The 1960's

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					                   The 1960’s

Leadership of the 1960’s
Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon
The Election of 1960
    • Kennedy-problems of age,
      father, religion
    • runs a skillful campaign-”New
    • The debates against Nixon-race
      closest since 1884-1st debate is
      key-image-strong tanned and
      wore a blue suit-<Nixon sick,
      just out of hospital, gray suit,
Election of 1960
•   another issue-Martin Luther King
    arrested with 52 others for sitting at
    a lunch counter reserved for whites
    in Atlanta-all were released except
    for King-sentenced to 4 months of
    hard labor
•   Nixon-no opinion when asked-
    privately-called Justice Dept. to
    check Civil Rights
•   Kennedy-phoned King’s wife,
    Robert Kennedy called a Georgia
    judge and got King released
•   Kennedy wins by fewer than
    113,000 votes-that’s a change of 1
    vote in half of all the precincts in
• From 1933-1959-run by a
  dictator named <Fulgencio
• 1956-Fidel Castro led guerillas
  begin revolt
• 1959-overthrows Battista-US
  recognizes Castro
• the deterioration of relations
  between Castro and US:
• 1. He holds mass public trials,
  executions-US denounces Cuba
  in the UN-accepts 1000s of
  refugees to Florida
• 2. <Castro seizes business
  properties-US cuts off imports
  of sugar-Castro accepts Soviet
• 3. January 1961-US breaks
  relations with Cuba

• plan: Cuban refugees would be
  trained by the CIA for an
  invasion. This action would set
  off a general uprising
• Eisenhower approves, Kennedy
  gives reluctant consent
Cuba and the Bay of Pigs
        •   April 17, 1961-1400 Cuban exiles
            landed at the Bay of Pigs
        •   only 135 were trained soldiers-rest
            were overage lawyers and
        •   Air strike failed to knock out
            Cuban air force
        •   no ammo or supply ships are
            available to invading force
        •   distraction landing never went
        •   Kennedy backs off invasion by US
        •   <Castro declares Cuba Communist
            and a member of the Warsaw Pact
Cuban Missile Crisis
    •   Summer of 1962-CIA reports that
        the Soviets are up to something in
    •   October 16-U-2 find 65 sites-
        offensive medium range ballistic
        missiles-reach Washington in less
        than 3 minutes
    •   Kennedy reaction:
    •   1. Naval blockade (quarantine) the
    •   2. Missile attack by Cuba on any
        other nation is an attack on US-
        Monroe Doctrine
    •   Film and tape of crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
    • 3. Soviets dismantle or
      American planes would
      bomb them
    • Soviets back down-US
      would not invade Cuba
         Berlin Crisis
•   Summer of 1961-Nikita Kruschev discusses
    situation in Berlin
•   15 years Soviets are unhappy with allied
    troops in the area
•   West Berlin is thriving and East Berliners are
    exiting to West
•   difficult to convince people of the virtues of
    Communism over Capitalism
•   Kruschev threatens with firm measures if
    troops not removed
•   Kennedy answers-US would not abandon
    West Berlin
•   4000 East Germans are moving West per day
•   August 13-Soviets tanks and East Germans
    along the 25 mile border
•   4 days later a stone wall topped with barbed
    wire is built-The Berlin Wall
•   The Berlin Wall webpage
Cold War Cools down
     • Set up:
     • 1. Hotline
     • 2. US suspends Nuclear testing
     • 3. Talks with British and
       Soviets in Moscow-Nuclear test
       ban treaty-ban testing nuclear
       weapons in the ocean,
       atmosphere, and outer space-
       113 sign
     • 4. $250m worth of wheat to
       Soviets (surplus)
     • <Sign at the Berlin Wall
                        Programs for peace
• March 1961-extend program of peace to Latin America-
  (Marshall Plan)
• Alliance for Progress-prevent Castro from exporting
  revolutionary ideas
• called for-$20b over 10 years to build schools, houses,
  sanitation facilities
• reform of tax laws
• break up large estates
• give farm workers land of their own
• 1961-1969-$12b to Latin America
     Peace Corps
• March 1961
• volunteer working for 2
  years in underdeveloped
  nations in Asia, Africa,
  Latin America
• agricultural advisors,
  teachers, health aids
• 1968-35,000 volunteers in
  60 countries
           Civil Rights
•   February 1, 1960-sit-in at
    Woolworths in Greensboro, North
    Carolina-6 months later it is
•   Freedom Rides-set up by the
    Congress of Racial Equality
    (CORE)-groups of blacks and
    whites rode buses throughout the
    deep south to see if interstate travel
    was desegregated (Morgan v.
•   <Alabama-mobs beat many and
    firebombed buses-Robert Kennedy
    sends federal marshals into
The March on Washington
         • August 28, 1963-
         • 200,000 people gathered in
           Washington DC to advance the
           federal civil rights legislation
         • Martin Luther King delivers the
           “I have a dream” speech
         • Photos from March on
         • More Photos of March
         • “I have a dream” Speech
           Civil Rights
•   In the Universities:
•   University of Mississippi-admit <James
    Meredith-qualified black air force
    veteran-Governor Ross Barnett refuses
    to allow admittance
•   cited the Doctrine of Interposition-
    putting himself between the federal
    government and the people of
•   state laws on segregation were superior
    to federal law
•   Robert Kennedy sends in federal
    marshals-rioting occurs-most are
    members of the K.K.K.
•   John Kennedy sends in Federal troops
          Civil Rights
•   University of Alabama: admits
    Vivian Hood and Jimmy Hood
•   George Wallace stands in the way
•   that night-Medgar Evers NAACP
    shot by a sniper
•   Birmingham-Evers’ murder
    charges blacks to go from
    nonviolent to militancy
•   1963-Eugene “Bull” Connors-gets
    an injunction forbidding King
    marches-let loose the police dogs
    and fire hoses-TV carries it
•   Timeline of Civil Rights
•   Audio and Video of Civil Rights
                                     Civil Rights
• Federal Actions: 1961-set up committee on Equal
  Employment Opportunity
• 1962-Amendment 24-forbids Poll Tax
• November 1962-no discrimination in Federally funded
Kennedy Assassinated
     •   1963-Kennedy and Jackie are headed to
         Texas to clear a riff in the Democratic Party
     •   November 22, 1963-12:30 pm, rode in an
         open motorcade with Governor John
         Connally and their wives
     •   as they passed the Book Depository-3 shots
         rang out
     •   an hour later-JFK pronounced dead
     •   later that afternoon-police capture-Lee
         Harvey Oswald
     •   2 days later Oswald shot by Jack Ruby before
         millions watching TV
     •   too bizarre-Warren Commission-investigate-
         Oswald is lone gunman
     •   1978-conspiracy likely although no evidence
     •   More on the Conspiracy
Lyndon Baines Johnson
      • What problems face after an
      • Gain trust, heal mourning
        nation, heal mourning nation,
        couple his programs with those
        that already exist, “fill the
      • <LBJ-Great Society-Civil
        Rights Act of 1964-War on
        Poverty are cornerstones
        designed Americans “on the
        outskirts of hope”
        Civil Rights
• Race Riots begin-1964-for three
  years more than 100 race riots
  will occur
• <Watts district to Washington
• 1967-67 separate riots-Newark
  NJ took 25 lives
• sparked by relatively minor
  incidences-white officers and
  black youths
• new leaders and “Black Power”
• Malcolm X-minister in the
  Nation of Islam
       Black Power
• 1. Blacked owned businesses
  in black communities
• 2. Local control of schools in
  black communities
• 3. The use of black police
  officers in black communities
• 4. bloc voting to elect black
  representatives who would give
  priority to to the needs of black
• 5. The development of a sense
  of pride in being black
• <Malcolm X
• Women are in Low-paying jobs
  even though 1 of 3 women are
  working and 1/2 of those are
  supporting themselves
• colleges are pressuring not to
  study Unfeminine careers
• 1963-The Feminine Mystique-
  by <Betty Friedan
• report published that year stated
  women-discriminated against-
  recommended federal action to
  change this
• Congress passes Equal Pay Act-
  not effective-can’t enforce it
• Women use the Civil Rights
  Act of 1964 as the legislation to
  help their cause
• founded the National
  Organization for Women
  (NOW)-Friedan first President
• Equal Rights Amendment-
  pushed by NOW
• <Brenda Berkman-one of the
  women at Ground Zero
Seeking Change
• <Hippie Movement-most cities
  in America such as Haight-
  Ashbury section of San
  Francisco-bushy haired people
  wearing jeans and fringed vests
• young and alienated from
  American Society
• found it difficult to understand
  poverty and unemployment in
• most are from middle class
  white families
• resented and distrusted
  everyone over 30
Seeking Change
•   Hippies worked at odd jobs-lived in
    inexpensive quarters they called pads-
    listened to:
•   Bob Dylan, Simon and Garfunkel, Judy
    Collins, Joan Baez, Janis Joplin, Jimi
    Hendrix, the Rolling Stones, and the
•   Also called themselves Flower
    Children-most social problems can be
    cured with love and community
•   doing their own thing-some followed
    Timothy Leary-enjoy the here and now-
    don’t worry about the future
•   Nothing bigger than <Woodstock in
 1960’s timeline
• 1960’s timeline
• <Newark, NJ
Seeking Change
•   Environmental Movement
•   1962-Silent Spring by Ralph
    Carson-regulate pesticide use
•   smog, water, solid waste
•   environmentalist causing alarm
•   National Environmental Policy Act
    of 1970-must study effects on the
    environment on any federally
    funded project
•   1970-Nixon established the
    Environmental Protection Agency-
    control storage of toxic waste,
    force companies to clean up
    pollution damage and animal
    protection codes
•   <Acid Rain Results
Seeking Change
• Older Americans:
• many more of these-life
  expectancy was 75 for women
  and 67 for men
• concentrated in certain states
• living in retirement towns
• continued to increase
• more and more as Baby
  Boomers reach 50’s

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