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					                Property Benchmarking Project OGC/51

                  Final Report for Pilot Phase: Appendices

                                                                  31 October 2005




IPD Occupiers
1 St John’s Lane, London EC1M 4BL
Tel       +44 (0)20 7336 9200
Fax       +44 (0)20 7336 9399
Web:      www.ipdglobal.com




This report was designed and compiled by IPD Occupiers (Christopher Hedley, Paul Hunter & Adam King) with help from AMA Alexi Marmot Associates, IBM Business
Consulting Services and Upstream. Considerable thanks are owed to estates surveyors and workspace managers at the participating departments who supplied the data.
Property Benchmarking Project OGC/51 - Pilot: Final Report                                                                                                                                                                      IPD Occupiers




Appendices: Contents
Appendix 1              OPD & its sub-contractors                                                                               Offices 50+ FTE .............................................................................................A5 - 6
                                                                                                                                Offices <50 FTE .............................................................................................A5 - 7
    OPD................................................................................................................A1 - 1   Leasehold offices ...........................................................................................A5 - 8
    AMA Alexi Marmot Associates......................................................................A1 - 1                     Freehold offices..............................................................................................A5 - 9
    IBM Business Consulting ..............................................................................A1 - 1
    Upstream........................................................................................................A1 - 1
    Project advisors .............................................................................................A1 - 2

Appendix 2              Glossary of terms
    Regional definitions .......................................................................................A2 - 1
    Cost definitions ..............................................................................................A2 - 1
    Staff and workstation definitions ...................................................................A2 - 3
    Space definitions ...........................................................................................A2 - 3
    Effectiveness definitions................................................................................A2 - 4

Appendix 3              Surveys
    Environmental Sustainability.........................................................................A3 - 1
    Staff Workplace Survey (Building Managers / User Groups)......................A3 - 1
    Staff Workplace Survey (Filled in by OGC staff in Pilot) .............................A3 - 2
    OPD Building Manager Survey .....................................................................A3 - 4

Appendix 4              Environmental management comments
    Factors leading to poorer than normal energy consumption.......................A4 - 1
    Factors leading to better than normal energy consumption........................A4 - 2
    Factors leading to poorer than normal water consumption .........................A4 - 3
    Factors leading to better than normal water consumption ..........................A4 - 3
    Factors leading to poorer than normal waste production and recycling .....A4 - 4
    Factors leading to better than normal waste production and recycling ......A4 - 4

Appendix 5              Additional analysis
    Efficiency quadrants for 4 analysis groups...................................................A5 - 1
    Central London offices ..................................................................................A5 - 2
    Rest of UK offices ..........................................................................................A5 - 3
                     2
    Offices 5,000+ m NIA...................................................................................A5 - 4
                     2
    Offices <5,000 m NIA...................................................................................A5 - 5



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Appendix 1: IPD Occupiers & its sub-contractors                                 AMA Project role
                                                                                   •   AMA has provided invaluable support and assistance during the
A1.1 IPD                                                                               course of this project. They have worked particularly closely with
                                                                                       us in developing the Building Manager Survey.
IPD Occupiers is “an industry partner to real estate and facilities
management, helping our clients measure and manage performance”.                   •   Other assistance has come from specific workspace examples
IPD Occupiers operates a variety of services ranged round the central role             that AMA have been previously involved with within the Civil
of measuring occupier performance – the business-focused management                    Estate and how these can be used to draw conclusions for this
of estates and facilities.                                                             project.
IPD Occupiers is the market leader in benchmarking for occupiers. Clients
include many FTSE 100 companies – in sectors such as banking,                   A1.2.2 IBM Business Consulting
insurance, retail – and public sector organisations.                            IBM Business solutions provide experienced management consultancy
We believe that IPD Occupiers databank is the single biggest database of        and have particular expertise in strategy development and performance
its kind in Europe and, as such, we were in an excellent position to            improvement at the most senior levels of both the public and private
undertake the data collection and analysis work that has occurred during        sectors. Further details at www.ibm.com/uk
this Project. Further details at www.ipdglobal.com.
                                                                                IBM Project role

A1.2 Sub-contractors                                                               •   IBM Business Solutions have provided specific focus on strategy
                                                                                       at an estate level and PFI issues.
Three firms of consultants have worked together in helping IPD Occupiers
to create the Property Benchmarking Model and this report.                         •   They have also assisted in the structure and framework of the final
                                                                                       report.
Collectively the consultants have supported us by framing and
commenting on papers and providing assistance at meetings and over the
telephone.                                                                      A1.2.3 Upstream

All have also attended Project Board Meetings on separate occasions,            Upstream provide advice to clients in the property investment and
providing support and expertise in their relevant fields. Their details are     development sector on environmental management and corporate social
below.                                                                          responsibility. Further details at www.upstreamstrategies.co.uk

                                                                                Upstream Project role
A1.2.1 AMA Alexi Marmot Associates
                                                                                   •   Throughout the Project Upstream helped in the development of
AMA assists large companies and public sector bodies to use workspace                  environmental sustainability KPIs, provided expertise on Health &
intelligently to make best use of their buildings and to support the business          Safety issues and given advice on the development of questions
mission and user needs. Further details at www.aleximarmot.com                         within the building manager survey.


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    •    They also helped with the development of a scoring system for the
         building manager survey.


A1.2.4 Project advisors

Alan White, Lenborough Consultants
Alan is former Head of Property at BT. He has presented to the Project
Coordination Group (PCG) and acted in an advisory role throughout the
course of this Project.


Paul McNamara, Prudential Property Investment Management
Paul McNamara OBE has been available in an advisory role throughout
the course of the Project.




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Appendix 2: Glossary of terms                                               this heading in a variety of different ways. The recording of rent will
                                                                            therefore vary depending on the purpose for which the Code is being used
                                                                            and the way in which the building is held/occupied legally and financially.
A2.1 Regional definitions
                                                                            Organisations should record a figure for rent under at least one of the
Central London The combined areas of City, Mid Town, West End and
                                                                            following headings:
Central London Fringe, which are defined below.
                                                                               a) The actual current annual rent paid to the building owner. This
City This area is roughly bounded by Clerkenwell Road / Old Street, City
                                                                               should be recorded for all leased buildings.
Road, Spitalfields, Whitechapel, Aldgate East, the Tower of London, the
River Thames and Farringdon Road. (E1 6, E1 7, E1 8, EC1A, EC1M, EC1R,         b) The current annual open market rental value assessed in the
EC1V, EC1Y, EC2A, EC2M, EC2N, EC2P, EC2R, EC2V, EC2Y, EC3A, EC3M,              context of local contract terms, review periods, escalation, indexation
EC3N, EC3R, EC3V, EC4M, EC4N, EC4P, EC4R, EC4V)                                and other conditions. It is highly desirable to collect this figure
                                                                               especially where there is a significant difference from a) or c).
Mid Town The area bounded by Albany Street, Kings Cross Road,
Pentonville, Farringdon Street, Farringdon Road, Clerkenwell Road,             c) An annual accounting charge in the nature of a notional rental
Charing Cross Road, Haymarket, Northumberland Avenue and the River             charge, the current depreciation charge, the current financing charge or
Thames (EC1N, EC1R, EC4A, EC4Y, WC1A, WC1B, WC1E, WC1H, WC1N,                  the return on capital employed. Occupiers should always record the
WC1R, WC1V, WC1X, WC2A, WC2B, WC2E, WC2H, WC2H, WC2N, WC2R).                   basis of calculation for this accounting charge. In addition, they should
                                                                               record the replacement value of owned assets.
West End The area bounded by Earls Court Road, Kensington Church
Street, Edgware Road, Bayswater Road, Northumberland Avenue,                   d) In the case of properties where no evidence of open market rental
Haymarket, Charing Cross Road, Tottenham Court Road, Marylebone                value is available, an annual value surrogate in the form of
Road, Park Lane, Kensington Gardens, Gloucester Road, Beaufort Street,         replacement cost or a percentage of adjusted net profit.
the River Thames (NW1 2, SW1A, SW1E, SW1H, SW1P, SW1V, SW1W, SW1X,          When collecting rental figures for benchmarking, the type of rental figure
SW1Y, SW3, SW7, W1H, W1M, W1N, W1P, W1R, W1V, W1X, W1Y, W2 1, W2 2,
                                                                            used will need to be carefully considered. It will normally be desirable to
W8 4, W8 5).
                                                                            use either the actual rent paid a) or the rental value b). This will allow
Central London Fringe The postcode areas of SE1, E1, E2, N1 NW1             occupiers to understand their opportunity costs of occupation, an important
except those parts included in City / Mid Town / West End above.            consideration in creating and assessing the real estates and facilities
                                                                            strategy.
Rest of UK The remainder of London and all other Government Office
Regions as defined in official statistics.                                  Local property taxes The full annual real estate, occupational and
                                                                            environmental tax liability arising under national and local laws and
                                                                            regulations within the subject country, state and municipality.
A2.2 Cost definitions
                                                                               Includes: any taxes or rates arising directly from the occupation of real
Rent Typically the single largest element of Total Occupancy Costs.
                                                                               estate and levied on the building itself or upon the occupiers of the
Because of its importance, occupiers may choose to collect a figure under



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    building. Environmental taxes and charges such as parking should be               employment, special equipment, materials and other associated costs
    included.                                                                         as well as all design and contractor costs should be included.
   Excludes: all business and sales taxes that are levied on business                 Excludes: M&E, minor improvements, internal moves and
   profits and sales as distinct from the occupation of the building.                 reinstatement fee.
Parking The annual rent or licence fee paid for parking provision together         M&E repair and maintenance Annual costs associated with the repair,
with any local building tax charged on any on-site or off-site car parking         servicing and maintenance of mechanical and electrical equipment.
associated with the premises, whether part of the overall lease agreement
                                                                                      Includes: maintenance or renewal of subsidiary/component parts of
or paid separately. Occupiers may wish to distinguish the costs of:
                                                                                      equipment as well as fire services, water and plumbing, and sprinkler
   a) Customer parking                                                                systems. Mechanical and electrical equipment may typically include
                                                                                      normal building services such as air conditioning units, electrical power
   b) Staff parking
                                                                                      and lighting, lifts and escalators. Includes the full costs of employment,
   c) Operational parking                                                             special equipment, materials and other associated costs as well as all
Consolidated services charge (landlord operating expenses) The                        design and contractor costs.
annual aggregated payment made to the building owner for the delivery of              Excludes: total renewal, alteration, replacement and costs related to
services on the basis that it is not possible to identify these items                 manufacturing or business processes.
separately.
                                                                                   External and structural repair and maintenance Annual cost of the
Insurance The annual cost of premiums for insuring the premises.                   repair and maintenance of the building fabric and any part of the exterior.
    Includes: all buildings insurance, public liability and liability for excess      Includes: Repairs to all integral structural parts of the premises
    and any premiums for terrorism, loss of rent, flood, burst pipes,                 including, roofs, walls, fenestration, external drainage and foundations.
    subsidence, earthquake, fire and explosion.                                       Redecoration of external finishes and repair of external cladding and
   Excludes: insurance for loss of trade, public liability, damage to or theft        finishes should be included, as should the full costs of employment,
   of computers. Disaster recovery is shown as a separate item.                       special equipment, materials and other associated costs as well as all
                                                                                      design and contractor costs.
Occupiers who self-insure, thereby bearing the risks themselves, should
include an agreed internal risk charge, unless the full costs of any               Minor improvements Annual cost of minor improvements (as a guideline
                                                                                   less than $10,000 in value) to the building charged to the revenue (non-
insurance event are borne directly by the occupier under other Cost Code
categories.                                                                        capital) account.

Internal repair and maintenance Annual expenditure on all items of                    Includes: full costs of employment, special equipment materials and
internal repair and maintenance.                                                      other associated costs as well as all design and contractor costs.
                                                                                      Excludes: expenditure principally caused by internal moves.
   Includes: regular redecoration, internal wall and ceiling finishes,
   furniture, equipment, storage units and signage. The full costs of              Security Annual cost of securing the premises.


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    Includes: costs of security contractors and employed staff as well as       Energy Annual cost of energy supplies (electricity, gas, fuel oil, other
    the regular costs associated with the maintenance of systems (usually       energy) to the premises.
    in the form of a maintenance contract). Includes annual depreciation
                                                                                   Excludes: repair and improvements to energy equipment and facilities.
    (written down over five years) and maintenance costs of intruder
    detection systems such as alarms, detectors, central control and
    CCTV. Access control systems, badges/identity cards, access control         A2.3 Staff and workstation definitions
    readers, access control passes, access gates/huts, vehicular access
    control, uniforms, communication equipment, tannoys, loudspeakers,          Full time equivalent (FTE) staff The number of personnel is calculated in
    lighting, fences and road blocks should be included.                        terms of full-time equivalents. Non-payroll staff, such as consultants,
                                                                                contractors, and other outsourced staff, is converted to full-time
   Excludes: complete renewal of systems due to disrepair.                      equivalents on the following basis:
Any expenditure incurred as a result of a security breach should be                 •   Personnel working on a regular basis >30 hours per week – 1.00
recorded against the relevant category.
                                                                                    •   Personnel working on a regular basis 20-30 hours per week – 0.75
Cleaning Annual cost of cleaning both internal and external areas of the
building.                                                                           •   Personnel working on a regular basis 15-20 hours per week – 0.50

    Includes: full costs of employment, special equipment, materials and            •   Personnel working on a regular basis <15 hours per week – 0.25
    other associated costs as well as all contractor costs. Cleaning of all     To qualify as a member of staff working in the premises, staff must use the
    ancillary spaces, toilets, staircases, landing and lobby areas should be    premises as their main base and also expect to work at the premises for at
    included, as should the regular cleaning of the following items:            least some part of a typical working week.
    windows, glazed partitions, desks, telephones, doors, partitions, floors,
    carpets, bins, reception desk, chairs, hand rails, WCs and urinals.         Number of workstations The number of designated workspaces within
    Periodic special cleaning, e.g. acoustic ceilings and lighting, IT          the building. The number recorded should include both occupied and
    equipment, deep cleaning and shampooing of carpets, deep cleaning           vacant positions but exclude any within designated meeting rooms or
    of toilets and general pest control should also be included.                areas. A workstation should have the capacity to act as a satisfactory
                                                                                place of work for one employee or contractor.
   Excludes: any costs associated with the repair or replacement of
   defective component parts.
                                                                                A2.4 Space definitions
Water and sewerage Annual revenue expenditure incurred for water
supply, treatment and sewerage.                                                 Net rentable area or Net internal area (NRA or NIA) - The NRA is the
                                                                                area upon which the rental payment is calculated and, for these purposes,
   Excludes: repair and improvement work conducted in association with
                                                                                is synonymous with the concept of net internal area. In the UK it may also
   the provision of water and sewerage, which should be shown as repair
                                                                                be defined as the NUA plus primary circulation. The main routes or
   or improvement costs.
                                                                                corridors linking stairwells define primary circulation. Significantly, primary



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circulation is the minimum statutory requirement to comply with fire safety                o   Social – breakout rooms and areas, health & sport and
regulations, rather than the more generously designed layouts that are                         welfare facilities.
common in many modern offices.                                                             o   Technical – IT and comms rooms, switchboard,
                                                                                               laboratory, test and other technical support space.
Net usable area (NUA) The space used for work purposes in the office.
                                                                                           o   Resource – storage, including equipment, filing, archive,
NUA is broken down into workspace and support space (which is further
                                                                                               libraries and vaults. Mailrooms, reprographics, print
sub-divided into local support space and central support functions). These
                                                                                               rooms, reception areas (including conference reception).
three categories broadly relate to individual (workspace), departmental
(local support) and organisational (central support) activities, which can be
used to cross-reference other metrics within an organisation (for example,      A2.5 Effectiveness definitions
per capita costs of occupancy or departmental area charging).
                                                                                Effectiveness A score based on the following component parts:
    •    Workspace is the footprint of the individual workstation and
                                                                                Workplace Productivity (40%), Environmental Sustainability (30%) and
         individual filing, plus a factor of 25% to allow for secondary         Operability (30%).
         circulation, which is required to link all workspaces to the primary
         circulation routes.                                                    Workplace productivity A score for the overall workplace environment
                                                                                derived from Functional suitability (30%), Workplace environment (30%),
              o    Enclosed rooms – enclosed rooms accommodating up to
                                                                                Facilities (30%) and Downtime (10%)
                   three people (normally up to 40m2).
              o    Open plan areas – Traditional workstations layout with              Functional Suitability A score derived from peoples’ satisfaction
                   allocated seats for four or more people. Hot-desks, touch           rating with the workplace for the performance of generic activity
                   down areas and other seat sharing areas.                            types. Examples of generic activity types are team working and
                                                                                       ability to meet deadlines.
    •    Local support space comprises functions such as departmental
         filing, vending, photocopy, meeting tables, etc that are not part of          Workplace Environment A score derived from peoples’
         the centrally managed support space budget.                                   satisfaction rating with the workplace’s physical environment.
                                                                                       Examples of environmental aspects are ventilation and ambient
    •    Central support space is used for those centrally managed
                                                                                       room temperatures.
         functions that are shared by the whole organisation. Typically
         such space includes conference and meeting room suites,                       Facilities A score derived from peoples’ satisfaction rating with
         restaurants and cafeterias, storage, mailrooms and reprographics.             the facilities provided in their workplace. Examples of facility
                                                                                       aspects are desk space and layout of the office.
              o    Meeting space – conference rooms, auditoriums, meeting
                   rooms, project and team rooms, seminar and training                 Downtime The proportion of the working week, spent in the office,
                   rooms/areas.                                                        which is lost to the organisation / business because of interference
              o    Catering – restaurants and cafeterias.                              of prohibiting factors. Examples of downtime are time spent
                                                                                       queuing at office kit and walking around the office to collect




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         documents. Respondents were asked to estimate the proportion of
         their normal working week lost due to downtime (as a percentage).
Environmental Sustainability A score based on the following component
            2                                           3
parts: kWh/m /year (40%), %solid waste recycled (30%), m water per
person (20%), management practices (10%)
         % Solid waste recycled The percentage of the total waste that is
         segregated onsite and sent specifically for material recycling. It
         does not include waste collected unsegregated and taken to a
         materials recycling facility (MRF) or solid waste incinerated with
         energy recovery.
         Management Practices A general indicator as to the extent of
         environmental management practices in place. An example
         question includes the presence or not of a formal EMS
         (Environmental Management System). This score is derived from
         responses to questions 30-43 within the Building Manager Survey.
Operability A score for the overall nature of the physical building based
on the two component parts of Condition (60%) and Health & Safety (40%)
         Condition A guide to the prevailing circumstances that exist within
         the building. This encompasses aspects such as the repair, state,
         infrastructure and use of the property. This score is derived from
         responses to questions within the Building Manager Survey.
         Health & Safety A very basic indicator to the level of compliance
         with regard to Health & Safety Issues. This score is derived from
         responses to questions 24-29 within the Building Manager Survey




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Appendix 3: Surveys                                                                        •    Solid waste segregated onsite and sent                  m
                                                                                                                                                            3

                                                                                                specifically for material recycling
                                                                                           •    Waste collected unsegregated, but taken                 m
                                                                                                                                                            3

A3.1 Environmental Sustainability                                                               to an MRF (materials recycling/recovery facility)
                                                                                           •
                                                                                                                                                            3
                                                                                                Solid waste incinerated with energy recovery            m
Energy Consumption:                                                                        •    Solid waste incinerated without energy recovery         m
                                                                                                                                                          3

                                                                                           •
                                                                                                                                                          3
                                                                                                Special waste - removed for specialist                  m
Aggregated figures for annual electricity consumption:                                          disposal offsite
    •   Annual total net cost for electricity                  £                           •    Other waste disposal method                             m
                                                                                                                                                            3

    •   Total annual electricity consumption                   kWh                         •    Solid waste landfilled                                  m
                                                                                                                                                          3

    •   Total annual electricity consumption:                  kWh                         •    Total waste                                             m
                                                                                                                                                          3
        renewable sources
                                                                                       Transport:
Aggregated figures for annual fuel consumption (all non-electricity energy sources):
                                                                                           •  Business miles travelled by staff in the                  Numeric
    •   Annual cost for gas                                     £                             department
    •   Annual gas consumption                                  kWh
    •   Total annual fuel oil consumption                       Litre                  A3.2 Staff Workplace Survey (Building Managers / User Groups)
    •   Total annual diesel consumption                         Litre
    •   Total annual other energy consumption                   kWh
                                                                                       Respondent Details
Water Consumption:
                                                                                       1. What type of respondent are you? Please select one category only.
                                                                                           •    Building / Facilities Manager
Aggregated figures for & tenant annual water consumption:
                                                                                           •    Building User Group
    •   Annual water cost                                      £
    •
                                                                 3
        Annual water consumption                               m
                                                                                       2. Which building do you work in?
                                                                                           •   Descriptive
Waste Production:

Annual mass of solid waste by disposal method - mass (weight) is preferred:            Office Details
   •    Solid waste segregated onsite and sent               tonne (1000kg)
        specifically for material recycling                                            3. On average how many hours do staff work during a typical week?
   •    Waste collected unsegregated, but taken              tonne (1000kg)                •   Please give your best estimate (hrs per week)
        to an MRF (materials recycling/recovery facility
   •    Solid waste incinerated with energy recovery         tonne (1000kg)            4. On average how many hours per week do staff work in this building?
   •    Solid waste incinerated without energy recovery      tonne (1000kg)                •   Please give your best estimate (hrs per week)
   •    Special waste - removed for specialist               tonne (1000kg)
        disposal offsite                                                               5. Generally do staff work in an open-plan or cellular office?
   •    Other waste disposal method                          tonne (1000kg)                •   Please select one category only
   •    Solid waste landfilled                               tonne (1000kg)
   •    Total waste                                          tonne (1000kg)            6. Other office details - under each item please select 'yes' or 'no'.
                                                                                           •    Generally do staff have control over the local temperature?
Annual volume of solid waste by disposal method:                                           •    Generally do staff have access to an openable window?



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    •    Generally do staff have control of a desk / local fan?                                •    External noise (eg. Traffic, people
    •    Generally do staff have control of window blinds?                                     •    Privacy (eg. being seen/overheard)
    •    Generally do staff have their own desk lamp?                                          •    Indoor air quality (eg. odour, smoke)
    •    Generally do staff have their own permanent workstation?                              •    Ventilation (freshness/stuffiness)
                                                                                               •    Air movement in winter (draught)
Office Facilities                                                                              •    Air movement in summer (breeze)
                                                                                               •    Decor (eg. furniture, walls)
7. In your opinion, how satisfied are staff with the following office facilities?(Select       •    General ambience
one from very poor, poor, satisfactory, good, very good or N?A for each)
     •    Desk space (work surface)                                                        11. From the choices above, which 3 do staff consider the most important
     •    Storage space                                                                    environmental conditions?
     •    Layout                                                                                •  Please select 3 from the 11 choices for Question 10 above.
     •    Circulation space
     •    Chair & furniture                                                                Office Environmental Conditions
     •    Fax & Photocopier facilities                                                     Descriptive box for any other facilities provision comment
     •    Formal meeting rooms
     •    Quiet areas & library                                                            12. In your opinion how do the facilities and environment support staff productivity
     •    Informal meeting areas (e.g. coffee points)                                      in the workplace? (Please select from very poor, poor, satisfactory, good, very
     •    Vending & dining catering facilities                                             good or N/A for each)
     •    Help-desk response                                                                    •   Being creative at work
                                                                                                •   Work needing quiet and concentration
8. From the choices above which 3 facilities in your opinion do staff consider the              •   Meeting deadlines
most important to get right to enable them to carry out their job effectively?                  •   Minimising errors
     •   Please select 3 from the 11 choices for Question 7 above.                              •   Holding informal meetings with colleagues
                                                                                                •   Holding formal meetings (eg. clients)
9. Do staff consider the office safe, comfortable and secure for working late in?               •   Having private face-to-face conversations
    •    Please select either 'yes' or 'no'.                                                    •   Teamworking

Office Facilities                                                                          Functional Suitability
Descriptive box for any other facilities provision comment                                 Descriptive box for any other facilities provision comment

Office Environment                                                                         Final Comments
                                                                                           Descriptive box for any other general comments
10. In your opinion how satisfied are staff with environmental conditions?
(Please select from very poor, poor, satisfactory, good, very good or N/A for each)
                                                                                           A3.3 Staff Workplace Survey (Filled in by OGC staff in Pilot)
     •   Indoor temperature in winter
     •   Indoor temperature in summer                                                      1. What floor do you work on?
     •   Electric lighting                                                                     •    Select one option from Ground to Level 8
     •   Daylight
     •   Glare                                                                             2. What Service Area do you work in?
     •   Internal noise – talking and moving around                                        Please select one from:



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    •    Corporate Services Directorate (CSD)                                          •    Descriptive
    •    Better Projects (BP)
    •    Smarter Procurement (SP)                                                  10. Do you work in an open-plan or cellular office?
    •    Private Office                                                                •    Open
    •    Efficiency Team                                                               •    Cellular
    •    Access to Skills and Know How (ASK)
    •    Construction Procurement Division (CPD)                                   11. Other office details - under each item please select 'yes' or 'no'
    •    Procurement Efficiency                                                        •    Do you have control over the local temperature?
                                                                                       •    Do you have access to an openable window?
3.Which building do you work in?                                                       •    Do you have control of window blinds?
Select one from:                                                                       •    Do you have your own permanent workstation?
    •    Thistle Street
    •    Alexandra House                                                           12. How satisfied are you with the facilities provision?
    •    Rosebery Court                                                            (Please select one from very poor, poor, satisfactory, good, very good or N/A for
    •    Trevelyan House                                                           each)
    •    Horse Guards                                                                  •    Desk space (work surface)
                                                                                       •    Storage space
4. Which age band are you in?                                                          •    Layout
Select from:                                                                           •    Circulation space
    •     <25                                                                          •    Chair & furniture
    •     25-34                                                                        •    Fax & photocopier facilities
    •     35-44                                                                        •    Formal meeting rooms
    •     45-54                                                                        •    Reading and quiet rooms
    •     >54                                                                          •    Informal meeting areas (eg. coffee points)
                                                                                       •    Dining and catering facilities
5. What position do you hold?                                                          •    Help-desk response
Please select from:
    •   Director                                                                   13. How much is your performance at work increased or decreased by the overall
    •   Senior Manager                                                             facilities in your office?
    •   Manager                                                                          •     Please select from >-30%, -30%, -20%, -10%, 0, +10%, +20%, +30%,
    •   Admin                                                                                  >30%

6. On average, how many hours do you work during a typical week?
    •   Descriptive                                                                14. From the choices above, what are the 3 most important facilities elements?
                                                                                        •  Please select 3 from 11 choices for Question 12 above
7. How many days per week do you spend at your base station i.e. building above?
    •   Descriptive                                                                15.Do you consider the office safe for working in late at night?
                                                                                       •   Yes
8. How many days per week do you spend visiting other OGC buildings?                   •   No
    •   Descriptive
                                                                                   Comments
9. How many days per week do you spend elsewhere?



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16. How satisfied are you with environmental conditions? (Please select one from   20. How do the facilities and environment support your productivity in the
very poor, poor, satisfactory, good, very good or N/A for each)                    workplace? (Please select one from very poor, poor, satisfactory, good, very good
    •   Indoor temperature in winter                                               for each)
    •   Indoor temperature in summer                                                    •    Being creative at work
    •   Electric lighting                                                               •    Work needing quiet and concentration
    •   Daylight                                                                        •    Meeting deadlines
    •   Glare                                                                           •    Minimising errors
    •   Internal noise – telephones and equipment                                       •    Holding informal meetings with colleagues
    •   Internal noise – talking and moving around                                      •    Holding formal meetings (eg. clients)
    •   External noise (eg. Traffic, people)                                            •    Having private face-to-face conversations
    •   Privacy (eg. being seen/overheard)                                              •    Teamworking
    •   Indoor air quality (eg. odour, smoke)
    •   Ventilation (freshness/stuffiness)                                         Comments
    •   Air movement in winter (draught)
    •   Air movement in summer (breeze)                                            Estimate the minutes lost each week as a result of …
    •   Decor (eg. furniture, walls)                                               (Answer in minutes i.e. 1 hour is 60 mins. If waste no time answer 0)
    •   General ambience                                                               •   Walking to and waiting in line at fax machines, printers, copiers etc.
                                                                                       •   Walking to pick up documents, files, etc. from storage
17. How much is your performance at work increased or decreased by the                 •   Walking to pick up consumables, supplies etc. from storage
environmental conditions in your office?                                               •   Searching for paperwork and documents etc.
    •   Please select from >-30%, -30%, -20%, -10%, 0, +10%, +20%, +30%,               •   Repeating/correcting work due to interruptions and being disturbed
        >30%                                                                           •   Repeating/correcting work due to glare on your PC monitor
                                                                                       •   In summer, repeating/correcting work due to being too hot
18. From the choices above, what are the 3 most important environmental                •   In winter, repeating/correcting work due to being too cold
conditions?
     •   Please select 3 from 11 choices for Question 16 above                     Comments

Comments
                                                                                   A3.4 IPD Occupiers Building Manager Survey
19. What proportion of time spent in the office is spent on?
(Please ensure the total percentages add up to 100)                                FACILITIES, SERVICES & LAYOUT
    •    Telephone usage
    •    Informal meetings                                                         1. Year of most recent major refurbishment (as a guideline major refurbishment
    •    Formal meetings                                                           constitutes to the value of 25+% of the capital value of the building). (Please select
    •    Working on PC/VDU                                                         one category only).
    •    Paper filing, archiving and retrieval                                         •     Pre 1980
    •    Using office equipment (eg. fax)                                              •     1980 – 1989
    •    Quiet work - reading (eg research)                                            •     1990 – 1999
    •    Quiet work - writing (eg reports)                                             •     2000+
                                                                                       •     None / not applicable

                                                                                   2. Is any part of the building listed?



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    •    Yes                                                                             7. Which category best describes the provision of reception services in this
    •    No                                                                              building? (Include visitor welfare, meeting room, conference and reception staff).
                                                                                         Please select one category only.
If so, which grade (please select highest if more than one)?                                  •   None - Reception duties handled by security guards / other staff
     •    Grade I or A                                                                        •   Basic - single reception provided with dedicated staff
     •    II* or B                                                                            •   Multiple - more than one reception dedicated to that property (either due
     •    II or C                                                                                 to a number of buildings operating as a single 'property' or due to multiple
                                                                                                  access points on the building)
3. The typical building condition as at the end of the last financial year. Please
select A (=As new), B (=Minor defects) or C (=Major defects) for the three               8. Please provide the typical number of external business visitors to the building -
categories below.                                                                        either for a typical month or for the last financial year. (The number of external
    •    Internal Fabric                                                                 business visitors required to sign in, even if they are employees of the
    •    Mechanical & Electrical Plant                                                   organisation)
    •    External Fabric
                                                                                         9. Which category best describes the security level in this building? (Include
4. Repair policy (The condition to which repairs and maintenance are aiming to           security paid for directly or via a service charge). Please select one category only.
keep the building over the course of the year). Please select A (=As new), B                 •     Level 1 - security alarm system, keypad / key access only, with perhaps a
(=Planned and essential repair only) or C (=Essential repair only) for the three                   back-up response / call-out / monitoring
categories below.                                                                            •     Level 2 - manned presence over core hours, typically CCTV, security
    •    Internal Fabric                                                                           equipment with back-up
    •    Mechanical & Electrical Plant                                                       •     Level 3 - as "basic" standard with barrier / tube entry or key pad access
    •    External Fabric                                                                           only
                                                                                             •     Level 4 - (24/7 manned presence, CCTV and anti-terrorist equipment -
5. Which category below best describes the number of inbound calls to helpdesks /                  with perhaps mobile grounds patrol on large sites)
requests to a facilities manager regarding complaints / problems reported by the
building's users? (Please select one category only).                                     10. Which category best describes the catering and vending provision for this
     •    Minimal - issues are rarely reported                                           building? (Include shared services in multi-occupancy buildings). Please select one
     •    Infrequent - occasional problems are reported                                  category only.
     •    Frequent - issues occur often enough to cause minor annoyance amongst               •   Self-catering - basic self catering (tea / coffee / water) and vending
          staff although not on a widespread scale                                                services (snack meals) and basic hospitality
     •    Regular - complaints occur on a consistent basis, causing disruption to             •   Café - staffed facilities typically serving snacks and refreshments, usually
          the everyday effectiveness of the building                                              operating for all core hours (e.g. 8 hours per day)
                                                                                              •   Restaurant - full meals (hot and cold) provided operating typically for 4-8
6. Which category best describes the core operational hours at this building?                     hours per day (there may also be self-catering and café facilities)
(Number of hours that the building is typically used to at least 50% capacity - this
will normally coincide with the full provision of reception services offered on site).   11. Which of the three following options best describes the level of cleaning for this
Please select one category only.                                                         building? Please select one category only.
      •  Extended - >60 hrs per week (i.e. regularly staffed at evenings and                  •   Basic - anything substantially below "Standard" specification
         weekends)                                                                            •   Standard - daily cleaning of all client-facing areas, stairs, lobbies, toilets
      •  Standard - 45 to 60 hrs per week                                                         and catering areas; workstations and floor area cleaned weekly; PCs /
      •  Basic - <45 hrs per week                                                                 blinds / curtains cleaned either on request or annually; windows cleaned
                                                                                                  bi-annually or on request; external surfaces / roofs cleaned reactively



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    •    High - anything substantially above "Standard" specification                     •    Furniture store
                                                                                          •    Traditional staff room / club room
12. How many meeting rooms / conference rooms / private dining rooms are                  •    Gym / sports and welfare
available for users within this building?                                                 •    Smoking room
Please tick where these spaces are capable of being divided and provide the               •    Crèche / nursing mothers
number of rooms it can be partitioned into. Seating capacity (whether cinema style        •    Swimming pool
or formal before possible sub-division - do not double count any space)                   •    Library
                                                                                          •    Business centre / drop-in desks for visitors
Number within this building                                                               •    Training room
   •   100+                                                                               •    Prayer room
   •   50 to 99                                                                           •    First Aid Room
   •   20 to 49                                                                           •    Laboratory
   •   10 to 19
   •   6 to 9                                                                         16. How many of the following is available for buildings users? (Please include
   •   Up to 5 (includes small interview rooms typically used by 2 or 3 people,       those both on site and those allocated off site).
       and quiet rooms typically used by 1 person, but not their own office)              •    Car parking spaces covered
                                                                                          •    Car parking spaces open
13. Are any of the following open-plan meeting spaces available? If so, are they
                                                                                          •    Motorcycle spaces covered
allocated to one specific team only (i.e. human resources) or accessible for
                                                                                          •    Motorcycle spaces open
common use? Please tick where appropriate.
                                                                                          •    Disabled spaces covered
     •   Large internal gathering space (e.g. atrium)
                                                                                          •    Disabled spaces open
     •   Meeting table with seats, or sofa / soft seat clusters
                                                                                          •    Bicycle spaces (note: two bicycle spaces per 'Sheffield Stand', therefore
     •   Tea / coffee break-out points
                                                                                               50 Sheffield Stands = 100 bicycle spaces)
14. How effectively does the provision of meeting space match its demand within           •    Shower cubicles
this building? Please select one category only.
                                                                                      17. Which of the following ICT equipment is available? Please tick where
     •    Insufficiently - meetings have to be postponed / take place off-site as
                                                                                      appropriate.
          insufficient space on-site to accommodate all meetings
                                                                                          •    Videoconference facilities
     •    Satisfactorily - meetings with external clients are given priority over
          internal meetings. Internal meetings may need to be re-arranged because         •    Teleconference facilities
          there is not sufficient space to hold both at the same time                     •    Computer / data projectors
     •    Ideally - able to accommodate both external and internal meetings without       •    Electronic smart boards (interactive, linked to computer)
          any pressure on meeting spaces
                                                                                      18. Which of the following best describes how the majority of building occupants
15. Which of the following additional types of space is present in this building?     are able to pick up telephone calls to their direct lines? Please select one category
                                       2
(Include only those spaces over 20 m ). Please tick where appropriate.                only.
     •   Mainframe / large computer rooms                                                  •   Level 1 - At their desk only
     •   Mail room                                                                         •   Level 2 - At any location within the same office only (site specific)
     •   Reprographics room (printing / copying)                                           •   Level 3 - At any location across sites within the same Department
     •   Archives                                                                          •   Level 4 - At any location - i.e. via IP (internet protocol) telephony - single
     •   Central file registry                                                                 converged network covering many locations and mobile workers
     •   Storage area for recycling



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19. Which one of the following best describes the space utilisation of the building        •    Significant
as defined by the layout of desks? Please select one category only.                        •    Major
    •    Overcrowded
    •    Ideal                                                                         25. Has this building reported any accidents, dangerous occurrences or diseases
    •    Spare capacity                                                                under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases, and Dangerous Occurrences
                                                                                       Regulations, 1995 (RIDDOR)?
20. Churn rate (Churn is defined as the number of people moves within the last             •    Yes
financial year - that is moving a person from one designated desk to another, either       •    No
within a building or between buildings). Please select one category only.
     •    High - the movement of >70% of the staff within this building                If yes, how many incidents were recorded in the last financial year?
     •    Standard - the movement of between 20% and 70% of the staff within this
          building                                                                     26. Which of the following information sources is used as a means of staying
     •    Low - the movement of <20% of the staff within this building                 abreast of changing health and safety legislation and best practice? Please tick
                                                                                       where appropriate.
21. Churn type (The typical extent of moves undertaken i.e. the extent of the most         •    No source
common type of move, by those items moved). Please select only one category.               •    Word of mouth
    •   Briefcase - only personal effects / storage with perhaps some limited              •    Internet
        reconfiguration of telephone / IT                                                  •    HSE website
    •   Relocation - all personal effects, storage and move of telephone / IT              •    A subscription to a legislation update service
        equipment                                                                          •    Internal employee with membership of a professional body e.g. IOSH or
    •   Full move - furniture, telephone / IT, storage and personal effects                     CIEH
    •   Construction - move includes new walls / partitions, new or additional             •    External consultant with membership of a professional body e.g. IOSH or
        wiring or telecommunications systems and furniture / equipment                          CIEH
                                                                                           •    Other (please give details below)
22. How many workstations are there within this building?
                                                                                       27. What is your best estimate of the following in the last financial year?
23. People - what is the number of FTEs working within this building (including            •   The number of training hours undertaken per employee (including time set
consultants)?                                                                                  aside for on-line training)?
                                                                                           •   The total number of health and safety audits undertaken (including both
How did you source this figure? Please tick all appropriate boxes.                             internal and externally verified audits)
   •    Payroll                                                                            •   The total number of externally verified health and safety audits
   •    Internal telephone system / corporate directory                                        undertaken
   •    Security passes
   •    Best estimate of number of consultants                                         28. Has a fire risk assessment been undertaken for this building?
   •    Other (please give details below)                                                  •    Yes
                                                                                           •    No
HEALTH & SAFETY
                                                                                       29. Have any of the following been issued in the last financial year? And if so, how
24. Which category best describes the outstanding Health & Safety compliance           many? Please tick and enter the number where appropriate.
issues for this building? Please select one category only.                                 •   Improvement notices issued by the Local Authority / HSE
    •    Negligible                                                                        •   Prohibition notices issued by the Local Authority / HSE
    •    Small                                                                             •   Fines / prosecutions resulting from non-compliance



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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT                                                                       •    No

Energy characteristics                                                                    Environmental management at properties

30. Please state the percentage of floor area under the following headings:               33. Is there a named individual with specific responsibility for overall environmental
GPG286 refers to the Good Practice Guide entitled "Energy performance in the              management for this property?
governments civil estate" (http://projects.bre.co.uk/gpg286/gpg286.pdf). It outlines           •    Yes
a classification of office accommodation as identified by the Energy Consumption               •    No
Guide 19 (Econ19). Further details can be found at
www.cibse.org/pdfs/ECG019.pdf.                                                            If yes, please provide their job title:

    •    % (by floor area) of building that matches GPG286/ECON19 type 1                  34. Is there a formal Environmental Management System (EMS) in place that is
         (Naturally ventilated, cellular)                                                 specific to this property?
    •    % (by floor area) of building that matches GPG286/ECON19 type 2                       •    Yes
         (Naturally ventilated, open-plan)                                                     •    No
    •    % (by floor area) of building that matches GPG286/ECON19 type 3 (Air-
         conditioned1, standard                                                           Environmental management actions taken
    •    % (by floor area) of building that matches GPG286/ECON19 type 4 (Air-
         conditioned, prestige)                                                           Energy
                                                                                          35. Which of the following is true? Please tick as many as applicable.
The percentages given above are based on what type of floor area? Please select               •   A target has been set for boiler combustion efficiencies for servicing
one of the following:                                                                             contractors to meet
    •    Net Lettable Area / Net Internal Area / Agents Letting Area                          •   Time setting for heating controls matches occupancy hours
    •    Gross Internal Area                                                                  •   Light switches are labelled to aid manual control
    •    Treated (heated) Floor Area                                                          •   Light fittings and diffusers are cleaned at least annually
Water characteristics                                                                     Please list and describe any other significant actions taken recently to improve the
                                                                                          energy-efficiency performance of the building.
31. Which of the following water consuming services (excluding toilets) are present           •    Descriptive
onsite? Please tick those services which are served by the mains supply.
     •   Washroom / shower facilities                                                     Water
     •   Canteen / restaurant facilities (i.e. meals served by catering staff in          36. Which of the following is true? Please tick as many as applicable.
         canteens and restaurants, not water consumed in breakout areas)                      •   Regular checks are made for dripping taps by building staff (e.g. security,
     •   Cooling towers                                                                           cleaners)
     •   Waste characteristics                                                                •   Water-saving devices and controls are in place
                                                                                              •   Where water-saving devices and controls could be improved, these will be
32. Does the building have a service area where waste awaiting collection for                     considered upon any refurbishment
recycling can be stored?
    •    Yes                                                                              Please list and describe any other significant actions taken recently to improve the
                                                                                          water-efficiency performance of the building
1
 Air conditioned: This includes comfort cooling (controlling temperature not humidity),       •     Descriptive
conventional air blasting techniques and chilled beams / ceilings.



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Waste                                                                                        •    Descriptive
37. Which of the following is true? Please tick as many as applicable.
    •   There are enough well placed bins for segregating white paper                    43. Please list and describe any factors (technical, financial or other) particular to
    •   There are also bins for segregating at least one of these waste types:           this building that, in your opinion, may lead to better-than-normal waste
        plastics, glass, metals                                                          production and recycling (for example: bins for segregating waste at point of
    •   Information on the amounts of each type of waste taken offsite is regularly      use, awareness and communication about recycling levels, recycling capability and
        communicated to occupants                                                        information provision as part of tendering for waste contractors.)
                                                                                              •    Descriptive
Please list and describe any other significant actions taken recently to reduce the
amount of waste produced and increase the proportion that is recycled
    •    Descriptive

Hindrances and opportunities

Energy
38. Please list and describe any factors (technical, financial or other) particular to
this building that, in your opinion, may lead to poorer-than-normal energy
consumption (including heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, lighting, building
fabric etc)
     •    Descriptive

39. Please list and describe any factors (technical, financial or other) particular to
this building that, in your opinion, may lead to better-than-normal energy
consumption (including heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, lighting, etc)
     •    Descriptive

Water
40. Please list and describe any factors (technical, financial or other) particular to
this building that, in your opinion, may lead to poorer-than-normal water
consumption (including leaks, toilets & washrooms, catering, evaporative loss
from cooling towers, landscape irrigation etc)
     •    Descriptive

41. Please list and describe any factors (technical, financial or other) particular to
this building that, in your opinion, may lead to better-than-normal water
consumption (including checks for leaks (both visual inspections and from
monitoring and targeting), use of flush controls, use of waterless urinals etc)
     •    Descriptive

Waste
42. Please list and describe any factors (technical, financial or other) particular to
this building that, in your opinion, may lead to poorer-than-normal waste
production and recycling.



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Appendix 4: Environmental management comments                                                minor occupier in the building. We have no control over energy or
                                                                                             water consumption”. Alternatively, and possibly more alarmingly,
The following summarises comments made in relation to a series of                            there were some who were unaware of energy reducing practices
optional questions asked in the Building Manager Survey addressing the                       in place, “Facility manager would need to advise on this”.
environmental sustainability of those buildings involved in the pilot project.
                                                                                         •   Conversely 4 of the 33 comments claimed that they had little
These conclusions were drawn from a selection of optional questions and                      control over their tenants – with an inability to ensure good energy
therefore where responses were made it may be reasonable to assume                           saving practices
that they were of particular concern to respondents.
                                                                                         •   A low level of staff awareness also counted as a significant factor
Summary of responses to environmental management section of the                              amongst respondents in leading to unnecessary perceived energy
Building Manager Survey:                                                                     consumption (5 of the 33 comments made). Comments include
                                                                                             “Ignorance of staff opening windows with radiators full on”
                      Q. 38     Q. 39      Q. 40      Q. 41   Q. 42   Q. 43
    Number of                                                                            •   A further 4 comments suggested a perceived poorer than normal
                       21         16         15         14       12     19
    responses                                                                                energy consumption as a result of a mismanagement of planned
                                                                                             maintenance e.g. ”radiators on ground floor do not work and
Currently there is insufficient evidence to offer definitive recommendations                 cannot be repaired – electric heaters used in winter”
for improving individual building environmental sustainability. As the data              •   3 of the 33 comments mentioned poor insulation (either through
grows there will be opportunity to prompt further investigation. Generic                     lack of double glazing or insufficient roof insulation) as a cause of
rules can be given but for more tailored action plans additional audits are                  poorer than normal energy consumption.
necessary.
                                                                                         •   A similar number of comments claimed that increased working
However, within the response so far received, it may be that anecdotal                       hours had also meant that poorer than normal energy figures were
evidence offers other building managers possible ideas for ways of                           experienced
                                                                                                         1

improving on a building’s current environmental sustainability
performance. In this respect it may be particularly relevant for readers to              •   In certain circumstances there were elements outside facility
focus on the answers to questions where perceived advantages were                            managers control. This included situations where a building was
achieved in relation to energy and water consumption, as well as waste                       listed and therefore faced much more stringent planning
and recycling production.                                                                    complications affecting factors such as the installation of double
                                                                                             glazing, or problems relating to the structure of the building which
Q. 38: Factors leading to poorer than normal energy consumption                              led to inefficiencies through the use of space – large corridors for
                                                                                             example.
    •    5 of the 33 of the comments claimed that poorer than normal
         energy consumption for the building was as a result of the
         occupant’s status as a minor tenant within the building and                 1
                                                                                      It should be noted that KPIs do take account of increased hours and therefore we
         therefore limited in their ability to instigate actions e.g. “Dept X is a   do not necessarily agree with this comment.


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    •    Other factors included the presence of asbestos, which acted        The Carbon Trust (energy) and Envirowise (water and waste) produce
         prohibitively in the maintenance, servicing, and replacement of     extensive literature on generic causes of inefficiencies. Below is an
         electrical fittings since any major renovation would pose serious   example taken from the carbon trust of some of the options suggested for
         health and safety issues. In total these comments accounted for 4   improving building energy efficiency. The application of these suggestions
         of the 33.                                                          is obviously dependant on building specific circumstances.
    •    Remaining comments suggested for perceived poorer than normal       Energy saving relating to Fossil Fuels (Source: Government Estate
         energy consumption were the installation of air conditioning and    Management Tool (cd), Carbon Trust, Action Energy, CROWN (2002))
         problems with boilers which both received 2 comments, as well as
         one comment referring to the absence of an any energy plan in                                                          Savings Savings Payback
         place.                                                                                  Description                     (kWh    (% per Period
                                                                                                                                per m²) year)    years
Q. 39: Factors leading to better than normal energy consumption              Instigate awareness training, close doors
                                                                                                                                 11.32      5       Immediate
                                                                             windows etc when heating is on
    •    5 of the 28 comments suggested that the installation of motion
                                                                             Check controls of heating are set correctly         10.3     5-10      Immediate
         sensors and automatic lights had led to better than normal energy
         consumption within their building                                   Improve Boiler Plant Management                     11.32    5-10      Immediate
                                                                                                                                                      1 to 2
    •    A further 4 comments believed the introduction of other light       Draught stripping                                   10.3    Up to 15
                                                                                                                                                      years
         saving technologies had helped reduce energy consumption                                                                                     1 to 2
                                                                             Install thermostatic radiator valves                6.87       5
    •    The following comments were given as additional factors /                                                                                    years
         measures taken by respondents which they felt have led to better
         than normal energy consumption. As a whole these accounted for      Insulation of valves and flanges on distribution                         1 to 2
                                                                                                                                 7.55       5
         6 of the 28 comments. Obviously individual circumstances apply      pipe work                                                                years
         but it is worth noting other strategies buildings have adopted /
         utilised in the drive to lead to better than normal energy                                                                                   1 to 4
         consumption:                                                        Install roof and wall insulation                    46.01   Up to 30
                                                                                                                                                      years
              o    Automatically controlled blinds on south facing side of                                                                           10 to 20
                                                                             Double glazing                                      17.17    5-20
                                                                                                                                                      years
                   buildings
                                                                             Install building management system                  18.87   Up to 25    5 years
              o    Cold water booster pumps aides efficiency in pumping
                                                                                                                                                    2 to 3
                   domestic cold water around the building                   Consider high efficiency or condensing boilers.
                                                                                                                                                  years over
                                                                             Where appropriate consider separate provision of    17.17   Up to 25
                                                                                                                                                    cost of
              o    Water softener – helps maximise efficiency of plant       domestic hot water
                                                                                                                                                  new boiler




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Energy Saving relating to electricity (Source: Government Estate Management                    •   A lack of urinals and poor economy toilets e.g. lacking dual flush
Tool (cd), Carbon Trust, Action Energy, CROWN (2002))
                                                                                                   facilities resulted in 4 of the 18 comments claiming a poorer than
                                                                                                   normal water consumption.
                                                         Savings Savings Payback
                      Description                         (kWh    (% per  Period               •   Dripping / inefficient taps were identified in 3 comments as
                                                         per m²) year)    years                    generating a poorer than normal water consumption figure
Switch off lights in unoccupied areas and where
natural daylight is sufficient
                                                             5.54     5-10      Immediate      •   1 comment mentioned 24/7 operation of urinals led to inefficiency
Replace 38mm tubes with 26mm tubes                           5.91       8       Immediate          and therefore a source of poorer than normal water consumption
Install simple lighting controls                             2.95      3-5       2 years       •   Further explanations as to why a building was experiencing poorer
                                                                                  2 to 4           than normal water consumption were included in 7 of the 18
Install microprocessor based lighting controls               5.54     5-10
                                                                                  years            comments, for example:
Upgrade lighting system to high frequency                                        1 to 15
fluorescent lamps
                                                             18.46   Up to 50
                                                                                  years
                                                                                                       o   Pressure washer used for vehicles
                                                                                                       o   Presence of onsite catering facilities
Instigate awareness training, close doors etc when
                                                             5.11     5-10      Immediate              o   The need to regularly flush through seldom used outlets in
cooling is operational
                                                                                                           accordance with water treatment regimes
Ensure controls are set correctly                            2.73      3-5      Immediate
                                                                                                       o   Poor staff awareness
Install BMS                                                  5.11     5-10       5 years
                                                                                                       o   Lack of control over other tenants.
Instigate awareness training, switch off equipment
                                                             4.26     5-10      Immediate
when not required e.g. PC’s                                                                 Q. 41: Factors leading to better than normal water consumption
Install timers on drinks machines, photocopiers and                               1 to 3
office equipment
                                                             5.68    Up to 20
                                                                                  years        •   5 of the 14 comments claimed to have generated better than
                                                                                                   normal water consumption through the introduction of waterless
For further useful suggestions please see the Institute of Directors /                             urinals
Carbon Trusts publication “Climate Change: how UK businesses can
                                                                                               •   An additional 3 comments suggested measures such as flush
benefit by reducing carbon emissions, A Director’s Guide”, Director
Publications Limited, 2005.                                                                        control mechanisms, water economy units and dosing systems
                                                                                                   had led to improved water consumption
Q. 40: Factors leading to poorer than normal water consumption                                 •   Spray taps, improved staff awareness and plumbing reviews were
    •    Poor plumbing and a lack of planned maintenance accounted for 3                           further reasons given for improved water consumption
         of the 18 comments made when addressing perceived poorer than                         •   Other possible suggestions for potential incorporation into other
         normal water consumption within the building e.g. “poorly                                 buildings, depending on individual circumstances, include:
         performing water saving devices are not serviced frequently”.




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                                                     2
                 o   Minimised toilet:person ratio                                      bins for segregation and other means of dealing with waste at
                 o   Better graphical recordings of quantities used – helps with        source.
                     management of the issue
                                                                                    •   The same number claimed that suitably active campaigns were in
                 o   Biological, non-flush urinals
                                                                                        place to alert building users to the need to recycle and minimise
                                                                                        waste. This included the presence of a Greening Officer to
Q. 42: Factors leading to poorer than normal waste production                           encourage recycling as well as the set up of committees to
and recycling                                                                           generate ideas and ways forward in addressing waste reduction.
       •    4 of the 15 comments identified problems with waste contractors.        •   Whereas a lack of suitable suppliers was given as a reason for
            Issues such as “buildings not producing enough waste in certain             poorer than normal waste production and recycling it was also
            categories to make collection worthwhile by a local authority or            given as a means of better than normal waste production and
            private contractor” and “waste contracts not catering for waste             recycling value where these did exist, according to 4 of the
            separation”, as well as simply a lack of any suitable contractor in         comments made by building managers
            the first place, all resulted in building managers considering their
                                                                                    •   ‘Other’ measures already in place (4 comments) included, as a
            buildings were achieving a poorer than normal waste production
                                                                                        means of generating a better than normal waste production value:
            and recycling level
                                                                                            o   Restriction of the number of waste paper bins at individual
       •    A lack of staff awareness and a lack of suitable recycling facilities
                                                                                                desks to discourage excess waste and focus on
            received an equal number of comments. Both these factor
                                                                                                channelling waste through the correct sources
            accounted for 3 of the 15 comments made.
                                                                                            o   Staff actively taking responsibility for disposing of
       •    A lack of storage, e.g. ”control of waste is encouraged but                         glass/cans at public facilities
            because of limited storage space efforts are limited” accounted for             o   White paper reused as scrap paper before being recycled
            2 of the responses as a cause of poorer than normal waste                       o   Installation of a compost onsite
            production and recycling.
       •    One comment suggested that the presence of bins at individual
            desks was a further factor leading to a poorer than normal waste
            production and recycling figure.

Q. 43: Factors leading to better than normal waste production and
recycling
       •    8 of the 24 comments believed buildings had a better than normal
            waste production and recycling figure through the availability of

2
    This will only reduce water consumption if this ratio refers to urinals.


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Appendix 5: Additional analysis

Efficiency quadrants for 4 analysis groups
1. Cost per m2 against m2 per FTE: by region                                     3. Cost per m2 against m2 per FTE: by FTE
                  35                                            Central London                    35                                                  50+ FTE
                                                                Rest of UK                                                                            <50 FTE
                  30                                                                              30
   Sq m per FTE




                                                                                   Sq m per FTE
                  25                                                                              25

                  20                                                                              20

                  15                                                                              15

                  10                                                                              10

                  5                                                                               5
                  £100   £200   £300       £400        £500   £600     £700                       £100   £200   £300       £400        £500   £600     £700
                                       Cost per sq m                                                                   Cost per sq m



2. Cost per m2 against m2 per FTE: by size band                                  4. Cost per m2 against m2 per FTE: by tenure


                  35                                          5,000+ sq m NIA                     35                                                 Leasehold
                                                              <5,000 sq m NIA                                                                        Freehold
                  30                                                                              30
   Sq m per FTE




                                                                                   Sq m per FTE
                  25                                                                              25

                  20                                                                              20

                  15                                                                              15

                  10                                                                              10

                  5                                                                               5
                  £100   £200   £300       £400        £500   £600     £700                       £100   £200   £300       £400        £500   £600     £700
                                       Cost per sq m                                                                   Cost per sq m


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                      Central London offices
                                            Sample: London                                                     Department: Pilot sample                      Sample:         14
                                                                                                                        2
                                         Total Costs: £73,397,807                                        Occupied NIA (m ): 145,132                              FTE:     9,325
                                                                                                                                                         Workstations:    9,192
                         Level A                         Level B                             Level C
                                                                         Difference                                                                         Difference
                                                           KPI           from mean                                              KPI       Score            from mean Sample
                                                                     2                               2
                                                        Cost per m                     C1 Rent / m                              £273       115            -£7,107,000        14
                                                                                                         2
                       Cost per FTE                       £506           -£7,678,000   C2 Rates / m                             £93        123            -£3,972,000        14
      EFFICIENCY




                                                                                                             2
                                                           109                         C3 Other costs / m                       £140        80             £3,401,000        14
                          £7,871
                                                           2
                            97                           m / FTE
                                                                                            2
                                                          15.6             -1,314      S1 m per workstation                     15.8        62     FTE          -2,936       14
                                                               86           FTE        S2 Workstations / FTE                    0.99       117     FTE          1,622        14


                                                                         Weighting                                                                         Weighting Sample
                                                        Workplace                      W1 Functional suitability                55%        100                  30%        1
                                                        productivity        40%        W2 Workplace environment                 43%        100                   30%          1
                                                           100                         W3 Facilities                            58%        101                   30%          1
                                                                                       W4 Downtime                              7%         101                   10%          1
      EFFECTIVENESS




                       Effectiveness
                           score
                                                                                                   2
                                                      Environmental                    E1 kWh / m / year                        291        123                   40%         11
                           103                         sustainability       30%        E2 Solid waste recycled                  26%         61                   30%          7
                                                                                            3
                                                           102                         E3 m water / FTE                          7.7       117                   20%          9
                                                                                       E4 Management practices                   11        108                   10%          6


                                                        Operability         30%        O1 Condition                              30        117                   60%          6
                                                           106                         O2 Health & safety                        5.0        91                   40%          6

                                                        Key to scoring system                                    Calculations of overall performance
                                                                        Score range
                                                  Above average range      110+        Efficiency scores are calculated by summing up data for Pilot sample buildings & their
                                                         Average range    90-110       respective OPD Dataset benchmarks and comparing the totals.
                                                  Below average range       <90
                                       Instances of a missing KPI score     100        Effectiveness scores are derived by weighting individual building scores by NIA.


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                      Rest of UK offices
                                            Sample: Rest of UK                                                 Department: Pilot sample                      Sample:        116
                                                                                                                        2
                                         Total Costs: £41,304,402                                        Occupied NIA (m ): 154,665                              FTE:    10,958
                                                                                                                                                         Workstations:   11,607
                         Level A                         Level B                             Level C
                                                                         Difference                                                                         Difference
                                                           KPI           from mean                                              KPI       Score            from mean Sample
                                                                     2                               2
                                                        Cost per m                     C1 Rent / m                              £146        96               £815,000       116
                                                                                                         2
                       Cost per FTE                       £267           -£3,243,000   C2 Rates / m                             £39        126            -£2,190,000       116
      EFFICIENCY




                                                                                                             2
                                                           107                         C3 Other costs / m                       £82        113            -£1,868,000       116
                          £3,769
                                                           2
                           109                           m / FTE
                                                                                            2
                                                          14.1              190        S1 m per workstation                     13.3        88     FTE          -1,189      116
                                                           102              FTE        S2 Workstations / FTE                    1.06       113     FTE          1,379       116


                                                                         Weighting                                                                         Weighting Sample
                                                        Workplace                      W1 Functional suitability                56%        102                  30%       35
                                                        productivity        40%        W2 Workplace environment                 47%        110                   30%         35
                                                           106                         W3 Facilities                            62%        106                   30%         35
                                                                                       W4 Downtime                              7%         101                   10%          3
      EFFECTIVENESS




                       Effectiveness
                           score
                                                                                                   2
                                                      Environmental                    E1 kWh / m / year                        264        106                   40%         66
                           104                         sustainability       30%        E2 Solid waste recycled                  41%         96                   30%         21
                                                                                            3
                                                           104                         E3 m water / FTE                          8.0       113                   20%         46
                                                                                       E4 Management practices                   10        100                   10%         37


                                                        Operability         30%        O1 Condition                              27        105                   60%         37
                                                           101                         O2 Health & safety                        5.3        96                   40%         37

                                                        Key to scoring system                                    Calculations of overall performance
                                                                        Score range
                                                  Above average range      110+        Efficiency scores are calculated by summing up data for Pilot sample buildings & their
                                                         Average range    90-110       respective OPD Dataset benchmarks and comparing the totals.
                                                  Below average range       <90
                                       Instances of a missing KPI score     100        Effectiveness scores are derived by weighting individual building scores by NIA.


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                      Offices 5,000+ m2 NIA
                                                                2
                                            Sample: 5,000+ m                                                   Department: Pilot sample                      Sample:         20
                                                                                                                        2
                                         Total Costs: £90,750,973                                        Occupied NIA (m ): 212,965                              FTE:    14,195
                                                                                                                                                         Workstations:   14,507
                         Level A                         Level B                             Level C
                                                                         Difference                                                                         Difference
                                                           KPI           from mean                                              KPI       Score            from mean Sample
                                                                     2                               2
                                                        Cost per m                     C1 Rent / m                              £233       109            -£4,639,000        20
                                                                                                         2
                       Cost per FTE                       £426           -£6,708,000   C2 Rates / m                             £76        121            -£4,311,000        20
      EFFICIENCY




                                                                                                             2
                                                           107                         C3 Other costs / m                       £117        90             £2,242,000        20
                          £6,393
                                                           2
                            99                           m / FTE
                                                                                            2
                                                          15.0             -1,184      S1 m per workstation                     14.7        73     FTE          -3,272       20
                                                               92           FTE        S2 Workstations / FTE                    1.02       115     FTE          2,088        20


                                                                         Weighting                                                                         Weighting Sample
                                                        Workplace                      W1 Functional suitability                56%        102                  30%        6
                                                        productivity        40%        W2 Workplace environment                 46%        106                   30%          6
                                                           103                         W3 Facilities                            60%        103                   30%          6
                                                                                       W4 Downtime                              7%         100                   10%          0
      EFFECTIVENESS




                       Effectiveness
                           score
                                                                                                   2
                                                      Environmental                    E1 kWh / m / year                        292        117                   40%         17
                           103                         sustainability       30%        E2 Solid waste recycled                  28%         66                   30%         12
                                                                                            3
                                                           101                         E3 m water / FTE                          7.7       117                   20%         16
                                                                                       E4 Management practices                   11        106                   10%         12


                                                        Operability         30%        O1 Condition                              29        113                   60%         12
                                                           105                         O2 Health & safety                        5.1        92                   40%         12

                                                        Key to scoring system                                    Calculations of overall performance
                                                                        Score range
                                                  Above average range      110+        Efficiency scores are calculated by summing up data for Pilot sample buildings & their
                                                         Average range    90-110       respective OPD Dataset benchmarks and comparing the totals.
                                                  Below average range       <90
                                       Instances of a missing KPI score     100        Effectiveness scores are derived by weighting individual building scores by NIA.

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                      Offices <5,000 m2 NIA
                                                              2
                                           Sample: <5,000 m NIA                                             Department: Pilot Sample                       Sample:         110
                                                                                                                     2
                                        Total Costs: £23,951,236                                      Occupied NIA (m ): 86,831                                FTE:      6,088
                                                                                                                                                       Workstations:     6,292
                         Level A                         Level B                            Level C
                                                                        Difference                                                                        Difference
                                                           KPI          from mean                                             KPI       Score            from mean Sample
                                                       Cost per m 2                   C1 Rent / m2                            £144       112            -£1,652,000       110
                       Cost per FTE                      £276           -£4,212,000   C2 Rates / m2                           £39        135            -£1,851,000       110
      EFFICIENCY




                                                                                                           2
                                                           115                        C3 Other costs / m                      £92        108              -£709,000       110
                          £3,934
                           116                           m2 / FTE
                                                          14.3              61        S1 m2 per workstation                   13.8        84     FTE           -842       110
                                                           101             FTE        S2 Workstations / FTE                   1.03       115     FTE            903       110


                                                                        Weighting                                                                        Weighting Sample
                                                       Workplace                      W1 Functional suitability               55%         99                  30%       30
                                                       productivity        40%        W2 Workplace environment                45%        104                   30%         30
                                                           103                        W3 Facilities                           60%        104                   30%         30
                                                                                      W4 Downtime                              7%        103                   10%           4
      EFFECTIVENESS




                       Effectiveness
                           score
                                                      Environmental                   E1 kWh / m2 / year                      240        110                   40%         60
                           104                         sustainability      30%        E2 Solid waste recycled                 48%        112                   30%         16
                                                           109                        E3 m3 water / FTE                        8.3       111                   20%         39
                                                                                      E4 Management practices                  10         98                   10%         31


                                                        Operability        30%        O1 Condition                             26        104                   60%         31
                                                           101                        O2 Health & safety                       5.4        97                   40%         31

                                                        Key to scoring system                                  Calculations of overall performance
                                                                        Score range
                                                  Above average range      110+       Efficiency scores are calculated by summing up data for Pilot sample buildings & their
                                                         Average range    90-110      respective OPD Dataset benchmarks and comparing the totals.
                                                  Below average range       <90
                                       Instances of a missing KPI score     100       Effectiveness scores are derived by weighting individual building scores by NIA.

Copyright: OGC, IPD                                                                                                                                                      Page A5-5
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                      Offices 50+ FTE
                                   Staff numbers: 50+ FTE                                                      Department: Pilot sample                      Sample:         51
                                                                                                                        2
                                     Total Costs: £110,538,751                                           Occupied NIA (m ): 282,451                              FTE:    19,199
                                                                                                                                                         Workstations:   19,697
                         Level A                         Level B                             Level C
                                                                        Difference                                                                          Difference
                                                           KPI          from mean                                               KPI       Score            from mean Sample
                                                                    2                                2
                                                       Cost per m                      C1 Rent / m                              £213       109            -£6,056,000        51
                                                                                                         2
                       Cost per FTE                       £391          -£10,259,000   C2 Rates / m                             £67        124            -£5,869,000        51
      EFFICIENCY




                                                                                                             2
                                                           108                         C3 Other costs / m                       £111        94             £1,666,000        51
                          £5,758
                                                           2
                           104                           m / FTE
                                                                                            2
                                                          14.7             -1,014      S1 m per workstation                     14.3        77     FTE          -3,823       51
                                                               95           FTE        S2 Workstations / FTE                    1.03       115     FTE          2,809        51


                                                                         Weighting                                                                         Weighting Sample
                                                        Workplace                      W1 Functional suitability                56%        101                  30%       19
                                                        productivity       40%         W2 Workplace environment                 45%        106                   30%         19
                                                           103                         W3 Facilities                            60%        104                   30%         19
                                                                                       W4 Downtime                              7%         101                   10%          2
      EFFECTIVENESS




                       Effectiveness
                           score
                                                                                                   2
                                                      Environmental                    E1 kWh / m / year                        282        115                   40%         40
                           103                         sustainability      30%         E2 Solid waste recycled                  33%         78                   30%         26
                                                                                            3
                                                           103                         E3 m water / FTE                          7.8       117                   20%         37
                                                                                       E4 Management practices                   10        105                   10%         24


                                                        Operability        30%         O1 Condition                              28        111                   60%         24
                                                           104                         O2 Health & safety                        5.1        93                   40%         24

                                                        Key to scoring system                                    Calculations of overall performance
                                                                        Score range
                                                  Above average range      110+        Efficiency scores are calculated by summing up data for Pilot sample buildings & their
                                                         Average range    90-110       respective OPD Dataset benchmarks and comparing the totals.
                                                  Below average range       <90
                                       Instances of a missing KPI score     100        Effectiveness scores are derived by weighting individual building scores by NIA.


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                      Offices <50 FTE
                                           Sample: <50 FTE                                                  Department: Pilot sample                       Sample:          79
                                        Total Costs: £4,163,458                                       Occupied NIA (m2): 17,345                                FTE:      1,084
                                                                                                                                                       Workstations:     1,102
                         Level A                         Level B                            Level C
                                                                        Difference                                                                        Difference
                                                           KPI          from mean                                             KPI       Score            from mean Sample
                                                       Cost per m 2                   C1 Rent / m2                            £118       110              -£235,000        79
                                                                                                      2
                       Cost per FTE                       £240          -£661,000     C2 Rates / m                            £31        135              -£293,000        79
      EFFICIENCY




                                                                                                           2
                                                           114                        C3 Other costs / m                      £91        108              -£133,000        79
                          £3,841
                           105                           m2 / FTE
                                                          16.0             -110       S1 m2 per workstation                   15.7        68     FTE           -287        79
                                                            90             FTE        S2 Workstations / FTE                   1.02       116     FTE            178        79


                                                                        Weighting                                                                        Weighting Sample
                                                       Workplace                      W1 Functional suitability               54%         99                  30%       17
                                                       productivity        40%        W2 Workplace environment                44%        102                   30%         17
                                                           101                        W3 Facilities                           59%        102                   30%         17
                                                                                      W4 Downtime                              7%        101                   10%           2
      EFFECTIVENESS




                       Effectiveness
                           score
                                                      Environmental                   E1 kWh / m2 / year                      203        120                   40%         37
                           102                         sustainability      30%        E2 Solid waste recycled                 46%        106                   30%           2
                                                           106                        E3 m3 water / FTE                       10.2        90                   20%         18
                                                                                      E4 Management practices                  8          83                   10%         19


                                                        Operability        30%        O1 Condition                             25         99                   60%         19
                                                            98                        O2 Health & safety                       5.4        97                   40%         19

                                                        Key to scoring system                                  Calculations of overall performance
                                                                        Score range
                                                  Above average range      110+       Efficiency scores are calculated by summing up data for Pilot sample buildings & their
                                                         Average range    90-110      respective OPD Dataset benchmarks and comparing the totals.
                                                  Below average range       <90
                                       Instances of a missing KPI score     100       Effectiveness scores are derived by weighting individual building scores by NIA.


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                      Leasehold offices
                                            Sample: Leasehold                                                  Department: Pilot sample                      Sample:         96
                                                                                                                        2
                                         Total Costs: £87,014,255                                        Occupied NIA (m ): 193,203                              FTE:    13,436
                                                                                                                                                         Workstations:   13,587
                         Level A                         Level B                             Level C
                                                                         Difference                                                                         Difference
                                                           KPI           from mean                                              KPI       Score            from mean Sample
                                                                     2                               2
                                                        Cost per m                     C1 Rent / m                              £258       102              -£960,000        96
                                                                                                         2
                       Cost per FTE                        £450          -£4,585,000   C2 Rates / m                             £77        118            -£3,319,000        96
      EFFICIENCY




                                                                                                             2
                                                           105                         C3 Other costs / m                       £115       101              -£306,000        96
                          £6,476
                                                           2
                           103                           m / FTE
                                                                                            2
                                                          14.4              -290       S1 m per workstation                     14.2        78     FTE          -2,446       96
                                                               98           FTE        S2 Workstations / FTE                    1.01       116     FTE          2,156        96


                                                                         Weighting                                                                         Weighting Sample
                                                        Workplace                      W1 Functional suitability                55%        101                  30%       26
                                                        productivity        40%        W2 Workplace environment                 46%        107                   30%         26
                                                           104                         W3 Facilities                            61%        104                   30%         26
                                                                                       W4 Downtime                              7%         101                   10%          3
      EFFECTIVENESS




                       Effectiveness
                           score
                                                                                                   2
                                                      Environmental                    E1 kWh / m / year                        275        117                   40%         55
                           105                         sustainability       30%        E2 Solid waste recycled                  36%         84                   30%         14
                                                                                            3
                                                           105                         E3 m water / FTE                          8.1       113                   20%         33
                                                                                       E4 Management practices                   11        105                   10%         28


                                                        Operability         30%        O1 Condition                              29        114                   60%         28
                                                           106                         O2 Health & safety                        5.2        95                   40%         28

                                                        Key to scoring system                                    Calculations of overall performance
                                                                        Score range
                                                  Above average range      110+        Efficiency scores are calculated by summing up data for Pilot sample buildings & their
                                                         Average range    90-110       respective OPD Dataset benchmarks and comparing the totals.
                                                  Below average range       <90
                                       Instances of a missing KPI score     100        Effectiveness scores are derived by weighting individual building scores by NIA.


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                      Freehold offices
                                            Sample: Freehold offices                                          Department: Pilot sample                      Sample:         34
                                                                                                                       2
                                         Total Costs: £27,687,954                                       Occupied NIA (m ): 106,593                              FTE:     6,847
                                                                                                                                                        Workstations:    7,212
                         Level A                         Level B                            Level C
                                                                        Difference                                                                         Difference
                                                           KPI          from mean                                              KPI       Score            from mean Sample
                                                                    2                               2
                                                       Cost per m                     C1 Rent / m                              £115       130            -£5,331,000        34
                                                                                                        2
                       Cost per FTE                       £260          -£6,335,000   C2 Rates / m                             £44        138            -£2,843,000        34
      EFFICIENCY




                                                                                                            2
                                                           119                        C3 Other costs / m                       £101        79             £1,839,000        34
                          £4,044
                                                           2
                           109                           m / FTE
                                                                                           2
                                                          15.6             -834       S1 m per workstation                     14.8        72     FTE          -1,666       34
                                                               88          FTE        S2 Workstations / FTE                    1.05       112     FTE            832        34


                                                                        Weighting                                                                         Weighting Sample
                                                        Workplace                     W1 Functional suitability                56%        102                  30%       10
                                                        productivity       40%        W2 Workplace environment                 44%        102                   30%         10
                                                           102                        W3 Facilities                            59%        102                   30%         10
                                                                                      W4 Downtime                              7%         100                   10%          1
      EFFECTIVENESS




                       Effectiveness
                           score
                                                                                                  2
                                                      Environmental                   E1 kWh / m / year                        281        113                   40%         22
                           101                         sustainability      30%        E2 Solid waste recycled                  31%         71                   30%         14
                                                                                           3
                                                           100                        E3 m water / FTE                          7.6       119                   20%         22
                                                                                      E4 Management practices                   10        100                   10%         15


                                                        Operability        30%        O1 Condition                              27        105                   60%         15
                                                           100                        O2 Health & safety                        5.0        91                   40%         15

                                                        Key to scoring system                                   Calculations of overall performance
                                                                        Score range
                                                  Above average range      110+       Efficiency scores are calculated by summing up data for Pilot sample buildings & their
                                                         Average range    90-110      respective OPD Dataset benchmarks and comparing the totals.
                                                  Below average range       <90
                                       Instances of a missing KPI score     100       Effectiveness scores are derived by weighting individual building scores by NIA.


Copyright: OGC, IPD                                                                                                                                                       Page A5-9

				
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