series of metal-aluminium nitride (M-AlN) cermet solar coatings have been deposited using a planar
magnetron sputter apparatus at the laboratory. An Al metal target is used to deposit AlN ceramic component
in the cermet by DC reactive sputtering in a gas mixture of argon and nitrogen. Other metallic targets,
including SS, W, Ni80Cr20 and Mo based alloy TZM, which have good nitriding resistance, are used to
deposit the metallic component in the cermet by DC non-reactive sputtering in the same gas mixture. The
solar absorptance of 0.94 - 0.96, and normal emittance of 0.03 - 0.05 at room temperature has been
achieved for the deposited M-AlN cermet selective coatings with the double cermet layer structure.

7. Mass-produced double Al-N cermet layer solar collector tubes
We have made very successful commercial development of above two new innovations in collaboration with
Peking University and Himin Solar Energy Company, China.

Figure 3 (a photograph) shows two cylindrical DC magnetron sputter coaters, installed at a production line in
China, for depositing Al-N cermet solar coatings onto batches of tubes. A cross-section schematic of the
vacuum chamber is shown in Fig. 4.

Fig.3. Photograph of two commercial-scale cylindrical DC magnetron sputter coaters, installed in a
production line, for depositing Al-N cermet solar coatings onto batches of tubes. The vacuum chamber, 1.9
m high, is on the left. The front door of the chamber is for manual loading of tubes. A DC power supply unit
(40A/600V) for sputtering is shown on the right. The control cabinet is in the middle between the chamber
and the DC power unit.

Fig. 4. A cross-sectional schematic view of a cylindrical DC magnetron sputter coater for depositing Al-N
cermet selective surfaces onto batches of tubes. A cylindrical aluminium target is set at the centre of the
chamber. Thirty-two glass tubes of outside diameter 37 mm and length 1.5 m may be accommodated in the
vacuum chamber.

Borosilicate glass tubes are used in mass-production. During sputter coating the glass tubes are given
planetary rotation to ensure coating uniformity. Al-N cermet solar selective coatings with double cermet layer
film structure, AlN/Al-N(LMVF)/Al-N(HMVF)/Al/Al-N(adhesion) are deposited onto batches of tubes using the
sputter coater. A solar absorptance of 0.95 - 0.96 and a thermal emittance of 0.06 - 0.09 at room
temperature have been achieved.

8. Mass-produced double SS-AlN cermet layer solar collector tubes

Commercial-scale cylindrical DC magnetron sputter coater has been developed for deposition of SS-AlN
solar selective coatings onto batches of tubes, one installed at Peking University, another installed at the
University of Sydney. A cross-section schematic of the vacuum chamber is shown in Fig. 5. A solar
absorptance of 0.95 - 0.96, and emittance of 0.05 - 0.08 at 80°C has been achieved for the SS-AlN cermet
selective surface coatings with the Al or Cu metal infrared reflector layer. The absorptance variation along
the length of tubes is less than 1%. Figure 6 shows the reflectance spectrum of a deposited solar selective
surface with double SS-AlN cermet layers. This film has the solar absorptance of 0.95 and emittance of 0.05
at 20°C. These SS-AlN cermet solar collector tubes are stable at 300 - 350°C.

Fig.5. A cross-sectional schematic view of a cylindrical DC magnetron sputter coater for depositing M-AlN
cermet selective surfaces onto batches of tubes. Three cylindrical cathodes consist of Al, SS and Cu tubes,
are separated by a screen to prevent cross contamination. Thirty-two glass tubes of outside diameter 37 mm
and length 1.5 m may be accommodated in the vacuum chamber. Two DC power units (50A/600V each) are
for depositing SS-AlN cermet layer.

Fig.6. The reflectance spectrum of SS-AlN cermet solar selective coating deposited using a commercial-
scale DC sputter coater. The corresponding film has a double cermet film structure AlN/SS-AlN(LMVF)/SS-
AlN(HMVF)/Al and a solar absorptance of 0.95 and normal emittance of 0.05 at 20°C.

Himin Solar Energy Company, China has mass-produced advanced Al-N and SS-AlN cermet solar collector
tubes under a licence agreement with the University of Sydney. Currently Himin Solar Energy Company has
manufactured three different series of advanced solar collector tubes, TS-AA, TS-SA and TS-SC. Enquiries
for more information about solar collector tubes should be directed to

Himin Solar Energy Company, China
Website: (functions best using Internet Explorer)

9. Double W-AlN and Mo-AlN cermet layer solar collector tubes

Using above commercial-scale coater, it would be possible to produce high-temperature W-AlN and Mo-AlN
cermet solar collector tubes. The procedure for deposition of the W-AlN and Mo-AlN cermet solar coatings is
similar to that for SS-AlN cermet coatings. In order to improve further the thermal stability of the solar
coatings at high temperature, It is also possible to deposit a metallic W or Mo layer as the infrared reflector.
The W-AlN and Mo-AlN cermet solar coatings are being commercially developed.

The costs of the M-AlN cermet solar coatings are expected to be slightly higher than the Al-N cermet solar
coatings. These M-AlN cermet solar collector tubes have the potential for widespread applications, in
particular, for solar thermal electricity. The availability of these low-cost high-temperature M-AlN cermet
solar collector tubes will open up the possibility for the design of a high-temperature solar collector system
for solar thermal electricity generation at low cost than previously contemplated. Recently a Compact Linear
Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) configuration has been proposed for solar thermal power plant. Flat mirror strips
direct solar radiation to both sides of a rack of vertically oriented evacuated tubes.

[1] Very Low Emittance Solar Selective Surfaces Using New Film Structure. Q.-C Zhang and D. R. Mills, J.
Appl. Phys. 72, 3013-3021(1992).
[2] High Efficiency Mo-Al2O3 Cermet Selective Surfaces for High-temperature Application. Q.-C Zhang, Y.
Yin and D. R. Mills, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 40, 43- 53(1996).
[3] Direct Current Magnetron Sputtered W-AlN Cermet Selective Surfaces. Q.-C. Zhang, J. Vac. Sci.
Technol. A vol.15, pp.2842-2846(1997).
[4] Metal-AlN Cermet Selective Surfaces Deposited by Direct Current Magnetron Sputtering Technology. Q.-
C. Zhang, J. Physics D: Appl. Phys. 31, 355-362(1988).
[5] A Cylindrical Magnetron Sputtering System for Depositing Metal-AlN Cermet Solar Coatings onto
Batches of Tubes. Q.-C. Zhang, K. Zhao, B.-C. Zhang, L.-F. Wang, Z.-L. Shen, Z.-J. Zhou, D.-Q. Lu, D.-L
Xie and B.-F. Li, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A16, 628-632 (1998).
[6] High Performance Al-N Cermet Solar Coatings Deposited by a Cylindrical DC Magnetron
Sputter Coater. Q.-C. Zhang, K. Zhao, B.-C. Zhang, L.-F. Wang, Z.-L. Shen, Z.-J. Zhou, D.-Q. Lu, D.-L Xie
and B.-F. Li, Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 2885-2890 (1999).


Enquiries for more information should be directed to:

Dr. Qi-Chu Zhang
School of Physics, A28
The University of Sydney
NSW 2006, Australia
Phone: +61-2-9351 318


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