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ELIZABETH (PowerPoint)

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					ELIZABETH
 The Virgin Queen and the men who wrote her story
The many faces of Elizabeth

                          WOMAN
                         LED BY HER
           Calculating    COUNCIL       Queen
              And                      Pressured
            Shrewd                        By
           negotiator                  puritans


                         ELIZABETH
                                             Indecisive
         Gloriana                            On marriage


                    Naive
                                Seductress
                     But
                                 In court
                    lucky
What are the Debates

 Constructions of Elizabeth’s identities and
  gender;
 Neale, Elton, Haigh, Bassnett
 Political and Administrative Leadership ;
  Camden, Neale, Elton, Bassnett
Religious beliefs and policies;
 Camden, Lingard, Neale, Haigh Carole Levin
CONTEMPORARY SOURCES

Elizabeth herself, letters,
   diaries and speeches
Spencer’s Fairie Queen
Court Gossip
Parliamentary papers
John Foxe Book of Martyrs
Proto Whig
William Camden- “ a golden queen
 tending her people in a golden age.”
“Her second care was to hold an even
 course in her whole life and all her
 actions; whereupon she took for her
 motto SEMPER AEDUM that is
 “always the same” “
Oxford Scholar, who in 1575 appointed
 Master of Westminster school.
He entered the influential sphere of
 William Cecil, Lord Burghley. Used his
 vacations to travel the English counties
 doing Antiquarian research
In 1586 published his first book, Britannia.
 Camden’s aim in writing the Britannia was to
 “illustrate this I’e of BRITAINE…that I would
 restore antiquity to Britaine, and Britain to his
 antiquity”
In writing the biography of Elizabeth, Lord
 Burghley made all state papers ( surviving?)
 available to Camden
He wrote in the style of the Tacitean Annals and it
 remained the definitive template for over 100 years
“Renowned Queen” & “Incomparable Princess”

Camden’s Annals was a filtered biography with “
 Gloriana” as its focus. The narrative did not seek to
 assess or explain events within her reign
Loyalist in religion and politics
Camden dedicated his Annals not to Elizabeth’s
 memory but to his “country and posterity at the altar
 of truth”
Camden first wrote the Chronicle in 1559 but it was
 not published until 1615. The second volume was
 published in 1617
Camden obvious praise of Elizabeth’s reign must
 be seen in the light of its position, lying between
 the chaos of Mary 1 and the disappointment of
 James 1. Haigh describes the Annales as “
 commentary on the rule of James 1 in the guise of a
 history of the rule of Elizabeth.”
Camden’s history was a civil history and he
 deliberately distances himself from Ecclesiastical
 history, such as the writings of John Foxe ( Book
 of Martyrs)
Revisionist/Catholic
Father John Lingard 1830
“ My object is truth and in the pursuit of
 truth I have made it a religious duty to
 consult the original historians.”
Lingard’s aim was to produce a history
 that protestants would read. Once you
 removed a readers prejudice and presented
 them with the truth, the groundwork of
 conversion was laid.
Papal Cardinal ordered that he have
 access to the Vatican manuscripts
Whig Historians/Nationalistic
Sir John Neale
 J E Neale “ honest and considered judgments based upon
  careful study of the original authorities.”
 “This biography has been written for a particular occasion
  and a particular public.” ( 4 th centenary of Queen
  Elizabeth’s birth) 1933
 Protestant
 Writing his book The Reign of Elizabeth 1 during the
  1930’s when world threats from a militant Germany
  required a nationalistic response.Parallels can be drawn
  WITH England under threat from Spain in Elizabeth’s
  time
Neale’s Thesis “ The Puritan Choir.”
The book was later republished in 1952 for the
 coronation of Elizabeth 11. “So far as the main
 narrative is concerned, continuous study of books and
 documents, since it was written has not suggested the
 need for change….the accession of a second Queen
 Elizabeth will surely stimulate interest.”
The book was later republished in 1952 for the
 coronation of Elizabeth 11. “So far as the main
 narrative is concerned, continuous study of books and
 documents, since it was written has not suggested the
 need for change….the accession of a second Queen
 Elizabeth will surely stimulate interest.”
Objectivist/Revisionist view

Geoffrey Elton- ““What really matters,
 of course, is Elizabeth’s ability in politics,
 her standing as a queen rather than her
 pretty obvious failings as a woman.”
Patriarchal viewpoint that women were
 inferior
Elton’s parents escaped Poland and Jewish
 persecution in World War 11
Admired English democratic institutions
 and sought to retrace the birth of this
 democracy
Author of the Tudor
 Constitution and England
 Under the Tudors
Elton’s grand thesis saw
 Elizabeth’s reign as a
 continuation of the
 Cromwell revolution which
 saw the establishment of a
 bureaucratic Parliament
 able to function efficiently
 irrespective of the ruler’s
 capabilities
Christopher Haigh. Revisionist. “This is my
view of Elizabeth” 1984
Oxford University
 “The monarchy of Elizabeth I
  was founded on illusion”
 “She was bossy, she was
  something of a fishwife”
 “Elizabeth I was a bully..”
 “Elizabeth was a show-off and
  she dressed to kill..”
Haigh context

Christopher Haigh in the post war, secular society,
 was also writing during Margaret Thatchers “iron
 fist in a velvet glove “rule. “It was first written
 under the shadow of Margaret Thatcher when
 government by tantrum was the order of the day; it
 has been revised in the time of Tony Blair when
 government by bluff is the style Elizabeth was
 there first; she also ranted and she also could spin.”
 Haigh
Elizabeth 1
a feminist perspective 1988
Susan Bassnett- “It is quite likely that even
 without a kingdom Elizabeth would still have been
 a woman of striking achievement.”
“ Long before I knew why , I supported Elizabeth.
 It was not only that she seemed to be a winner,
 whereas Mary was the feminine victim incarnate,
 but because every account I read, in whatever form,
 gave me an image of a woman who was determined
 to live according to some private inner pattern. She
 was in short, a model of an independent woman for
 a girl growing up in the 1950’s, long before the
 Women’s movement had announced itself
“There are countless stories of Elizabeth’s abrupt
 changes of heart, which have sometimes been
 perceived as an example of feminine
 capriciousness…..It would be patronizing and
 unjust to continue to dismiss such behavior
 simply as evidence of a women’s instability
“ Historians writing about her have been male
 while most novelists have been female and this
 has also contributed to the process of
 constructing a written portrait of Elizabeth,
 just as the political position of the writer and his
 or her religious standpoint have also been
 significant.”
     Post Modernist-Representations of
Elizabeth in Portraiture
 Roy Strong Gloriana
 The Ditchley Portrait 1592
                                   IMAGE
                                    AND
                               REPRESENTATION
Relativist- Dissing Elizabeth; Negative
Representations of Gloriana
Julia Walker 1998
American
   “What we seek to illuminate, however, is another, darker
    discourse, the less famous discourse of disrespect and dissent
    which also existed from Elizabeth's troubled days as a princess
    and into the decades after her death.
   Elizabeth's perennial popularity--due in part to her undoubted
    accomplishments and virtues and also growing from her status
    as a cultural anomaly--has always cast her in an unrealistically
    golden light
   While few writers have gone so far as to present a perfect
    queen, there has always been the assumption that criticism of
    her was somehow particularly mean-spirited -- too simply the
    product of medieval misogyny or blind religious prejudice.
 What we are doing, however, is to challenge
  the perception of these moments of opposition
  as isolated among Protestants or limited to
  Catholics, and to present them in the dark side
  of the Cult of Elizabeth, a minority discourse
  which, al- though its sources shift continually,
  was a constant element of the life, reign, and
  memory of this powerful, successful, and
  generally popular monarch. The essays in this
  collection open discussion on neglected texts,
  lost cultural artifacts, overlooked patterns of
  discourse, and buried facts”
 Post Modernist
 “All that separates this volume from other
  historicist studies of the age of Elizabeth is that
  we have focused on the body of material critical
  of the queen before, during, and after her reign.
 Ranging over foreign and domestic political
  issues, religious factionalism, the conflict between
  free speech and treason, gossip, sermons, art
  history, architecture, and the literary modes of
  epic, drama, and lyric, the topics of these essays
  offer a rich variety of scholarly discussion “
 Populism-History for the Masses
 “a racy read and a first rate history”
 David Starkey poor Quaker family (
  extreme Protestant) but claims to be a
  radical atheist
 Poor background with distant, emotionless
  father and dominating mother
 Gained a scholarship and became a pupil of
  Geoffrey Elton with whom he clashed often
 “ Elizabeth is extraordinary. She looks
  extraordinary. She behaves in an
  extraordinary way. And as a woman
  moving so effortlessly in a man’s world, she
  is doubly extraordinary.”
 I try as far as possible to suspend hindsight,
  and to tell things as they happened with
  cliffhangers and narrow escapes. If the
  results read like a historical thriller, I shall be
  well pleased.”
 “ Elizabeth is extraordinary. She looks
  extraordinary. She behaves in an
  extraordinary way. And as a woman moving
  so effortlessly in a man’s world, she is doubly
  extraordinary.”
 I try as far as possible to suspend hindsight,
  and to tell things as they happened with
  cliffhangers and narrow escapes. If the
  results read like a historical thriller, I shall be
  well pleased.”
Shekhar Kapur Elizabeth and The Golden Age
                   Film is a meeting
                     place between
                   The world that it
                depicts , and the worlds
                 Of both composer and
                       responder



                                            Films often tell
                                           Us more about the
                                            Period in which
                                            They were made
                                            Than the period
                                              They depict
Film Tags ? What do they suggest about
the directors purpose and our world?
Absolute power demands absolute loyalty



Woman Warrior Queen

				
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posted:6/29/2011
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