The Great Depression

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					The Great Depression
Eleanor and
 married in
The Roosevelt Family in 1919
Alice Roosevelt Longworth and
        Lucy Mercer
Franklin contracted polio in 1921

   Won the
of New York in
 continued to
campaign for
  Franklin to
keep his name
    in state
 politics after
Franklin D. Roosevelt, Governor of New
            York 1928- 1932
         Elected president 1932
Presidential Election, 1932
         Brain Trusters

Raymond Moley

                    Rexford Tugwell
             Savvy Politicos

James A. Farley
                        Louis Howe
  Bank Run, 1932-1933
The Nadir of the Depression
Bank Failures, 1929-1933
Roosevelt Inauguration
   March 4, 1933
Franklin Delano Roosevelt and The New Deal

      First 100 Days

  15   pieces of major

      Relief, Recovery,
Federal Deposit Insurance

 Roosevelt signs
 the Banking Bill,
 March 9th, 1933
Fireside Chat, March 12, 1933
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
The National Recovery Administration
Public Works Administration (PWA)
      1933 under Harold Ickes
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 1933
             Relief Agencies

 CivilianConservation Corps (CCC)
 Federal Emergency Relief Act
  (FERA) Harry Hopkins
 Civil Works Administration (CWA)
 Home Owners Loan Corporation
  (HOLC) 1934
Civilian Conservation
Corps (CCC), 1933
Critics on the Left

                               Dr. Francis E. Townsend (right), confers
                                with Sheridan Downey, U.S. Senator
  Father Charles E. Coughlin               from California
Huey Long (1893-1935)

     Share Our Wealth
Felix Frankfurter and John Maynard
 Keynesian Economics Simplified

 In
   times of inflation the government
 should raise taxes and cut spending

 In
   times of deflation the government
 should lower taxes and increase spending
Works Progress Administration (WPA)

  Works Progress Administration (WPA) men work on an
   Arkansas River flood control project May 17, 1939
                     The WPA
 Added 3.5 million workers to the federal payroll
 Workers constructed 2,500 hospitals
  5,900 schools, 1,000 airport fields,
  13,000 playgrounds.
 WPA added $11 billion to the
   economy over six years – 1935 to 1941.
 Promoted cultural and artistic programs, Federal Theater
  Project, Federal Writers Project, Federal Art Project,
  Texas Centennial Exposition Hall of Negro Life
Rural Electrification Administration
           (REA) 1935

           Hayti, Missouri.
National Youth Administration (NYA)
                                     The NYA was an equal
                                      opportunity agency; it
                                        helped more than
                                    2 million high school and
                                        college students.

                                    LBJ Heads the Texas NYA

    is a question of the right to
   work, and the right to work
  should know no color lines.“
       Eleanor Roosevelt
            FDR’s Black Cabinet
William Henry Hastie
Walter White
Robert C. Weaver
Mary McLeod Bethune
-Director of Negro Affairs
in the National Youth
Administration from 1936
to 1944

    This group was not
    part of the official
         The Second New Deal, 1935

 Social Security Act
 National Labor Relations Act
   – (Robert Wagner Act)
 Public Utility Holding
  Company Act
 Banking Act
 Revenue Act                  President Roosevelt signing Social
                                        Security Act into law, 8/14/35.
      Roosevelt’s Court Packing
 The result of Schechter Poultry Co. vs. U.S.
  (May 1935) and other U.S. Supreme Court
  decisions against New Deal legislation (AAA,
  Coal Conservation Act)
 Judicial Procedures Reform Act (1937)
 The Court Changed in Significant Ways

        “A Switch in Time Saved Nine”
        A New Deal for Labor
 United Mine Workers
 United Automobile Workers
 Congress of Industrial Organizations
 NLRB v Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation
  (April 1937) upheld NLRB
 Result: Labor became a much more powerful
  part of American life.
Final Days of the New Deal, 1938
   Heavy Deficit Spending, $3.75 billion on a new public
    works bill
   A new AAA based on soil conservation
   Farm Security Administration, helped 870,000 farm
   U.S. Housing Authority for low income families
    (160,000 new units by 1941)
   Fair Labor Standards Act
     – Minimum wage (40 cents an hour), maximum
       hours (8 a day, 40 hour work week), time and a half
     – No child labor
    Conclusion to the New Deal
 Revolutionized Thinking
 FDR Created the Modern Presidency
 Various New Groups Shared in the New Deal
 Expanded Bureaucracy
 Government Assumed Power over the
 A Conservative Revolution?
Woody Guthrie (1912-1967)
   singing “Tom Joad”

Shown here
White Angel Bread Line, San Francisco, 1932
Ditched, Stalled, and Stranded, San Joaquin
         Valley, California, 1935
Drought Refugees from Oklahoma, Blythe,
            California, 1936
Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, 1936

Florence Thompson in Migrant Pea
  Pickers’ Camp, Nipomo, Calif.
Plantation Overseer and His Field Hands, near
         Clarksdale, Mississippi, 1936
Ex-slave with a Long Memory, Alabama, 1937
Mexican Migrant Fieldworker, Imperial Valley,
             California, 1937