The Reagan Revolution - Leleua Loupe

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					The Reagan Revolution
Social Change and Foreign Policy
Study Guide Identifications
 Supply side economics/Reaganomics
Carter Corollary
Reagan Doctrine
Operation Cyclone
Camp David Accords 1978
Feminization of Poverty
“New Right”
“Religious Right”
Sandanistas vs. Contras/“freedom fighters”
Renewed Cold war/Evil Empire
Mikhail Gorbachev/End of Soviet Union
Iran Contra Affair/Boland Amendments/NSC
  Study Guide Questions
What was the legacy of the 1960’s?
What changes took place concerning identity
and women’s roles, or questions of women’s
What Characterized the “New Right”?
What was the Conservative Social Agenda?
 What was foreign policy under Reagan?
Legacy of the 1960s Activism
Came to characterize American political life
Mass demonstrations - Protest advocacy tool.
   1980s - Clamshell alliance
      Against a nuclear reactor
   “Take Back the Night”
      Protest sexual assault and violence
   1995 Million Man March
      Campaign of social reconstruction in black communities

Mass demonstrations - lost power to attract
Women’s Roles
 Ideas of domesticity
     Reality much different
     Birth control pill - sexual behavior.
        Many women questioned gender based divisions in both
         public and private sectors.
 1970’s-80s activism
     Distribution of political power
     Feminization of poverty
     Women’s self-sufficiency
Group Identity
  Increased emphasis on group identity as the
  basis for social activism grew
     Cultural differences among Americans should be
      affirmed rather than feared, celebrated rather
      than simply tolerated.
     Battles against discrimination and for cultural pride
          African American
          American Indian
          Asian
          Mexican
          Homosexual Movements
Efforts to Reform American
Foreign Policy
  Ford & Jimmy Carter Administrations in the
  mid 1970s
     Cost of Vietnam – speed decline of U.S. as super
     Salt I & II treaties with Soviet Union
        Negotiate strategic arms control & relative peace
  Carter promise of commitment to Human
     Condemned policies that allowed the U.S. to
      support right wing monarch and military dictators
      in the name of anti-communism
Carter’s Reform Efforts
   Reform CIA & discourage intervention and
  covert action abroad
     Make the CIA act within the law, rather than
      above the law
        Temporary changes
  Camp David Accords
     1978 terms for peace in the Middle East
     Negotiations between Israel, Egypt & Palestine
        Anwar el-Sadat (Egypt), Prime Minister Menachem Begin
         (Israel), Arafat (PLO)
     Conflict since Israel established in 1948 by Balfour
      Declaration following World War II
Panama, Nicaragua, Afghanistan
& Iran Under Carter

  Negotiated return of Panama Canal
  Zone to Panama by 2000
      following independence movement or
      revolt against United States control
  1979 Sandanista Movement overthrows
  dictator and U.S. ally Anastasio Somoza
     Plea for U.S. support denied by Carter
Afghanistan Under Carter
  1979 Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan
    Carter: "The Soviet invasion of
     Afghanistan is the greatest threat to
     peace since the Second World War".
      30,000 troops sent to crush Islamic
       independence movement against
       Soviet influence and control
  Carter argued that soviet presence
  “posed a grave threat to the free
  movement of Middle East oil”
Carter Corollary to the Monroe
  Affirmed right of the military force to protect the
  interests in the Persian Gulf
    Halted exports to Soviet Union

    Canceled U.S. participation in the Moscow
    Supported Afghanistan Resistance against soviet
        In May 1985, the seven principal rebel
         organizations formed the Seven Party
         Mujahideen Alliance to coordinate their
         military operations against the Soviet army.
        Operation Cyclone: CIA under Carter &
         Reagan provided aid
            Armed the Afghan Mujahideen 1979 – 1989,
             20 billion
            Increased military spending
Iran Hostage Crisis
  November 4, 1979 Iranian fundamentalists
  seized the US embassy in Tehran and held 52
  American employees hostage for 444 days.
     Pahlavi Royal family as the shah of Iran in 1953
        millions of dollars into the economy and armed military.
     In 1979 a revolution led by the Islamic leader
      Ayatollah Tuhollah Khomenini had overthrown the
        Carter allowed the Shah to seek refuge in California
        retaliated by taking American staff as hostages.
              Attempts to return the hostages failed.
Election of 1980
 Walter Mondale & Geraldine Ferraro
     Emphasized growing deficit, raise in taxes, called
      attention to the citizens denied prosperity in
 Ronald Reagan and former CIA director and
 Texas Oil executive H.W. Bush.
     Choice between a (D) “government of pessimism,
      fear and limits” or his own based on “Hope,
      Confidence and growth.”
        Reagan began with an inauguration that cost millions of
         dollars, Nancy’s wardrobe cost $25,000
              Began a show and celebration of wealth and power that
               would prevail
              His election interpreted by supporters as a mandate for
               conservatism that had been growing since the Nixon years
Reagan’s Political Objectives
  Limit state support for welfare and social services
  Expand state power to enforce law and order
  Championed anti-communism
  Tapped the resentment over rising property taxes & high
  Backlash against
     Anti-war movement
     counterculture
     Women’s liberation
     Urban uprisings
     Emphasized “family issues”
        Opposed sex education, abortion rights, gay liberation
        Opposed the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment
c. Emergence of “New Right”
  Backlash against liberalism of 1960s
     Framed goals in terms of emphasis of “Moral Values”
     Largest component of movement were evangelical or born
      again protestants
     Opposed re-treat from anti-communist foreign policy &
      domestic programs that addressed poverty and equality
  Religious right
    Protestants, fundamentalists, Evangelical
        Battled to prevent the IRS from denying tax-exempt
         status to private Christian colleges that opposed racial
     Roe Vs. Wade
        mobilized fundamentalists and evangelical
         leaders joined with the Catholic conservatives
         in opposing abortion.
Conservative Social Agenda
 National Conservative Political Action Committee, the
 Conservative Caucus, the Moral Majority
   No separation of church & state

   Defending family values - by opposing abortion
    and “degenerate” life styles
      The Male-headed nuclear family needs
       protection from moral wrongs of homosexuals
       and feminists.
   Education : New ideas such as multiculturalism
    and feminism dangerous
      Movement towards reinterpreting history from
       a multicultural non-traditional perspective is
       under fire.
Reagan Revolution
 Rejected the activist welfare states legacy of
 the New Deal Era
    Rejected Keynesian economics
       traditionally favored moderate tax cuts and increases in
        government spending to stimulate the economy and
        reduce unemployment, by putting money in peoples
        pockets, greater consumer demand would lead to
        economic expansion.
 Supply-siders or Reaganomics
    called for simultaneous tax cuts and reductions in
     public spending, this would give private
     entrepreneurs and investors greater incentives to
     start business, take risks, invest capital and create
     new wealth and jobs.
Supply Side Economics
  The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981
    benefited the richest fraction of the
     population that derives most of its income
     from rent, dividends and interest instead of
     from wages.
  The Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1981
    cut social and cultural programs, hardest
     hit areas included education, environment,
     health, housing, urban aid, food stamps,
     research on synthetic fuels and the arts
Greatly increased the defense budget
Anti organized labor –
  13,000 federal employees all members of
   the Professional Air Traffic Controllers
   Organization went who went on strike in
   1981, he fired all of them. By 1990 15% of
   workers belonged to a labor union
  weakened rules that governed
   environmental protection, workplace
   safety, consumer protection to increase the
   efficiency and productivity of business.
  Large corporations, wall street stock
   brokerages, investment banking houses,
   savings and loan industry were allowed to
   operate with a much freer hand than ever
George Gilder, conservative author of Wealth and
Poverty (1988)

      summarized this economic theory: “ A
       successful economy depends on the
       proliferation of the rich.”
         Politically supply-siders look to reward the
         most loyal republican constituencies , the
         affluent and business community.
         They reduce the flow of federal dollars to two
         core democratic constituencies: the recipients
         and professional providers of health and
         welfare programs.
Promise & Reality
  Promise to balance the budget
  Reality National debt tripled from 914
  billion (1980) to 2.7 Trillion (1989)
     Fiscal crisis became a structural problem
        Supply side economics ultimately reversed
        America from being the leading creditor nation
        in the world to a debtor nation (340 Billion)
Best & Worst Time, Reagan and
American popular culture
  Popular culture
     Celebration of wealth, money making and
     Dominated 1980s to present
  Greater Inequality
     Middle class shrinking, poverty rising
  Promise of Middle class status
     Fewer able to improve living standards or reach
      the middle class
Reagan’s Promise to Restore
World Supremacy
  Increased military spending
  Foreign policy
     Revival of cold war patriotism
     Championed U.S. Interventionism
        Intervened in Caribbean, Latin and South America
     Anti-communist Rhetoric centerpiece for foreign
        Labeled the Soviet Union as the “Evil Empire… the focus
         of evil in the modern world”
        Though soviets dismantling & retreat from arms race and
         empire building made cold war framework of
         international affairs irrelevant by 1980s
Arms Race Nuclear Power
  70% of Americans favored nuclear freeze
     1982 750,000 people demonstrated, NY
        Halt on spending on and deployment of nuclear weapons

  1982 Regan announced the SDI initiative
     Star Wars or the Strategic Defense Initiative
        Estimated 27 Billion, spent 17 billion
              Meaningful arms control undermined
              Soviet-U.S. relations deteriorated
Foreign Policy & the “Reagan
  Reasserted America’s right to intervene
  anywhere in the world to “roll back”
  communism by supplying overt and covert aid
  to “anti-communist resistance movements”
     Assumed that political instability resulted from
      soviet influence

        1983 invaded Grenada, Nicaragua, El Salvador

             1983 Grenada, Socialist leader assassinated & installed a
              friendly government.
CIA Covert Action
 Aided anticommunist forces in
 Afghanistan and the Contras in
 Waged a renewed cold war to support
 anticommunist governments that
 “supported democracy” to constrain the
 soviets sphere of influence.
 “Freedom Fighters”
El Salvador
  Aided a repressive regime (pro-
     1983 right wing death squads tortured and
      assassinated 1,000’s of opposition leaders
        Bloody Civil war left 54,000 dead
  Reagan looked to Nicaragua
     Sandanista government “posed an unusual
      and extraordinary threat to national
    Sandanista Party
    1984 Reagan escalated the undeclared war
     against the Sandanistas
       US augmented its military forces in neighboring
         Conducted training exercises throughout the region
         Stepped up economic pressure
         Launched a psychological offensive to discredit the
         Trained and equipped an opposition military force of
          Nicaraguans or Contras.
 Supported murderous dictatorships in nearby
 El Salvador and Guatamala
U.S. Intervention in Nicaragua
  1909 - 1933 Taft coup on President Zalaya
     Trans isthmus Canal
     Nationalization of land
  1936 Guardia Nacional – Coup
  Somoza Regime 1937 – 47, 1950-56
  1962 the FSLN, Liberation Front, Sandanistas
     Oppose regime of Anastasio somoza
     Nationalized banking
  Somoza Regime 1967-72, 1974-1979
Public Criticism
  U. S. backed regimes were clearly implicated in
  human-rights abuses
     Nuns, journalists, humanitarian aid workers included
  Brutality and corruption among the contras or so
  called freedom fighters brought growing public
     American grass roots opposition
     Sister city projects offered humanitarian & technical
      assistance to Nicaraguan communities
  1984 Boland Amendments
     Congress ban on arms sales
     Forbade government agencies from supporting “directly or
      indirectly military or para-military operations” in Nicaragua
Iran-contra affair

  Denied funding my congress,
     Reagan turned to the National Security Council to
      find a way to keep the contra war going
        1984 – 1986 raised 37 million in aid from foreign
         countries and private contributors, largest mercenary
         army in the hemispheric history
  1986 sold arms to Pro-Iranian Islamic
  Radicals in a secret deal to secure the
  release of American hostages of Muslim
     Sold arms to Iran to channel profits to the contra
        circumvented Boland Amendments
Cover – up & American Amnesia
   National Security Council
  advisors Robert McFarlane and Admiral John
     sold weapons and missiles to Iranians using Israel and the
      go between.

  North and Poindexter lied to congress , shredded
  evidence and refused to keep the president fully
  informed to guaranteed his “plausible deniability”
     convicted as felons,
     1992 H.W. Bush granted pardons to 6 key players in the
 End of the Soviet Union &
Collapse of Communism
  Mikhail Gorbachev (General Secretary of the
  communist party in 1985)
     Policy of Glasnost (openness) & Perestroika
      (economic liberalization)
     1987 signed a major Arms Treaty that reduced
      each nations supply of range missiles
  He declared and end to the cold war
  Soviet sphere of influence and the union itself
  would cease to exist
Consequences of Reaganomics

  National debt tripled to 2.7 Trillion 1989
     The fiscal crisis became a structural
      problem with profound & long lasting
      implications for the American economy
  Became indebted to foreign nations
  (340 billion)
     Post WWII the leading creditor, now the
      biggest debtor
Greater Inequality
  Average weekly and hourly earnings
  dropped between 1980-1992
  Share of Total Net Worth of American
     Richest 1% 31% 1983 – 37% 1989
     Next Richest 9% 35% to 31% 1989
     Remaining 90% 33% to 32%
Environmental De-regulation
  Sagebrush Rebellion
     Sympathetic to western movement of
      citizens who wanted vast federal land
      holdings in the west transferred to the
      states for less environmental protection
      and more rapid economic use
        Trees – timber companies
        Expanded offshore oil drilling
        Expedited exploration for minerals
Greater Inequality
  Number of Poor, Rate of Poverty and
  Poverty Line 1979-92
  Millions of poor 26.1 to 36.9 million in
  Rate increased from 11.7% to 15%
  Poverty Line increased from $7,412 to
Crisis for Organized Labor
  Republican offensive against labor unions
     (Air Traffic Controllers Organization)
     Other companies followed suit leading to the
      decline of union membership and blue collar jobs
        Hormel
        Phelps-Dodge
        National labor Relations Board and other federal
         agencies weakened collective bargaining by their
         interpretation of labor management relations
              Workers accepted a roll back in wages and loss of other
               benefits to be able to keep their jobs
Job Creation
  Low wage jobs were created at a
  growth rate of 50%
  Middle wage jobs at 31.7%
  High wage jobs at 11.9%
     Deindustrialization and blue collar job
      destruction led to loss of standard of living
      achieved in the 1950s and 1960s
Median Family Income by race
  All races combined median income
  increased by $1,000 between 1980 and
  Income for Whites increased by $1,600
  Income for Blacks decreased by
  Income for Hispanics decreased by
Feminization of Poverty
  Experience of poverty became the experience of
  predominately women and children
  Jobs available decreased for women with children &
  were lower paying
  Took financial support of a male breadwinner to keep
  a family out of poverty
  Courts sided on behalf of fathers in court
     Loss of alimony
     Middle class women pushed into poverty
     Majority of men defaulted on child support payments
     Divorced men increased standard of living
     Divorce women decreased standard of living
Female Headed Households,

  13.7 million people
  Accounted for 37% of the nations poor
  Number of black women as heads of
  household increased from 30% in 1970
  to 47% in 1980
Gender & Economic Contradictions

   Social and economic pressure to fulfill
   traditional roles
   The need for women to work
Wage Gap
 1980s Women made 60 cents on the
 male earned dollar
 2003 women made 75 cents
       Decline of earning among men
       Better educated women finding better jobs