Docstoc

BEI JING

Document Sample
BEI JING Powered By Docstoc
					                          BEI JING

Beijing is the capital of PRC, which is the center of National
politics, culture, transport, tourism and international exchanges.
                                 56',          20'.
Located on north latitude 39° east 116° The whole city
makes up of 11 zones and 7 counties.

The modern Beijing has experienced about ten generation of
operation, which had numerous illustrious Emperor City's sight
and rich handsome cultural background, the world's largest
imperial Palace and our Chinese largest temple of heaven,
which is rarely seen in the Summer Palace of Royal garden,
Great Wall, one of the world's eight major miracle, the largest
tomb group -thirteen mausoleum and Homo erectus of Zhoukou
store site had been listed by UNESCO as world cultural
heritage.

To Beijing, what you see and feel is not only the ancient
empire's majestic solemnity, heavy life, but also the modern
city's trendy downtown, high-speed convenient. And the strong
modern breath is blowing on your face when set foot in Beijing,
with the 29th Olympic Games in 2008, Beijing will once again
demonstrate her enchanting charisma in front of the whole
world.




                                           1
                   National Grand Theater




BEIJING’S new futuristic National Center for the Performing Arts, formerly known
as the National Grand Theater, will begin the formal performance season Dec. 22.
Among international performers who will be appearing will be conductors Valery
Gergiev and Seiji Ozawa, and sopranos Kathleen Battle and Kiri Te Kanawa. Apart
from the Mariinsky Theater of Russia, other famous foreign orchestras, such as the
New York Philharmonic, will also give performances.These shows were expected to
attract audiences totaling 300,000 and more than 20,000 tickets had already been sold
for the opening season.
Despite the huge development costs and high profile, the National Center for the
Performing Arts was not just for the wealthy, he said.The center will sell tickets for as
little as 30 yuan (US$4) and the average ticket price will be lower than that for a
regular show in Beijing.However, the cost of tickets for the inaugural show is far
higher, ranging from 180 yuan to 1,080 yuan.
The building has been controversial, with some describing the arts complex designed
by French architect Paul Andreu as out of keeping with its near neighbor, the




Forbidden the City. Others hail it as a futuristic, signature building. The certer, which
is to west of Tian’anmen Square, boasts three large halls — a 2,416-seat opera house,
a 2,017-seat concert hall and a 1,040-seat theater. Construction of the National Grand
Theater began in December 2001 and was completed in late September this year.
Total investment was 2.69 billion yuan.

                                            2
Palace Museum.


The Palace Museum has served as the royal residence during the Ming and Qing dynasties. It was
here that a total of 24 monarchs ascended the throne and wielded power for some 500 years. The
Palace Museum, as the most beautiful spot of interest throughout Beijing, is unique for its location:
to the northwest is Beihai(North Sea) Park, famous for its white pagoda and rippling lake; to the
west is the Zhongnahai (central and south sea); to the east lies the the Wangfujing Shopping Street;
and to the north id Jinshan Park. Standing in the Wanchun (Everlasting Spring) Pavilion at the top
of Jingshan(Charcoal Hill) Park, you overlook the skyline of the palace Museum. At the southern
end of the palace is Tian` anmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace) and the famous square named after it .
This is the symbol of the People` s Republic of China.




A world-famous historical site, the Palace Museum is on the World Heritage List of UNESCO and
is an embodiment of oriental civilization.
The Palace Museum is rectangular in shape, 960 meters long from north to south and 750 meters
wide from east to west, covering a space of 720,000 square meters of which 150,000 is building
area . It has 9000-strong rooms in it . According to legend there are 9999.5 room-units in all .The
whole compound is enclosed by a 10-meter-hign wall and is accessed through four entrances,
namely, the meridian Gate in the south ,the Gate of Military Prowess in the north,
Donghua(Eastern Flowery ) Gate in the north, Donghua ( Eastern Flowery) Gate in the east and
Xihua(Western Flowery ) Gate in the west. On each corner there is a turret consisted of 9 roof
beams, 18 pillars and 72 ridge . Encircling the compound there is a 3,800-meter-long and 52
meter-wide moat, making the Palace Museum a self-defensive city-within-a city.




                                                 3
The Palace Museum was made a center of rule during the Ming Dynasty by Zhun Di, The fourth
son of the founding emperor Zhuyuanzhang. The whole complex straddles on an
8-kilometers-long central axis that stretches from Yongding (Forever Stable) Gate in the south to
Gulou (Drum Tower) in the north. Prominence was given to the royal power by putting the "three
main front halls" and "three back halls "on the axis while arrange other subsidiary structure around
them .The construction of the Palace Museum involved manpower and resources across China.
For example, the bricks laid in the halls ,known as "gold brick, " underwent complex, two -dozen
processes. As the final touch ,the fired bricks were dipped in Chinese wood oil. Involving
complicated processes and high cost, these brick are called "golden bricks." The Palace Museum
serves as a living embodiment of good tradition and styles unique to China` s ancient architecture.
It reflects to the full the ingenuity and creativity of the Chinese working people. A carefully
preserved and complete group of royal residences,
the Palace Museum is a prominent historical and
tourist site.
What we are now approaching is the main entrance to
the Palace Museum-the Meridian Gate, which is
characterized by red walls, yellow glazed -tile roofs
and upturned eaves. On top of this walls, yellow
glazed-tile roofs and upturned eaves. On top of this
magnificent building ,there stand five lofty halls with
a main hall in the center. The main hall is roofed by
multiple eaves and covers a space of 9 room-units. It
is flanked by two wings on each side .The wings are
square in shape ,complete with multiple and four
edged eaves and pinnacles. All of these structures are
connected by a colonnade. Because these halls
resemble a soaring bird, it was also know as wufenglou (Five-phoenix Tower) . Inside the main
hall there is a throne. Drums and bells were stored in the wings. Whenever the emperor presided
over grand ceremonies or observed rites in the Hall of Upreme Harmony, drums, bells and gongs
would be struck to mark the occasion.
As the legend goes, the Meridian Gate used to be a place where condemned ranking officials
would be executed. This not true. However, flogging was carried out here by the Ming
emperors ,If a courtier falls afoul of the emperor, he would be stripped of his court dress and
flogging with a stick .At one point the punishment became so harsh that a total of 11 people died
from fatal wound on a single occasion .On the other hand, this building was also used to observe
                                                 4
important occasions like the traditional Chinese Lantern Festival (15th day of the first lunar
month). On these occasions, Chinese lanterns would be hanged and sumptuous banquets would be
given in honour of the whole court of ministers and other ranking officials.




Upon entering the Meridian Gate we began our tour of the Palace Museum. The river foowing in
front of us is known as Jin Shui He (Golden Water River) and the five marbles bridges spanning it
are known as the Inner Golden Water Bridges. The on in the middle was used exclusive by the
emperor and its banisters were carved with dragon and phoenix designs. The bridges flanking the
imperial one were reserved for princes and other royal members. The rest were used by palatines.
Aside from decoration, the golden Water River was also dug as precaution against fire. Most of
the structures within the palace Museum are made of wood. What is more ,according to ancient
                               Chinese cosmology, the South is the abode of fire, so this brook
                               was dug on the southern tip of the Palace. In this way, the Palace
                               Museum reflects traditional Chinese culture.
                               This building is called the Gate of Supreme Harmony .In the
                                                       foreground stand two bronze lions. Can
                                                       anybody tell which is male and which is
                                                       female The one on the east playing with a
                                                       ball is male, symbolizing power and
                                                                   universal unity. The other on
                                                                   the west with a cub cuddling
                                                                   underneath its claw is female
                                                                   The one on the east playing

with a ball is male, symbolizing
power and universal unity. The other
on the west with a cub cuddling
underneath its claw is female,
representing prosperity the endless
succession. A layout of the Palace
Museum is posted by the entrance .
From it ,you can see that the Palace Museum has two
main parts: the forecourt and the inner court. The
three main halls constitute the mainstay of the
forecourt, and it was here that the emperor announced
decisions and observed rites. Behind the forecourt
there is the inner court, consisting of major halls and
the Imperial Garden .It was where the emperor
attended state affairs, lived and enjoyed his luxurious life. The exhibition system of the Palace
Museum involves historical court relics and articles of ancient art and culture. The Palace
                                               5
Museum houses nearly one million articles of rare treasure, or one sixth of the total number in all
of China `s museums. There are the three main halls of the Palace museum, built on a triple
marble terrace . Since most of China `s architecture is made of wood, the buildings cannot be too
tall. To gain the height of the architecture, ingenious ancient artisans built the hall on a gigantic
stone terrace .It is also to this end that not a single plant was grown in the square. On stairways of
triple marble terrace there are 18 bronze tripods .The verandah is flanked by bronze tortoises and
cranes, which served as symbols of longevity .On the east is a sundial, an ancient timepiece. On
the west there is a grain measure suggesting that the emperor was just and equitable.
In the front and on each flank ,there is a pair of gilt bronze vats (caldrons ) molded during the
reign of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty .Each of these weights 2 tons and is filled with
water as a precaution in the event of a fire .The structure in the very middle is the Hall of
Supreme Harmony ,also known as the throne hall. It is 64 meters in width and is 38 meters from
entrance to rear. With terrace exclusive ,the hall is 26.92 meters in height and is 35.03 meters in
all .Covering and areaof 2,377 square meters, the Hall of Supreme Harmony is China` s largest
exiting wooden structure. The hall is supported by 6 thick ,round pillars carved in a design of
coiling dragons. As the holiest place in the hall, the ceiling and colored patterns were made of the
finest material available at that time. The throne was placed on a terrace and is flanked by
statues of elephants, Luduan (a unicorn which could travel 18,000 kilometers a day and
understand all languages), cranes and incense barrels .Over the throne there is the caisson ,or
covered ceiling ,which consists of a coiling dragon playing with a ball in its mouth .This ball is
known as Xuanyuan Mirror ,and was supposedly made by a Chinese emperor of remote times to
serve as a reminder that thee rulers to follow were his hereditary heirs. The throne is made of
nanmu and painted in gold .Magnificently built and luxuriously decorated ,this hall did not serve
as a place in which the emperor attended to daily affairs. He used his hall for major events such
as his birthday, conferral of title of empress or dispatch of generals to war.
Behind the Hall of Supreme Harmony ,there sits the Hall of Complete Harmony. This structure is
square in shape .Each side is 24.15 meters. This was the place where the emperor relaxed and
greeted his courtiers before proceeding to the hall of supreme Harmony to observe rites. This
was also the place where the emperor prepared prayers or examined seeds and sowers before he
attended ancestral sacrifices or participated in snowing ceremonies. A grand ceremony was also
held here once every 10 years for the emperor to genealogize the royal blood. There are two
sedan chairs on display in the hall. Behind the Hall of Complete Harmony ,you will see the Hall of
Preserving Harmony, which was used as a place where imperial examinations were held. The
imperial examination was the hignest level of competing for meritorious appointment under the
feudal system dating back to the Sui Dynasty. China` s last imperial examination was held in 1904
during the reign of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty. To the rear of hall there is a marble
ramp carved with cloud and dragon designs, the largest of its kind in the whole country . It is
16.57 meters in length, 3.07 meters in width, 1.7 meters thick and weighs 250 tons. It was
quarried in Fangshan County in suburban Beijing. To bring this giant piece of stone to Beijing
people poured water onto the road and applied rolling blocks during the process.
We are now standing before the square of the Hall of Heaven Purity. It served as a divide
separating the forecourt from the inner court .This building is known as the Gate of Heavenly
Purity. Emperor Qianlong held court here. Proceeding further north ,you can find three main rear
halls ,i.e. the hall of heavenly purity. the Hall of union and peace and palace of earthly tranquility.

                                                  6
The hall of heavenly purity if flanked on either side by two gates named after the sun and
moon .Inside the enclosure there are 12 palaces and halls symbolizing constellations. All of the
other buildings are centered around the Palace of Heavenly Purity , which was meant to suggest
that the monarch` s power was endowed by Heaven. The empress and concubines lived in the
inner court.




The hall of heavenly purity was where the emperor lived and attended to daily affairs. Later the
emperor moved to live in the Palace of Mental cultivation. Looking up you can see a plaque
bearing the Chinese inscription "be open and above-board," a manifesto to court
struggle .Behind the plaque a strongbox was stored containing a will bearing the name of the
would -be royal successor. This approach of secretly selecting the next emperor was adopted by
Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty. Two copies of the will were prepared .One was stashed
by the emperor in person ,the other was placed inside the strong box behind the plaque. After
the death of the emperor, the two copies would be compared and successor would be
announced. It was in this way that Emperor Qianglong and others have ascended the throne.
Behind the Hall of heavenly purity you will see the hall of union and peace , which is indentical to
the hall of complete harmony. It was there that the emperor received congratulations and
tributes from imperial officials on major calender occasions , A total of 25 imperial seals are
stored there. In the hall, you will see a plaque with the handwritten inscription of "we wei,"
exhorting Taoist doctrines.
Further northward is the Palace of Earthly Tranquillity, which once served as the living room of
the empresses` . The hall was later converted into a sacrificial place .Through the windowpanes
on the eastern wall you can see the royal bed decorated with dragon and phoenix designs. This
hall has also served as the bridal chamber of monarchs.
The Gate of Earthly Tranquilliity leads to the Imperial garden (known to westerners as Qianlong` s
Garden ),which was used by the emperor ,the empress, and the concubines. A magnificent
structure stands in the middle. It is called the Qin `s an (Imperial Peace) Hall. It is the only
building in the Palace Museum that was built in Taoist style. It served as a shrine to the Taoist
deity. The garden covers a space of 12,000 square meters ,and is 130 meters from east to the
west and some 90 meters from north to the south. There are a dozen halls, verandahs, pavilions
and waterside houses in the garden . On each of the fur corner there is a pavilion dedicated to

                                                 7
the four seasons which is different in construction style and shape. The garden also features an
imperial landscape. With rare trees and exotic rockery, the Imperial Garden served as a model for
China` s imperial parks .In all ,a total of 10-strong building styles were applied.




The tall building we are now passing is the gate of military prowess, the back door of the Palace
Museum. Our visit is now drawing to a conclusion but the architectures of the Palace are not . On
the other side of the road is the 43-meter-hign Charcoal Hill , providing natural protection for the
Forbidden City. This was also an embodiment of China` s construction style-putting a pool in the
front and a hill in the rear. Now let` s climb up to Wanchun (Everlasting Springs ) Pavillion where
we` ll have a great view of the Palace Museum.




                                                 8
SU ZHOU
One of the key cities in the Yangtze River Delta, Suzhou is a renowned cultural, historic and
tourist city. The city is located in the southeast of Jiangsu Province , bordering Shanghai on the
east, Zhejiang Province on the south, the Taihu
Lake in the west and the Yangtze River in the
north.
Written historical records indicate that Suzhou
has a history of over 4000 years,which entitles
the city one of "24 Cultural and Historic Cities "
approved as the first group of its kind by the
State Council.

For thousands of years Suzhou has been a
cradle of talented people.In ancient times
Suzhou gave birth to many remarkable politicians,philosophers,strategists,scientists and
artists,represented by Sun Wu,Fan Zhongyan,Shen Kuo,Tang Ying,Gu Yanwu,Kuai Xiang.In modern
times,prominent people from Suzhou emerge in large numbers in various fields.Suzhou's
painting,calligraphy,seal cutting,opera,medicine and architecture all have different schools and
achievements.Its traditional handicrafts such as embroidery and Taohuawu woodcut picture
enjoy a high reputation at home.
Suzhou Jiangnan garden to absorb the essence of the art of landscape architecture is the
excellent Chinese cultural heritage, as a matter of course by the United Nations cultural heritage
of mankind and nature. Suzhou gardens are good at the limited space cleverly subtle changes of
landscape composition, structure, small and win up to. Nets Garden, 狮 子 林 , Humble
Administrator's Garden, Lingering Garden referred to collectively as "the four famous gardens of
Suzhou", known as "甲天下 Jiangnan garden, a garden in Suzhou Jiangnan" reputation. Suzhou
garden private garden on behalf of the Chinese art style and level of tourist are rare.

One classical gardens of
Suzhou garden can reward
can travel to home, people
can experience the ease of
life, the formation of this
form of architecture, are in
densely populated and lack of
natural scenery of the city, the
attachment of human nature,
the pursuit and nature in
harmony, to beautify and
improve        the         living
environment of their own to createa.

                                                9
Suzhou is located in water, spread all over Lake Ditch 塘堰 very profit potential due to water on
the garden, near Tai Hu rich, sophisticated
 fit mounded rockery Linglong, is unique; hundred ancient Suzhou booming industry officials Yin
and enriching the people, is perfectly placed to pursue high-quality living environment; addition
Suzhou folk art has always been advocating the pursuit of perfection, eternal inheritance, focused,
whether it is countryside residential areas, or Giardia 官衙, are meticulously designed and built
their own originality shipped. These basic factors contributed greatly to the development of the
Suzhou gardens. According to local history records, the size of gardens in Suzhou city, in the
layout, structure, style of art has its own characteristics, resulting in the heyday of the Suzhou
gardens of the Humble Administrator's Garden, Lingering Garden, Master-of-Nets Garden Villa
Huanxiu these four classical gardens, fully demonstrated the Chinese art of gardening and the
level of national characteristics. They are building the type of complete, intact. This garden covers
an area of four is not wide, but the clever use of a variety of gardening techniques and practices
the arts will be pavilions, flowers and trees 泉石 together to simulate the natural scenery, and
create a "forest city", "home near downtown and the natural "the ideal space. They are
systematic and comprehensive display of the Suzhou classical gardens of the building layout,
structure, shape, style, color and decoration, furniture, furnishings and other aspects, are the
Ming and Qing Dynasties (14 ~ 20 century) on behalf of the building of Jiangnan works reflected
in the Jiangnan region during the height of Chinese civilization, the living have affected the entire
southern style architecture of the city, led the design of civil architecture, design, layout,
construction technology, as well as its aesthetic
side, reflects the city at that time the level of
science and technology and construction artistic
achievements. Landscaping at the living
environment, building into the United States,
natural beauty, culture and other aspects of the
United States as a whole reached a historically
high at Chinese garden art and the world history
of the development of an irreplaceable position.

Classical Gardens of Suzhou, one of the important characteristics is that it is not only a product of
history and culture, but also traditional Chinese thought and culture carrier. Room of the house in
the garden of the name plaques, couplets, Oplegnathus book, sculpture, decoration, as well as
                                                 10
flowers meaning,叠石寄情 and so on, are not only exquisite works of art decorating the garden,
at the same time save a lot of history, culture, thought and scientific information, the content and
spirit of its material content is extremely deep. Reflect and have one of the spread of
Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, such as various philosophical concepts, schools of thought;
there is to promote the philosophy of life, to cultivate the noble sentiments; have literature with
classical poetry, for decorating the landscape, hair, rendering, is in travel tours of the habitat, for
the emotion of the scene, resulting in mood the United States, to meet the spiritual. The park
brings together well-preserved ancient Chinese calligraphy handwriting, but also are valuable
works of art, has a very high heritage value. In addition, the classical gardens of Suzhou as one of
the 第宅 garden landscape, the building regulatory system and reflects the ancient Chinese
people living off the pro-southern way of life and ritual practices, are understanding and study of
ancient Chinese folk materials Jiangnan.




               The Inner Mongolia




The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, bordering to the north with both the Republic of
Mongolia and Russia, is the widest province in China (by its latitude). It is the third largest
                                                  11
Chinese province (over 1.1 million square kilometers or 424,736 square miles) but not very
populated. The province has about 24 million inhabitants. Many ethnic groups are living in this
area including Mongolian, Daur, Oroqen, Ewenki, Hui, Han, Korea and Manchu. Hohhot is the
                                                       capital of Inner Mongolia. When to go
                                                          Climate in Inner Mongolia is very
                                                         different during the year. Winter is cold
                                                         and can be very long, with frequent
                                                         blizzards. Usually summer is short and
                                                         warm. The climate changes from arid to
                                                         semi-humid from west to east, and to
                                                         humid in the northeast. The annual
                                                         rainfall is 80 - 450 millimeters, also
                                                         increasing from west to east. The main
                                                         feature of the climate here is that the
                                                         different in temperature between days
                                                         and nights is very big, so tourists should
                                                         wear layer of clothes when traveling here.
                                                         What to see          Inner Mongolia has a
                                                         peculiar natural scenery, long history and
                                                         brilliant culture. There are many historic
                                                         sites in this area. Some of the key historic
                                                         sites are:      Wudangzhao Monastery in
                                                        Baotou is a vast complex and used to be
the residence of the highest ranking lama in Inner Mongolia and now it is the only intact Tibetan
Buddhist monastery in Inner Mongolia. Inner Mongolia is the hometown of Genghis Khan
(1162-1227), the great leader of Mongolians. His Mausoleum, located 185 kilometers (about 71
miles) south of Baotou, holds his clothing buried in his memory. Dazhao Temple is one of the
biggest and best-preserved temples in Hohhot. Xilituzhao Palace is the largest surviving Lama
temple in Hohhot. Zhaojun Tomb, six miles to the south of Hohhot, is located on one of the
most beautiful scenes of ancient times. A legend says that each year, when it turned cold and
grass became yellow, only this tomb remained green and so it got the name Green Tomb (Qing
Zhong). Wanbu Huayanjin Pagoda, also called White Pagoda, used to be a place where nearly
ten thousand volumes of Huayan Scripture were preserved. It is an exquisite and magnificent
brick-wood structure about one hundred and fifty feet tall. But what is most attractive about
Inner Mongolia is its natural beauty. Vast grasslands, including the Xilamuren Grassland,
Gegentala Grassland and Huitengxile Grassland are all good places for a grassland experience.
The mushroom-like yurts, bright sky, fresh air, rolling grass and the flocks and herds moving like
white clouds on the remote grassland, all contribute to make the scenery a very relaxing one.
While visiting Inner Mongolia you may try different activities such as Mongolian wrestling, horse
& camel riding, rodeo competitions, archery, visiting traditional families and enjoying the graceful
Mongolian singing and dancing. The best time to visit the grassland is definitely during the
traditional Mongolian Nadam Festival period when there is a better chance to both participate
and feel the lively atmosphere of the grassland life.           You can also visit deserts in Inner
Mongolia. The deserts are located in the western part of the province: the most famous and

                                                 12
visited ones are the Badain Jaran Desert, Tengger Desert and Kubuqi Desert. Early autumn (from
the middle of August to the end of September) is the best time to explore the desert as the
temperatures are very temperate.



Hohhot


     Hohhot, the capital of Inner Mongalia Autonomous Region, has an area of 6
thousand square kilometers and a population of 1.41 million. Hohot is a historical
and cultural city. It has many ancient relics, including Zhaojun Tomb, Five Pagoda
Temple, and WhiteTower. It is also famous for barbecue and the production of
mushrooms and hops.
     Zhaojun Tomb, which is called Green "Grave" of "Tmur Urhu" in Mongolian, is
situated in the southern suburb of Hohhot, 9 kilometers away from the urban area. It
is said that it is the tomb of Wang Zhaojun -- a maid in the imperial palace of the
Emperor Yuan Di of the Han Dynasty -- volunteered to marry the chief Huhanye of
Xiongnu Horde as a peace envoy. The tomb is an artificial earthen mound with a
height of 33 meters. According to the legend, the green grass on the huge mound
never turned yellow even when late autumn came.
     Five-Pagoda Temple is situated in the Wutasi-hou Street, Yuquan District, Hohhot.
The construction of the temple began in the 5th year of the reign of the Emperor
Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty. The Pagoda is 16.5 meters high and looks like a
Buddha's Warrior Attendant's seat, with a base under it and five exquisite pagodas
on the base. As more than 1560 relief sculptures of Buddha are engraved on the five
pagodas, the temple enjoys the reputation of being "a 10000-Buddha Tower". In
addition, there are images of Bodhisattva, the four Devarajas, Buddhist Saint,
Heavenly Ladies, holy birds and animal, bodhi trees and the engraved scriptures in
Mongolian, Tibetan and Sanskrit on the wall of the pagodas. On the wall facing the
temple there are 3 marble relief sculptures, including a planisphere marked with
Mongolian inscriptions. The pagodas are not only peculiar buildings, but also a huge
exquisite carving.
     White Tower is located in the White Tower Village of the east suburb of Hohhot,
17 kilometers away from the urban area. It was originally a towerof Buddhist temple
where the Buddhist scripture was collected and preserved. The octagonal tower, a
brick-wood building painted with chalk, is characterized by the architectural style of
the Liao Dynasty. The tower is 55 meters high, looking grand and magnificent. Its
base is shaped like lotus flower petals. On the surface of the tower are carved the

                                             13
exquisite relief sculptures of Buddha, Bodhisattva, heavenly kings and dragons, which
are all true to life and pleasing in form. Six tablets of the Jin Dynasty and more than
200 scriptures written in quite a few languages are all well preserved on the walls
inside the tower. All this records the history and customs of the ancient town called
Fengzhou. As this tower is one of the most exquisite towers of the Liao Dynasty in
China, it was appointed to be a unit under the key protection and preservation by the
State Council in 1982.

             Genghis Khan’s Mausoleum
Genghis Khan, "Khan of Khans", was the great leader of Mongolians. At the end of
12th century, he united Mongolian tribes and challenged other powers to expand his
huge Mongolian empire, which extended from South China to the Caspian Sea. In
1277, Khan attacked the West Xia Kingdom (presently Ningxia) and encountered
strong resistance. He died of disease and age. The great emperor was later buried
secretly according to Mongolian custom. It says that after the burial 2,000 men were
slaughtered by some 800 soldiers who were in turn executed so that the location of the
real tomb remains a secret.

Genghis Khan’s Mausoleum, rebuilt in 1954 185 kilometers south of Baotou, is a
mausoleum, in which only his clothing is buried in memory of the great leader. The
5.5 hectares mausoleum includes three giant yurt halls which house coffins of the
Khan, his wife, his son and his generals.
      There are four sacrifice ceremonies held annually to commemorate the great




hero and leader of the Mongolian people. The ceremony, held on March 21st on lunar
calendar, is the grandest. After the ceremony, horse racing, archery and wrestling are
held as entertainment.




                                          14
Oriental Pearl TV Tower
The Oriental Pearl TV Tower is located in Pudong Park in Lujiazui, Shanghai. The
tower, surrounded by the Yangpu Bridge in the northeast and the Nanpu Bridge in the
southwest, creates a picture of 'twin dragons playing with pearls'. The entire scene is a
photographic jewel that excites the imagination and attracts thousands of visitors
year-round.
This 468 meters high (1,536 feet) tower is the world's third tallest TV and radio tower
surpassed in height only by towers in Toronto, Canada and Moscow, Russia. However,
even more alluring than its height is the tower's unique architectural design that makes
the Oriental Pearl TV Tower one of the most attractive places anywhere. The base of
the tower is supported by three seven-meter wide slanting stanchions. Surrounding the
eleven steel spheres that are 'strung' vertically through the center of the tower are
three nine-meter wide columns. There are three large spheres including the top sphere,
known as the space module. Then there are five smaller spheres and three decorative
spheres on the tower base. The entire structure rests on rich green grassland and gives
the appearance of pearls shining on a jade plate.
Visitors travel up and down the tower in double-decker elevators that can hold up to
fifty people at the rate of seven meters per second. The elevator attendants recite an
introduction to the TV Tower in English and Chinese during the rapid 1/4-mile ascent.
                                           15
Once you reach your destination, you will be amazed at the variety of activities
available as the various spheres and columns actually house places of interest,
commerce, and recreation. The inner tower is a recreational palace, while the
Shanghai Municipal History Museum is located in the tower's pedestal. The large
lower sphere has a futuristic space city and a fabulous sightseeing hall. From here, on
a clear day a visitor can see all the way to the Yangtze River. The base of the tower is
home to a science fantasy city. The five smaller spheres are a hotel that contains
twenty-five elegant rooms and lounges. The pearl at the very top of the tower contains
shops, restaurants, (including a rotating restaurant) and a sightseeing floor. The view
of Shanghai from this height fills you with wonder at the beauty that surrounds you.
When viewed from the Bund at night, the tower's three-dimensional lighting makes it
a delight of brilliant color.
It is amazing that this ultra-modern tower combines ancient concepts such as the
spherical pearls, with 21st Century technology, commerce, recreation, educational and
conference facilities. All of this and it really is a TV and radio tower that services the
Shanghai area with more than nine television channels and upwards of ten FM radio
channels. Truly, 'oriental pearl' is the most suitable name for this tower.




                                            16

				
DOCUMENT INFO