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					                   Academic Standards for
                   Science and Technology

                                 Pennsylvania Department of Education

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B            Final Form                    January 5, 2002
                                 Academic Standards for Science and Technology

                                         VII. TABLE OF CONTENTS

  Introduction……………………………………….….…….                     VIII.

  Unifying Themes ….……………………………………….                     3.1.   Earth Sciences ………………………………………….….                       3.5.
      A. Systems                                                    A. Land Forms and Processes
      B. Models                                                     B. Resources
      C. Patterns                                                   C. Meteorology
      D. Scale                                                      D. Hydrology and Oceanography
      E. Change

  Inquiry and Design ………………………………..……....                3.2.   Technology Education ……………………………………                      3.6.
     A. Nature of Scientific Knowledge                             A. Biotechnology
     B. Process Knowledge                                          B. Information Technology
     C. Scientific Method                                          C. Physical Technologies
     D. Problem Solving in Technology                                (Construction, Manufacturing, and Transportation)

  Biological Sciences ……………………………..………….                 3.3.   Technological Devices ……………………………………..                   3.7
      A. Living Forms                                               A. Tools
      B. Structure and Function                                     B. Instruments
      C. Inheritance                                               C. Computer Operations
      D. Evolution                                                 D. Computer Software
                                                                   E. Computer Communication Systems
  Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics ……….……...      3.4.
     A. Matter                                                  Science, Technology and Human Endeavors …………....         3.8.
     B. Energy                                                       A. Constraints
     C. Forces and Motion                                            B. Meeting Human Needs
     D. Astronomy                                                   C. Consequences and Impacts

                                                                Glossary ……………………………………..……………..                         IX.

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                  Final Form                                  January 5, 2002
                                 Academic Standards for Science and Technology

                                                VIII. INTRODUCTION

This document describes what students should know and be able to do in the following eight areas:

                   3.1. Unifying Themes of Science                3.5. Earth Sciences
                   3.2. Inquiry and Design                        3.6. Technology Education
                   3.3. Biological Sciences                       3.7. Technological Devices
                   3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry               3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors
                           and Physics

These standards describe what students should know and be able to do by the end of fourth, seventh, tenth and twelfth grade. In
addition, these standards reflect the increasing complexity and sophistication that students are expected to achieve as they progress
through school.

This document avoids repetition, making an obvious progression across grade levels less explicit. Teachers shall expect that students
know and can apply the concepts and skills expressed at the preceding level. Consequently, previous learning is reinforced but not

Standards are arranged by categories, for example, 3.5 Earth Science. Under each category are standard statements that are preceded
by a capital letter; for example, in 3.1 Unifying Themes, grade 10.B, "Describe concepts of models as a way to predict and understand
science and technology." Following the standard statements are bulleted standard descriptors, which explain the nature and scope of
the standard. Descriptors specify the nature of the standard and the level of complexity needed in meeting that standard in a proficient
manner. Descriptors serve to benchmark the standard statement. Curriculum, instruction and assessment should focus on meeting the
standard statement. Technology Education, computer applications and science are separate curricular areas. Meeting standards
should be approached as a collaborative effort among all curricular areas.

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                   Final Form                                        January 5, 2002
                                 Academic Standards for Science and Technology
The following descriptors explain the intent of each standard category:

3.1. Unifying Themes                  Unifying themes of science and technology provide big ideas that integrate with significant
                                      concepts. There are only a few fundamental concepts and processes that form the framework
                                      upon which science and technology knowledges are organized - motion and forces, energy,
                                      structure of matter, change over time and machines. These themes create the context through
                                      which the content of the disciplines can be taught and are emphasized in each standard.

3.2. Inquiry and Design               The nature of science and technology is characterized by applying process knowledge that
                                      enables students to become independent learners. These skills include observing, classifying,
                                      inferring, predicting, measuring, computing, estimating, communicating, using space/time
                                      relationships, defining operationally, raising questions, formulating hypotheses, testing and
                                      experimenting, designing controlled experiments, recognizing variables, manipulating variables,
                                      interpreting data, formulating models, designing models, and producing solutions. Everyone can
                                      use them to solve real-life problems. These process skills are developed across the grade levels
                                      and differ in the degree of sophistication, quantitative nature and application to the content.

3.3. Biological Sciences              Biology concerns living things, their appearance, different types of life, the scope of their
                                      similarities and differences, where they live and how they live. Living things are made of the
                                      same components as all other matter, involve the same kinds of transformations of energy and
                                      move using the same basic kinds of forces as described in chemistry and physics standards.
                                      Through the study of the diversity of life, students learn to understand how life has changed over
                                      a long period of time. This great variety of life forms continues to change even today as genetic
                                      instructions within cells are passed from generation to generation, yet the amazing integrity of
                                      most species remain.

 3.4. Physical Science                Physics and chemistry involve the study of objects and
      Chemistry and Physics           their properties. Students examine changes to materials during mixing, freezing, heating and
                                      dissolving and then learn how to observe and measure results. In chemistry students study the
                                      relationship between matter, atomic structure and its activity. Laboratory investigations of
                                      the properties of substances and their changes through a range of chemical interactions provide a
                                      basis for students to understand atomic theory and a variety of reaction types and their
22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                  Final Form                                        January 5, 2002
                                 Academic Standards for Science and Technology
                                      applications in business, agriculture and medicine. Physics deepens the understanding of the
                                      structure and properties of materials and includes atoms, waves, light, electricity, magnetism and
                                      the role of energy, forces and motion.

3.5. Earth Sciences                   The dynamics of earth science include the studies of forces of nature that build the earth and
                                      wear down the earth. The understanding of these concepts uses principles from physical
                                      sciences, geography and mathematics.

3.6. Technology Education             Technology education is the use of accumulated knowledge to process resources to meet human
                                      needs and improve the quality of life. Students develop the ability to select and correctly use
                                      materials, tools, techniques and processes to answer questions, understand explanations and
                                      solve problems encountered in real life situations. These overriding themes require students to
                                      design, create, use, evaluate and modify systems of Biotechnologies, Information Technologies,
                                      and Physical Technologies.

3.7. Technological Devices            Students use tools to observe, measure, move and make things. New technological tools and
                                      techniques make it possible to enact far-reaching changes in our world. Technology enhances the
                                      students' abilities to identify problems and determine solutions. Computers play an integral role
                                      in every day life by extending our abilities to collect, analyze and communicate information and

3.8. Science, Technology and          Scientific knowledge and societal needs often create a demand for new technology. Conversely,
     Human Endeavors                  new technology advances scientific knowledge. Both influence society through the impact of
                                      their products and processes.

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                  Final Form                                         January 5, 2002
                                 Academic Standards for Science and Technology
What Is Science? Any study of science includes the search for understanding the natural world and facts, principles, theories and
laws that have been verified by the scientific community and are used to explain and predict natural phenomena and events.

Acquiring scientific knowledge involves constructing hypotheses using observation and knowledge in the content area in order to
formulate useful questions that provoke scientific inquiry. As a result of repeated, rigorous testing over time and applying multiple
perspectives to a problem, consistent information emerges. A theory describes this verifiable event or phenomena. Theories are
powerful elements in science and are used to predict other events. As theories lose their ability to predict, they are modified,
expanded or generalized or incorporated into a broader theory.

Knowledge of what science is incorporates carefully developed and integrated components:

           Nature of science -- the ways in which scientists search for answers to questions and explanations of observations about
            the natural world; includes process knowledge of observing, classifying, inferring, predicting, measuring, hypothesizing,
            experimenting and interpreting data
           Unifying themes of science -- concepts, generalizations and principles that result from and lead to inquiry
           Knowledge -- facts, principles, theories and laws verifiable through scientific inquiry by the world community of
            scientists; includes physics, chemistry, earth science and biological sciences
           Inquiry -- an intellectual process of logic that includes verification of answers to questions about and explanations for
            natural objects, events and phenomena
           Process skills -- Recognition by students how knowledge is acquired and applied in science by observing, classifying,
            inferring, predicting, measuring, computing, estimating, communicating, using space/time relationships, defining
            operationally, formulating hypotheses, testing and experimenting, designing controlled experiments, recognizing variables,
            manipulating variables, interpreting data, formulating models, designing models and producing solutions.
           Problem solving -- application of concepts to problems of human adaptation to the environment that often leads to
            recognition of new problems; has social implications and leads to personal decision-making and action; a process which
            forms the link for interactions between scientific and technological results or findings; involves operational definitions,
            recognizing variables, formulating models and asking questions
           Scientific thinking -- the disposition to suspend judgment, not make decisions and not take action until results,
            explanations or answers have been tested and verified with information.

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                  Final Form                                        January 5, 2002
                                 Academic Standards for Science and Technology
What Is Technology Education? It is the means by which we teach technology. Technology is a body of knowledge separate from
but related to the sciences, with specific content, curriculum and specific certification requirements. Technology is the application of
tools, materials, processes and systems by humans to solve problems and provide benefits to humankind. We use technology in an
attempt to improve our environment. These improvements may relate to survival needs (e.g., food, shelter, defense) or they may relate
to human aspirations (e.g., knowledge, art, control). They can include unexpected benefits, unexpected costs and unexpected risks.

Technology education involves a broad spectrum of knowledge and activities. Effective technology education combines knowledge
of content, process and skills to provide students with a holistic approach to learning. Technology education offers unique
opportunities to apply numerous academic concepts through practical, hands-on applications. Instructional technology, on the other
hand, deals specifically with use of computers and different software to solve problems and communicate effectively. Knowledge of
content, process and skills should be used together to effectively engage students and promote a complete understanding of the
sciences, related technologies and their interrelationship. The relationship between science and technology is one where science builds
principles or theories and technology provides the practical application of those principles or theories.

Knowledge of content, process and skills in technology involves learning processes that include these components:
                 Methods of designing and developing solutions
                 Standards for selecting and using appropriate materials, tools and processes
                 Experimental and design specifications for testing and evaluating solutions
                 Criteria for judging the performance and impact of the solutions
                 Evaluating the impact of modifying a system to improve performance.

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                  Final Form                                        January 5, 2002
                                 Academic Standards for Science and Technology
Technology education can be divided into three main systems that include biotechnological, informational, and physical technologies:

Biotechnological Systems              Informational Systems                             Physical Systems

Bioconversion                         Computer-Aided Drafting / Design (CADD)           Automation / Robotics
Bioprocessing                         Drafting & Design                                 Computer-Aided and Integrated
Environment                           Desktop Publishing                                       Manufacturing (CAM/CIM)
Ergonomics                            Electronic Communications                         Construction
Engineering / Design Systems          Engineering / Design Systems                      Electronic Circuits / Control Systems
Research and Development              Graphic Communications                            Energy Systems
                                      Communications Systems                            Architecture and Community Planning
                                      Multimedia Technology                             Engineering / Design Systems
                                      Networking Systems                                Enterprise Organization & Operation
                                      Research and Development                          Manufacturing
                                      Video and Television Production                   Material Processes
                                      World Wide Web Design & Publishing                Research and Development

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                 Final Form                                       January 5, 2002
                                             Academic Standards for Science and Technology
3.1.    Unifying Themes

            3.1.4. GRADE 4                                3.1.7. GRADE 7                              3.1.10. GRADE 10                            3.1.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge
and skills needed to . . .

A. Know that natural and human-made          A. Explain the parts of a simple system and A. Discriminate among the concepts of         A. Apply concepts of systems, subsystems,
   objects are made up of parts.                their relationship to each other.           systems, subsystems, feedback and             feedback and control to solve complex
    Identify and describe what parts make       Describe a system as a group of           control in solving technological problems.    technological problems.
       up a system.                                 related parts that work together to      Identify the function of subsystems          Apply knowledge of control
    Identify system parts that are natural         achieve a desired result                    within a larger system (e.g., role of         systems concept by designing and
       and human-made (e.g., ball point pen,        (e.g., digestive system).                   thermostat in an engine, pressure             modeling control systems that solve
       simple electrical circuits, plant         Explain the importance of order in a          switch).                                      specific problems.
       anatomy).                                    system.                                  Describe the interrelationships among        Apply systems analysis to predict
    Describe the purpose of analyzing           Distinguish between system inputs,            inputs, processes, outputs, feedback          results.
       systems.                                     system processes and system outputs.        and control in specific systems.           Analyze and describe the function,
    Know that technologies include              Distinguish between open loop and          Explain the concept of system                   interaction and relationship among
       physical technology systems                  closed loop systems.                        redesign and apply it to improve              subsystems and the system itself.
      (e.g., construction, manufacturing,        Apply systems analysis to solve               technological systems.                     Compare and contrast several
       transportation), informational               problems.                                Apply the universal systems model to            systems that could be applied to
       systems and biochemical-related                                                          illustrate specific solutions and             solve a single problem.
       systems.                                                                                 troubleshoot specific problems.            Evaluate the causes of a system’s
                                                                                             Analyze and describe the                        inefficiency.
                                                                                                effectiveness of systems to solve
                                                                                                specific problems.

B. Know models as useful simplifications of B. Describe the use of models as an             B. Describe concepts of models as a way to B. Apply concepts of models as a method to
   objects or processes.                       application of scientific or technological      predict and understand science and          predict and understand science and
    Identify different types of models.       concepts.                                       technology.                                 technology.
    Identify and apply models as tools         Identify and describe different types          Distinguish between different types of     Evaluate technological processes by
      for prediction and insight.                 of models and their functions.                   models and modeling techniques and          collecting data and applying
    Apply appropriate simple modeling          Apply models to predict specific                  apply their appropriate use in specific     mathematical models (e.g., process
      tools and techniques.                       results and observations                         applications (e.g., kinetic gas theory,     control).
    Identify theories that serve as models       (e.g., population growth, effects of             DNA).                                    Apply knowledge of complex
      (e.g., molecules).                          infectious organisms).                        Examine the advantages of using               physical models to interpret data
                                                                                                   models to demonstrate processes and         and apply mathematical models.
                                                                                                   outcomes (e.g., blue print analysis,
                                                                                                   structural stability).

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                        Final Form                                                 January 5, 2002
                                               Academic Standards for Science and Technology
                                                   Explain systems by outlining a                Apply mathematical models to                   Appraise the importance of
                                                    system’s relevant parts and its                science and technology.                         computer models in interpreting
                                                    purpose and/or designing a model                                                               science and technological systems.
                                                    that illustrates its function.

C. Illustrate patterns that regularly occur and C. Identify patterns as repeated processes or C. Apply patterns as repeated processes or      C. Assess and apply patterns in science and
   reoccur in nature.                              recurring elements in science and             recurring elements in science and               technology.
    Identify observable patterns                  technology.                                   technology.                                      Assess and apply recurring patterns
       (e.g., growth patterns in plants,            Identify different forms of patterns         Examine and describe recurring                    in natural and technological
       crystal shapes in minerals, climate,            and use them to group and classify            patterns that form the basis of                 systems.
       structural patterns in bird feathers).          specific objects.                             biological classification, chemical          Compare and contrast structure and
    Use knowledge of natural patterns to           Identify repeating structure patterns.          periodicity, geological order and               function relationships as they relate
        predict next occurrences (e.g.,             Identify and describe patterns that             astronomical order.                             to patterns.
        seasons, leaf patterns, lunar phases).         occur in physical systems                  Examine and describe stationary                Assess patterns in nature using
                                                      (e.g., construction, manufacturing,            physical patterns.                              mathematical formulas.
                                                       transportation), informational             Examine and describe physical
                                                       systems and biochemical-related               patterns in motion.

D. Know that scale is an important attribute   D. Explain scale as a way of relating          D. Apply scale as a way of relating concepts D. Analyze scale as a way of relating
   of natural and human made objects,             concepts and ideas to one another by           and ideas to one another by some             concepts and ideas to one another by
   events and phenomena.                          some measure.                                  measure.                                     some measure.
    Identify the use of scale as it relates       Apply various applications of size            Apply dimensional analysis and scale        Compare and contrast various forms
       to the measurement of distance,               and dimensions of scale to scientific,         as a ratio.                                  of dimensional analysis.
       volume and mass.                              mathematical, and technological              Convert one scale to another.               Assess the use of several units of
    Describe scale as a ratio (e.g., map            applications.                                                                               measurement to the same problem.
       scales).                                    Describe scale as a form of ratio and                                                      Analyze and apply appropriate
    Explain the importance of scale in              apply to a life situation.                                                                  measurement scales when collecting
       producing models and apply it to a                                                                                                        data.

E. Recognize change in natural and physical E. Identify change as a variable in               E. Describe patterns of change in nature,       E. Evaluate change in nature, physical
   systems.                                    describing natural and physical systems.          physical and man made systems.                  systems and man made systems.
    Recognize change as fundamental to         Describe fundamental science and                 Describe how fundamental science               Evaluate fundamental science and
       science and technology concepts.           technology concepts that could solve              and technology concepts are used to              technology concepts and their
    Examine and explain change by                practical problems.                               solve practical problems (e.g.,                  development over time (e.g., DNA,
       using time and measurement.              Explain how ratio is used to describe              momentum, Newton’s laws of                       cellular respiration, unified field
    Describe relative motion.                    change.                                           universal gravitation, tectonics,                theory, energy measurement,
                                                                                                    conservation of mass and energy,                 automation,

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                          Final Form                                                      January 5, 2002
                                   Academic Standards for Science and Technology
 Describe the change to objects      Describe the effect of making a       cell theory, theory of evolution,           miniaturization, Copernican and
  caused by heat, cold, light or       change in one part of a system on     atomic theory, theory of relativity,        Ptolemaic universe theories).
  chemicals.                           the system as a whole.                Pasteur’s germ theory, relativity,         Analyze how models, systems and
                                                                             heliocentric theory, gas laws,              technologies have changed over
                                                                             feedback systems).                          time (e.g., germ theory, theory of
                                                                            Recognize that stable systems often         evolution, solar system, cause of
                                                                             involve underlying dynamic changes          fire).
                                                                             (e.g., a chemical reaction at              Explain how correlation of variables
                                                                             equilibrium has molecules reforming         does not necessarily imply
                                                                             continuously).                              causation.
                                                                            Describe the effects of error in           Evaluate the patterns of change
                                                                             measurements.                               within a technology (e.g., changes
                                                                            Describe changes to matter caused by        in engineering in the automotive
                                                                             heat, cold, light or chemicals using a      industry).
                                                                             rate function.

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                              Final Form                                           January 5, 2002
                                               Academic Standards for Science and Technology
3.2.     Inquiry and Design

             3.2.4. GRADE 4                                 3.2.7. GRADE 7                                3.2.10. GRADE 10                               3.2.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge
and skills needed to . . .
A. Identify and use the nature of scientific   A. Explain and apply scientific and             A. Apply knowledge and understanding           A. Evaluate the nature of scientific and
   and technological knowledge.                   technological knowledge.                        about the nature of scientific and             technological knowledge.
    Distinguish between a scientific fact         Distinguish between a scientific              technological knowledge.                        Know and use the ongoing
      and a belief.                                   theory and a belief.                         Compare and contrast scientific                  scientific processes to continually
    Provide clear explanations that               Answer “What if” questions based                  theories and beliefs.                          improve and better understand how
      account for observations and                    on observation, inference or prior           Know that science uses both direct               things work.
      results.                                        knowledge or experience.                        and indirect observation means to           Critically evaluate the status of
    Relate how new information can                Explain how skepticism about an                   study the world and the universe.              existing theories (e.g., germ theory
      change existing perceptions.                    accepted scientific explanation led to       Integrate new information into                   of disease, wave theory of light,
                                                      a new understanding.                            existing theories and explain implied          classification of subatomic
                                                   Explain how new information may                   results.                                       particles, theory of evolution,
                                                      change existing theories and practice.                                                         epidemiology of aids).
                                                                                               B. Apply process knowledge and organize
                                                                                                  scientific and technological phenomena
                                                                                                  in varied ways.                             B. Evaluate experimental information for
                                                                                                   Describe materials using precise             appropriateness and adherence to
B. Describe objects in the world using the     B. Apply process knowledge to make and                 quantitative and qualitative skills        relevant science processes.
   five senses.                                   interpret observations.                             based on observations.                      Evaluate experimental data
    Recognize observational descriptors           Measure materials using a variety of           Develop appropriate scientific                   correctly within experimental
       from each of the five senses                   scales.                                         experiments: raising questions,                limits.
      (e.g., see-blue, feel-rough).                Describe relationships by making                  formulating hypotheses, testing,            Judge that conclusions are
    Use observations to develop a                    inferences and predictions.                     controlled experiments, recognizing            consistent and logical with
       descriptive vocabulary.                     Communicate, use space / time                     variables, manipulating variables,             experimental conditions.
                                                      relationships, define operationally,            interpreting data, and producing            Interpret results of experimental
                                                      raise questions, formulate                      solutions.                                     research to predict new information
                                                      hypotheses, test and experiment,             Use process skills to make inferences            or improve a solution.
                                                   Design controlled experiments,                    and predictions using collected
                                                      recognize variables, and manipulate             information and to communicate,
                                                      variables.                                      using space / time relationships,
                                                   Interpret data, formulate models,                 defining operationally.
                                                      design models, and produce

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                           Final Form                                                    January 5, 2002
                                             Academic Standards for Science and Technology
                                                                                           C. Apply the elements of scientific inquiry
                                                                                              to solve problems.                            C. Apply the elements of scientific inquiry
                                                                                               Generate questions about objects,              to solve multi-step problems.
C. Recognize and use the elements of         C. Identify and use the elements of                  organisms and/or events that can be           Generate questions about objects,
   scientific inquiry to solve problems.        scientific inquiry to solve problems.             answered through scientific                      organisms and/or events that can be
    Generate questions about objects,           Generate questions about objects,               investigations.                                  answered through scientific
       organisms and/or events that can be          organisms and/or events that can be        Evaluate the appropriateness of                    investigations.
       answered through scientific                  answered through scientific                   questions.                                    Evaluate the appropriateness of
       investigations.                              investigations.                            Design an investigation with                       questions.
    Design an investigation.                    Evaluate the appropriateness of                 adequate control and limited                  Design an investigation with
    Conduct an experiment.                         questions.                                    variables to investigate a question.             adequate control and limited
    State a conclusion that is consistent       Design an investigation with limited         Conduct a multiple step experiment.                variables to investigate a question.
       with the information.                        variables to investigate a question.       Organize experimental information               Organize experimental information
                                                 Conduct a two-part experiment.                  using a variety of analytic methods.             using analytic and descriptive
                                                 Judge the significance of                    Judge the significance of                          techniques.
                                                    experimental information in                   experimental information in                   Evaluate the significance of
                                                    answering the question.                       answering the question.                          experimental information in
                                                 Communicate appropriate                      Suggest additional steps that might                answering the question.
                                                    conclusions from the experiment.              be done experimentally.                       Project additional questions from a
                                                                                                                                                   research study that could be studied.
                                                                                           D. Identify and apply the technological
                                                                                              design process to solve problems.             D. Analyze and use the technological
                                                                                               Examine the problem, rank all                  design process to solve problems.
D. Recognize and use the technological       D. Know and use the technological design            necessary information and all                  Assess all aspects of the problem,
   design process to solve problems.            process to solve problems.                       questions that must be answered.                 prioritize the necessary information
    Recognize and explain basic                 Define different types of problems.          Propose and analyze a solution.                   and formulate questions that must
      problems.                                  Define all aspects of the problem,           Implement the solution.                           be answered.
    Identify possible solutions and their         necessary information and questions         Evaluate the solution, test, redesign           Propose, develop and appraise the
      course of action.                            that must be answered.                        and improve as necessary.                        best solution and develop
    Try a solution.                             Propose the best solution.                   Communicate the process and                       alternative solutions.
    Describe the solution, identify its         Design and propose alternative                 evaluate and present the impacts of            Implement and assess the solution.
      impacts and modify if necessary.             methods to achieve solutions.                 the solution.                                  Evaluate and assess the solution,
    Show the steps taken and the                Apply a solution.                                                                               redesign and improve as necessary.
      results.                                   Explain the results, present                                                                  Communicate and assess the
                                                   improvements, identify and infer the                                                           process and evaluate and present the
                                                   impacts of the solution.                                                                       impacts of the solution.

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                        Final Form                                                      January 5, 2002
                                                 Academic Standards for Science and Technology
3.3.     Biological Sciences

             3.3.4. GRADE 4                                   3.3.7. GRADE 7                               3.3.10. GRADE 10                               3.3.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge
and skills needed to . . .
A. Know the similarities and differences of      A. Describe the similarities and differences   A. Explain the structural and functional     A. Explain the relationship between
   living things.                                   that characterize diverse living things.       similarities and differences found           structure and function at all levels of
     Identify life processes of living              Describe how the structures of               among living things.                         organization.
        things (e.g., growth, digestion, react          living things help them function in         Identify and characterize major life        Identify and explain interactions
        to environment).                                unique ways.                                   forms according to their placement           among organisms (e.g., mutually
    Know that some organisms have                   Explain how to use a dichotomous                 in existing classification groups.           beneficial, harmful relationships).
        similar external characteristics                key to identify plants and animals.         Explain the relationship between            Explain and analyze the relationship
       (e.g., anatomical characteristics;            Account for adaptations among                    structure and function at the                between structure and function at the
       appendages, type of covering, body               organisms that live in a particular            molecular and cellular levels.               molecular, cellular and organ-system
       segments) and that similarities and              environment.                                Describe organizing schemes of                 level.
       differences are related to                                                                      classification keys.                      Describe and explain structural and
       environmental habitat.                                                                       Identify and characterize major life           functional relationships in each of
    Describe basic needs of plants and                                                                forms by kingdom, phyla, class and           the five (or six) kingdoms.
        animals.                                                                                       order.                                    Explain significant biological
                                                                                                                                                    diversity found in each of the
B. Know that living things are made up of
   parts that have specific functions.           B. Describe the cell as the basic structural   B. Describe and explain the chemical and      B. Analyze the chemical and structural basis
    Identify examples of unicellular and           and functional unit of living things.          structural basis of living organisms.         of living organisms.
       multicellular organisms.                      Identify the levels of organization           Describe the relationship between the        Identify and describe factors affecting
    Determine how different parts of a                from cell to organism.                          structure of organic molecules and            metabolic function (e.g., temperature,
       living thing work together to make            Compare life processes at the                    the function they serve in living             acidity, hormones).
       the organism function.                          organism level with life processes at           organisms.                                 Evaluate metabolic activities using
                                                       the cell level.                              Identify the specialized structures and         experimental knowledge of enzymes.
                                                     Explain that cells and organisms                 regions of the cell and the functions      Evaluate relationships between
                                                       have particular structures that                 of each.                                      structure and functions of different
                                                       underlie their functions.                    Explain how cells store and use                 anatomical parts given their
                                                     Describe and distinguish among cell               information to guide their functions.        structure.
                                                       cycles, reproductive cycles and life         Explain cell functions and processes         Describe potential impact of genome
                                                       cycles.                                          in terms of chemical reactions and           research on the biochemistry and
                                                     Explain disease effects on structures             energy changes.                              physiology of life.
                                                       or functions of an organism.

  22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                            Final Form                                                    January 5, 2002
                                              Academic Standards for Science and Technology
C. Know that characteristics are inherited
   and, thus, offspring closely resemble      C. Know that every organism has a set of      C. Describe how genetic information is         C. Explain gene inheritance and expression
   their parents.                                genetic instructions that determines its      inherited and expressed.                       at the molecular level.
    Identify characteristics for animal         inherited traits.                              Compare and contrast the function             Analyze gene expression at the
       and plant survival in different            Identify and explain inheritable               of mitosis and meiosis.                         molecular level.
       climates.                                    characteristics.                            Describe mutations’ effects on a              Describe the roles of nucleic acids in
    identify physical characteristics that       Identify that the gene is the basic            trait’s expression.                             cellular reproduction and protein
       appear in both parents and offspring         unit of inheritance.                        Distinguish different reproductive               synthesis.
       and differ between families, strains       Identify basic patterns of inheritance         patterns in living things                    Describe genetic engineering
       or species.                                  (e.g., dominance, recessive, co-               (e.g., budding, spores, fission).              techniques, applications and impacts.
                                                    dominance).                                 Compare random and selective                  Explain birth defects from the
                                                  Describe how traits are inherited.             breeding practices and their results            standpoint of embryological
                                                  Distinguish how different living               (e.g., antibiotic resistant bacteria).          development and/or changes in
                                                    things reproduce (e.g., vegetative          Explain the relationship among                   genetic makeup.
                                                    budding, sexual).                             DNA, genes and chromosomes.
                                                  recognize that mutations can alter a         Explain different types of
                                                    gene.                                         inheritance (e.g., multiple allele,
                                                  Describe how selective breeding,               sex-influenced traits).                D. Analyze the theory of evolution.
D. Identify changes in living things over           natural selection and genetic               Describe the role of DNA in protein         Examine human history by describing
   time.                                            technologies can change genetic               synthesis as it relates to gene              the progression from early hominids
      Compare extinct life forms with              makeup of organisms.                          expression.                                  to modern humans.
         living organisms.                                                                                                                   apply the concept of natural selection
                                              D. Explain basic concepts of natural                                                             as a central concept in illustrating
                                                 selection.                                 D. Explain the mechanisms of the theory of         evolution theory.
                                                  Identify adaptations that allow             evolution.
                                                     organisms to survive in their              analyze data from fossil records,
                                                     environment.                                  similarities in anatomy and
                                                  Describe how an environmental                   physiology, embryological studies
                                                     change can affect the survival of             and DNA studies that are relevant to
                                                     organisms and entire species.                 the theory of evolution.
                                                  know that differences in individuals         Explain the role of mutations and
                                                     of the same species may give some             gene recombination in changing a
                                                     advantage in surviving and                    population of organisms.
                                                     reproducing.                               Compare modern day descendants of
                                                  recognize that populations of                   extinct species and propose possible
                                                     organisms can increase rapidly.               scientific accounts for their present
                                                  Describe the role that fossils play in          appearance.
                                                     studying the past.                         describe the factors
                                                  Explain how biologic extinction is a           (e.g., isolation,
                                                     natural process.                             differential

  22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                         Final Form                                                    January 5, 2002
                                      Academic Standards for Science and Technology
                                                                                reproduction) affecting
                                                                                gene frequency in a
                                                                                population over time and
                                                                                their consequences.
                                                                               describe and differentiate between
                                                                                the roles of natural selection and
                                                                                genetic drift.
                                                                               Describe changes that illustrate
                                                                                major events in the earth’s
                                                                                development based on a time line.
                                                                               explain why natural selection can act
                                                                                only on inherited traits.
                                                                               Apply the concept of natural
                                                                                selection to illustrate and account for
                                                                                a species’ survival, extinction or
                                                                                change over time.

                                 Ecosystem Standards are in the Environment and Ecology Standard Category (4.6).

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                             Final Form                                                January 5, 2002
                                                  Academic Standards for Science and Technology
3.4.     Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics

              3.4.4. GRADE 4                                  3.4.7. GRADE 7                             3.4.10. GRADE 10                              3.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge
and skills needed to . . .

A. Recognize basic concepts about the             A. Describe concepts about the structure    A. Explain concepts about the structure and A. Apply concepts about the structure and
   structure and properties of matter.               and properties of matter.                   properties of matter.                       properties of matter.
    Describe properties of matter                    Identify elements as basic building        Know that atoms are composed of            Apply rules of systematic
       (e.g., hardness, reactions to simple             blocks of matter that cannot be             even smaller sub-atomic structures          nomenclature and formula writing to
       chemical tests).                                 broken down chemically.                     whose properties are measurable.            chemical substances.
    Know that combining two or more                  Distinguish compounds from                 Explain the repeating pattern of           Classify and describe, in equation
       substances can make new materials                mixtures.                                   chemical properties by using the            form, types of chemical and nuclear
       with different properties.                     Describe and conduct experiments             repeating patterns of atomic structure      reactions.
    Know different material                            that identify chemical and physical         within the periodic table.                Explain how radioactive isotopes that
       characteristics (e.g., texture, state of         properties.                               Predict the behavior of gases through        are subject to decay can be used to
       matter, solubility).                           Describe reactants and products of           the use of Boyle’s, Charles’ or the         estimate the age of materials.
                                                        simple chemical reactions.                  ideal gas law, in everyday situations.    Explain how the forces that bind
                                                                                                  Describe phases of matter according          solids, liquids and gases affect their
                                                                                                    to the Kinetic Molecular Theory.            properties.
                                                                                                  Explain the formation of compounds         Characterize and identify important
                                                                                                    and their resulting properties using        classes of compounds (e.g., acids,
                                                                                                    bonding theories (ionic and covalent).      bases, salts).
                                                                                                  Recognize formulas for simple              Apply the conservation of energy
                                                                                                    inorganic compounds.                        concept to fields as diverse as
                                                                                                  Describe various types of chemical           mechanics, nuclear particles and
                                                                                                    reactions by applying the laws of           studies of the origin of the universe.
                                                                                                    conservation of mass and energy.          Apply the predictability of nuclear
                                                                                                  Apply knowledge of mixtures to               decay to estimate the age of materials
                                                                                                    appropriate separation techniques.          that contain radioactive isotopes.
                                                                                                  Understand that carbon can form            Quantify the properties of matter
                                                                                                    several types of compounds.                 (e.g., density, solubility coefficients)
                                                                                                                                                by applying mathematical formulas.

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                            Final Form                                                  January 5, 2002
                                                Academic Standards for Science and Technology
B. Know basic energy types, sources and       B. Relate energy sources and transfers to       B. Analyze energy sources and transfers of B. Apply and analyze energy sources and
   conversions.                                  heat and temperature.                           heat.                                      conversions and their relationship to heat
    Identify energy forms and examples           Identify and describe sound changes            Determine the efficiency of chemical     and temperature.
      (e.g., sunlight, heat, stored, motion).       in moving objects.                              systems by applying mathematical         Determine the heat involved in
    Know the concept of the flow of              Know that the sun is a major source              formulas.                                  illustrative chemical reactions.
      energy by measuring flow through an           of energy that emits wavelengths of           Use knowledge of chemical reactions      
      object or system.                             visible light, infrared and ultraviolet         to generate an electrical current.         Evaluate mathematical formulas that
    Describe static electricity in terms of        radiation.                                    Evaluate energy changes in chemical         calculate the efficiency of specific
      attraction, repulsion and sparks.           Explain the conversion of one form               reactions.                                 chemical and mechanical systems.
    Apply knowledge of the basic                   of energy to another by applying              Use knowledge of conservation of          Use knowledge of oxidation and
      electrical circuits to design and             knowledge of each form of energy.               energy and momentum to explain             reduction to balance complex
      construction simple direct current          Explain the parts and functions in an            common phenomena                           reactions
      circuits.                                     electrical circuit.                             (e.g., refrigeration system, rocket      Apply appropriate thermodynamic
    Classify materials as conductors and                                                           propulsion).                               concepts (e.g., conservation, entropy)
      nonconductors.                                                                              Explain resistance, current and             to solve problems relating to energy
    Know and demonstrate the basic                                                                 electro-motive force (Ohm’s Law).          and heat.
      properties of heat by producing it in a
      variety of ways.
    Know the characteristics of light
      (e.g., reflection, refraction,
      absorption) and use them to produce
      heat, color or a virtual image.

C. Observe and describe different types of      C. Identify and explain the principles of    C. Distinguish among the principles of        C. Apply the principles of motion and
   force and motion.                               force and motion.                            force and motion.                             force.
    Identify characteristics of sound              Describe the motion of an object            Identify the relationship of electricity     Evaluate wave properties of
       (pitch, loudness and echoes)                    based on its position, direction and         and magnetism as two aspects of a             frequency, wavelength and speed as
    Recognize forces that attract or repel            speed.                                       single electromagnetic force.                 applied to sound and light through
       other objects and demonstrate them.          Classify fluid power systems                Identify elements of simple machines            different media.
    Describe various types of motions.                according to fluid used or mode of           in compound machines.                      Propose and produce modifications to
    Compare the relative movement of                  power transmission (e.g., air, oil).      Explain fluid power systems through             specific mechanical power systems
       objects and describe types of motion         Explain various motions using                  the design and construction of                that will improve their efficiency.
       that are evident.                               models.                                      appropriate models.                        Analyze the principles of
    Describe the position of an object by          Explain how convex and concave              Describe sound effects (e.g., Doppler           translational motion, velocity and
       locating it relative to another object          mirrors and lens change light images.        effect, amplitude, frequency,                 acceleration as they relate to free fall
       or the background (e.g., geographic          Explain how sound and light travel in          reflection, refraction, absorption,           and projectile motion.
       direction, left, up).                           waves of differing speeds, sizes and         sonar, seismic).

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                           Final Form                                                    January 5, 2002
                                              Academic Standards for Science and Technology
                                                                                                Describe light effects (e.g., Doppler          Analyze the principles of rotational
                                                                                                 effect, dispersion, absorption,                 motion to solve problems relating to
                                                                                                 emission spectra, polarization,                 angular momentum, and torque.
                                                                                                 interference).                                 Interpret a model that illustrates
                                                                                                Describe and measure the motion of              circular motion and acceleration.
                                                                                                 sound, light and other objects.                Describe inertia, motion, equilibrium,
                                                                                                Know Newton’s laws of motion                    and action/reaction concepts through
                                                                                                 (including inertia, action and                  words, models and mathematical
                                                                                                 reaction) and gravity and apply them            symbols.
                                                                                                 to solve problems related to forces
                                                                                                 and mass.
                                                                                                Determine the efficiency of
                                                                                                 mechanical systems by applying
                                                                                                 mathematical formulas.

D. Describe the composition and structure     D. Describe essential ideas about the         D. Explain essential ideas about the           D. Analyze the essential ideas about the
   of the universe and the earth’s place in      composition and structure of the              composition and structure of the               composition and structure of the
   it.                                           universe and the earth’s place in it.         universe.                                      universe.
    Recognize earth’s place in the solar         Compare various planets’                     Compare the basic structures of the           Analyze the Big Bang Theory’s use
       system.                                      characteristics.                              universe (e.g., galaxy types, nova,            of gravitation and nuclear reaction
    Explain and illustrate the causes of         Describe basic star types and                  black holes, neutron stars).                   to explain a possible origin of the
       seasonal changes.                            identify the sun as a star type.            Describe the structure and life cycle           universe.
    Identify planets in our solar system         Describe and differentiate comets,             of star, using the Hertzsprung-              Compare the use of visual, radio and
       and their general characteristics.           asteroids and meteors.                        Russell diagram.                               x-ray telescopes to collect data
    Describe the solar system motions            Identify gravity as the force that           Describe the nuclear processes                  regarding the structure and
                                                                                                  involved in energy production in a             evolution of the universe.
       and use them to explain time (e.g.,          keeps planets in orbit around the sun
       days, seasons), major lunar phases           and governs the rest of the                   star.                                        Correlate the use of the special
       and eclipses.                                movement of the solar system and            Explain the “red-shift” and                     theory of relativity and the life of a
                                                    the universe.                                 Hubble’s use of it to determine                star.
                                                  Illustrate how the positions of stars          stellar distance and movement.
                                                    and constellations change in relation       Compare absolute versus apparent
                                                    to the Earth during an evening and            star magnitude and their relation to
                                                    from month to month.                          stellar distance.
                                                  Identify equipment and instruments           Explain the impact of the
                                                    that explore the universe.                    Copernican and Newtonian thinking
                                                  Identify the accomplishments and               on man’s view of the universe.
                                                    contributions provided by selected          Identify and analyze the findings of
                                                    past and present scientists in the            several space instruments in regard
                                                    field of astronomy.                           to the extent and composition of the

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                         Final Form                                                     January 5, 2002
                                     Academic Standards for Science and Technology
                                          Identify and articulate space          solar system and universe.
                                           program efforts to investigate
                                           possibilities of living in space and
                                           on other planets.

                            Refer to Technology Standard Category 3.6 for applied uses of these concepts and principles.

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                    Final Form                                   January 5, 2002
                                              Academic Standards for Science and Technology
3.5.    Earth Sciences

            3.5.4. GRADE 4                                3.5.7. GRADE 7                              3.5.10. GRADE 10                                3.5.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge
and skills needed to . . .

A. Know basic landforms and earth             A. Describe earth features and processes.    A. Relate earth features and processes that     A. Analyze and evaluate earth features and
   history.                                       Describe major layers of the earth.        change the earth.                               processes that change the earth.
    Describe earth processes                     Describe the processes involved in          Illustrate and explain plate tectonics         Apply knowledge of geophysical
       (e.g., rusting, weathering, erosion)         the creation of geologic features            as the mechanism of continental                 processes to explain the formation
       that have affected selected physical         (e.g., folding, faulting, volcanism,         movement and sea floor changes.                 and degradation of earth structures
       features in students’ neighborhoods.         sedimentation) and that these              Compare examples of change to the                (e.g., mineral deposition, cave
    Identify various earth structures              processes seen today (e.g., erosion,         earth’s surface over time as they               formations, soil composition).
       (e.g., mountains, faults, drainage           weathering crustal plate movement)           related to continental movement and           Interpret geological evidence
       basins) through the use of models.           are similar to those in the past.            ocean basin formation                           supporting evolution.
    Identify the composition of soil as          Describe the processes that formed            (e.g., Delaware, Susquehanna, Ohio            Apply knowledge of radioactive
       weathered rock and decomposed                Pennsylvania geologic structures             Rivers system formations,                       decay to assess the age of various
       organic remains.                             and resources including mountains,           dynamics).                                      earth features and objects.
    Describe fossils and the type of               glacial formations, water gaps and         Interpret topographic maps to
       environment they lived in                    ridges.                                      identify and describe significant
       (e.g., tropical, aquatic, desert).         Explain how the rock cycle affected           geologic history/structures in
                                                    rock formations in the state of              Pennsylvania.
                                                    Pennsylvania.                              Evaluate and interpret geologic
                                                  Distinguish between examples of               history using geologic maps.
                                                    rapid surface changes                      Explain several methods of dating
                                                    (e.g., landslides, earthquakes) and          earth materials and structures.
                                                    slow surface changes                       Correlate rock units with general
                                                    (e.g., weathering).                          geologic time periods in the history
                                                  Identify living plants and animals            of the earth.
                                                    that are similar to fossil forms.          Describe and identify major types of
                                                                                                 rocks and minerals.

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                        Final Form                                                      January 5, 2002
                                             Academic Standards for Science and Technology
B. Know types and uses of earth materials.   B. Recognize earth resources and how they       B. Explain sources and uses of earth              B. Analyze the availability, location and
    Identify uses of various earth             affect everyday life.                           resources.                                        extraction of earth resources.
     materials (e.g., buildings, highways,       Identify and locate significant earth          Compare the locations of strategic               Describe how the location of earth’s
     fuels, growing plants).                        resources (e.g., rock types, oil, gas,          minerals and earth resources in the               major resources has affected a
    Identify and sort earth materials              coal deposits) in Pennsylvania.                 world with their geologic history                 country’s strategic decisions.
     according to a classification key           Explain the processes involved in                 using maps and global information              Compare locations of earth features
     (e.g., soil/rock type).                        the formation of oil and coal in                systems.                                          and country boundaries.
                                                    Pennsylvania.                                Demonstrate the effects of                       Analyze the impact of resources
                                                 Explain the value and uses of                     sedimentation and erosion before                  (e.g., coal deposits, rivers) on the
                                                    different earth resources                       and after a conservation plan is                  life of Pennsylvania’s settlements
                                                    (e.g., selected minerals, ores, fuel            implemented.                                      and cities.
                                                    sources, agricultural uses).                 Evaluate the impact of geologic
                                                 Compare the locations of human                    activities/hazards (e.g., earthquakes,
                                                    settlements as related to available             sinkholes, landslides).
                                                    resources.                                   Evaluate land use (e.g., agricultural,
                                                                                                    recreational, residential,
                                                                                                    commercial) in Pennsylvania based
                                                                                                    upon soil characteristics.

C. Know basic weather elements.              C. Describe basic elements of meteorology. C. Interpret meteorological data.                      C. Analyze atmospheric energy transfers.
    identify cloud types.                       Explain weather forecasts by              Analyze information from                              Describe how weather and climate
    Identify weather patterns from data           interpreting weather data and               meteorological instruments and                        involve the transfer of energy in and
     charts (including temperature, wind           symbols.                                    online sources to predict weather                     out of the atmosphere.
     direction and speed, precipitation)         Explain the oceans’ impact on local          patterns.                                           Explain how unequal heating of the
     and graphs of the data.                       weather and the climate of a region.     Describe weather and climate                            air, ocean and land produces wind
    Explain how the different seasons           Identify how cloud types, wind               patterns on global levels.                            and ocean currents.
     effect plants, animals, food                  directions and barometric pressure       Evaluate specific adaptations plants                  Analyze the energy transformations
     availability and daily human life.            changes are associated with weather         and animals have made that enable                     that occur during the greenhouse
                                                   patterns in different regions of the        them to survive in different                          effect and predict the long-term
                                                   country.                                    climates.                                             effects of increased pollutant levels
                                                 Explain and illustrate the processes                                                               in the atmosphere.
                                                   of cloud formation and                                                                          Analyze the mechanisms that drive
                                                   precipitation.                                                                                    a weather phenomena (e.g., El Nino,
                                                 Describe and illustrate the major                                                                  hurricane, tornado) using the
                                                   layers of the earth’s atmosphere.                                                                 correlation of three methods of heat
                                                 Identify different air masses and                                                                  energy transfer.
                                                   global wind patterns and how they
                                                   relate to the weather patterns in
                                                   different regions of the U.S.

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                         Final Form                                                         January 5, 2002
                                             Academic Standards for Science and Technology
D. Recognize the earth’s different water     D. Explain the behavior and impact of the           D. Assess the value of water as a resource.       D. Analyze the principles and history of
   resources.                                   earth’s water systems.                               Compare specific sources of potable             hydrology.
    Know that approximately three-              Explain the water cycle using the                    water (e.g., wells, public systems,             Analyze the operation and
       fourths of the earth is covered by           processes of evaporation and                       rivers) used by people in                         effectiveness of a water purification
       water.                                       condensation.                                      Pennsylvania.                                     and desalination system.
    identify and describe types of fresh        Describe factors that affect                       Identify the components of a                     Evaluate the pros and cons of
       and salt-water bodies.                       evaporation and condensation.                      municipal/agricultural water supply               surface water appropriation for
    Identify examples of water in the           Distinguish salt from fresh water                    system and a wastewater treatment                 commercial and electrical use.
       form of solid, liquid and gas on or          (e.g., density, electrical conduction).            system.                                         Analyze the historical development
       near the surface of the earth.            Compare the effect of water type                   Relate aquatic life to water                       of water use in Pennsylvania
    Explain and illustrate evaporation             (e.g., polluted, fresh, salt water) and            conditions (e.g., turbidity,                      (e.g., recovery of Lake Erie).
       and condensation.                            the life contained in them.                        temperature, salinity, dissolved                Compare the marine life and type of
    Recognize other resources available         Identify ocean and shoreline                         oxygen, nitrogen levels, pressure).               water found in the intertidal, neritic
       from water (e.g., energy,                    features, (e.g., bays, inlets, spit, tidal       Compare commercially important                     and bathyal zones.
       transportation, minerals, food).             marshes).                                          aquatic species in or near
                                                                                                     Identify economic resources found
                                                                                                       in marine areas.
                                                                                                     Assess the natural and man-made
                                                                                                       factors that affect the availability of
                                                                                                       clean water (e.g., rock and mineral
                                                                                                       deposits, man-made pollution).

                 Refer to Environment and Ecology Standards Categories 4.1, 4.3, 4.8 for standards that deal with environmental impact of
                                                         Earth structures and forces.

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                           Final Form                                                           January 5, 2002
                                              Academic Standards for Science and Technology
3.6.     Technology Education

             3.6.4. GRADE 4                               3.6.7. GRADE 7                               3.6.10. GRADE 10                              3.6.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge
and skills needed to . . .

A. Know that biotechnologies relate to        A. Explain biotechnologies that relate to     A. Apply biotechnologies that relate to       A. Analyze biotechnologies that relate to
   propagating, growing, maintaining,            related technologies of propagating,          propagating, growing, maintaining,            propagating, growing, maintaining,
   adapting, treating and converting.            growing, maintaining, adapting, treating      adapting, treating and converting.            adapting, treating and converting.
    Identify agricultural and industrial        and converting.                                Apply knowledge of plant and                 Analyze and solve a complex
      production processes that involve           Identify the environmental, societal           animal production processes in                production process problem using
      plants and animals.                            and economic impacts that waste              designing an improvement to                   biotechnologies (e.g., hydroponics,
    Identify waste management                       has in the environment.                      existing processes.                           fish farming, crop propagation).
      treatment processes.                        Identify and explain the impact that         Apply knowledge of biomedical                Analyze specific examples where
    Describe how knowledge of the                   a specific medical advancement has           technology applications in designing          engineering has impacted society in
      human body influences or impacts               had on society.                              a solution to a simple medical                protection, personal health
      ergonomic design.                           Explain the factors that were taken            problem (e.g., wheel chair design,            application or physical
    Describe how biotechnology has                  into consideration when a specific           artificial arteries).                         enhancement.
      impacted various aspects of daily              object was designed.                       Apply knowledge of how                       Appraise and evaluate the cause and
      life (e.g., health care, agriculture,       Define and describe how fuels and              biomedical technology affects waste           effect and subsequent
      waste treatment).                              energy can be generated through the          products in designing a solution that         environmental, economic and
                                                     process of biomass conversion.               will result in reduced waste.                 societal impacts that result from
                                                  Identify and group basic plant and           Apply ergonomic engineering                    biomass and biochemical
                                                     animal production processes.                 factors when devising a solution to a         conversion.
                                                  explain the impact that agricultural           specific problem.                           Evaluate and apply biotechnical
                                                     science has had on biotechnology.          Describe various methods of                    processes to complex plant and
                                                                                                  biochemical conversion.                       animal production methods.
                                                                                                describe specific examples that              Apply knowledge of biochemical-
                                                                                                  reflect the impact that agricultural          related technologies to propose
                                                                                                  science has had on biotechnology.             alternatives to hazardous waste
                                                                                                                                              apply knowledge of agricultural
                                                                                                                                                science to solve or improve a
                                                                                                                                                biochemical related problem.

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                         Final Form                                                  January 5, 2002
                                             Academic Standards for Science and Technology
                                             B. Explain information technologies of          B. Apply knowledge of information                B. Analyze knowledge of information
B. Know that information technologies           encoding, transmitting, receiving,              technologies of encoding, transmitting,          technologies of processes encoding,
   involve encoding, transmitting,              storing, retrieving and decoding.               receiving, storing, retrieving and               transmitting, receiving, storing,
   receiving, storing, retrieving and            Demonstrate the effectiveness of              decoding.                                        retrieving and decoding.
   decoding.                                        image generating technique to                Describe the proper use of graphic              Apply and analyze advanced
    Identify electronic communication              communicate a story                             and electronic communication                     information techniques to produce a
      methods that exist in the community           (e.g., photography, video).                     systems.                                         complex image that effectively
      (e.g., digital cameras, telephone,         Analyze and evaluate the                       Apply a variety of advanced                        conveys a message (e.g., desktop
      internet, television, fiber optics).          effectiveness of a graphic object               mechanical and electronic drafting               publishing, audio and/or video
    Identify graphic reproduction                  designed and produced to                        methods to communicate a solution                production).
      methods.                                      communicate a thought or concept.               to a specific problem.                        Analyze and evaluate a message
    Describe appropriate image                  Apply basic technical drawing                  Apply and analyze advanced                         designed and produced using still,
      generating techniques                         techniques to communicate an idea               communication techniques to                      motion and animated
       (e.g., photography, video).                  or solution to a problem.                       produce an image that effectively                communication techniques.
    Demonstrate the ability to                  Apply the appropriate method of                   conveys a message (e.g., desktop              Describe the operation of fiber
      communicate an idea by applying               communications technology to                    publishing, audio and/or video                   optic, microwave and satellite
      basic sketching and drawing                   communicate a thought.                          production).                                     informational systems.
      techniques.                                                                                Illustrate an understanding of a                Apply various graphic and
                                                                                                    computer network system by                       electronic information techniques to
                                                                                                    modeling, constructing or                        solve real world problems (e.g., data
                                                                                                    assembling its components.                       organization and analysis,
                                                                                                                                                     forecasting, interpolation).

                                             C. Explain physical technologies of             C. Apply physical technologies of                C. Analyze physical technologies of
C. Know physical technologies of                structural design, analysis and                 structural design, analysis and                  structural design, analysis and
   structural design, analysis and              engineering, personnel relations,               engineering, personnel relations,                engineering, personnel relations,
   engineering, finance, production,            financial affairs, structural production,       financial affairs, structural production,        financial affairs, structural production,
   marketing, research and design.              marketing, research and design.                 marketing, research and design to real           marketing, research and design to real
    Identify and group a variety of             Use knowledge of material                     world problems.                                  world problems.
       construction tasks.                          effectiveness to solve specific              Describe and classify common                    Apply knowledge of construction
    Identify the major construction                construction problems (e.g., steel vs.          construction by their characteristics            technology by designing, planning
       systems present in a specific local          wood bridges).                                  and composition.                                 and applying all the necessary
       building.                                 Differentiate among the different              Compare and contrast specific                      resources to successfully solve a
    Identify specific construction                 types of construction applications              construction systems that depend on              construction problem.
       systems that depend on each other            (e.g., microwave tower, power                   each other in order to complete a             Compare resource options in
       in order to complete a project.              plants, aircrafts).                             project.                                         solving a specific manufacturing
    Know skills used in construction.                                                           Evaluate material failure common to                problem.
    Identify examples of manufactured                                                              specific applications.
       goods present in the home and

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                         Final Form                                                        January 5, 2002
                                         Academic Standards for Science and Technology
                                           Explain basic material processes         Demonstrate knowledge of various               Analyze and apply complex skills
 Identify basic resources needed to        that manufactured objects undergo         construction systems by building or             needed to process materials in
  produce a manufactured item.              during production. (e.g., separating,     interpreting models.                            complex manufacturing enterprises.
 Identify basic component operations       forming, combining).                     Select and apply the necessary                 Apply advanced information
  in a specific manufacturing              Evaluate a construction activity by       resources to successfully conduct a             collection and communication
  enterprise (e.g., cutting, shaping,       specifying task analyses and              manufacturing enterprise.                       techniques to successfully convey
  attaching).                               necessary resources.                     Apply concepts of design                        solutions to specific construction
 Identify waste and pollution             Explain the relationships among the       engineering and production                      problems.
  resulting from a manufacturing            basic resources needed in the             engineering in the organization and            Assess the importance of capital on
  enterprise.                               production process for a specific         application of a manufacturing                  specific construction applications.
 Explain and demonstrate the               manufactured object.                      activity.                                      Analyze the positive and negative
  concept of manufacturing (e.g.,          Explain the difference between           Apply the concepts of                           qualities of several different types of
  assemble a set of papers or ball          design engineering and production         manufacturing by redesigning an                 materials as they would relate to
  point pens sequentially, mass             engineering processes.                    enterprise to improve productivity              specific construction applications.
  produce an object).                      Analyze manufacturing steps that          or reduce or eliminate waste and/or            Analyze transportation technologies
 Identify transportation technologies      affect waste and pollutants.              pollution.                                      of propelling, structuring,
  of propelling, structuring,              Explain transportation technologies      Evaluate the interrelationship of               suspending, guiding, controlling and
  suspending, guiding, controlling and      of propelling, structuring,               various transportation systems in the           supporting.
  supporting.                               suspending, guiding, controlling and      community.                                     Analyze the concepts of vehicular
 Identify and experiment with simple       supporting.                              Analyze the impacts that                        propulsion, guidance, control,
  machines used in transportation          Identify and explain the workings of      transportation systems have on a                suspension and structural systems
  systems.                                  several mechanical power systems.         community.                                      while designing and producing
 Explain how improved                     Model and explain examples of                                                             specific complex transportation
  transportation systems have changed       vehicular propulsion, control,                                                            systems.
  society.                                  guidance, structure and suspension
                                           Explain the limitations of land,
                                            marine, air and space transportation

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                    Final Form                                                  January 5, 2002
                                              Academic Standards for Science and Technology
3.7.    Technological Devices

            3.7.4. GRADE 4                                3.7.7. GRADE 7                               3.7.10. GRADE 10                               3.7.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge
and skills needed to . . .
A. Explore the use of basic tools, simple     A. Describe the safe and appropriate use of   A. Identify and safely use a variety of      A. Apply advanced tools, materials and
   materials and techniques to safely solve      tools, materials and techniques to            tools, basic machines, materials and          techniques to answer complex
   problems.                                     answer questions and solve problems.          techniques to solve problems and              questions.
    Describe the scientific principles on        Identify uses of tools, machines,           answer questions.                             Demonstrate the safe use of
      which various tools are based.                 materials, information, people,            Select and safely apply appropriate            complex tools and machines within
    Group tools and machines by their               money, energy and time that meet              tools, materials and processes               their specifications.
      function.                                      specific design criteria.                     necessary to solve complex                Select and safely apply appropriate
    Select and safely apply appropriate          Describe safe procedures for using              problems.                                    tools, materials and processes
      tools and materials to solve simple            tools and materials.                       Apply advanced tool and equipment              necessary to solve complex
      problems.                                   Assess materials for appropriateness            manipulation techniques to solve             problems that could result in more
                                                     of use.                                       problems.                                    than one solution.
                                                                                                                                             Evaluate and use technological
                                                                                                                                                resources to solve complex multi-
                                                                                                                                                step problems.

B. Select appropriate instruments to study    B. Use appropriate instruments and            B. Apply appropriate instruments and         B.    Evaluate appropriate instruments and
   materials.                                    apparatus to study materials.                 apparatus to examine a variety of               apparatus to accurately measure
    Develop simple skills to measure,            Select appropriate instruments to           objects and processes.                          materials and processes.
      record, cut and fasten.                       measure the size, weight, shape and         Describe and use appropriate                  Apply and evaluate the use of
    Explain appropriate instrument                 temperature of living and non-living          instruments to gather and analyze              appropriate instruments to
      selection for specific tasks.                 objects.                                      data.                                          accurately measure scientific and
                                                  Apply knowledge of different                 Compare and contrast different                  technologic phenomena within the
                                                    measurement systems to measure                scientific measurement systems;                error limits of the equipment.
                                                    and record objects’ properties.               select the best measurement system           Evaluate the appropriate use of
                                                                                                  for a specific situation.                      different measurement scales
                                                                                                Explain the need to estimate                    (macro and micro).
                                                                                                  measurements within error of                 Evaluate the utility and advantages
                                                                                                  various instruments.                           of a variety of absolute and relative
                                                                                                Apply accurate measurement                      measurement scales for their
                                                                                                  knowledge to solve everyday                    appropriate application.
                                                                                                Describe and demonstrate the

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                         Final Form                                                   January 5, 2002
                                               Academic Standards for Science and Technology
                                                                                                  operation and use of advanced
                                                                                                  instrumentation in evaluating
                                                                                                  material and chemical properties
                                                                                                  (e.g., scanning electron microscope,
                                                                                                  nuclear magnetic resonance

   Computer literacy, including the use of hardware and software in standard statements C, D, and E, should be integrated across all content
C. Identify basic computer operations and      C. Explain and demonstrate basic            C. Apply basic computer operations and           C. Evaluate computer operations and
   concepts.                                      computer operations and concepts.           concepts.                                        concepts as to their effectiveness to
     Identify the major parts necessary            Know specialized computer                  Identify solutions to basic hardware          solve specific problems.
       for a computer to input and output             applications used in the                    and software problems.                        Describe and demonstrate atypical
       data.                                          community.                                Apply knowledge of advanced                       software installation.
     Explain and demonstrate the basic             Describe the function of advanced            input devices.                                Analyze and solve hardware and
       use of input and output devices                input and output devices                  Apply knowledge of hardware                       advanced software problems.
       (e.g., keyboard, monitor, printer,             (e.g., scanners, video images,              setup.                                        Assess and apply multiple input
       mouse).                                        plotters, projectors) and                 Describe the process for basic                    and output devices to solve specific
     Explain and demonstrate the use of              demonstrate their use.                      software installation and                        problems.
       external and internal storage                Demonstrate age appropriate                  demonstrate it.
       devices (e.g., disk drive, CD drive).          keyboarding skills and techniques.        Analyze and solve basic operating
                                                                                                  systems problems.
                                                                                                Apply touch keyboarding skills and
                                                                                                  techniques at expectable speed and
                                                                                                Demonstrate the ability to perform
                                                                                                  basic software installation.

D. Use basic computer software.                D. Apply computer software to solve         D. Utilize computer software to solve            D. Evaluate the effectiveness of computer
     Apply operating system skills to            specific problems.                          specific problems.                               software to solve specific problems.
       perform basic computer tasks.                Identify software designed to meet         Identify legal restrictions in the use         Evaluate the effectiveness of
     Apply basic word processing skills.             specific needs (e.g., Computer               of software and the output of data.             software to produce an output and
     Identify and use simple graphic and             Aided Drafting, design software,          Apply advanced graphic                            demonstrate the process.
       presentation graphic materials                 tutorial, financial, presentation            manipulation and desktop                     Design and apply advanced
       generated by the computer.                     software).                                   publishing techniques.                          multimedia techniques.
     Apply specific instructional                  Identify and solve basic software          Apply basic multimedia                         Analyze, select and apply the
       software.                                      problems relevant to specific                applications.                                   appropriate software to solve
                                                      software applications.                    Apply advanced word processing,                   complex problems.
                                                    Identify basic multimedia                     database and spreadsheet skills.             Evaluate the effectiveness of the

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                         Final Form                                                      January 5, 2002
                                           Academic Standards for Science and Technology
                                                 applications.                              Describe and demonstrate how two               computer as a presentation tool.
                                                Demonstrate a basic knowledge of            or more software applications can             Analyze the legal responsibilities
                                                 desktop publishing applications.            be used to produce an output.                  of computer users.
                                                Apply intermediate skills in               Select and apply software designed
                                                 utilizing word processing, database         to meet specific needs.
                                                 and spreadsheet software.
                                                Apply basic graphic manipulation

E. Identify basic computer                 E. Explain basic computer                   E. Apply basic computer communications         E. Assess the effectiveness of computer
   communications systems.                    communications systems.                     systems.                                       communications systems.
     Apply a web browser.                      Describe the organization and              Identify and explain various types           Assess the effectiveness of a
     Apply basic electronic mail                 functions of the basic parts that            of on-line services.                         computer based communications
       functions.                                 make up the World Wide Web.               Identify and explain the function of           system.
     Use on-line searches to answer age        Apply advanced electronic mail                the parts of a basic network.              Transfer files among different
       appropriate questions.                     functions.                                Describe and apply the components              computer platforms.
                                                Apply basic on-line research                  of a web page and their function.          Analyze the effectiveness of on-
                                                  techniques to solve a specific            Explain and demonstrate file                   line information resources to meet
                                                  problem.                                     transfer within and out side of a            the needs for collaboration,
                                                                                               computer network.                            research, publications,
                                                                                            Identify, describe and complete                communications and productivity.
                                                                                               advanced on-line research.                 Apply knowledge of protocol
                                                                                                                                            standards to solve connectivity

  22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                       Final Form                                                   January 5, 2002
                                              Academic Standards for Science and Technology
3.8.    Science, Technology and Human Endeavors

              3.8.4. GRADE 4                                3.8.7. GRADE 7                              3.8.10. GRADE 10                                3.8.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge
and skills needed to . . .

A. Know that people select, create and use    A. Explain how sciences and technologies        A. Analyze the relationship between             A. Synthesize and evaluate the interactions
   science and technology and that they          are limited in their effects and                societal demands and scientific and             and constraints of science and
   are limited by social and physical            influences on society.                          technological enterprises.                      technology on society.
   restraints.                                     Identify and describe the                      Identify past and current tradeoffs            Compare and contrast how
     Identify and describe positive and              unavoidable constraints of                     between increased production,                   scientific and technological
        negative impacts that influence or            technological design.                          environmental harm and social                   knowledge is both shared and
        result from new tools and                  Identify changes in society as a                 values (e.g., increased energy                  protected.
        techniques.                                   result of a technological                      needs, power plants, automobiles).            Evaluate technological
     Identify how physical technology                development.                                 Compare technologies that are                    developments that have changed
        (e.g., construction, manufacturing,        Identify and explain improvements                applied and accepted differently in             the way humans do work and
        transportation), informational                in transportation, health, sanitation          various cultures (e.g., factory                 discuss their impacts
        technology and biotechnology are              and communications as a result of              farming, nuclear power).                        (e.g., genetically engineered
        used to meet human needs.                     advancements in science and                  Describe and evaluate social                     crops).
     Describe how scientific discoveries             technology and how they effect our             change as a result of technological           Evaluate socially proposed
        and technological advancements                lives.                                         developments.                                   limitations of scientific research
        are related.                                                                               Assess the social impacts of a                   and technological application.
     Identify interrelationships among                                                              specific international
        technology, people and their world.                                                          environmental problem by
     Apply the technological design                                                                 designing a solution that applies
        process to solve a simple problem.                                                           the appropriate technologies and

                                              B. Explain how human ingenuity and              B. Analyze how human ingenuity and              B. Apply the use of ingenuity and
B. Know how human ingenuity and                  technological resources satisfy specific        technological resources satisfy specific        technological resources to solve
   technological resources satisfy specific      human needs and improve the quality of          human needs and improve the quality of          specific societal needs and improve the
   human needs and improve the quality of        life.                                           life.                                           quality of life.
   life.                                           Identify interrelationships between            Identify several problems and                  Apply appropriate tools, materials
     Identify and distinguish between                 systems and resources.                          opportunities that exist in your              and processes to solve complex
         human needs and improving the             Identify and describe the resources                community, apply various                      problems.
         quality of life.                              necessary to solve a selected                   problem-solving methods to design           Use knowledge of human abilities
     Identify and distinguish between                 problem in a community and                      and evaluate possible solutions.              to design or modify technologies
                                                       improve the quality of life.                Analyze a recently invented item,                that extend and enhance human

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                          Final Form                                                       January 5, 2002
                                               Academic Standards for Science and Technology
      natural and human-made resources.             identify and explain specific                  describing the human need that                    abilities.
     Describe a technological invention             examples of how agricultural                   prompted its invention and the                   Apply appropriate tools, materials
      and the resources that were used to            science has met human needs and                current and potential social impacts              and processes to physical,
      develop it.                                    has improved the quality of life.              of the specific invention.                        informational or biotechnological
                                                                                                   Apply knowledge of oceanography,                  systems to identify and recommend
                                                                                                    meteorology, geology and human                    solutions to international problems.
                                                                                                    anatomy to explain important                     apply knowledge of agricultural
                                                                                                    considerations that need to be made               science to develop a solution that
                                                                                                    for construction of homes,                        will improve on a human need or
                                                                                                    buildings and businesses in the                   want.
                                                                                                    United States.
                                                                                                   Assess the impacts that agricultural
                                                                                                    science has had on meeting human
                                                                                                    needs and improving the quality of

                                               C. Identify the pros and cons of applying      C. Evaluate possibilities consequences and
                                                  technological and scientific solutions to      impacts of scientific and technological        C. Evaluate the consequences and impacts
                                                  address problems and the effect upon           solutions.                                        of scientific and technological
C. Know the pros and cons of possible             society.                                         Relate scientific and technological            solutions.
   solutions to scientific and technological        Describe the positive and negative               advancements in terms of cause                 Propose solutions to specific
   problems in society.                               expected and unexpected effects of              and effect.                                       scientific and technological
     Compare the positive and negative               specific technological                       Describe and evaluate the impacts                   applications, identifying possible
        expected and unexpected impacts               developments.                                   that financial considerations have                financial considerations.
        of technological change.                    Describe ways technology extends                 had on specific scientific and                 Analyze scientific and
     Identify and discuss examples of                and enhances human abilities.                   technological applications.                       technological solutions through the
        technological change in the                                                                Compare and contrast potential                      use of risk/benefit analysis.
        community that have both positive                                                             solutions to technological, social,            Analyze and communicate the
        and negative impacts.                                                                         economic and environmental                        positive or negative impacts that a
                                                                                                      problems.                                         recent technological invention had
                                                                                                   Analyze the impacts on society of                   on society.
                                                                                                      accepting or rejecting scientific and          Evaluate and describe potential
                                                                                                      technological advances.                           impacts from emerging
                                                                                                                                                        technologies and the consequences
                                                                                                                                                        of not keeping abreast of
                                                                                                                                                        technological advancements
                                                                                                                                                        (e.g., assessment alternatives, risks,
                                                                                                                                                        benefits, costs, economic impacts,

   22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                                           Final Form                                                        January 5, 2002
                                 Academic Standards for Science and Technology

                                                          IX. GLOSSARY

Allele:                          Any of a set of possible forms of a gene.

Biochemical conversion:          The changing of organic matter into other chemical forms.

Biomass conversion:              The changing of organic matter that has been produced by photosynthesis into useful liquid, gas or fuel.

Biomedical technology:           The application of health care theories to develop methods, products and tools to maintain or improve

Biomes:                          A community of living organisms of a single major ecological region.

Biotechnology:                   The ways that humans apply biological concepts to produce products and provide services.

Carbon chemistry:                The science of the composition, structure, properties and reactions of carbon based matter, especially of atomic
                                 and molecular systems; sometimes referred to as organic chemistry.

Construction technology:         The ways that humans build structures on sites.

Desalinization:                  To remove salts and other chemicals from sea or saline water.

Dichotomous:                     Divided or dividing into two parts or classifications.

Electronic communication:        System for the transmission of information using electronic technology (e.g., digital cameras, cellular telephones,
                                 Internet, television, fiber optics).

Embryology:                      The branch of biology dealing with the development of living things from fertilized egg to its developed state.

Engineering:                     The application of scientific, physical, mechanical and mathematical principles to design processes, products and
                                 structures that improve the quality of life.

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                            Final Form                                          January 5, 2002
                                 Academic Standards for Science and Technology
Enzyme:                          A protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed by the reaction; an organic catalyst.

Ergonomical:                     Of or relating to the design of equipment or devices to fit the human body’s control, position, movement and

Evolution:                       A process of change that explains why what we see today is different from what existed in the past; it includes
                                 changes in the galaxies, stars, solar system, earth and life on earth. biological evolution is a change in hereditary
                                 characteristics of groups of organisms over the course of generations.

Fact:                            Information that has been objectively verified.

Geologic hazard:                 A naturally occurring or man-made condition or phenomenon that presents a risk or is a potential danger to life
                                 and property (e.g., landslides, floods, earthquakes, ground subsidence, coastal and beach erosion, faulting, dam
                                 leakage and failure, mining disasters, pollution and waste disposal, sinkholes).

Geologic map:                    A representation of a region on which is recorded earth information (e.g., the distribution, nature and age
                                 relationships of rock units and the occurrences of structural features, mineral deposits and fossil localities).

Hydrology:                       The scientific study of the properties, distribution and effects of water on the earth’s surface, in the soil and
                                 underlying rocks and in the atmosphere.

Hypothesis:                      An assertion subject to verification or proof as a premise from which a conclusion is drawn.

Information technology:          The technical means that humans create to store and transmit information.

Inquiry:                         A systematic process for using knowledge and skills to acquire and apply new knowledge.

Instructional technology:        Any mechanical aid (including computer technology) used to assist in or enhance the process of teaching and

Law:                             Summarizing statement of observed experimental facts that has been tested many times and is generally accepted
                                 as true.

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                                 Academic Standards for Science and Technology
Manufacturing technology:        The ways that humans produce goods and products.

Mitosis:                         The sequential differentiation and segregation of replicated chromosomes in a cell’s nucleus that precedes
                                 complete cell division.

Model:                           A description, analogy or a representation of something that helps us understand it better (e.g., a physical model, a
                                 conceptual model, a mathematical model).

Nova:                            A variable star that suddenly increases in brightness to several times its normal magnitude and returns to its
                                 original appearance in a few weeks to several months or years.

Patterns:                        Repeated processes that are exhibited in a wide variety of ways; identifiable recurrences of the element and/or the

Physical technology:             The ways that humans construct, manufacture and transport products.

Radioactive isotope:             An atom that gives off nuclear radiation and has the same number of protons (atomic number) as another atom but
                                 a different number of neutrons.

Relationship between
science and technology:          Science builds principles or theories while technology is the practical application of those principles or theories.

Scale:                           Relates concepts and ideas to one another by some measurement (e.g., quantitative, numeral, abstract,
                                 ideological); provides a measure of size and/or incremental change.

Science:                         Search for understanding the natural world using inquiry and experimentation.

System:                          A group of related objects that work together to achieve a desired result.

      Open Loop system:          A group of related objects that do not have feedback and cannot modify themselves.

      Closed Loop system:        A group of related objects that have feedback and can modify themselves.

      Subsystem:                 A group of related objects that make up a larger system (e.g., automobiles have electrical systems, fuel systems).

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                            Final Form                                           January 5, 2002
                                 Academic Standards for Science and Technology

Technology education:            The application of tools, materials, processes and systems to solve problems and extend human capabilities.

Technological design process:    Recognizing the problem, proposing a solution, implementing the solution, evaluating the solution and
                                 communicating the problem, design and solution.

Theory:                          Systematically organized knowledge applicable in a relatively wide variety of circumstances; especially, a system
                                 of assumptions, accepted principles and rules of procedure devised to analyze, predict or otherwise explain the
                                 nature or behavior of a specified set of phenomena.

Theory of evolution:             A theory that the various types of animals and plants have their origin in other preexisting types and that the
                                 distinguishable differences are due to modification in successive generations.

Topographic map:                 A representation of a region on a sufficient scale to show detail, selected man-made and natural features of a
                                 portion of the land surface including its relief and certain physical and cultural features; the portrayal of the
                                 position, relation, size, shape and elevation of the area.

Transportation systems:          A group of related parts that function together to perform a major task in any form of transportation.

Transportation technology:       The physical ways humans move materials, goods and people.

Tool:                            Any device used to extend human capability including computer-based tools.

22 Pa. Code, Ch. 4, Appendix B                            Final Form                                            January 5, 2002