America Claims an Empire Chapter 10 U.S. History Mr. Ishmael Section 1: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Explain the economic and cultural factors that fueled the growth of American imperialism. • 2. Describe how the United States acquired Alaska. • 3. Summarize how the United States took over the Hawaiian Islands. Section 1: Imperialism and America • Main Idea: Beginning in • Why it Matters Now: 1867 and continuing During this time period, the through the century, United States acquired global competition caused Hawaii and Alaska, both of the United States to which became states in expand. 1959. • Key Terms: • Key Names: • Imperialism • Queen Liliuokalani • Pearl Harbor • Alfred T. Mahan • William Seward • Sanford B. Dole American Expansionism • America had always looked to grow • Leads to imperialism-policy in which stronger nations extend economic, political, or military control over weaker territories American Expansionism (cont.) • Global Competition: – European countries had been establishing colonies for centuries • Japan, U.S. Spain all examples by late 1800s – Three factors fueled new American imperialism: Desire for Military Strength • Build own military in response to other countries building military – Urged by Alfred T. Mahan • U.S. should build Navy • Leads to U.S. being 3rd most powerful Navy in world Thirst for New Markets • Industrialization led to more technology, leads to more good to consume – Also need new sources of raw materials • Foreign trade a solution – Solves overproduction Which of the three ideas do you think is the biggest reason why a country would want to become imperialistic? 1. Desire for military strength 2. Thirst for new markets 3. Belief in cultural superiority 0% 0% 0% . .. ... i.. lt. ew rm cu n fo n or fi 0 of 30 ire tf ie ir s s el De B Th Belief in Cultural Superiority • Belief in Social Darwinism – Free markets win out – Anglo-Saxons racially superior – Need to spread “civilization” to world’s “inferior people” The US Acquires Alaska: • 1867-U.S. buys Alaska from Russia – Looked at as a joke – Eventually, seen as wise to purchase – Land rich in timber, minerals, and oil U.S. Takes Hawaii • Hawaii economically important – Big sugar producer, which U.S. needs • For years, received sugar with no tariff • Eventually tariffs placed on sugar • Planters plead for annexation to avoid tariffs – Leads to annexation in 1898, statehood in 1959 This is how I feel about how the U.S. acquired Hawaii: 1. I think they were right to acquire Hawaii the way they did 2. I can understand why, but don’t agree with how they did it 0 of 3. I don’t agree at all how 30 they acquired Hawaii 0% 0% 0% ... ... ... ta e ey e rs th gr de a nk un ’t hi on an It Id Ic Section 2: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Contrast American opinions regarding the Cuban revolt against Spain. • 2. Identify events that escalated the conflict between the United States and Spain. • 3. Trace the course of the Spanish-American War and its results American Interest in Cuba • America gets involved in conflict due to imperialism • Cuba – U.S. sugar fields in Cuba – Jose Marti: led independence movement in Cuba against Spain War Fever Escalates – Marti wanted U.S. intervention in fight for independence • Destroyed property, esp. sugar mills • Marti’s actions leads to Spain sending soldiers to Cuba – War fever stirred in U.S. What Built war fever? • Yellow journalism – Exaggerated news to lure readers – I.E. images of war – William Randolph Hurst: “You furnish pictures and I’ll furnish the war.” What Built war fever? (cont) • De Lome Letter – Letter written by Spanish minister – Leaked to newspaper – Called Pres. McKinley “weak” What Built war fever? (cont) • U.S.S. Maine – On February 15, 1898 the ship blew up in the harbor of Havana – More than 260 men were killed War Erupts with Spain • Spanish blamed for Maine explosion – Actually fire on Maine that caused explosion • “Remember the Maine” becomes rally cry for intervention in Cuba Two Fronts • Philippines – Spanish colony – Won easily by U.S. • Due to fact Spanish did not think U.S. would attack first Two Fronts (cont.) • Caribbean – Highlights • Began with Naval blockade of Cuba • Roosevelt’s Rough Riders victory at Battle of San Juan • Next, the American Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet and paved the way for an invasion of Puerto Rico (Spanish colony) Treaty of Paris • The U.S. and Spain signed an armistice on August 12, 1898, ending what Secretary of State John Hay called “a splendid little war” • The war lasted only 16 weeks • Cuba was now independent • U.S. receives Guam, Puerto Rico, and “bought” the Philippines for $20 million Section 3: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Describe the US involvement in Puerto Rico and in Cuba. • 2. Identify the causes and effects of the Philippine-American War. • 3. Explain the purpose of the Open Door Policy in China. • 4. Summarize the views regarding US imperialism. Section 3: Acquiring New Lands • Main Idea: In the • Why it Matters Now: early 1900’s, the Today, the United United States States maintains a engaged in conflicts strong military and in Puerto Rico, Cuba, political presence in strategic worldwide and the Philippines. locations. Acquiring New Lands: • Remember, now control Guam, Puerto Rico, and Philippines – Have to decide how to rule – Puerto Rico wanted their independence • U.S. disagreed – Foraker Act: The U.S. set up a civil government, full citizenship, and a bicameral system in Puerto Rico Cuba and U.S. • The Treaty of Paris granted full independence to Cuba • The U.S signed an agreement with Cuba known as the Platt Amendment 1903 • Key features of “Platt” included • 1. The right of the U.S. to maintain naval stations on the island and • 2. The right to intervene in Cuban affairs • Cuba had become a “protectorate” of the U.S. Filipinos Rebel • Filipinos angry at Treaty of Paris • Eventually revolt • Took three years for Americans to put down revolution • U.S. sets up government similar to that in Puerto Rico • Eventually grant independence in 1946 Foreign Influence in China • China known as “sick man of Asia” • Many countries had colonial posts there • U.S. wanted to get posts there John Hay’s Open Door Notes • Leaders should share trading rights with U.S. • No single nation would have monopoly on China • Designed so U.S. could furthur trade interests Boxer Rebellion • Group in China who hated foreign outsiders • Began killing missionaries and foreigners • Eventually put down by U.S. led troops Protecting American Rights • Open Door Policy-key components – Exports vital for American economy – U.S. had right to intervene abroad – Closing markets threatened U.S. survival Impact of U.S. Territorial Gains • Imperialism met with opposition • Anti-Imperialist League begun – All agreed it is wrong for U.S. to trade without other countries consent Section 4: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Explain how Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy promoted American power around the world. • 2. Describe how Woodrow Wilson’s missionary diplomacy ensured U.S. dominance in Latin America. • 3. Describe the effects of America’s involvement in the Mexican Revolution. Section 4: America as a World Power • Main Idea: The Russo- • Why it Matters Now: Japanese War, the Panama American involvement in Canal, and the Mexican conflicts around 1900 led to Revolution added to involvement in WW I and America’s military and later to a peacekeeper role economic power. in today’s world. • Key Terms: • Key Names: • Panama Canal • Francisco “Pancho” Villa • Roosevelt Corollary • Emiliano Zapata • Dollar Diplomacy • John J. Pershing America As A World Power: • Two events signaled America’s continued climb toward being the #1 world power • 1) Roosevelt negotiated a settlement between Russia and Japan who had been at War – his successful efforts in negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth won Roosevelt the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize • 2) Construction of Panama Canal The Panama Canal: • By the early 20th century, many Americans understood the advantages of a canal through Panama • It would greatly reduce travel times for commercial and military ships by providing a short cut between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans Building the Panama Canal: 1904-1914 • The French had already unsuccessfully attempted to build a canal through Panama • America first had to help Panama win their independence from Colombia – which it did • Construction of the Canal stands as one of Cost- $380 million the greatest Workers– Over 40,000 (5,600 engineering feats of died) Time – Construction took all-time 10 years The Roosevelt Corollary: • In 1904, President Roosevelt added the Roosevelt Corollary. • The Roosevelt Corollary said that the US would now use force to protect it’s economic interests in Latin America. • Roosevelt coined the phrase “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far” during this time. Dollar Diplomacy • Just like other nations in the world that were practicing imperialism, the US was nervous that other nations would become more powerful. • Dollar Diplomacy –US government loans made to foreign countries (favors) to pay off debt • This allowed us to control others things though (taxes on import and exports) • This helped keep European powers out of the Caribbean because they had US backing. Woodrow Wilson’s Missionary Diplomacy: • In 1913, Wilson realized that some countries were coming to power using immoral means. • Prior to Wilson Missionary Diplomacy, the US recognized any government that controlled a nation, regardless of the nation’s policies or how it had come to power. • Wilson felt that these aspiring countries should establish democratic governments. • The Mexican Revolution (to come) was a reaction to this policy The Mexican Revolution: • Mexico had been ruled by a dictator for over 20 years. (Porfirio Diaz) • Diaz had many investments in the US and many US companies owned large shares of oil wells, mines, and railroads in Mexico. • The US investors and the wealthy Mexican businessmen were becoming extremely wealthy. • The common people of the country however were desperately poor. The Mexican Revolution: • Mexico had been ruled by a dictator for over 20 years. (Porfirio Diaz) • Diaz had many investments in the US and many US companies owned large shares of oil wells, mines, and railroads in Mexico. • The US investors and the wealthy Mexican businessmen were becoming extremely wealthy. • The common people of the country however were desperately poor. What Happens Next? • In 1911, Mexican peasants and workers overthrew their dictator. • The leader of the revolt (Madero) was murdered and a new leader took over. (Huerta) • President Wilson refused to recognize the government this new leader formed. • Wilson called it “a Francisco Huerta government of butchers.” Intervention in Mexico: • Wilson decided to watch and wait and see what might happen. • In 1914, the Mexican revolt group arrested a small group of American sailors. • They were released by Wilson wasn’t happy. • He sent in the Marines and killed over 200 Mexicans. (18 Marines died as well) • This brought the US and Mexico close to war. • A new leader (Carranza) eventually took over Mexico and Wilson withdrew his troops. Rebellion in Mexico • Not everyone listened to Carranza. • A group of rebels headed by Francisco “Pancho” Villa and Emiliano Zapata opposed the Mexican government. • Villa and his men started taking the lives of Americans passing through Mexico (RR’s). • In response, Wilson ordered General John J. Pershing and 15,000 men to capture Villa dead or alive. Chasing Villa • For almost a year Pancho Villa eluded American forces. • Wilson decided to call in the big guns. • He called out 150,000 National Guardsmen and stationed them along the Mexican border. • The Mexicans grew angry over the invasion of their lands. • Caranzza demanded withdrawal of US troops but Wilson refused. • They were on the brink of war….but • Both backed down – Why? • 1. The US was facing war in Europe • 2. Mexico decided to reform their government and help out the nation’s poor. Sum it All Up: What Did America Accomplish During This Time Period? • 1. Expanded it access to foreign markets in order to ensure the continued growth of the domestic economy. • 2. Built a modern Navy to protect its interests abroad. • 3. Exercised its international police power to ensure dominance in Latin America.