American Claims an Empire

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					America Claims an Empire
        Chapter 10
        U.S. History
        Mr. Ishmael
Section 1: Objectives
• By the end of this
  lesson, I will be able
• 1. Explain the economic
  and cultural factors that
  fueled the growth of
  American imperialism.
• 2. Describe how the
  United States acquired
• 3. Summarize how the
  United States took over
  the Hawaiian Islands.
Section 1: Imperialism and America

• Main Idea: Beginning in       • Why it Matters Now:
    1867 and continuing             During this time period, the
    through the century,            United States acquired
    global competition caused       Hawaii and Alaska, both of
    the United States to            which became states in
    expand.                         1959.
•   Key Terms:                  •   Key Names:
•   Imperialism                 •   Queen Liliuokalani
•   Pearl Harbor                •   Alfred T. Mahan
                                •   William Seward
                                •   Sanford B. Dole
American Expansionism
               • America had always
                   looked to grow
               •   Leads to
                   imperialism-policy in
                   which stronger
                   nations extend
                   economic, political, or
                   military control over
                   weaker territories
American Expansionism (cont.)
• Global Competition:
  – European countries
    had been establishing
    colonies for centuries
     • Japan, U.S. Spain all
       examples by late 1800s
  – Three factors fueled
    new American
Desire for Military Strength
• Build own military in
  response to other
  countries building
  – Urged by Alfred T.
     • U.S. should build Navy
     • Leads to U.S. being 3rd
       most powerful Navy in
Thirst for New Markets
• Industrialization led to
  more technology,
  leads to more good to
   – Also need new sources
     of raw materials
      • Foreign trade a solution
          – Solves overproduction
Which of the three ideas do you think is the
biggest reason why a country would want to
become imperialistic?
1. Desire for
   military strength
2. Thirst for new
3. Belief in cultural
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Belief in Cultural Superiority
• Belief in Social
   – Free markets win out
   – Anglo-Saxons racially
   – Need to spread
     “civilization” to world’s
     “inferior people”
The US Acquires Alaska:
• 1867-U.S. buys Alaska
  from Russia
  – Looked at as a joke
  – Eventually, seen as
    wise to purchase
  – Land rich in timber,
    minerals, and oil
U.S. Takes Hawaii
            • Hawaii economically
              – Big sugar producer, which
                U.S. needs
                 • For years, received sugar with
                   no tariff
                 • Eventually tariffs placed on
                 • Planters plead for annexation
                   to avoid tariffs
              – Leads to annexation in 1898,
                statehood in 1959
     This is how I feel about how the
     U.S. acquired Hawaii:
     1.    I think they were right
          to acquire Hawaii the
          way they did
     2.   I can understand why,
          but don’t agree with
          how they did it
     3.   I don’t agree at all how
30        they acquired Hawaii
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Section 2: Objectives
• By the end of this lesson, I
  will be able to:
• 1. Contrast American opinions
  regarding the Cuban revolt
  against Spain.
• 2. Identify events that
  escalated the conflict between
  the United States and Spain.
• 3. Trace the course of the
  Spanish-American War and its
American Interest in Cuba
• America gets involved
    in conflict due to
•   Cuba
    – U.S. sugar fields in
    – Jose Marti: led
      movement in Cuba
      against Spain
War Fever Escalates
                   – Marti wanted U.S.
                     intervention in fight for
                       • Destroyed property,
                        esp. sugar mills
                • Marti’s actions leads
                  to Spain sending
                  soldiers to Cuba
                   – War fever stirred in
What Built war fever?
• Yellow journalism
  – Exaggerated news to
    lure readers
  – I.E. images of war
  – William Randolph
    Hurst: “You furnish
    pictures and I’ll furnish
    the war.”
What Built war fever? (cont)
• De Lome Letter
  – Letter written by
    Spanish minister
  – Leaked to newspaper
  – Called Pres. McKinley
What Built war fever? (cont)
• U.S.S. Maine
  – On February 15,
    1898 the ship blew
    up in the harbor of
  – More than 260 men
    were killed
War Erupts with Spain
                • Spanish blamed for
                  Maine explosion
                  – Actually fire on Maine
                    that caused explosion
                • “Remember the
                  Maine” becomes rally
                  cry for intervention in
Two Fronts
• Philippines
  – Spanish colony
  – Won easily by U.S.
     • Due to fact Spanish did
       not think U.S. would
       attack first
Two Fronts (cont.)
• Caribbean
  – Highlights
     • Began with Naval blockade of Cuba
     • Roosevelt’s Rough Riders victory at Battle of San Juan
     • Next, the American Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet and paved the
       way for an invasion of Puerto Rico (Spanish colony)
Treaty of Paris
                  • The U.S. and Spain signed
                    an armistice on August 12,
                    1898, ending what
                    Secretary of State John
                    Hay called “a splendid
                    little war”
                  • The war lasted only 16
                  • Cuba was now
                  • U.S. receives Guam, Puerto
                    Rico, and “bought” the
                    Philippines for $20 million
Section 3: Objectives
•   By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:
•   1. Describe the US involvement in Puerto Rico and in Cuba.
•   2. Identify the causes and effects of the Philippine-American War.
•   3. Explain the purpose of the Open Door Policy in China.
•   4. Summarize the views regarding US imperialism.
Section 3: Acquiring New Lands
• Main Idea: In the      • Why it Matters Now:
 early 1900’s, the        Today, the United
 United States            States maintains a
 engaged in conflicts     strong military and
 in Puerto Rico, Cuba,    political presence in
                          strategic worldwide
 and the Philippines.
Acquiring New Lands:
• Remember, now control
 Guam, Puerto Rico, and
  – Have to decide how to rule
  – Puerto Rico wanted their
      • U.S. disagreed
  – Foraker Act: The U.S. set up
    a civil government, full
    citizenship, and a bicameral
    system in Puerto Rico
Cuba and U.S.
                • The Treaty of Paris granted full
                    independence to Cuba
                •   The U.S signed an agreement
                    with Cuba known as the Platt
                    Amendment 1903
                •   Key features of “Platt” included
                •   1. The right of the U.S. to
                    maintain naval stations on the
                    island and
                •   2. The right to intervene in
                    Cuban affairs
                •   Cuba had become a
                    “protectorate” of the U.S.
Filipinos Rebel
                  • Filipinos angry at Treaty
                      of Paris
                  •   Eventually revolt
                  •   Took three years for
                      Americans to put down
                  •   U.S. sets up government
                      similar to that in Puerto
                  •   Eventually grant
                      independence in 1946
Foreign Influence in China
                • China known as “sick
                    man of Asia”
                •   Many countries had
                    colonial posts there
                •   U.S. wanted to get
                    posts there
John Hay’s Open Door Notes
               • Leaders should share
                   trading rights with
               •   No single nation
                   would have monopoly
                   on China
               •   Designed so U.S.
                   could furthur trade
Boxer Rebellion
                  • Group in China who
                      hated foreign
                  •   Began killing
                      missionaries and
                  •   Eventually put down
                      by U.S. led troops
Protecting American Rights
                • Open Door Policy-key
                  – Exports vital for
                    American economy
                  – U.S. had right to
                    intervene abroad
                  – Closing markets
                    threatened U.S.
Impact of U.S. Territorial Gains
                 • Imperialism met with
                 •   Anti-Imperialist
                     League begun
                     – All agreed it is wrong
                       for U.S. to trade
                       without other
                       countries consent
Section 4: Objectives
                • By the end of this lesson, I
                  will be able to:
                • 1. Explain how Theodore
                  Roosevelt’s foreign policy
                  promoted American power
                  around the world.
                • 2. Describe how Woodrow
                  Wilson’s missionary diplomacy
                  ensured U.S. dominance in
                  Latin America.
                • 3. Describe the effects of
                  America’s involvement in the
                  Mexican Revolution.
Section 4: America as a World Power

• Main Idea: The Russo-        • Why it Matters Now:
    Japanese War, the Panama       American involvement in
    Canal, and the Mexican         conflicts around 1900 led to
    Revolution added to            involvement in WW I and
    America’s military and         later to a peacekeeper role
    economic power.                in today’s world.
•   Key Terms:                 •   Key Names:
•   Panama Canal               •   Francisco “Pancho” Villa
•   Roosevelt Corollary        •   Emiliano Zapata
•   Dollar Diplomacy           •   John J. Pershing
America As A World Power:
               • Two events signaled
                 America’s continued climb
                 toward being the #1 world
               • 1) Roosevelt negotiated a
                 settlement between Russia
                 and Japan who had been at
                 War – his successful efforts
                 in negotiating the Treaty of
                 Portsmouth won Roosevelt
                 the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize
               • 2) Construction of Panama
The Panama Canal:
              • By the early 20th
                century, many
                Americans understood
                the advantages of a
                canal through Panama
              • It would greatly
                reduce travel times for
                commercial and
                military ships by
                providing a short cut
                between the Atlantic
                and Pacific oceans
Building the Panama Canal: 1904-1914

                                 • The French had
                                   already unsuccessfully
                                   attempted to build a
                                   canal through Panama
                                 • America first had to
                                   help Panama win their
                                   independence from
                                   Colombia – which it
                                 • Construction of the
                                   Canal stands as one of
Cost- $380 million                 the greatest
Workers– Over 40,000 (5,600        engineering feats of
died) Time – Construction took     all-time
10 years
The Roosevelt Corollary:
                • In 1904, President
                  Roosevelt added the
                  Roosevelt Corollary.
                • The Roosevelt
                  Corollary said that the
                  US would now use force
                  to protect it’s economic
                  interests in Latin America.
                • Roosevelt coined the
                  phrase “Speak softly and
                  carry a big stick; you will
                  go far” during this time.
Dollar Diplomacy
                   • Just like other nations in the
                     world that were practicing
                     imperialism, the US was
                     nervous that other nations
                     would become more powerful.
                   • Dollar Diplomacy –US
                     government loans made to
                     foreign countries (favors) to
                     pay off debt
                   • This allowed us to control
                     others things though (taxes on
                     import and exports)
                   • This helped keep European
                     powers out of the Caribbean
                     because they had US backing.
Woodrow Wilson’s Missionary
                   • In 1913, Wilson realized that
                     some countries were coming
                     to power using immoral
                   • Prior to Wilson Missionary
                     Diplomacy, the US recognized
                     any government that
                     controlled a nation, regardless
                     of the nation’s policies or how
                     it had come to power.
                   • Wilson felt that these aspiring
                     countries should establish
                     democratic governments.
                   • The Mexican Revolution (to
                     come) was a reaction to this
The Mexican Revolution:
               • Mexico had been ruled by a
                 dictator for over 20 years.
                 (Porfirio Diaz)
               • Diaz had many investments in
                 the US and many US
                 companies owned large shares
                 of oil wells, mines, and
                 railroads in Mexico.
               • The US investors and the
                 wealthy Mexican businessmen
                 were becoming extremely
               • The common people of the
                 country however were
                 desperately poor.
The Mexican Revolution:
               • Mexico had been ruled by a
                 dictator for over 20 years.
                 (Porfirio Diaz)
               • Diaz had many investments in
                 the US and many US
                 companies owned large shares
                 of oil wells, mines, and
                 railroads in Mexico.
               • The US investors and the
                 wealthy Mexican businessmen
                 were becoming extremely
               • The common people of the
                 country however were
                 desperately poor.
What Happens Next?
                     • In 1911, Mexican
                       peasants and workers
                       overthrew their dictator.
                     • The leader of the revolt
                       (Madero) was murdered
                       and a new leader took
                       over. (Huerta)
                     • President Wilson refused
                       to recognize the
                       government this new
                       leader formed.
                     • Wilson called it “a
  Francisco Huerta     government of butchers.”
Intervention in Mexico:
                • Wilson decided to watch and wait
                    and see what might happen.
                •   In 1914, the Mexican revolt group
                    arrested a small group of
                    American sailors.
                •   They were released by Wilson
                    wasn’t happy.
                •   He sent in the Marines and killed
                    over 200 Mexicans. (18 Marines
                    died as well)
                •   This brought the US and Mexico
                    close to war.
                •   A new leader (Carranza)
                    eventually took over Mexico and
                    Wilson withdrew his troops.
Rebellion in Mexico
                • Not everyone listened to
                • A group of rebels headed by
                  Francisco “Pancho” Villa and
                  Emiliano Zapata opposed the
                  Mexican government.
                • Villa and his men started
                  taking the lives of Americans
                  passing through Mexico (RR’s).
                • In response, Wilson ordered
                  General John J. Pershing and
                  15,000 men to capture Villa
                  dead or alive.
Chasing Villa
                • For almost a year Pancho Villa eluded
                    American forces.
                •   Wilson decided to call in the big guns.
                •   He called out 150,000 National
                    Guardsmen and stationed them along
                    the Mexican border.
                •   The Mexicans grew angry over the
                    invasion of their lands.
                •   Caranzza demanded withdrawal of US
                    troops but Wilson refused.
                •   They were on the brink of war….but
                •   Both backed down – Why?
                •   1. The US was facing war in Europe
                •   2. Mexico decided to reform their
                    government and help out the nation’s
Sum it All Up: What Did America Accomplish During This
Time Period?

                            • 1. Expanded it access to
                              foreign markets in order
                              to ensure the continued
                              growth of the domestic
                            • 2. Built a modern Navy to
                              protect its interests
                            • 3. Exercised its
                              international police power
                              to ensure dominance in
                              Latin America.

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