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CMI 2003


									Chr. Michelsen Institute
Development Studies and Human Rights

                                       CMI 2003
                               Chr.Michelsen Institute                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3
                               Development Studies and Human Rights

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CMI 2003
                               Fantoftvegen 38, Bergen
                               PO Box 6033 Postterminalen
                               5892 Bergen
                               Tel: +47 55 57 40 00
                               Fax: +47 55 57 41 66

                                                                                                                                                              The research and projects fall within 7   Parts of the research is organised in major institute programmes
                                                                                                                                                              main research areas:                      normally running for 3-5 years and comprising several projects. CMI
                                                                                                                                                                                                        has one permanent research program on human rights. In 2003, 2
                                                                                                                                                              Human Rights and Democratisation          strategic institute programmes were concluded: ‘WTO/GATS and
                                                                                                                                                              Peacebuilding                             economic development: Key to the 'new economy'’? and ‘Taxation, Aid
                                                                                                                                                              Global Economy and Development            and Democracy’
                                                                                                                                                              Public Sector Reform
                                                                                                                                                              Poverty and Social Transformation         The bulk of the activity is made up of individual research projects
                                                                                                                                                              Aid Policy and Impact                     and commissioned studies.
                                                                                                                                                              Natural Resources
Director’s Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                 This annual report presents main findings of completed and
                                                                                                                                                                                                        ongoing research projects and commissioned studies in each of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                        seven main research areas. Some projects are crosscutting and fall
                                                                                                                                                                                                        within more than one research area.
2003 was an exciting and positive year for CMI. We recruited a             CMI has already made significant contributions to this field. The
number of young and very promising scholars among our staff; we            insights of CMI researchers into economic development,
consolidated our publication profile in terms of quality and               development cooperation, democratisation and development of
numbers; we successfully completed two research programmes                 judicial institutions, poverty reduction and natural resource
and further developed two programmes with colleagues at the                management are relevant for conflict analysis. It is also relevant for
University of Bergen, ‘Courts in Transition’ and ‘Political Institutions   understanding how external assistance in post-war situations can
in Africa’.                                                                promote the desired effects, and how conflict, peace and
                                                                           development interrelate. Given the ‘strategic deficit’ which
Applied and relevant research is a cornerstone at CMI. We have
worked hard at making information and results of our research
                                                                           characterises international efforts in this area, there would seem to
                                                                           be a particular need for conducting conflict assessments whereby
more accessible to researchers, policy makers and the general              we are able to grasp how different conflicts (sometimes very
public. An exciting new project unit working for such purposes was         localised) in a country or region are related to each other and
created during 2003, and launched a new web site for CMI as well           aggregated to complex dynamic patterns that are crucial to
as online resource centres on Afghanistan and Bangladesh.                  understand in order to identify interventions. A strategic research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Director’s Introduction        2
                                                                           programme building on such efforts will be launched in 2004, in                                                                           Human Rights and Democratisation               4-7
During 2003, we also made substantial progress in expanding and            cooperation with the International Peace Research Institute in Oslo.
diversifying the income sources of the institute. We almost doubled                                                                                                                                                                            Peacebuilding        8-11
our incomes from foreign clients and increased our total income by         In 2004, CMI will also launch a new strategic research programme
close to 20 %. This was mainly due to hard work and consistent             on business ethics in multinational corporations in developing                                                                              Global Economy and Development               12-13
efforts by CMI staff for which I am truly very grateful.                   countries. This is a topic high on the agenda in the UN, among                                                                                             Public Sector Reform          14-15
                                                                           governments, business communities and civil society. To what
The end of the Cold War permitted the settlement of a number of            extent should corporate resources be used to fight poverty and                                                                              Poverty and Social Transformation            16
conflicts in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Yet others continued and      improve living standards in the countries and communities in which
new ones started. Many of these have proved difficult to end and           multinationals work? How should corporations interact with                                                                                                 Aid Policy and Impact         17
some have been referred to as complex political emergencies or             governments that are undemocratic and suppressive? The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Natural Resources          18-19
failed states. The concept of ‘peace building’ has come to mean an         programme will be developed with colleagues at the Norwegian
increasingly standardised package of post-war aid designed to pro-         School of Economics and Business Administration.                                                                                                           New Information Unit          19
mote demilitarisation, return of refugees, reconstruction, the rule of
law, elections, good governance, human rights and sometimes tran-                                                                                                                                                                     Partners in the South         20
sitional mechanisms for addressing violations perpetrated during
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Funding and Clients         22
the war.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Staff/Board        23
                                                                           Gunnar M. Sørbø
                                                                           Director                                                                                                                                                               This is CMI       24
                               Human Rights and Democratisation

                                                                                    CMI 2003
                               The quest for

Securing that elected political leaders ‘play by the rules’ and act in accordance
with their mandate without violating citizens’ rights, is a key challenge for new
democracies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Across the continent, executive dominance
is still the norm, and the many institutions put in place to make governments
more accountable are in most cases relatively weak. Why is this so? And what
explains the differences between the institutions and countries in the region?
           Human Rights and Democratisation                                                                                                                                                                                             Human Rights and Democratisation
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CMI 2003

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      CMI 2003
                                                                                                                                                         Building the rule of law
                                                                                                                                                         in new democracies
                                                                                                                                                       Which functions do courts have in upholding the rule of                                      Other projects and programmes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Checking the state: Special institutions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      to secure accountable government in
                                                                                                                                                       law? How and when do courts succeed in making                                                  Sub-Saharan Africa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The human rights situation of the
                                                                                                                                                       power-holders accountable to the democratic rules?                                             Adibasis of Bangladesh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Accommodating difference: Human
                                                                                                                                                       How do courts contribute to democratic stability?                                              rights, citizenship and identity in diverse
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Good governance in Angola:
                                                                                                                                                       This has long been an under-researched         The first major publication in a planned        Parliamentary accountability and
            ‘Elections test the                                                                                                                        field, although enormous resources have        book series of five, Democratization and        control
                                                                                                                                                       gone into strengthening and reforming          the Judiciary, critically questions some of   • Norwegian aid to judicial reform
            legitimacy of political                                                                                                                    judicial systems all over the world the last
                                                                                                                                                       two decades.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      the premises underlying the present drive
                                                                                                                                                                                                      towards a constitutional government and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Why judges prosecute: Human rights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      violations and judicial independence in

            institutions’                                                                                                                                  The institute programme ‘Courts in
                                                                                                                                                       Transition’ (Elin Skaar) sheds new light
                                                                                                                                                                                                      judicial powers. Considering the record of
                                                                                                                                                                                                      judiciaries in new democracies, it warns
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Latin America
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gender (in)justice – Pakistan
                                                                                                                                                       on some of the most important functions        of problems inherent in the current global    • The dialectics of the shifting accountability
                                                                                                                                                       of courts in upholding the rule of law and     move towards constitutional government,         of the Maoist Movement in Nepal
                                                                                                                                                       contributing to democratic stability.          where powers are placed in judges who         • Human rights commissions in
                                                                                                                                                       Political scientists, legal scholars, legal    themselves are not made accountable.            Southeast Asia
                                                                                                                                                       philosophers, economists, and social           Whether judges challenge governments in       • Human rights in Bosnia
           The institute programme ‘Political Institutions in Africa’           of rules and regulations surrounding the elections, and the weakness   anthropologists from four continents           politically significant cases depends on      • Licence to kill - honour killings in
           (POLINAF)(Lise Rakner), focus on democratic accountability.          of the Zambian Electoral Commission. This continued                    provide a unique mix of theoretical and        legal culture, institutional structure, and     Pakistan
           The central objective is to gain a better understanding of the       uncertainty maintained the same party in power through three           empirical experience. Case studies from a      resource constraints judges operate within
           institutions concerned with democratic accountability, and the       consecutive elections, despite an alarming economic record.            number of new democracies emerging             in addition to the social legitimacy of
           interaction between the various institutions of government:              The analysis showed that the weak institutionalisation of the      either from dictatorial rule or from           courts.
           electoral administration, the parliament, political party            parties is linked to the political framework in Zambia where the       colonialism in Africa, Latin America,             This programme is a joint project
           development, and the role of the judiciary and special               presidency is overwhelmingly important. The weakness of the            Eastern Europe and Asia, allow analysis        between CMI, the Faculty of Law at the
           institutions of restraint. The relational and dynamic aspects may    party system is embedded in excessive power concentration in           of different legal systems and traditions in   University of Bergen, and the Centre for
           explain why democratic institutions become institutionalised in      the political system.                                                  various cultural settings.                     Applied Legal Studies at the University of
           some contexts and not in others.                                         Similar studies of institutional developments and voter                The researchers publish widely on          Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
              POLINAF is a research co-operation between CMI and the            behaviour in the context of the 2004 general elections in Malawi       courts issues in international journals,                                                     Human Rights and Democratisation:
           Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen.            commenced in 2003 (Lise Rakner). There were also initial talks         and teach courses at Master and Doctoral                                                     Human rights and democratisation has
                                                                                with researchers at Makerere University on a study of the              levels. The findings from this research                                                      comprised one of CMI's core research
           The case of Zambia                                                   democratic accountability dimension of the 2006 elections in           collaboration are expected not only to be                                                    areas since the early 1980s. The human
           Elections and political succession ‘test’ the strength and           Uganda.                                                                of value to academics, but also to serve as                                                  rights programme has been a permanent
           legitimacy of political institutions in place to check against           Several MA theses analysing central aspects of democratic          important sources of information for                                                         research programme since 1983 functioning
           executive dominance. A study of the 2001 electoral processes in      accountability were completed: Studies of the accountability           policy makers in the field of judicial                                                       as a forum for human rights based
           Zambia (Lise Rakner) concluded that this election could not be       function of the Tanzanian parliament, an analysis of the               reform.                                                                                      research. A monthly seminar presents
           characterised as democratic due to the institutional uncertainty     National Resistance Movement in Uganda, the role of kingdoms                                                                                                        and discusses papers on human rights
                                                                                in contemporary Uganda, and the gender aspect of electoral             The programme’s five main components                                                         issues. The programme also finances the
                                                                                policies in Uganda.                                                    are all central themes in law and courts                                                     writing of several articles.
                                                                                    The book Political and Economic Liberalisation in Zambia           research:                                                                                        Many researchers and students have
           POLINAF researchers offer an annual course for graduate students     1991-2001 based on Lise Rakner’s PhD dissertation argues that                                                                                                       human rights issues at the core of their
           at the University of Bergen. 10 MA students are affiliated to the    while both political and economic reform processes are expected          • The accountability function of courts                                                    research, covering a broad spectre of
           research programme. Collaborations have been established with        to reduce the mandate and scope of authority of the executive            • Courts as an institutional voice for the                                                 political, economic, social, and cultural
           universities in Ethiopia (University of Addis Ababa), Zambia         government, executive dominance increased in Zambia in the                 poor                                                                                     rights. Now there is an increased focus
           (University of Zambia), Malawi (Chancellor College), Uganda          1990s. Stressing continuity rather than change, the case of              • Law and order                                                                            on legal aspects of rights protection
           (Makerere University), South Africa (University of Witwatersrand),   Zambia suggests that the patronage politics associated with              • Economic security and property rights                                                    through studies of courts and the rule of
           The UK (University of Essex, University of Warwick) and the United   authoritarian regimes are compatible with processes of political         • Theoretical perspectives on courts in                                                    law in new democracies.
           States (Georgetown, Cornell, Michigan State, American University).   and economic liberalisation.                                               new democracies
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                                                                                                                             CMI 2003
                           Between war

                                         and peace
                                         The end of the Cold War made possible an unprecedented use of the UN to
                                         promote peace . The scope for collective intervention to settle conflicts as well
                                         as for participation in reconstruction after conflicts widened. Substantial aid
                                         money has been mobilised to finance such peace building agendas. Many of
                                         the current conflicts have proved difficult to end, becoming complex political
                                         emergencies or failed states. Events following 11 September 2001 and the
                                         ‘war on terror’ have challenged the multilateral approach, as exemplified by
                                         Afghanistan and Iraq.
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CMI 2003

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      CMI 2003
           Which conditions and strategies serve to strengthen peace once       should have a flexible, even modular, structure where units can
           a violent conflict comes to an end? Peace building agendas have      be deployed according to needs as the situation evolves.
           been driven by specific national and institutional interests and        A CMI evaluation of an NGO consortium’s emergency
           by concerns for a general international order. CMI has made          operations (Arne Strand) welcomed their use of selected national
           significant contributions to this research field. CMI collaborates   NGOs and civil society groups as implementers in conflict
           with Norwegian and international research institutions and           contexts. Guidance for future emergency operations stressed the
           researchers involved in research on different aspects of peace       importance of establishing a common assistance strategy while
           building.                                                            at the same time allowing rapid change of implementation
                                                                                strategies as the context is altered and beneficiaries’ needs change.
           Afghanistan – efforts ‘to win hearts and minds’                      A participatory study of Norwegian Church Aid (Arne Strand)
           Afghanistan balances on the edge of a precipice: below lies rene-    helped define their post-war strategy in Afghanistan,
           wed war, chaos and the resurgence of Islamic militancy. Fears of     recommending a rural and integrated focus and a sharpened
           such alternatives have ensured strong political and economic         profile on advocacy work and civic education.
           support for the present transitional administration regardless of
           its limited legitimacy. A CMI project analysing the planning,
           establishment and first months of activities of the UN Assistance
           Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) operations (Astri Suhrke),            ‘Afghanistan exemplifies the
           revealed an unprecedented unity of purpose among the main
           concerned states on a post-war strategy for Afghanistan. Yet, the
           promotion of human rights is constrained by the requirements of
                                                                                difficulties of building peace
           short-term political stability.
               Afghanistan exemplifies the difficulties of building peace       while a military campaign is
           while a military campaign is still being pursued. Military forces
           have provided humanitarian assistance to win ‘hearts and
           minds’ in addition to pursuing military goals. UNAMA is the
                                                                                still being pursued’
           first UN peace operation established in the shadow of 'the war
           on terror'.
               Authorising an all-UN integrated mission in the context of a        There are 2.3 million Afghans still residing in Iran. CMI,
           continuing emergency situation, where aid agencies are already       PRIO and the Iranian Institute for Policy Studies arranged a
           operating in the field may however, be disruptive of ongoing         roundtable conference (Astri Suhrke) which engaged international
           operations and likely to encounter considerable resistance. The      Iranian and Afghan officials, scholars and practitioners in
           report urges for co-ordination structures which simultaneously       identifying alternative strategies to forced return of refugees.
           promote capacity-building of the local state and private sectors.    The official Iranian policy is to ensure a rapid refugee return, yet
           In addition, assistance to cover the operating budget of the state   Iranian businesses are in need of labour and the Afghans are in         From peace building to ‘war on terrorism’                                Who's helping who?
           administration is a prerequisite for capacity-building and local     need of jobs. Thus, a dilemma persists.                                 CMI carried out a study on reform of the security sector as an           Arne Strand submitted his DPhil thesis 'Who's Helping Who?
           ownership of the process. It is therefore suggested that an             A World Bank commissioned report on Community Driven                 input in an evolving policy debate on the role of security sector        NGO Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance' to the
           international fund for this purpose should be part of the            Development in Conflict Contexts (Arne Strand) found that a             reform in Norwegian assistance to developing countries (Elling           University of York in December. His thesis examines the
           standard international response to post-conflict situations. The     conflict complicates efforts to reach the poorest and that such         N. Tjønneland).                                                          effectiveness, efficiency and impact of NGO coordination of
           organisation of a UN peace mission must be tailored to the kind      projects in themselves are not enough to reconcile previous                Security sector reform addresses two main challenges: (1)             humanitarian assistance, primarily in Afghanistan. Case studies
           of situation in which it is inserted. In situations 'between war     enemies. The process of establishing community based                    assisting institutions capable of providing security for the state       from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Indonesia and Sri Lanka helped
           and peace'—as in Afghanistan—the civilian part of the mission        organisations which can identify and agree upon projects is             and its citizens and (2) ensuring that these institutions are governed   broaden the investigation.
                                                                                more important than rapid project implementation, concludes             in accordance with the principles of democracy and civilian                 His prime finding was that the local population and returned
                                                                                the report.                                                             oversight.                                                               migrants were essentially disconnected from any NGO decision
                                                                                   To strengthen CMI’s knowledge and capacity on peace                     An increasing number of donor agencies have started to view           making or coordination process. It was primarily the NGOs
                                                                                building issues a new institute programme on peace building will        security as a precondition for poverty reduction and development.        themselves, not the intended beneficiaries, who benefited from
                                                                                be launched in 2004. The programme will develop policy-                 In particular, donors offer increased support to justice and inter-      NGO coordination arrangements. NGOs will inevitably reject
                                                                                relevant theory on peace building, and synthesise findings from         nal security/police reforms and to the rebuilding of security            any attempt at being forcedly coordinated. They regard it as a
                                                                                case studies from Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Southern Africa and           institutions in countries emerging from violent conflicts. The           limitation to their organisational independence and funding
                                                                                the Middle East.                                                        new ‘war on terrorism’ agenda has weakened the earlier focus             opportunity. Strand does not reject coordination as a tool that
                                                                                                                                                        on governance and democratisation.                                       might help improve delivery of humanitarian assistance, but
                                                                                Political Islam                                                                                                                                  calls for a facilitated mode of coordination, information sharing
                                                                                During the past decade, political Islam (‘Islamism’) has emerged                                                                                 and agreement on a set of norms and codes that can guide assis-
                                                                                as a political challenge to secular nationalism in a number of          Other projects                                                           tance efforts.
                                                                                Middle Eastern countries, triggering widespread political               • Aid in conflict
                                                                                violence. CMI research (Are Knudsen) has sought to uncover the          • The effects of post-war aid
                                                                                reasons behind the Islamist revival in the Middle East in general       • Roads to reconciliation
                                                                                and in Lebanon and Palestine in particular. The lack of civil           • Post-war aid: A comparative analysis                Peacebuilding:                           course of conflict and resolution in
                                                                                liberties, political oppression and social inequality are widely        • Contribution to Norwegian-Japanese                  CMI researchers have focused on          many parts of the world. Assistance in
                                                                                seen as the root causes of the Islamist revival. Yet, there is need       roundtable on peacebuilding                         post-conflict peace processes in areas   ‘post-conflict’ situations have become
                                                                                for a better understanding of Islamist movements and their              • Reform process in Serbia                            like Sri Lanka, Kosovo, East Timor,      a more established area of expertise,
                                                                                adherents. To this end, CMI together with researchers at                • Political Islam in Palestine: determinants          Afghanistan, the Middle East and         in areas such as state formation,
                                                                                Muwatin (The Palestinian Institute for the Study of Democracy),           of local support                                    Southern Africa. The changed inter-      democratisation, building the rule of
                                                                                are currently engaged in research on the determinants of grass-         • Monitoring the ceasefire agreement in               national situation after 11 September    law, peace support operations and
                                                                                roots support to the Palestinian Hamas.                                   Sri Lanka                                           2001 continues to influence the          economic reconstruction.
           Global Economy and Development
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                                                                                                                                                       FDI and WTO                                                             ‘Large growth effects from

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CMI 2003
CMI 2003

                                                                                                                                                       A CMI study examines the host country determinants of foreign
                Trade in services integrates developing                                                                                                direct investment (FDI) flows in services as a whole and in the
                                                                                                                                                       major service industries (Ivar Kolstad). It is found that FDI in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               telecommunication in
                                                                                                                                                       service industries is attracted to large domestic industries, but
                countries in world economy                                                                                                             unaffected by trade openness. A strong correlation between FDI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               developing countries’
                                                                                                                                                       in manufacturing and FDI in certain producer services (finance
                                                                                                                                                       and transport) is found. While political risk does not affect FDI
                                                                                                                                                       in services overall, socio-political indices appear to affect FDI in
                                                                                                                                                       certain service industries.
                                                                                                                                                           The financial sector plays an important part in economic
                                                                                                                                                       growth as it can reduce the cost of acquiring information, con-         Social development policies increase investment in
                                                                                                                                                       ducting transactions and facilitating saving mobilisation. An           developing countries
                                                                                                                                                       econometric study shows that there is a positive statistical rela-      Creating a favourable investment climate is crucial for economic
                                                                                                                                                       tionship between financial development and economic growth.             development. Investment increases growth which in turn reduces
                                                                                                                                                       It is also found that financial sector developments seem to have        poverty, at least in the long run. In a series of studies for the
                                                                                                                                                       at least the same importance on economic growth in developing           World Bank, CMI has examined the impact of social
                                                                                                                                                       countries as in industrialised countries.                               development variables on investment in developing countries
                                                                                                                                                           The need for an international investment agreement (IIA) has        (Ivar Kolstad).
                                                                                                                                                       been a much debated and highly controversial issue for at least            Reducing corruption leads to an increase in domestic
                                                                                                                                                       a decade. There are now initiatives to place this theme on the          investment, but has no effect on foreign direct investment (FDI).
                                                                                                                                                       agenda for the new round of negotiations in the World Trade             Combating corruption can have a beneficial effect on both
                                                                                                                                                       Organization (WTO). In a study it is demonstrated that potenti-         domestic and foreign investment. Political freedom attracts FDI,
                                                                                                                                                       al host countries of international investments may have conflic-        but decreases domestic investment. Since democratization might
                                                                                                                                                       ting views on an IIA (Bertil Tungodden). A small country may            reduce corruption, however, the total effect on domestic
                                                                                                                                                       either benefit or lose from the possibility to subsidize. It benefits   investment is ambiguous. Religious tensions deter FDI, and
                                                                                                                                                       if by offering an investment subsidy it is able to attract foreign      improved socio-economic conditions increase domestic
                                                                                                                                                       direct investment, which it would not get in the absence of such        investment.
                                                                                                                                                       an investment incentive. An investment agreement eliminating               Democratic accountability has a negative association with
                                                                                                                                                       the opportunity to subsidize foreign direct investment would            FDI in the manufacturing industries but a positive one in the service
                                                                                                                                                       therefore lead to a loss for the smaller country. However, if the       industries. Law and order is found conducive to investment in
                                                                                                                                                       multinational makes a single investment in the region, and the          both types of industries. Internal conflict deters investment in
                                                                                                                                                       larger country is able to change the investment decision of the         the manufacturing sector. Neither law and order nor internal
                                                                                                                                                       multinational from the small to the large country by offering a         conflict affects FDI in the extractive industries. Paradoxically,
           Development of telecommunication services has facilitated cross-border trade over                                                           more generous investment subsidy, a zero-subsidy investment             we find corruption to increase FDI in the services sector, and
                                                                                                                                                       agreement would benefit the small country.                              ethnic tensions to increase FDI in the manufacturing sector.
           the internet. There are online possibilities even in the remotest part of the world.
           Yet, developing countries often lack complementary factors such as competence,
           infrastructure and well-functioning institutions to be able to make the most of the                                                                                                                                                 Global Economy and Development
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               CMI focuses its research on developing countries'
           technological opportunities.                                                                                                                                                                                                        uneven integration in the international economy,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and studies trade and trade reforms, international
           The CMI research programme ‘WTO/GATS and Economic                     analysis of 122 countries confirms that direct marketing on the                                                                                               investments and the role of multinational companies,
           Development: Key to “the new economy” (Arne Wiig) has                 internet is significant as a marketing tool only in contexts of                                                                                               transfers of aid and economic co-operation between
           analysed how information technology and trade liberalization          political stability and mutual trust.                                                                                                                         countries in the South.
           affect international division of labour and income distribution in
           the world economy. CMI has cooperated with the University of          Telecommunications
           Cape Town, the University of Malaya, the Free University of           New technological solutions and liberalization of telecom
           Amsterdam, the Foundation for Research in Economics and               markets in Africa have led to an average annual growth of 78%                                                                                                 Other projects:
           Business Administration (SNF) in Bergen and the World Trade           in mobile telephony. In Ghana, a case study (Ragnhild Overå)                                                                                                  • Social development and investment. The cases
           Organization.                                                         shows that this development saves traders time and transportation                                                                                               of Botswana and Malaysia
              Many industries outsource services to low-cost countries with      cost. Mobile telephony makes it possible to maintain a wider                                                                                                  • Comments to the first draft of the SADC
           a well-educated population, but developing countries are dependent    network of suppliers and customers, resulting in higher incomes                                                                                                 Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan
           on low trade barriers as well as adequate infrastructure, logistics   and expansion. More efficient long-distance communication                                                                                                     • Experience from Bangladesh with ethical trading
           and customs procedure to be able to upgrade the quality of their      makes it easier to check information and to build relations of                                                                                                • Corruption in international business transactions
           products and participate in global production networks.               trust between trade partners.                                                                                                                                 • Assessing the economic gains of free market
              In a study of the Namibian tourist industry (Arne Wiig)               An econometric study analysing the relationship between                                                                                                      access for the least developed countries
           confirm that technology alone will not make much of a difference.     telecommunication development and economic growth shows                                                                                                       • Sanitary and phytosanitary standards (SPS) and
           Overseas travel agents and tour operators at home play an             that there seems to be larger growth effects from telecommunication                                                                                             technical assistance
           important role in supplying information and ensuring the quality      development in developing countries than in developed countries,
           of a trip to an exotic destination. Unless Namibian operators can     a result that contradicts earlier findings. The result stems from a
           fulfil these two functions and ensure quality and trust, they will    larger indirect impact of telecommunications in other sectors.
           continue to depend on intermediaries to attract tourists. An
           Public Sector Reform                                                                                                                           Public Sector Reform
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      CMI 2003
             - A virtual resource centre

                                                                                                                                                       Understanding tax
                                                                                                                                                       systems in African

                                                                                                                                                      Taxation, aid and democracy are closely
                                                                                                                                                      related in poor aid-dependent African
                                                                                                                                                      countries. Excessive and arbitrary taxation
                                                                                                                                                      are major constraints for economic and
           Corruption is ‘the single greatest obstacle to economic and social development’                                                            social development.
           proclaimed the World Bank. International development agencies have been looking
                                                                                                                                                      High taxation retards the growth process and induces tax evasion.      revenue targets. Central government taxation is therefore often
           for ways to combat corruption, but relatively little is known of the effectiveness of                                                      The research programme ‘Taxation, aid and democracy’ (Odd-             shaped by technical staff rather than by the Parliament. Local
                                                                                                                                                      Helge Fjeldstad) which was concluded in 2003, is the first             government taxation is a major exception to this, but politicisation
           their efforts. There is much need and demand for research-based knowledge.                                                                 comparative study of revenue systems in African countries that         of local government taxes often undermines local government tax
                                                                                                                                                      explores the evolution and performance of both the local and           collection efforts. Administrative problems and political
                                                                                                                                                      central government tax systems. Namibia, Tanzania and Uganda           interference in the implementation of tax policies are major
           U4 Utstein Anti-Corruption Resource Centre (Inge Amundsen)          based knowledge. As such, U4 currently explores new avenues            are the case countries.                                                obstacles to increased revenue collection.
           is breaking new ground for CMI – using the Internet possibilities   for the dissemination of research and academic knowledge as               The research generated new insights relevant for future tax             Donors focus increasingly on domestic revenue generation as
           for disseminating research-based knowledge. With a focus on         well as interactivity with key user-groups, such as development        reforms on taxation in poor countries. Taxation is generally not       a way of reducing aid dependence in Africa. The research
           corruption as a development problem, U4 presents well organised     workers. A key principle for the U4 team is to produce accessible      high on the domestic political agenda. The politics of taxation        concludes that this may have significant but unintended negative
           resources and digested knowledge from a complex discipline for      information and knowledge – by alleviating rather than                 are limited, involve a few specialised interest groups, and tend to    impacts on taxpayers’ rights and government accountability.
           a variety of user groups.                                           increasing the ‘information overload’.                                 take place in non-public arenas. Typically, small lobby groups         Although it is difficult to sort out the specific effects of taxation
               CMI hosts a group of ‘corruption researchers’, who ensures         Currently, U4 offers several services directly to staff of the      pressure for tax exemptions and bargain with officials or              and donor interventions in concrete situations, it is clear from
           that U4 is a research-based resource centre. U4 also draws upon     Utstein agencies. In addition to the open site, the Utstein staff is   ministers about tax liabilities. Major debates in Parliament           the research that fiscal relations between states, donors and
           an international network of experts and cooperates closely with     offered interactive learning tools such as an online anti-             about central government taxes and tax reforms are rare. This          citizens do affect accountability relations in direct and indirect
           the world’s leading anti-corruption NGO, Transparency               corruption training course and a helpdesk with access to               contrasts remarkably with the situation in most rich countries,        ways. Hence, a better understanding of the fiscal relations in
           International.                                                      experts.                                                               where taxation issues – especially around elections - are often        society is important when seeking to promote more democratic
                                                                                  In 2003, U4 initiated what promises to be future reference          central and important. Offering their technical assistance,            and accountable government.
  -                                                         points in the two areas: ‘African Anti-Corruption Commissions’         donors push hard to get recipient governments to meet specific
           a virtual resource centre                                           and ‘Blacklisting’ as means to anti-corruption’.
           Being inextricably linked to the Utstein Group and their
           development agencies, the U4 web site contains a comprehensive
           and searchable database of these agencies’ support to anti-                                                                                Public Sector Reform                                    Other projects                               • Formative process research on the
           corruption projects across the world. In addition U4 offers:            The Utstein Group                                                  Studies of economic and political reform                • State-formation and governmentality:         local government reform in Tanzania
           • selected and annotated literature                                     The four ministers of international development in the             processes have become a distinct area of                  interpreting corruption in a Palestinian   • Corruption in the education sector in
           • expert’s answers to frequently asked questions                        United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Norway and Germany                research at CMI during the last decade. This              context                                      Bangladesh
           • topical focus pages                                                   established the Utstein partnership in 1999. Among other           area includes research on public institutions,          • Rural taxation in Uganda                   • Research on corruption: A policy
           • web portal with links to anti-corruption on the internet              priorities, the partners have developed a common strategy          local government reforms and aid policies. The          • Inception review of Scandinavian             oriented survey
           • special web services for Utstein staff                                and plans for combating corruption and established the U4          research focuses on various aspects of                    support to the National Statistical        • Local governance, urban poverty and
                                                                                   Anti-Corruption Resource Centre. U4 is currently servicing         governance, service delivery, taxation and                Institute in Mozambique and                  service delivery in Namibia
           Research-based, easy-to-access knowledge                                the Utstein development agencies, principally DFID,                corruption. CMI's long-standing work on macro-            appraisal of a five-year project for       • Municipalities in Mozambique - 5
           Producing applied research-based knowledge is a cornerstone of          NORAD, the Norwegian and the Netherlands Ministry of               economic models and financial management is               continued support                            years since the first local elections,
           CMI activity, yet U4 has taken a new path by marrying service           Foreign Affairs, and GTZ/German Federal Ministry for               also embraced within this research area.                • State building and rent seeking in           a follow-up study
           production, the internet and database technology with research-         Economic Cooperation and Development.                                                                                        Palestine
           Poverty and Social Transformation                                                                                                                  Natural Resources
16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                17
CMI 2003

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CMI 2003
           When women
           feed their

           Dramatic cuts in formal jobs have forced African men out of the                            land. He gets paid a ‘bachelor’s wage’ since
                                                                                                      his family is presumed to fend for itself on
                                                                                                                                                               Fishing as safety net
           job market. African families increasingly depend on women’s                                the farm. Thus, subsistence agriculture
                                                                                                      subsidises industrial wages. Labour migration
           informal income. West-African women have always been visible                               is not an avenue out of poverty, argues
                                                                                                      Tostensen, although it gives a temporary          African freshwater fisheries serve as an economic buffer and safety valve for large population
           and held powerful economic positions in the informal economy,                              respite. The problems of poverty persist.
           but this has not been the case in other parts of Africa. The last                                                                            groups. People enter fishing when opportunities in more important economic sectors are bad, and
                                                                                                      Evolutionary model of an                   PhD    exit when opportunities are good. Most of the freshwaters have remained surprisingly stable, and
           20 years, income patterns and gender relations have changed urban labour market
                                                                                                      Ivar Kolstad defended his doctoral dissertation   the fishing patterns practiced appear unselective and ecologically sound. Climatic drivers such as
           dramatically all over Africa.                                                              ‘Essays on Evolutionary Game Theory’ at
                                                                                                      the Norwegian School of Economic and              water levels often prove to be more influential for the regeneration of the stocks than fishing efforts,
                                                       The project ‘Changing gender relations in      Business Administration in February. An           concludes a cross-disciplinary research project (biology, social anthropology, geography, economics,
                                                       African informal economies’ (Ragnhild          evolutionary model of an urban labour
           Poverty and Social Transformation           Overå) investigates the way in which           market is proposed in which the choice of         sociology, history) that conducted studies of five freshwater lakes in Malawi, Zambia and
           This research area covers a wide range      informal economies historically emerged        whether to work or be unemployed depends
           from analysis of poverty processes to       as differently gendered in different African   on the proportion of workers in your
           studies of poverty-reducing political       countries, and how political reforms,          neighbourhood that is employed. Moreover,
           initiatives and their implementation. The   economic crisis and the AIDS epidemic          the choice of residence is influenced by levels   The ecology and the social functions of        investigated how various long term
           call for effective reduction of global      currently change gender relations.             of employment or education in different           these fisheries indicate that the need for     political and economic trends in the           Natural Resources
           poverty, challenges the research com-          In times of economic crisis gender          neighbourhoods. The results show that             management may be limited. Limiting the        region have affected the development of        Applying anthropological and economic
           munity to move its discourse beyond         ideologies change and become less rigid.       equilibrium of full employment and full           number of fishermen or prescribing             fishing efforts, and analysed the effective-   perspectives, research have explored
           definitions and measurements to an          In Africa today, men increasingly depend       segregation according to education is robust      exclusive economic zoning may endanger         ness of various resource management            how rights' structures regulate access
           understanding of poverty generating         on women to feed their families. Men are       to a range of different specifications of         the important function of fisheries as a       models. The synthesis report was               to natural resources, and the dynamics
           processes and what pro-poor policies        marginalised. African women enjoy the          residential mobility. The three other essays      safety-valve for poor people. These research   published as a FAO Fisheries Technical         of different natural and socially created
           entail.                                     newly gained economic independence, but        in the dissertation discuss how the modelling     results pose great challenges to fisheries                                                    conditions.
                                                       the price is high. They work harder to         of matching and mutations affects equilibrium     managers, not only in southern Africa,
                                                       provide for an increasing number of            selection in evolutionary models.                 but also in other parts of the world where
                                                       dependants, and they often do it alone.                                                          conflicts between different groups’            ‘The need for
                                                                                                      Poverty reductions strategies                     interests in common resources often arise.                                                    Other projects
           Other projects                              Oscillatory labour migration no        PhD
                                                                                                      A comparative study of the Poverty                    The project ‘Management, Co-               management is                                  • Research co-operation on emerging
           • Assessing the impact of transport         avenue out of poverty                          Reduction Strategy Processes in Malawi            Management or No Management? Major                                                              social issues in Ethiopia
             and energy infrastructure on poverty
                                                       Arne Tostensen defended his doctoral
                                                       dissertation ‘Between Shamba and
                                                                                                      (Arne Tostensen) and Zambia (Lise Rakner)
                                                                                                      found that civil society organisations played
                                                                                                                                                        Dilemmas in southern African freshwater
                                                                                                                                                        fisheries’ (Eyolf Jul-Larsen) was completed
                                                                                                                                                                                                       limited’                                       • Building capacity in governance and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        in benefits streams management in
           • ‘As Long as They Don't Bury Me            Factory: Oscillatory Labour Migration          an active role in these policy-making             in 2003. It was a three-year multi-                                                             African Countries: Case studies of
             Here’. Social Relations of Poverty in     and Livelihoods in Kenya’ at the               exercises, but that the national assemblies       disciplinary project carried out in                                                             Tsumeb (Namibia) and Selebi Phikwe
             a Southern African Shantytown             University of Bergen in May. Land              and political parties were marginalized. A        collaboration with researchers in several      Paper (426/1 and 426/2). The UN Food             (Botswana) Copper Nickel Mines
                                                       shortages force poor peasants to seek          study on the responsiveness and accountability    countries. It questioned conventional          and Agriculture Organization sends the         • KNOWFISH - information needs and
                                                       wage employment in urban areas to              of decision-makers to the concerns of the         wisdom in fisheries management by              publications to the fisheries authorities in     institutional structures for fisheries
                                                       supplement their income. The male head         poor produced an analytical framework for         comparing the importance of climatic vs.       all of its 183 member countries. It is also      management in developing countries
                                                       of the household becomes an oscillating        linking poverty reduction to voice,               anthropogenic        variables    for    the   available at FAO’s homepage. Vol. 2. Case
                                                       migrant while his family cultivates the        responsiveness, and accountability.               regeneration of stocks. Furthermore, it        studies will be published in 2004.
           Aid Policy and Impact
18                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19
CMI 2003

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          CMI 2003
                                                                                                                                                       error on income mobility figures. He also
                Ownership and                                                                                                                          proposes methodological procedures for
                                                                                                                                                       evaluating the robustness of transition
                partnership                                                                                                                            matrices.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      New information unit

                                                                                                                                                       Power of the Purse?                     PhD    Improved access to research
                                                                                                                                                       Hilde B. Selbervik defended her PhD
                                                                                                                                                       dissertation ‘Power of the purse: Norway
                                                                                                                                                       as a donor in the conditionality epoch
                                                                                                                                                       1980-2000,’ at the University of Bergen in
                                                                                                                                                       November. Selbervik has studied                CMI is committed to making research and results more accessible to other
                                                                                                                                                       Norwegian aid policy between 1980 and          researchers, policy makers and the general public. In 2003 a new information unit
                                                                                                                                                       2000. Selbervik investigates Norway’s          was established. The unit provides project support to CMI staff, but also
                                                                                                                                                       behaviour on different arenas and identifies   implements its own projects commissioned by outside clients. Focusing on
                                                                                                                                                       possible channels of influence vis-à-vis the   dissemination and online research-based resource centres, the unit combines
                                                                                                                                                       World Bank and Tanzania, and discloses a       technological and documentation expertise and works closely with the researchers
                                                                                                                                                       discrepancy between Norway’s bilateral         at CMI. The new team aims to be innovative and original in a continuous effort to
                                                                                                                                                       and multilateral conditionality policy.        make research-based knowledge tailored to specific needs and use.
                                                                                                                                                       Contrary to other studies, Selbervik
                                                                                                                                                       shows that conditionality has been effective
                                                                                                                                                       and played a role beyond the first rapid
                                                                                                                                                       phase of reform. Selbervik portrays a
                                                                                                                                                       strategic and clever aid recipient who
                                                                                                                                                       sometimes stands in contrast to the
                                                                                                                                                       allegedly more powerful and influential
           CMI has long-standing experience in studies and                                             realistic in terms of local capacity, and          Norway has always had high aspirations
                                                                                                       ensure strong incentives to finish timely,      in aid, but has not played a
           evaluation of aid policy and programmes in developing                                       concludes the evaluation.                       correspondingly prominent role in setting
                                                                                                           Unfortunately, the multilaterals are        the agenda in the aid discourse, argues
                                                                                                       still viewed as weak in promoting country       Selbervik. Norway wanted to be influential
           countries including aid evaluations, background studies                                     ownership concludes a pilot study for a         and not controversial. Norway earned a
                                                                                                       new multi-donor initiative on assessing         reputation as a trustful actor in long-term
           and inputs in the planning of new interventions.                                            the performance of multilateral agencies.       development assistance, yet high moral
                                                                                                       Similarly, a study of The Danish                capital only goes so far. A rich purse was
                                                                                                       Association for International Cooperation       never powerful enough to be put on equal
           Over the past decade, aid policy has           build local capacity for problem solving,    (Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke) (Gunnar M.           footing with the giants in development
           focused more on political conditions and       is to give as much ownership as possible     Sørbø), calls for mutuality in partnerships     policy, concludes Selbervik.
           oriented towards influencing reform            to the local level. Let the community        and urges MS to untie its aid from Danish
           processes in developing countries. Several     based organizations plan, finance and        development workers.
           projects address the emerging new aid          implement, and let the project reward the                                                     Aid Policy and Impact
           architecture emphasising country owner-        result. This will create projects that are   The failure of aid conditionality?        PhD    CMI has long-standing experience in
           ship and development partnership.                                                           Espen Villanger defended his doctoral            studies and evaluation of aid policy and
              Institution building at the grassroots in                                                dissertation ‘Fighting Poverty: Company          programmes in developing countries.
           micro-credit and management of local             Regional support to ‘good                  Interests and Foreign Aid Policy and an          Over the past decade, aid policy has
           infrastructure for irrigation, drinking          governance’ in Southern Africa             Impact Analysis of Natural Disasters’ at         become oriented towards influencing
           water supply and community centres have                                                     the Norwegian School of Economics and            reform processes in developing countries.
           empowered communities to have confi-             CMI assisted in NORAD’s development        Business Administration in June.                 Several projects have addressed the
           dence in their own abilities, concludes an       and formulation of a regional strategy     Villanger argues that strategic recipient        emerging new aid architecture emp-
           evaluation of the phasing-out of                 and programme of action for support        countries avoid implementing controversial       hasising    country    ownership     and
           Norwegian aid to the Hambantota                  to promote good governance and             conditions. They grant business contracts        development partnership.                      The unit did a complete redesign of CMI’s website (Robert Sjursen/
           Integrated       Rural        Development        peace building in Southern Africa(Elling   to companies that pressure donors to                                                           Ingvild Hestad) which was re-launched in September. In order to make CMI’s
           Programme (HIRDEP), Sri Lanka 1992-              N. Tjønneland). The new strategy           disburse the foreign assistance uncon-                                                         knowledge, resources and expertise more accessible, the website is designed
           1999 (Alf Morten Jerve). Twenty years            document calls for a regional              ditionally. If a donor is more concerned         Other projects                                around our publication and project databases and divided into 7 main research
           with HIRDEP has demonstrated the virtu-          approach. as a supplement to country       with domestic industries than conditionality,    • Norwegian NGOs and aid                      areas. A database structure combined with an intuitive design, allow infinite and
           es of having a development catalyst at           support. Many challenges are common        the donor might give assistance even if the      • Angola 2003/2004: Key development           quick search possibilities as well as continuous updating. A moderate use of
           sub-national level.                              to countries across the region.            recipient does not implement conditions            issues and political decentralisation       graphics ensure that the site is easy to download also from poor connections. The
              In a mid-term review of a rural               Developments in individual countries       usually set by the grant. If reforms are         • Reproductive health                         website also provides portals and access to a specialised development studies
           development project in central Vietnam           are often heavily affected by develop-     perceived to be against a recipient              • Aid and aids – A case study (Malawi)        library.
           supported by NORAD (Alf Morten                   ments at the regional level, and certain   country’s own priorities, concludes              • Bridging research and policy - A study
           Jerve), the evaluators call for result-based     governance challenges require close        Villanger, strong forces will oppose and           of PRSP processes in four African           The project unit has participated in developing a resource centre on Afghanistan
           financing to increase local initiative and       regional co-operation. Countries in the    undermine the reforms. In his study of             countries                                   commissioned by the Norwegian Foreign Ministry in collaboration with PRIO. A
           sense of ownership. When people are well         region must establish common norms         impact analysis of natural disasters,            • Recipient responsibility in Norwegian       resource centre on Bangladesh, primarily targeting researchers working on
           organized and the economy is growing, the        and standards and work together to         Villanger establishes a foundation for             development cooperation                     development issues, was commissioned by NORAD.
           best way to mobilize resources and to            create collective pressure.                evaluating the impact of measurement             • Civil society in Nepal
           Partners in the South                                                                                                                            Publications 2003:
20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21
CMI 2003

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      CMI 2003
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         The CMI library
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         The CMI library has collected specialized
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         literature on developing countries;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         development aid and development studies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         since the beginning of the 1960s. The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         CMI library houses the largest specialized
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         collections in Norway on these issues.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         This national resource centre is therefore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         an oasis of valuable information highly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         appreciated by its growing number of

                                                                                                 Palestine                                                                                                                               Conferences and
                                                                                                                 Bangladesh                                                                                                              workshops
                                                                                            Kenya                     Malaysia                                                                                                           UNDP/CMI: ‘Achieving the MDGs:
                                                                             Angola Malawi Tanzania                                                                                                                                      Strengthening Mutual Accountability’
                                                                            Namibia    Zambia                                                                                                                                            in Bergen 7-8 May
                                                                              Botswana    Zimbabwe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         CMI and the University of Bergen:
                                                                                  South Africa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ‘Civil Society and the Donor-State-NGO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         System: An International research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Conference’ in Bergen 30 October.
                                                                                                                                                            Quality and diversity                                                        CMI and the University of Bergen:
           CMI makes use of its extensive network and formal collaboration          Among the results in 2003 have been several World Bank funded                                                                                        ‘Fragile mountains - fragile people?’ in
           agreements with several institutions in Africa, Asia and the Middle      joint policy research projects between SEAPREN institutes and CMI                                                                                    Bergen 21 November. A workshop on
           East for joint research and commissioned work. Forms of collabo-         as well as the start of a joint bibliographical database on economic                                                                                 the Himalayan cultural landscape.
                                                                                                                                                            CMI is committed to producing knowledge of high academic standards
           ration includes research, staff exchange, student teaching and           governance issues generally and in the African countries.
           tutoring, advanced training, information technology, library support                                                                             and applied relevance. The statistics below show that in 2003 CMI            CMI: The Bergen Seminar in
           and publication exchanges.                                                                                                                                                                                                    Development Economics: ‘The 2003 Fall
                                                                                                                                                            achieved its highest and best publication record. CMI researchers            Seminar’ in Bergen 18 November.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         A conference bringing together
           Angola                           Mali                               Witwatersrand                                                                published in prestigious international journals like the Journal of Public   development economists.
           Instituto de Pesquisa            Centre National de Recherche       Centre for Policy Studies,          SEAPREN
           Económica é Social               Scientifique et Technologique      Johannesburg                        The Southern and Eastern Africa
                                                                                                                                                            Administration, World Development, and Third World Quarterly as well         CMI: ‘WTO/GATS and the ’new economy’
                                            (CNRST)                            Institute for Global Dialogue,      Policy Research Network (SEAPREN)                                                                                     in Bergen 17 November
           Bangladesh                                                          Johannesburg                                                                 as in journals relevant for CMI’s field and disciplines.
                                                                                                                   comprises seven policy research
           The Bangladesh Institute of      Malawi                             Centre for the Study of Civil       institutions from Eastern and
           Development Studies              Chancellor College, Zomba          Society, University of Natal        Southern Africa (Botswana, Kenya,
                                                                                                                   Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania,
           Botswana                         Namibia                            Tanzania                            Uganda, and Zambia). CMI has for
                                                                                                                                                            Articles in refereed journals ..........................19
           Botswana Institute for           Social Sciences Division,          Research on Poverty
                                                                                                                   some time observed the growth of
           Development Policy Analysis      Multidisciplinary Research         Alleviation (REPOA), Dar es
                                                                                                                   SEAPREN co-operation and noted           Books and edited books ..................................7                   The UNDP/CMI conference ‘Achieving
           (BIDPA)                          Centre, University of Namibia      Salaam.
                                                                                                                   both the problems and opportunities                                                                                   the Millennium Development Goals
                                            (SSD/UNAM)                         Economic and Social
                                                                                                                   of the network. 2003 saw the start       Book chapters ................................................8              (MDGs):        Strengthening     Mutual
           Ethiopia                         Namibian Economic Policy           Research Foundation (ESRF),
                                                                                                                   of a cooperation programme aimed                                                                                      Accountability’ 7-8 May hosted the
           Addis Ababa University (AAU)     Research Unit (NEPRU),             Dar es Salaam.
                                                                                                                   at joint research in the areas of        Conference proceedings ................................12                    Norwegian Minister of International
                                                                                                                   good governance and poverty                                                                                           Development Hilde Frafjord Johnson, the
           India                                                               Uganda
           International Centre for         Palestine                          Economic Policy Research
                                                                                                                   reduction backed up by a number of       CMI Working Paper ........................................13                 UNDP Administrator Mark Malloch
                                                                               Centre (EPRC)                       capacity building measures (project                                                                                   Brown and 40 high level participants
           Peace Initiative (ICPI), New     The Palestinian Institute for
           Dehli                            the Study of Democracy             Makerere University                 leader, Jan Isaksen). After an initial   CMI Report ..................................................14              from donor and developing countries.
                                            (MUWATIN), Ramallah                                                    workshop discussing the directions                                                                                    Building on the preparatory meeting in
           Kenya                                                               Zambia                              of the programme, the African            Commissioned reports ..................................23                    November 2002, the conference
           Institute of Policy Analysis     South Africa                       Institute for Ecomomic and          institutions have during 2003                                                                                         focused on achieving the MDGs and
                                                                                                                   planned their research and capacity                                                                                   efforts to establish mutual accountability
           and Research (IPAR), Nairobi     School of Government (SoG),        Social Research (INESOR),
                                                                                                                   building measures in more detail
                                                                                                                                                            Popular lectures ..........................................143               partnerships between developed and
                                            University of the Western Cape     University of Zambia
           Malaysia                         Development Policy Research                                            and 2004 will se the start of the                                                                                     developing countries. The annual Bergen
           Centre for Economic              Unit (DPRU), University of         Zimbabwe                            programme which runs to early            Commentaries, reviews, popular articles ........47                           Seminar Series focus on democratic
           Development and Ethnic           Cape Town                          Centre for Applied Social           2006.                                                                                                                 governance and poverty.
           Relations (CEDER), University    Centre for Applied Legal           Sciences (CASS)
           of Malaya                        Studies, University of             University of Zimbabwe
22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              23
CMI 2003

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                CMI 2003
                                                                                                                                                  Management                                           Library Staff
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Gunnar M. Sørbø (Director)                       Kirsti Hagen Andersen (Head of Library
                                                                                                                                                  Alf Morten Jerve (Deputy Director)                   and Documentation)
                                                                                                                                                  Steinar Hegre (Head of Administration)               Kari Herland (Librarian)
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Reidunn Ljones (Librarian)
                                                                                                                                                  Eyolf Jul-Larsen (Research director)                 Administrative Staff
                                                                                                                                                  Karin Ask                                            Chris Jacob (Secretary)
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Tone Bleie                                       Merete Leby (Head of Services)
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Tone Rand Bringa                                 Inger Nygård (Administrative Secretary)
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Gisela Geisler (sociologist)                     Guri K. Stegali (Accountant/Project Co-
                                                                                                                                                  Johan Helland                                        ordinator)
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Are John Knudsen                                 Per Øyvind Svendsen (Works Supervisor)
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Siri Lange                                       Hong Kim Tran (Head of Accounts and
                                                                                                                                                  Henrik Lunden                                        Finance)
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Armindo Miranda (demographer,                    Jorunn M. Tøsdal (Administrative
                                                                                                                                                  on leave)                                            Secretary)
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Ragnhild Overå
                                                                                                                                                  Tone K. Sissener                                     Public Information
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ingvild Hestad (Head of Information
                                                                                                                                                  Economists                                           Services)
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Arne Wiig (Research Director)                    Astri I. Kamsvåg (Head of Information
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Kjetil Bjorvatn (20%)                            Services, on leave)
                                                                                                                                                  Odd-Helge Fjeldstad
                                                                                                                                                  Jan Isaksen
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Ivar Kolstad                                     Research Assistants
                                                                                                                                                  Line Tøndel Seim                                     Agnese Barstad
                                                                                                                                                  Tina Søreide                                         Gunnhild Eriksen
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Gaute Torsvik (20%)                              Kari Nordstoga Hanssen
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Bertil Tungodden (20%)                           Harald Mathisen
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Espen Villanger                                  Knut Nygaard
           Funding and Clients                                                                                                                    Political Scientists
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ingrid Samset
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Nils Gunnar Songstad
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Lise Rakner (Research Director)                  Arild Spissøy
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Inge Amundsen                                    Hege Toje
                                                                              CMI's main clients include:
           CMI increased its income with 20% in                                                                                                   Dr. Roberto Gargarella (20%)                         Vibeke Wang
                                                                              • The Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA)
                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Siri Gloppen (20%)                                                                                    The Board of the Chr.
                                                                              • NORAD
           2003. In The total turnover was NOK                                • Danida
                                                                                                                                                  Aslak Jangård Orre                                   Masters’ Students                                    Michelsen Institute and
                                                                              • Sida                                                              Siegfried Pausewang                                  Mette Bakken
           50 million.                                                        • The UN system                                                     Dr. Hilde Selbervik                                  Agnese Barstad (Graduated)                           the Chr. Michelsen Fund
                                                                              • The World Bank                                                    Dr. Elin Skaar                                       Bernhard Benum
                                                                              • The Utstein Group of bilateral donor agencies (DFID, GTZ,         Hugo Stokke                                          Ragnhild Sølvi Berg                                  Ingvild Gilhus
           CMI receives core funding through the Research Council of            the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs and NORAD)            Dr. Arne Strand                                      Ingrid Røynestrand Birkelund                         (chair of the board)
           Norway (NFR) from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs                                                                            Dr. Astri Suhrke                                     Synne N. Børstad                                     University of Bergen
           (MFR) and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research.                                                                            Dr. Lars Gerhard Svåsand (20%)                       Åse Johanne Roti Dahl (Graduated)
           In addition, NFR funds a number of large research projects and                                                                         Elling N. Tjønneland                                 Gunnhild Eriksen (Graduated)                         Anders Farestveit
           programmes at CMI. The core funding is used to part-finance the                                                                        Dr. Arne Tostensen                                   Anette Walstad Enes                                  (chair of the fund)
           Strategic Institute Programmes, the library and CMI-initiated                                                                          Inge Tvedten                                         Kari Nordstoga Hanssen
           research. The basic allocation is crucial to maintain and update                                                                                                                            Cathrine Johannessen (Graduated)                     Jan Isaksen
                                                                                                                 CMI project revenues 2003
           existing expertise in all areas of work. Commissioned research                                                                         Senior Consultants                                   Anne Heidi Kvalsøren (Graduated)                     CMI
           constitutes the rest of the project revenues.                                                                                          Just Faaland (Emeritus)                              Bård Helge Kårtveit (Graduated)
                                                                                                                     Research Council of Norway   Ole David Koht Norbye (Senior Advisor)               Anna Birgitte Milford (Graduated)                    Stein Kuhnle
           In 2003, CMI had 150 research projects and commissioned                                                                                                                                     Nicolay Paus                                         University of Bergen
                                                                                                                     Norwegian Ministry of
           studies with external funding, constituting 70% of the total                                              Foreign Affairs              IT Section                                           Ingrid Samset (Graduated)
           turnover. More than 38 % were projects funded by NORAD, 10 %                                                                           Aksel Mjeldheim (Head of IT Section)                 Arild Spissøy (Graduated)                            Siri Pettersen Strandenes
           were funded by MFR, and 6% by other Norwegian clients.                                                                                 Robert Sjursen (IT Consultant/Web                    Anette Staaland                                      The Norwegian School of Economics
           Projects funded by NFR constituted 15 % while 31% were                                                                                 Designer)                                            Hege Toje (Graduated)                                and Business Administration
           project revenues from non-Norwegian agencies.                                                             Other

                                                                                                                                                  Pictures: Odd-Helge Fjeldstad: p. 14, Are Knudsen: p. 11, Anna Milford: p. 18, Ragnhild Overå: p. 12, p. 16,
                                                                                                                                                  Nicolay Paus: p. 17, 22, Eckart Rohde: p. 4-5, 6, Ingrid Samset: p.1, 15, Tone K. Sissener: p. 13, Arne Strand: p. 8-9, 10
                                                                                                                                                  Editor: Ingvild Hestad Design: Oktan Sydvest
         Chr. Michelsen Institute
         Development Studies and Human Rights

Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI) is an independent, non-profit research institution and a
major international centre in policy-oriented and applied development research. The
geographical focus is Sub-Sahara Africa, Southern and Central Asia, the Middle East, the
Balkans and South America.

CMI is committed to a balance between applied and theoretical research. Focus is on
development and human rights issues and on international conditions that affect such
issues. CMI research intends to assist policy formulation, improve the basis for decision-
making and promote public debate on international development issues.

                                                Fantoftvegen 38, Bergen. PO Box 6033 Postterminalen, 5892 Bergen, Norway
                                                                 Tel: +47 55 57 40 00. Fax: +47 55 57 41 66.

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