Demographics of Ecuador by chenmeixiu

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									EDUCATION GROUP

        ECUADOR
       -Demographics
     -Education system
        -Orphanages
      -Transportation
          -Spanish
• Full country name: Republic of Ecuador
• Area: 175,780 sq mi)
  Population: 13,000,000
• Capital city: Quito (1.5 million)

• People: 40% mestizo, 40% Indian, 15% Spanish descent, 5% African
  descent

   Language: Spanish, Quechua, Quichua, other indigenous languages

   Religion: Over 90% Roman Catholic and other Christian
   denominations.
   Ecuador was one of the seven countries established after the Spanish
   defeat in the Independence Wars (1808-1824).
Demographics of
   Ecuador
• According to Wikipedia.org…
• Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador is a
  representative democratic republic in South
  America, bounded by Colombia on the north, by
  Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific
  Ocean on the west. The country also includes the
  Galápagos Islands, about 965 kilometers
  (600 miles) west of the mainland. Ecuador is the
  Spanish word for equator. Ecuador straddles the
  equator and has an area of 256,370 square
  kilometers (98,985 mi²). Its capital city is Quito.
                 Ecuador
            Division of People
• Population of Ecuador: 13 million
  *2% annual population growth
  * ½ live in cities
• 22 Provinces
  *named after mountains or rivers
• Divided into 10 different communities
• Guayaquil is largest city
  *population over 2 million
  *seaport is economic
  *industrial heart of Ecuador
         Geography of Ecuador
• Equatorial line runs through its heart
  *led to its name
• Straddles the Andes Mountain Range on western most
  point of South America
• Smallest of Andean Countries
• Only slightly larger than Colorado
  *half the size of France
• Contains a variety of landforms
  *snow-capped Andes
  *both extinct and active volcanoes
  *beaches on the Pacific Coast
  *Amazon Jungle
       Andes Mountain Chain
• Divides country into 3 distinct regions
  *Costa-coastal plain
  *Sierra-Andean Mountains
  *Oriente-Amazon jungle
                              Coasta
• Gently rolling hills
• Low-lying areas flood frequently
  *access to area is difficult in rainy season
• Devoted to agriculture
• Sandy beaches on shoreline
• River estuaries harbor mangrove swamps
  *important breeding grounds for land and
   marine wildlife
  *areas being converted to expansive pools for
   commercial shrimp ranching
       *important industry
• Mache-Chindul
  * low mountain range near coast
  * 800 meters high
  *one of few spots that still supports coastal rainforest and indigenous
   communities known as chachis
                             Sierra
• Valleys are found between the eastern and western ranges of the Andes
  *highly productive volcanic soils
       *populated and farmed for several
        thousand years
  *small fields extend far up mountain sides
• Northern end of Ecuadorian Andes is dominated by 10 glaciated
  volcanoes that tower to over 5,000 meters
• Chimborazo in western chain is highest peak in Ecuador(6,310 meters)
• Cotopaxi(5,900 meters) is highest active volcano in the world
• Sub-alpine grasslands
  *known as páramo
  *host diversity of wildlife
                   Oriente
• Represents a meager 4% of population
• Amazon rainforest begins in foothills of
  eastern Andean slopes
• Rivers from this area form tributaries of
  Amazon River
  *principal means of transport through hilly
   and densely vegetated terrain
• Virgin rainforests converting to pastures and
  croplands
                    Climate
• The Coasta and Oriente have two seasons
  *the wet season (winter) lasts from Jan.-June
  *Dry season (summer) lasts from June-
    Dec.
  *Regions are hot all year (25C/80F)
• The central valleys of the Sierra experience the
   rainy season from Feb.-May
• *Short wet season from Oct.-Nov.
  *Climate is mild overall
                   Quito
• Official name: San Francisco de Quito
• Capital city of Ecuador
• City’s elevation is 9,300 ft above sea level
  – Second highest capital city in the world
• Area of Quito is approximately 112 square
  miles
• Located 15 miles south of the equator (la
  mitad del mundo = the middle of the world)
           Demographics of Quito
               (as of 2001)
• Population: 1,865,541
   – 892,570 men; 947,283 women
   – Population density: 439.8 inhabitants per square km
   – Inhabitants over 12: 639,068 = married, 541,758 =
       single, 33,116 =divorced, 30,898 = separated, 47,930 =
       widowed
   – Second most populated city of Ecuador, after
       Guayaquil
• Number of households: 419,845
• Illiteracy rate: 3.6%
• Unemployment rate: 8.9%
• Average monthly income: $387
           Geography of Quito
• Climate: mild to cool
   – High: 67 degrees
   – Low: 49 degrees
• Two seasons: summer = dry season, winter = rainy season
• Located north of Sierra Negra (Galapagos) in
  Guayllabamba river basin
   – Eastern part of basin = volcanoes
      • Cotpaxi, Antisana, Sincholagua, Cayambe (east)
      • Illiniza, Atacazo, Pichincha, Pululagua (west)
• Volcanoes
  – Guagua Pichincha (13 miles from Quito)
     • Ongoing volcanic activity
     • Last eruptive activity: October 5 and 7, 1999
     • Quito only capital in world to be directly
       menaced by active volcano
  – Reventador
     • Last eruptive activity: November 2002
     • City showered in ash more than what was in
       1999
• Earthquakes
   – Worst was in 1797
      • Killed nearly 40,000
   – Most recent in 1987
      • Magnitude of 7 on Richter scale
      • Epicentre about 50 miles
      • Killed nearly 1,000 throughout Ecuador
      • Minor damage to Quito buildings
   – October 16, 2006
      • Felt a quake = 4.1 on Richter scale
      • No damage reported
       Points of Interest of Quito
• Northern Quito
   – Business district of Quito
   – International airport
   – Museo del Banco Central
      • Ecuadorian art
   – Parque Metropolitano - 1,376 acres (Central Park = 843
     acres)
      • Mountain biking, walking, or running
      • Eucalyptus forest with trails
   – La Carolina – 165.5 acres
   – Play fútbol, básket, ecuavolley, aerobics, flying kites,
     running, etc
             Galapagos Islands
• What makes the Galapagos Islands?
• The Islands are famous for their unique plant life and vast
  number of endemic (known only to the islands) species
  such as red and blue-footed boobies, frigate birds
  (members of the pelican family), giant colorful tortoises,
  and marine and land iguanas that grow to be about 5 feet
  long.
• The Galapagos were visited by Charles Darwin in 1835
  where he collected evidence that led to his theory of
  natural selection. Our Galapagos cruises will take you to
  Darwin's "living laboratory" which was birthed by
  underwater volcanic eruptions.
• The Galapagos Islands are on an archipelago
  owned by Ecuador and are approximately 600
  miles from the Ecuadorian mainland.
• Due to the unparalleled scientific interest, Ecuador
  designated them as a National Park in 1959 and
  UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific
  and Cultural Organization) placed them on the
  World Heritage list in 1978. There's no other place
  like them on earth...
Education System
  Specific Demographics
  and Rates
Adult literacy rate, 2000-2004: Male 92 Female 90
• 2002-2004 Internet users 5 per 100 Ecuadorians
• Population, 2005, under 18: 5,100,000
• Population, 2005, under 5: 1,445,000
• Population annual growth rate (%), 1970-1990: 2.7
• Population annual growth rate (%)1990-2005: 1.7
• Percent of population urbanized, 2005: 63
• Average annual growth rate of urban population (%),
  1970-1990: 4.4
• Average annual growth rate of urban population (%),
  1990-2005: Not Available
   Specific Demographics and Rates,
              Continued
• Crude death rate, 1970: 12
  Crude death rate, 1990: 6
• Crude death rate, 2005: 5
• Crude birth rate, 1970: 42
• Crude birth rate, 1990: 29
• Crude birth rate, 2005: 22
• Life expectancy, 1970: 58
• Life expectancy, 1990: 68
• Life expectancy, 2005: 75
• Total fertility rate, 2005: 2.7 (about 2.1 needed for stable
  population levels)
    Implications for Education in
              Ecuador
• Declining fertility rates, declining death
  rates, increasing life expectancy, and
  increasing urbanization indicate Ecuador’s
  modernization.
• Increasing modernization and a large
  percentage of children under 18 places a
  great need for education in Ecuador.
• (Source: UNICEF.org)
• Elementary education is mandatory to the end of grade 6. Only
  about 50% finish. Of those beginning secondary school, only
  about 50% finish grade 12.

•    A high school diploma is necessary for students to attend one of
    the approximately 22 universities or technical schools.

•    The school year differs between the coast and the highlands. On
    the coast, the school year begins in May and ends in January. In
    Quito and the highlands the year runs from October to July.

•   The adult literacy rate is approximately 91%.
•   10.2% of 15 year olds are still illiterate
•   26% leave school before 6th grade.
•   33 universities/technological colleges – holds 202,683 students.
•   Education system based on reform, intended to improve the archaic
    system, eliminate education by memorization, and develop logical and
    creative thinking.
•   Partially successful, but requires much more time and follow-up.
•   Requires a new generation of teachers to bring change.
•   No training for teachers to first learn content and then teach.
•   Private and public schools.
•   Some private schools base their curriculum on U.S. standards.
     – Instruction is in English.
     – Spanish is taught in grades K-12.
     – English as a second language (ESL) is provided for those who are
        not fluent in English.
           Orphanages
• Nearly a third of all abandoned children are
  disabled.
• Children available for adoption include
  infants, sibling groups, older and special
  needs children, both boys and girls.
• Number of Children Adopted by Americans
  in 2004: 28 (significant declining rate)
              Orphans
• Over the past 20 years, the population of
  Ecuador has doubled. This has created a
  growing population of abandoned children.
• Most of these
  children come
  from poor or
  indigenous
  families.

• Growing poverty,
  lack of education,
  and limited
  governmental
  resources further
  perpetuate the
  problem of street
  children and
  orphans.
• In Quito there are approximately
  4500 street children.
• Unemployment rate:
  11.1%


• Underemployment
  rate: 47%


• Population below
  poverty line: 45%
• Orphanages provide the following:
   – children mistreated by their parents
     - children who used to work and live in the streets
     - children who were forced to live with their
     imprisoned parents
     - children whose parents were unable to supply them
       - shelter
       - food
       - medical care
       - schooling and professional training
       - a feeling of security in a new family
            Transportation
• Most people walk but the bus, trolley, and cabs are very
  inexpensive by US standards.
• At night the bus system and trolley shut down so you can walk or
  ride a cab; however, I would recommend taking a cab unless you're
  with a group of 5 or more for safety reasons.
• At night the cabs don't run off the meter so you can bargain with
  the driver for the fee.
• They have a new mean of transportation called "Trole o "Ecovia"
  which is a sort of over ground metro, that routes around the city
  and the city itself is not that big so a long journey would probably
  cost you no more than 10 USD, something you should know is that
  you always need to negotiate beforehand.
                Urban Buses
•   Very cheap service (20-25 cents)
•   Many seats are created for one person
•   May not stop at all bus stops or vice versa
•   Older buses can cause discomfort
          Bus for Provinces
• Easiest and cheapest way to travel inside
  Ecuador
• Cost may vary to distance and quality of
  service
• Bus drivers are fearless
• If you are uncomfortable with the driving
  don’t be afraid to get off…
         Trolley and Ecoway
• Most modern and efficient way of transport
  in country
• Cheap service (about 20 cents)
• May be a little tight during rush hour
• Only exists in Quito from 6am to 12pm
                         Taxis
• Cabs are very popular
• In general, the service is good and the drivers are pleased
  to help tourists.
• Cost depends on the taximeter, average is about $1.50 to
  $2.00 during the day
• At night, may not use taximeters (illegal), but usually
  won’t charge more than $2.00 to $3.00.
• 24 hour service
• Safer to use radio taxi at night. You must call for them and
  it shouldn’t take more than 5 minutes to arrive.
                Airplanes
• Best air transportation systems in the region
• Longest flight inside Ecuador is 45 minutes
  (with the exception of the Galapagos
  Islands which is an hour and a half).
• Not always cheap
 Boats, Motor Boats, and Canoes
• Many places in Ecuador can only be
  reached by boat.
• Costs vary depending on distance and
  destination.
• Some times free, but will desire a tip.
• Cost, you can discuss with owner before
  you step foot on the boat.
                    Trains
• Used mostly for tourism
• Known as the hardest working transportation in
  the whole world because it runs through the
  Andes.
• One of the greatest ways to get to know Ecuador
• Very old and slow
• Hard to know arrival and departure schedule.
                 Hitchhiking
• Very common, (more common in Ecuador than in
  any other country), especially in small towns.
• Some drivers will charge a small fee. It is okay to
  ask about the price before you hop in the vehicle.
• It is not guaranteed to be safe, so use common
  sense, especially if you are a woman or traveling
  alone.
                    Cars
• The main thought drivers in Ecuador have
  is: “I have the right away.”
• Whoever is bigger, goes first
• Because of this, you may hear a lot of
  horns, screeching brakes, insults flying, and
  pedestrians running for their lives…OH
  NO!
• Spanish is the main language of Ecuador.
• English is spoken only in the large hotels and tourist
  agencies (sometimes) in the larger cities.

•    Taking a basic course in Spanish before you come to
    Ecuador is a good idea. There are many excellent Spanish
    schools in Quito, where group rates are about US$1 per
    hour, and private lessons are US$3 or so. The basics are
    fairly easy to learn, because it is a very phonetic language.
    You can also buy a pocket phrase guide. Ecuadorians are
    wonderfully patient with foreigners trying to speak to them
    in their own language.

								
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