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					CIROS®
Mechatronics

Manual




562188 EN
08/08
    Order No.:        562188
    Edition:          08/2008
    Authors:          Christine Löffler
    Graphics:         Doris Schwarzenberger
    Layout:           08/2008, Beatrice Huber, Julia Saßenscheidt



    © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, 73770 Denkendorf, 2008
    Internet: www.festo-didactic.com
    E-Mail: did@de.festo.com



    The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the
    communication of its contents to others without express authorization
    is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages.
    All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out patent, utility
    model or ornamental design registration.




2                   © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
Contents




                                 1.      What will you learn from the manual? ___________________ 7



                                 2.      This is how you install CIROS® Mechatronics_____________ 10



                                 3.      These functions support you with the preparation
                                         of PC workstations for students _______________________ 11
                                 3.1     Description of files for a process model _________________ 11
                                 3.2     Creating a user-specific work environment ______________ 12
                                 3.3     Creating files with fault settings for a process model ______ 14



                                 4.      The CIROS® Mechatronics system _____________________ 16
                                 4.1     Overview of CIROS® Mechatronics _____________________ 16
                                 4.2     The process models of CIROS® Mechatronics ____________ 18
                                 4.3     Controlling the process models via internal PLC __________ 26
                                 4.4     Controlling the process models via external PLC __________ 27
                                 4.5     Functions for fault setting in the process model __________ 29
                                 4.6     Functions for the analysis of process models ____________ 30



                                 5.      Important control functions of CIROS® Mechatronics ______ 32
                                 5.1     Loading a process model ____________________________ 32
                                 5.2     Simulating a process model __________________________ 41
                                 5.3     Displaying and operating a process model ______________ 45
                                 5.4     Changing the view of a process model __________________ 51
                                 5.5     The Inputs and Outputs windows ______________________ 55




© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
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Contents




           5.6    The Manual Operation window ________________________ 56
           5.7    Controlling a process model via the internal S7 PLC _______ 70
           5.8    Controlling a process model via the
                  external Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM _________________________ 80
           5.9    Controlling a process model via an external PLC __________ 92
           5.10   Setting faults in a process model _____________________ 107
           5.11   Eliminating faults in a process model __________________ 115
           5.12   Logging of eliminated faults _________________________ 120



           6.     The following training contents can be taught with
                  CIROS® Mechatronics ______________________________ 122
           6.1    Training contents _________________________________ 122
           6.2    Target group _____________________________________ 123
           6.3    Previous knowledge _______________________________ 124
           6.4    Example: Assigning training aims to training courses _____ 124
           6.5    The training concept of CIROS® Mechatronics ___________ 129



           7.     This is how you establish the mode of operation and
                  structure of a system in CIROS® Mechatronics __________ 131
           7.1    Training aims _____________________________________ 131
           7.2    Methods ________________________________________ 132
           7.3    Support via CIROS® Mechatronics ____________________ 136
           7.4    Example _________________________________________ 136
           7.5    Example _________________________________________ 142
           7.6    Example _________________________________________ 147



           8.     This is how you establish the mode of operation of the
                  components forming part of a system in
                  CIROS® Mechatronics ______________________________ 152
           8.1    Training aims _____________________________________ 152
           8.2    Methods ________________________________________ 153
           8.3    Support via CIROS® Mechatronics ____________________ 153
           8.4    Example _________________________________________ 154




4                       © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
Contents




                                 9.      This is how you use CIROS® Mechatronics in PLC
                                         programming _____________________________________ 161
                                 9.1     Training aims _____________________________________ 162
                                 9.2     Methods ________________________________________ 163
                                 9.3     Support via CIROS® Mechatronics ____________________ 164
                                 9.4     Example _________________________________________ 164
                                 9.5     Example _________________________________________ 173



                                 10.     This is how you carry out systematic fault finding on
                                         a simulated system ________________________________ 184
                                 10.1    Training aims _____________________________________ 184
                                 10.2    Methods ________________________________________ 185
                                 10.3    This is how CIROS® Mechatronics supports you _________ 192
                                 10.4    Example _________________________________________ 192




© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
5                                                                                                5
6   © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
1. What will you learn from the manual?




What is CIROS®                   CIROS® Mechatronics is an application from the CIROS® Automation
Mechatronics?                    Suite.
                                 CIROS® Mechatronics is a PC-based graphic 3D simulation system
                                 consisting of preassembled process models. These process models
                                 represent automated systems of varying complexity.

                                 CIROS® Mechatronics is a tool, which enables you
                                    to familiarise yourself with the mode of operation and structure of a
                                    system,
                                    to practise PLC programming and testing of the PLC programs und
                                    to carry out systematic fault finding on systems.

                                 These process models, also called work cells, are also available in the
                                 form of actual systems.
                                 In addition to the ready-made process models, CIROS® Mechatronics
                                 also offers you the option of simulating process models of your own
                                 design. You can create and modify process models using CIROS®
                                 Studio, which is a further application available from the CIROS®
                                 Automation Suite.



Target group                     This manual is intended for
                                     Trainers and teachers
                                     The manual provides ideas and suggestions on how CIROS®
                                     Mechatronics can be used for tuition in vocational and further
                                     training.
                                     Trainees and students
                                     The information and instructions on how to operate COSMIR®
                                     MECHATRONICS are of particular interest to the above.



Composition of the manual        The manual is subdivided into the following subject areas:
                                    Chapter 2 contains information and notes regarding the installation
                                    and licencing of CIROS® Mechatronics.
                                    Chapter 3 contains information on how to set up CIROS®
                                    Mechatronics on students’ PC workstations.




© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
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1. What will you learn from the manual?




                                          Chapters 4 and 5 describe the system and the main user functions of
                                          CIROS® Mechatronics.
                                          Chapter 6 deals with didactic aspects and lists the training contents
                                          taught with CIROS® Mechatronics . It also describes the training
                                          concept and the resulting possibilities for use in tuition.
                                          Chapters 7 to 10 describe actual problem definitions regarding the
                                          training contents, the methodical approach to solutions and their
                                          realisation in CIROS® Mechatronics. The exercises are for example
                                          carried out on the Distributing station.



Conventions                        Certain print formats have been used for text as well as key
                                   combinations and sequences to enable you to find information more
                                   easily.



                                     Print format              Meaning

                                     Bold                      This format is used for command names,
                                                               menu names, dialog window names, directory
                                                               names and command options.

                                     Key1 + key2               A plus sign (+) between the key names means
                                                               that you must press the keys mentioned
                                                               simultaneously.

                                     Key1 ‟ key2               A minus sign (‟) between the key names
                                                               means that you need to press the keys
                                                               mentioned in succession.




Additional support                 Additional descriptions and support are available via the on-line Help.
                                   The on-line Help comprises
                                      CIROS® Help with operation and
                                      CIROS® Mechatronics Assistant.




8                                                     © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
1. What will you learn from the manual?




                                   The on-line Help consists of detailed information regarding the
                                   functions and operation of CIROS® Mechatronics .

                                   CIROS® Help is a component part of the CIROS® Automation Suite and
                                   describes the functionality of various, different CIROS® applications.
                                   The functional scope of CIROS® Help is therefore greater than that
                                   required for CIROS® Mechatronics.

                                   The menu bar of the on-line Help provides functions that you are
                                   already familiar with from using a standard Internet browser. These
                                   include: Next and back, select start page, print selected topics, show
                                   and hide the navigation bar or Internet connection options.
                                   The additional indexes such as Contents, Index, Search or Favourites,
                                   furthermore give you the option of conveniently navigating through the
                                   information provided in the Help menu of CIROS® Mechatronics .

                                   CIROS® Mechatronics Assistant provides detailed function descriptions
                                   and technical documentation for the individual process models. It also
                                   comprises a sample PLC program for the more complex process models.
                                   The PLC program is created in STEP 7.
                                   Moverover, CIROS® Mechatronics Assistant offers you direct access to a
                                   particular process model.

                                   Adobe Acrobat Reader will need to be installed on your PC to view PDF
                                   documents. The Adobe Acrobat Reader program is available free of
                                   charge and can be downloaded via the Internet address
                                   www.adobe.com.

                                   Our telephone Hotline is available 24 hours, should you have any
                                   queries when installing or commissioning CIROS® Mechatronics .




© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
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2. This is how you install CIROS® Mechatronics




                  To install CIROS® Mechatronics you will need the CIROS® Automation
                  Suite DVD-ROM, where all the software packages of the CIROS®
                  Automation Suite are ready for installation. It also includes the manuals
                  in the form of PDF documents for the individual software packages.
                  On completion of the installation, you will need to execute the licencing.
                  As soon as this is successfully completed you can start CIROS®
                  Mechatronics.

                  For further information regarding system requirements, installation and
                  licencing, please refer to the enclosed instructions.




10                                © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
3.       These functions support you with the preparation
         of PC workstations for students



                                 CIROS® Mechatronics consists of functions to support you in the use of
                                 the software program during training.
                                 These include:
                                     An individual working environment that can be set up on each
                                     student’s PC. This working environment stores user specific data for
                                     CIROS® Mechatronics.
                                     Files with fault settings for a process model can be centrally set up
                                     by instructors and easily copied to the PC workstation of the
                                     students.



3.1                              The example of the Distributing station process model is used to
Description of files for a       demonstrate which files belong to a process model and what
process model                    information is stored in these files.
                                 The name of the directory for the Distributing process model is
                                 DistributingStation.



 File                         Description

 DistributingStation.mod      Process model for simulation. The process model is controlled via the
                              internal S7 PLC as standard.

 DistributingStation.ini      Initialisations for the process model: This file contains all user specific
                              settings for the process model such as window configuration, fault
                              settings, etc.

 DistributingStation.prot     Protocol of fault localisation: This file is read in the teacher mode and
                              displayed in the fault log window.

 DistributingStation.htm      Export of fault log: Changes in the fault log are automatically exported to
 DistributingStation.xls      these files. These files can then for instance be viewed via Microsoft
 DistributingStation.txt      Internet Explorer or Microsoft Excel.

 DistributingStation.mcf      Settings regarding fault setting: This file contains all settings regarding
                              the activation, start, duration and type of a fault. If this file exists in the
                              process model directory, then it overwrites the settings in the INI file. If
                              not, then the fault settings stored in the INI file are used.




© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
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3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students




3.2                                User-specific working environments consist in the main of the process
Creating a user-specific           models and files with the user specific data.
work environment                   User specific data are:
                                      Window configurations,
                                      Settings for the process model,
                                      Settings regarding fault setting,
                                      Protocol of fault localisation.

                                   In order to create a user-specific working environment, the process
                                   models are saved to a separate directory on the PC. Any user specific
                                   data is then also stored in this directory.

                                   For example, to set up the working environment for three different users
                                   on one PC, you will need to copy the process models into three different
                                   directories. Each user will then be working with “his/her own” directory,
                                   which corresponds to the user’s working environment. The user loads
                                   the process models with which he/she is working in CIROS®
                                   Mechatronics from „his/her“ directory.

                                   CIROS® Mechatronics supports you with the setting up of user specific
                                   working environments. To do so, open up CIROS® Mechatronics
                                   Assistant.

                                   CIROS® Mechatronics differentiates between reference models und
                                   user models.
                                      Reference models are filed in the program directory of CIROS®
                                      Mechatronics and are write protected. The model and associated
                                      PLC program cannot be modified. This ensures that the process
                                      model can be opened and correctly simulated at any time.
                                      User models, if created and opened with the help of CIROS®
                                      Mechatronics Assistant, are filed as standard in your personal folder
                                      under My Documents\CIROS Mechatronics Training Samples.
                                      These are not write protected and you therefore can for example
                                      modify the appropriate PLC programs and replace these with your
                                      own. The program directory with the user models represents your
                                      individual working environment for CIROS® Mechatronics.




12                                                 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students




                                   You can also copy the user models into a folder other than into the
                                   standard preset folder. You will find the information for this in CIROS®
                                   Mechatronics Assistant.




© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
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3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students




3.3                                Files with fault settings for a process model can be created centrally by
Creating files with fault          teaching staff and copied to the PC workstations of students in a simple
settings for a process             manner.
model
                                   This is how you create a file centrally with fault settings for a process
                                   model:
                                   1. Start CIROS® Mechatronics .
                                   2. Load the desired process model, e.g. the process model Distributing
                                       Station. The process model is to be controlled via the internal PLC.
                                   3. Open the Fault Setting window. To do so, activate Fault Setting
                                       under Fault Simulation in the Extras menu.
                                   4. The Fault Setting window opens once you have entered the
                                       password.
                                   5. Now set a fault ‟ for example for the PLC input 1B1.
                                   6. Activate the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button and
                                       select the option Export.




14                                                 © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students




                                   7. The faults set for the process model DistributingStation.mod have
                                      been exported to the file DistributingStation.mcf. You will find this
                                      file in the same directory, in which the process model loaded at the
                                      time is also stored.




                                   8. Now copy the file with the fault settings to the user specific working
                                      environments. Select the directory in which the relevant process
                                      model is stored as directory, in this case the Distributing Station
                                      process model.




© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
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4. The CIROS® Mechatronics system




                                CIROS® Mechatronics comprises the following:
                                   The simulation software CIROS® Mechatronics
                                   The communication software EzOPC
                                   The on-line CIROS® Mechatronics Help
                                   The on-line CIROS® Mechatronics Assistant
                                   Online Help for EzOPC
                                   A PDF document with information regarding the licencing and
                                   installation of a licence server
                                   A manual in the form of a PDF document for the operation of CIROS®
                                   Mechatronics



4.1                             CIROS® Mechatronics is a PC-based 3D simulation system with
Overview of                     preassembled process models.
CIROS® Mechatronics             In addition, CIROS® Mechatronics also offers you the option of
                                simulating process models of your own design apart from the
                                preassembled process models. You can create and modify process
                                models using CIROS® Studio, which is a further product from the
                                CIROS® Automation Suite.


                                MC7-Code        Internal S7 PLC                           CIROS
                                                                                          assistant
                                                                              Operating
                                                                              functions
                                                Process models                            CIROS
                                                                                          help


                                                            OPC client




                                                 EzOPC              (OPC server)




                                                  Easy                   S7-PLCSIM
                                                  Port




                                                 External
                                                 PLC



Component parts of CIROS® Mechatronics



16                                             © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
4. The CIROS® Mechatronics system




                                    The following are required to simulate the operation of a process:
                                       A PLC and PLC program to control the process,
                                       The simulation to simulate the behaviour of the process. This
                                       simulation ensures for example, that cylinders move and sensors
                                       are activated.

                                    Sample PLC programs are available for complex process models. These
                                    PLC programs define a possible process control system. You can of
                                    course create new PLC programs that generate a different process
                                    execution.

                                    When loading a process model, the sample PLC program is
                                    automatically downloaded at the same time, provided that it exists. The
                                    PLC program is executed via a SIMATIC S7 simulator. This S7 simulator
                                    is a component part of CIROS® Mechatronics . The integrated
                                    S7 simulator is also referred to as the internal PLC.

                                    Once the process model has been loaded, the process can be simulated
                                    immediately.
                                    The advantage with this is that you can familiarise yourself with,
                                    activate and monitor the process. Plus there is no need for you to have
                                    created a PLC program beforehand.

                                    One particular additional function offered by CIROS® Mechatronics is
                                    the possibility of simulating faults, whereby you can set typical faults in
                                    a process model. The following can for example be causes of
                                    malfunction: A mechanically displaced sensor, a cable break or failure
                                    of an entire module. The cause of the fault must be found by means of
                                    systematic fault finding and eliminated.

                                    One of the main focal points of CIROS® Mechatronics is the monitoring
                                    and analysis of processes and elimination of faults.

                                    Another focal point is the creation of your own PLC programs for the
                                    process models. These PLC programs are loaded to an external PLC and
                                    CIROS® Mechatronics exchanges the input/output signals with the
                                    external PLC via the OPC interface.




© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
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4. The CIROS® Mechatronics system




                                    The following can be used as external PLCs
                                       Any actual PLC
                                       The Soft PLC SIMATIC S7-PLCSIM
                                       The soft PLC CoDeSys PLCWinNT

                                    CIROS® Mechatronics requires the software program EzOPC for
                                    connection to an external PLC. The OPC server EzOPC communicates
                                    with any PLC via the EasyPort interface.



4.2                                 The process models are realistic replicas of actual working stations and
The process models                  modules.
of CIROS® Mechatronics
                                    For each process model, there is a work cell.
                                    An exception is the MPS B distributing, processing and sorting stations.
                                    For these process models, there are three work cells in each case. It is
                                    apparent from the name, via which PLC the process model is to be
                                    controlled. For example, in the case of the MPS distributing station this
                                    is as follows:
                                        DistributingStation_B.mod:
                                        Control via the internal S7-PLC.
                                        DistributingStation_B(PLCSIM).mod:
                                        Control via the external PLC S7 PLCSim.
                                        DistributingStation_B(EasyPort).mod:
                                        Control via an external PLC via EasyPort.

                                    In the case of the MPS B testing station, there is only one work cell due
                                    to the analogue processing. This work cell is controlled via the internal
                                    S7-PLC.

                                    For all other process models, precisely one work cell is available. The
                                    setting as to which PLC is to control the process model can be effected
                                    in a CIROS® Mechatronics menu item.




18                                                  © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
4. The CIROS® Mechatronics system




 Process model                      Description                          File name

 Processing Station                 The process model represents a       ProcessingStation.mod
                                    simulation of the MPS Processing
                                    Station of Festo Didactic. In this
                                    work cell, workpieces are to be
                                    tested, processed and transferred
                                    to the adjacent station. A sample
                                    PLC program is available for this
                                    process model.

 B Processing Station               The process model represents a       ProcessingStation_B.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                                                         ProcessingStation_B(PLCSIM).
                                    MPS B Processing Station. In this
                                                                         mod
                                    work cell, workpieces are to be
                                    tested, processed and transferred    ProcessingStation_B(EasyPort
                                    to the adjacent station. A sample    ).mod
                                    PLC program is available for this
                                    process model.

 Fluidic Muscle Press Station       The process model represents a       FluidicMuscleStation.mod
                                    simulation of the MPS Fluidic
                                    Muscle Press Station of Festo
                                    Didactic. In this work cell,
                                    workpiece inserts are to be
                                    press-fitted with workpiece
                                    housings and the finished
                                    workpiece transported to the
                                    transfer station. A sample PLC
                                    program is available for this
                                    process model.




© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
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4. The CIROS® Mechatronics system




 Process model                      Description                           File name

 Handling Station                   The process model represents a        HandlingStation.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                    MPS Handling Station. In this
                                    work cell, workpieces are to be
                                    removed from a retainer and,
                                    depending on the results of
                                    material testing, deposited on a
                                    slide. A sample PLC program is
                                    available for this process model.

 Stacker Store Station              The process model represents a        StoreWorkCell.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                    Stacker Store. In this work cell,
                                    workpieces are to be put into and
                                    removed from storage. A sample
                                    PLC program is available for this
                                    process model.



 Pick & Place Station               The process model represents a        PickAndPlaceStation.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                    MPS Pick & Place Station. In this
                                    work cell, workpiece inserts are to
                                    be placed onto the workpiece
                                    housings and the complete
                                    workpiece transported to the
                                    transfer position. A sample PLC
                                    program is available for this
                                    process model.




20                                                © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
4. The CIROS® Mechatronics system




 Process model                      Description                            File name

 Testing Station                    The process model represents a         TestingStation.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                    MPS Testing Station. In this work
                                    cell, the material characteristics
                                    of the workpieces is to be
                                    determined and the workpiece
                                    height checked. Depending on
                                    the test result, the workpiece is
                                    either ejected or transferred to
                                    the adjacent station. A sample
                                    PLC program is available for this
                                    process model.

 B Testing Station                  The process model represents a         TestingStation_B.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                                                           Note:
                                    MPS B Testing Station. In this
                                                                           The process model can only
                                    work cell, the material quality of
                                                                           be controlled using the
                                    the workpieces is to be
                                                                           internal PLC.
                                    determined and the workpiece
                                    height checked. Depending on
                                    the test result, the workpiece is to
                                    be ejected or transferred to the
                                    adjacent station. A sample PLC
                                    program is available for this
                                    process model.

 Buffer Station                     The process model represents a         BufferStation.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                    MPS Buffer Station. In this work
                                    cell, workpieces are to be
                                    transported, buffered and
                                    separated out. A sample PLC
                                    program is available for this
                                    process model.




© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
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4. The CIROS® Mechatronics system




 Process model                      Description                          File name

 Sorting Station                    The process model represents a       SortingStation.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                    MPS Sorting Station. In this work
                                    cell, workpieces are to be sorted
                                    according to material and colour.
                                    A sample PLC program is
                                    available for this process model.



 B Sorting Station                  The process model represents a       SortingStation_B.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                                                         SortingStation_B(PLCSIM).mo
                                    MPS B Sorting Station. In this
                                                                         d
                                    work cell, workpieces are to be
                                    sorted according to material and     SortingStation_B(EasyPort).m
                                    colour. A sample PLC program is      od
                                    available for this process model.



 Separating Station                 The process model represents a       SeparatingStation.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                    Separating Station. In this work
                                    cell, workpieces are to be
                                    differentiated and separated into
                                    two material flow directions. The
                                    basic bodies for the cylinder are
                                    further transported on conveyor
                                    1, and the housings for the
                                    measuring instruments on
                                    conveyor 2, and then transferred
                                    to the adjacent stations. A sample
                                    PLC program is available for this
                                    process model.




22                                                © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
4. The CIROS® Mechatronics system




 Process model                      Description                           File name

 Distributing Station               The process model represents a        DistributingStation.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                    MPS Distributing Station. In this
                                    work cell, workpieces are to be
                                    separated out and transferred to
                                    the adjacent station. A sample
                                    PLC program is available for this
                                    process model.


 B Distributing Station             The process model represents a        DistributingStation_B.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                                                          DistributingStation_B(PLCSIM
                                    MPS B Distributing Station. In this
                                                                          ).mod
                                    work cell, workpieces are to be
                                    separated out and transferred to      DistributingStation_B(EasyPor
                                    the adjacent station. A sample        t).mod
                                    PLC program is available for this
                                    process model.

 Rotary Indexing Table Module       The process model represents a        RotaryTable.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                    MPS Rotary Indexing Table
                                    module. In this work cell,
                                    workpieces are to be tested and
                                    polished in two parallel
                                    sequences.




© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
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4. The CIROS® Mechatronics system




 Process model                      Description                         File name

 Stacking Magazine Module           The process model represents a      StackMagazine.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                    MPS Stacking Magazine module.
                                    In this work cell, workpieces are
                                    to be separated out from the
                                    magazine.




 Changer Module                     The process model represents a      ChangerModule.mod
                                    simulation of the Festo Didactic
                                    MPS Changer module. In this
                                    work cell, workpieces are to be
                                    picked up by a vacuum suction
                                    cup and transferred by means of a
                                    semi-rotary actuator.



 Sorting System Project Module      The process model represents a      SortingSystem.mod
                                    simulation of the Sorting System
                                    project module of Festo Didactic.
                                    In this work cell, workpieces are
                                    to be transported via the
                                    conveyor belt and sorted
                                    according to different material
                                    characteristics.
                                    A sample PLC program is
                                    available for this process model.




24                                                © Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG „ CIROS® Mechatronics
4. The CIROS® Mechatronics system




 Process model                      Description                         File name

 Conveyor Project Module            The process model represents a      Conveyor1.mod
                                    simulation of the MPS Conveyor
                                                                        Conveyor2.mod
                                    project module of Festo Didactic.
                                    The conveyor enables you to         Conveyor3.mod
                                    connect MPS stations. The
                                                                        Conveyor4.mod
                                    conveyor is to transport and
                                    buffer workpieces. The conveyor
                                    is available in four stages of
                                    expansion. A sample PLC program
                                    is available for this process
                                    model.




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4.3                                 The PLC integrated into CIROS® Mechatronics is a SIMATIC S7 simulator.
Controlling the process             The S7 simulator can execute LDR, FCH and STL programs created in
models via internal PLC             STEP 7.

                                    The internal PLC executes the sample PLC programs provided for the
                                    process models and enables you to immediately simulate the
                                    processes.
                                    Detailed information regarding the function scope of the internal PLC is
                                    available via the CIROS® on-line Help.




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4.4                                 If you are creating and testing your own PLC programs, we recommend
Controlling the process             that you download the programs to an external PLC and execute them
models via external PLC             from there. The advantage of this is that you can choose the PLC and
                                    programming system of your choice. Also, the testing and diagnostic
                                    functions designated by the program for this purpose are available to
                                    you for fault finding in the PLC program. This includes the status display
                                    of PLC input/outputs and variables, the on-line display of the PLC
                                    program and also the read-out of machine statuses.

                                    If you are using the Soft PLC7-PLCSIM as external PLC, you do not
                                    require any additional hardware components.




Information exchange with configuration via external Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM




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                                    If you are using a hardware PLC as external PLC, you will require
                                    EasyPort and the data cable for the exchange of input/output signals.
                                    EasyPort transmits the input/output signals of the PLC to the OPC
                                    server ExOPC via the serial or the USB interface of the PC and the OPC
                                    server passes on the data to the process model simulation. Conversely,
                                    the statuses of sensors and actuators are communicated from the
                                    process model to the external PLC.




Information exchange with configuration via external hardware PLC




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4.5                                 The dialog window for fault setting is password protected. Only
Functions for fault setting         instructors have access to this dialog.
in the process model                A list of typical faults is available for each process model, from which
                                    you can select one or several faults.




                                    The exercise for students is to identify and describe the fault within the
                                    process and to then determine the cause of it. The students then enter
                                    the suspected fault in the dialog window for fault elimination. If the fault
                                    has been correctly identified, the process will then function correctly.
                                    The entries in the dialog window for fault elimination are logged and can
                                    be seen by instructors and trainers.




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4.6                                 CIROS® Mechatronics offers you various options of monitoring and
Functions for the analysis          analysing the execution of a process.
of process models
                                    As soon as the simulation of a process model is active and a PLC is
                                    controlling the process, you can activate and visually monitor progress.
                                    The process is controlled by means of the keys and switches on the
                                    control console.




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                                       The electrical status of the process components is displayed by LEDs
                                       on the sensors and valves.
                                       If pressure is applied to a cylinder connection, the connection is
                                       highlighted in blue. The pneumatic tubing itself is not simulated.
                                       The statuses of the PLC inputs/outputs are shown in separate
                                       windows.
                                       An overview of all process statuses and process operations is
                                       provided in the Manual Operation window.

                                    If you want to run the process step-by-step, you need to use the Manual
                                    Operation as a tool to control the process. You can stop the process at
                                    defined points by setting breakpoints.

                                    In the absence of an active PLC program during process model
                                    simulation, you can use the Manual Operation window to activate
                                    individual process activities. This will enable you to, for instance,
                                    control the movement of a cylinder or switch on or off an electrical
                                    motor.




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                          This chapter describes the main control functions of CIROS®
                          Mechatronics . MS Windows programs provides various options for
                          activating commands. In this account, commands are initiated via the
                          options in the menu bar. You can of course also use the symbols bar,
                          appropriate key combinations or the context sensitive menu via the
                          right mouse button.

                          Detailed information regarding the use of all options in CIROS®
                          Mechatronics is available via the on-line Help for this software package.



5.1                       You can load preassembled process models with the help of CIROS®
Loading a process model   Mechatronics Assistant or by using a menu bar command.
                          Process models of your own design or modified process models are
                          loaded solely via a menu bar command.




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                                   This is how you load a process model via CIROS® Mechatronics
                                   Assistant

                                   1. Start CIROS® Mechatronics .
                                      Once CIROS® Mechatronics is started, both the View window and the
                                      Help window are displayed.




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                                   2. In CIROS® Mechatronics Assistant, navigate to the directory with the
                                      desired process model, for example to the Distrubuting Station
                                      directory.
                                      The process model is opened by clicking onto Open reference
                                      model.




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Note                               Open reference model means:
                                   The write protected process model, filed in the CIROS® Mechatronics
                                   program directory, is opened. The write protection ensures that the
                                   correct functioning and simulation of the process model is ensured at all
                                   times.

                                   Open user model means:
                                   The process model, previously copied to or filed as standard in your
                                   personal folder under My Documents\CIROS Mechatronics Training
                                   Samples, is opened. Process models filed as user models are no longer
                                   write protected. This therefore enables you to modify the associated
                                   PLC programs and replaced these with your own. The directory with the
                                   user models represents your individual working environment for CIROS®
                                   Mechatronics.




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                                   3. The process model for the Distributing station is loaded and is
                                      displayed in the View window. In addition, you will also find the
                                      status of the PLC input/outputs in the Inputs and Outputs windows.
                                      Please note that the sample PLC programs do not use all the
                                      displayed PLC inputs/outputs.
                                      In the case of most process models, a table with the workpieces
                                      possible is displayed as standard. If simulation is active, then you
                                      select the workpiece you wish to use for the production process at
                                      this table.




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                                   This is how you load a process model by activating a menu command

                                   1. Click onto Open in the File menu.
                                      The process models are filed under the default setting c:\Program
                                      Files\Didactic\CIROS Automation Suite 1.0\CIROS
                                      Mechatronics.en\Samples.
                                      Each process model is in its own subdirectory.




                                   2. Select the desired process model, for example the process model
                                      Distributing. To do so, open the subdirectdory DistributingStation:
                                      Highlight the directory DistributingStation and click onto the Open
                                      button.




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                                   3. Highlight the file DistributingStation.mod and click onto the Open
                                      button.




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                                   4. The process model for the Distributing station is now loaded and is
                                      displayed in the View window.
                                      In the case of most process models, a table with the workpieces
                                      possible is displayed as standard. If simulation is active, then you
                                      select the workpiece you wish to use for the production process at
                                      this table.




Note                               If an error occurs when loading a process model, then please check the
                                   entry for the rendering machine in the CIROS.ini file.
                                   The rendering machine to increase graphics card performance must only
                                   be activated if your PC has an appropriate graphics card and/or a
                                   current graphics card driver is installed on your PC.



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                                   Check the relevant entry regarding the rendering machine in the
                                   CIROS.ini configuration file. The rendering machine ist not activated, if
                                   the following setting is entered there:

                                   [CIROS-Features]
                                   ExternalRenderer=0




                                   You will find the CIROS.ini file in the directory C__Program
                                   Files_Didactic_CIROS Mechatronics.en_bin under Documents and
                                   Settings.




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5.2                                Once loaded, the process is displayed, but simulation is not active. A
Simulating a process               table with the workpieces possible is displayed as standard for most of
model                              the process models. If simulation is active, then select the workpiece
                                   you wish to use for the production process at this table.




                                   If the process model is to be simulated, a PLC program must be
                                   available to control the running of the process model.
                                   The PLC program can be executed in the internal S7 PLC or in an
                                   external controller.
                                   If you are working with a process model which was opened as a
                                   reference model, then the sample PLC program for the process model is
                                   automatically loaded to the internal PLC and executed when starting
                                   simulation.



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                                   If no PLC program is active, then the user can directly control individual
                                   components by using the functions of the manual operation window.



                                   As soon as simulation is active, you can monitor the visual simulation
                                   and as such the function sequence of the process model in the activity
                                   window.

                                   Certain information is always available to you.
                                   In the header you will see the file name with path details of the process
                                   model loaded.

                                   The status line informs you of the operational status of the process
                                   model:
                                   A field to the right displays whether simulation is active or stopped.
                                       Stopped:
                                       Simulation mode is not active. The process model is not simulated.
                                       Cycle:
                                       The process model is simulated.
                                       Sequence:
                                       The process model is simulated.

                                   The field to the right indicates the simulation time.



Note                               In CIROS® Mechatronics , both simulation modes Cycle and Sequence
                                   are identical.




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                                   This is how you switch simulation on and off again

                                   1. Make sure that the process model is in the initial position. You can
                                      do this by executing the Reset Workcell command in the Simulation
                                      menu.
                                   2. Click onto Start in the Simulation menu.
                                      Simulation is active. In the status bar, the simulation mode is
                                      displayed via Running.
                                      Alternatively, you can also activate simulation via the menu option
                                      Start Cycle or via the Stopped button in the status bar.




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                                   3. You can stop simulation by clicking onto Stop in the Simulation
                                      menu.
                                      Alternatively, you can also click onto the Running field.

                                   You can operate and observe the process model as soon as simulation
                                   is active.




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5.3                                A process model controlled via a PLC program (as for example in the
Displaying and operating           case of the reference models) is operated via the keys and switches of
a process model                    the control console. To do so, simulation must be active. The simulation
                                   status can be established via the information in the status bar.




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                                   A table with the workpieces possible is displayed as standard for most
                                   of the process models. If simulation is active, then you select the
                                   workpiece you wish to use for the production process at this table.



                                   This is how you operate a process model controlled via the sample PLC
                                   program
                                   (Reference models are controlled via sample PLC programs)

                                   1. Start simulation by clicking onto Start in the Simulation menu.
                                   2. The illuminated Reset button now requests the Reset function.
                                      Failing this, put the process model into the initial position. To do so,
                                      activate the simulation. Then click onto the command Reset
                                      Workcell in the Simulation menu.
                                      Now restart simulation.
                                   3. Carry out the Reset function by clicking onto the Reset button.




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                                   4. The illuminated Start button indicates that the process model is in
                                      the initial position and the start condition is fulfilled.




                                   5. Make sure that workpieces are available. In the case of the
                                      Distributing process model this means: the magazine of the
                                      distributing station must be filled with workpieces.




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                                   6. Click onto the desired workpiece on the table with the workpieces.
                                      All workpieces are realised in the form of buttons. The selected
                                      workpiece, a red basic cylinder body, is shown as "pressed".
                                      Now click onto the symbolic workpiece on the distributing station.
                                      With each mouse click, the magazine is filled with the selected
                                      workpiece.




                                   7. Start the cycle by clicking onto the Start button.




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                                   If the process model is to be controlled via your own PLC program, then
                                   you will know how the process and operation are defined.

                                   If the process model is not controlled via a PLC program, then you can
                                   manually activate specific actuators of the process. You will need the
                                   functions of the Manual Operation window for this.



                                   This is how the status of the process model is displayed

                                      The electrical status of the process components is displayed via the
                                      LEDs on the sensors and valves.
                                      If pressure is applied to a cylinder connection, then this connection
                                      is highlighted in blue.
                                      The pneumatic tubing itself is not shown.
                                      The status of the PLC signals is displayed in the Inputs and Outputs
                                      windows.
                                      The Manual Operation window provides an overview of all process
                                      statuses and process events.
                                      The designation of components is shown by clicking onto the
                                      connection or LED of a process component. This designation is
                                      identical to the designation in the circuit diagram.
                                      An exception to this is the designations of compressed air
                                      connections. These pertain to the valves which supply the
                                      compressed air connections with air.




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5.4                                The perspective view of a process model is freely adjustable and you
Changing the view of a             can turn, move, enlarge or minimise the process model representation
process model                      by means of a few central commands.




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                                   The perspective view is defined by the coordinates of the viewer (=
                                   angle) and a reference point of the process model (= centre).




                                                  Reference point
                                                                    Turn       Angle
                                   Z




                                                                           Y




                                                             X


Definition of perspective view




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                                   This is how you move the process model

                                   1. Click onto the Move command in the View menu.
                                      This changes the mouse pointer into a small coordinate system,
                                      which indicates the direction in which the angle and reference point
                                      can be moved. A dashed arrow means that it is not possible to move
                                      in the respective direction.
                                   2. Hold down the left mouse button.
                                   3. Move the mouse pointer in Z- or X-direction.
                                   4. Release the mouse pointer again. The view will then change
                                      accordingly.

                                   You can also activate the Move command by holding down the Shift key
                                   and pressing the left mouse button.



                                   This is how you turn the process model

                                   1. Click onto Turn in the View menu.
                                      The mouse pointer now changes into a small coordinate system,
                                      which indicates the direction in which the angle and reference point
                                      can be moved. A dashed arrow means that it is not possible to move
                                      in the respective direction.
                                   2. Hold down the left mouse button.
                                   3. Move the mouse pointer in Z-or X-direction.
                                   4. Release the mouse pointer again.
                                      The view will then change accordingly.

                                   You can also activate the Turn command by holding down the Ctrl key
                                   and then pressing the left mouse button.



                                   This is how you enlarge or minimise the view

                                   1. Activate the Zoom command in the View menu.
                                      The mouse pointer now changes into two squares.
                                   2. To enlarge the view, hold down the left mouse button and move the
                                      mouse pointer in the direction of the arrow.




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                                   3. To minimise the view, hold down the left mouse button and move
                                      the mouse pointer in the opposite direction of the arrow.

                                   You can also activate the Zoom command by holding down the Shift +
                                   Ctrl key combination and then pressing the left mouse button.

                                   If you have a mouse with a scroll wheel, you can easily enlarge or
                                   minimise the process model view by using the scroll wheel.



                                   This is how you enlarge a particular section

                                   1. Position the mouse pointer on a corner of the section.
                                   2. Hold down the Shift + Ctrl key combination.
                                   3. Press the right mouse button and move the mouse. A frame is then
                                      displayed.
                                   4. Place the frame around the section you would like to enlarge by
                                      moving the mouse.
                                   5. Release the right mouse button. The view is now enlarged.



                                   This is how you enlarge the view

                                   Click onto Zoom-In in the View menu. The image is now enlarged to
                                   125%.



                                   This is how you minimise the view

                                   Click onto Zoom-Out in the View menu. The picture is minimised to
                                   80%.




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5.5                                The Inputs and Outputs windows indicate which signals are applied at
The Inputs and Outputs             the inputs and outputs of the PLC. 0-signals are displayed in red and
windows                            1-signals in green. If the input or output signal is forced, the value is
                                   shown in angle brackets, e.g. <1>.




                                   This is how you open the Inputs window

                                   Click onto the option Inputs/Outputs in the View menu and select Show
                                   Inputs.

                                   So that you know which process signal you are dealing with, the signal
                                   names include the relevant designation from the circuit diagrams.
                                   Example: STATION_1B2: PLC input, which is connected to the sensor
                                   1B2.



                                   This is how you open the Outputs window

                                   Click onto the option Inputs/Outputs in the View menu and select Show
                                   Outputs.

                                   So that you know which process signals you are dealing with, the signal
                                   names contain the relevant designations from the circuit diagrams.
                                   Example: STATION_1M1: PLC output, which is connected to the valve
                                   coil 1M1.




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Notes                              You can however also open the Inputs and Outputs windows via
                                   Workspaces in the Window menu, where you will often find the
                                   required window combinations.



5.6                                The Manual Operation window offers various functions
The Manual Operation                  Display of process statuses and process activities,
window                                Controlling individual actuators of the process model,
                                      Setting breakpoints in the process model simulation.




                                   In the lefthand section of the window you can see the process activities.
                                   These include mainly the actuation of valves. An applied 1-signal is
                                   represented by a red illuminated LED.

                                   In the righthand section of the window you can monitor all process
                                   statuses.
                                   Process statuses include the status of the sensor and valve coils. Here,
                                   1-signals are represented by a green illuminated LED.

                                   The signal statuses are also shown in the Value column. If the signal is
                                   forced, the value is shown in angle brackets. If the Value column is now
                                   shown, activate the item in the context sensitive menu via the right
                                   mouse button.




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                                   The following additional information is displayed: If a signal status has
                                   changed since the last simulation cycle, then the respective line is
                                   highlighted in colour. Process activities are shown in red and process
                                   statuses in green. This method enables you to easily identify and track
                                   any signals which have changed.




                                   This is how you open the Manual Operation window

                                   In the Modeling menu, click onto Manual Operation.

                                   Alternatively , open the window by clicking onto Manual Operation
                                   under Workspaces in the Window menu.



                                   This is how you control individual actuators in the process model

                                   If you want to actuate individual actuators of a process model manually,
                                   we recommend that you disconnect the process model from the PLC.
                                   Only those commands will then be executed which have been initiated
                                   via manual operation since the PLC program is no longer active.
                                   If you wish to terminate manual operation and control the process
                                   model via a PLC program once again, you will need to reconnect the
                                   process model to the PLC.




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                                   1. Make sure that simulation is stopped.
                                   2. Isolate the process model from the PLC.
                                      Move the mouse pointer to the left section of the Manual Operation
                                      window and the process activities. Press the right mouse button to
                                      open the context sensitive menu and select Disconnect all
                                      Controllers.




                                   3. Start the simulation.




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                                   4. Double click onto the process activity line you wish to execute. The
                                      double click causes the signal to change.
                                      If you double click onto a line with a valve activation, this causes the
                                      value of the respective valve coil to change. If the value 0 is applied,
                                      this will be set to 1 or vice versa. The double click therefore has a
                                      toggle function.
                                      Please note: To switch a valve with two valve coils to a particular
                                      position, the appropriate electrical signal must be applied to both
                                      valve coils.




                                   5. Stop simulation, if you wish to end Manual Operation.




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                                   6. To control the process model via a PLC program again, move the
                                      mouse pointer to the left section of the Manual Operation window
                                      to the process activities. Now press the right mouse button to open
                                      the context sensitive menu and select Restore I/O Connections.




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                                   This is how you set breakpoints during the operation of the process
                                   model

                                   To stop the process model operation at defined points, you will need to
                                   set breakpoints in the process model simulation. You can stop the
                                   process run whenever the value of a process signal is changing.
                                   Breakpoints merely influence process model simulation; the PLC
                                   program for the control of the process model remains unaffected. If a
                                   breakpoint is set at a signal, this causes the process model simulation
                                   to stop when the value of the signal changes. The changed value is
                                   transmitted to the PLC as soon as simulation is restarted.

                                   1. Make sure that a process model is loaded.
                                   2. Start the process model simulation and establish that the process
                                      model is controlled via a PLC program.
                                   3. Open the Manual Operation window. To do so, click onto Manual
                                      Operation in the Modeling menu.




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                                   4. Click onto the line of the desired process activity. In this case, for
                                      example, line 1 to control valve coil 1M1 for the magazine ejector.
                                      Click onto the right mouse button to open the context sensitive
                                      menu and select Stop at Value Change.




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                                   5. The Stop sign in the line in the Manual Operation window indicates
                                      that a breakpoint is set at this signal.




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                                   6. Activate the process. As soon as the PLC generates a 1-signal at the
                                      valve coil 1M1, simulation stops. You can follow the simulation
                                      status in the status bar.




                                   7. If you restart simulation of the process model, this causes the
                                      process run to continue and the magazine ejector to eject a
                                      workpiece.




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                                   8. To delete the breakpoint, click onto the line with the breakpoint with
                                      the right mouse button. This opens the context sensitive menu of
                                      the right mouse button. Select Stop at Value Change. This command
                                      is realised in the form of a toggle function. The breakpoint is
                                      removed. Alternatively, you can select the command Delete all
                                      Stops.




                                   Please note that you can also set breakpoints at signals in the Process
                                   Status window section.




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                                   This is how you control the process model step-by-step

                                   If you want to execute the process stepwise, then use the Manual
                                   Operation window as a tool to control simulation. You can stop the
                                   process at defined points by setting breakpoints.
                                   To execute the process step-by-step, set breakpoints against all process
                                   activities. In this way, the process will be stopped whenever an actuator
                                   changes its status.

                                   1. Make sure that a process model is loaded.
                                   2. Make sure that the process model is controlled via a PLC program.
                                   3. Open the Manual Operation window. To do so, click onto Manual
                                      Operation in the Modeling menu.




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                                   4. Under Process Activities, highlight all lines containing signals for
                                      valve coils by pressing the Ctrl key and clicking onto the desired
                                      lines with the left mouse button.
                                      Open the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button and
                                      select Stop at Value Change.




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                                   5. All lines with valve coils now indicate breakpoints.




                                   6. Start the simulation and control the process by using the keys and
                                      switches of the control console. Whenever the status of a process
                                      signal changes, simulation stops. The process is continued if you
                                      restart simulation.




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                                   7. To remove the breakpoints again, open the context sensitive menu
                                      via the right mouse button and select Delete all Stops.




                                   Please note that you can also set breakpoints at signals in the Process
                                   Status window section.




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5.7                                The internal S7 simulator interprets executable S7 programs. A sample
Controlling a process              PLC program for S7-300 is available for each of the more complex
model via the internal             process models. When you load a model, the respective S7 program is
S7 PLC                             also downloaded. You can exchange this S7 program with another S7
                                   program, if required.

                                   Only complete project files with the file extension S7P can be
                                   downloaded. The project will need to have been created via the SIMATIC
                                   Manager and must be in accordance with the Siemens MC7 code at
                                   binary level.




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                                   This is how you control a process model via the relevant sample PLC
                                   program

                                   1. Make sure that the Help window of CIROS® Mechatronics Assistant
                                      is open. You open CIROS® Mechatronics Assistant by activating the
                                      command Workcells of CIROS® Mechatronics in the Help menu.
                                   2. In CIROS® Mechatronics Assistant, navigate to the directory with the
                                      desired process model, for example to the directory Distributing
                                      Station.
                                      The process model is loaded by clicking onto Open reference model.




                                   3. As soon as simulation of the process model is started, the execution
                                      of the S7 is also started.
                                      To do so, click onto Start in the Simulation menu.


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                                   This is how you control a process model via a newly created S7 PLC
                                   program

                                   1. Load the desired process model. The process model is to be
                                      controlled via the internal PLC. As the PLC program is to be modified,
                                      load a user model at this point.
                                      The process model is to be controlled via the internal PLC. The
                                      setting via which the PLC is to be controlled can be seen in the
                                      Switch external PLC <-> internat PLC window. You will find the
                                      command to activate this window in the Modeling window. The
                                      entry S7-PLC Simulator in the Type column means: the process
                                      model is controlled via the internal S7-PLC. Close the window Switch
                                      external PLC <-> internal PLC again.




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                                   2. Make sure that simulation has stopped.
                                   3. Select Open in the File menu to open the Open File window.
                                   4. Under File Type, select S7 Project (*.S7P).
                                      All files of this format available in the current directory are
                                      displayed.




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                                   5. Navigate to the directory which contains your S7 project.
                                      Select the required S7 project and click onto the Open button.




                                   6. If the project you have selected contains several S7 programs, then
                                      select one for simulation and confirm your choice with OK.




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                                   7. Start the process model simulation. Select Start in the Simulation
                                      menu. As soon as the simulation of the process model is started, the
                                      internal S7 simulator is also started and the loaded PLC program is
                                      executed.



                                   This is how you establish which S7 program is currently loaded

                                   1. Click onto the S7 Program Manager option in the Programming
                                      menu.
                                   2. The name and the structure of the PLC program are displayed in a
                                      clearly set out tree structure.
                                      The PLC program may consist of the following blocks: Organisation
                                      blocks, function blocks, data blocks, functions and system
                                      functions.




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                                   3. Click onto the +-symbol to display the PLC program.
                                      You can view the contents of a block by clicking onto a block.




                                   4. In the absence of a loaded PLC program, the window S7 Program
                                      Manager looks as follows:




                                   Further information regarding the display of S7 programs in STL or for
                                   the display and use of timing diagrams is available via the on-line Help.




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                                   This is how the sample programs are filed on the computer

                                   1. Select Open in the File menu to open the Open File window.
                                   2. Under File Type, select S7 Project (*.S7P).
                                      All the files in this format available in the current directory will be
                                      displayed.




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                                   3. The sample programs for the reference models are filed in the
                                      program directory of CIROS® Mechatronics.
                                      Navigate to the directory c:\Programme\didactic\CIROS
                                      Mechatronics\samples\S7\MPSC. This directory contains the S7
                                      project with all the sample PLC programs for the MPS C stations,
                                      provided that you have transferred all the preset directories when
                                      installing CIROS® Mechatronics. The sample program for the stacker
                                      store is stored in the Store subdirectory. The other subdirectories
                                      contain the sample programs for the MPS B stations for the
                                      Conveyor project module and a sorting system.
                                      A comparable directory structure is set up for the user models. The
                                      user models are stored as standard under My Documents\CIROS
                                      Mechatronics Training Samples.




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                                   4. Select the S7 project and click onto the Open button.




                                   The program name provides information about the PLC program and the
                                   process model to which it belongs:
                                      The initial digit corresponds to the station number.
                                      The two letters after this digit designate the station:
                                                      DI: Distributing station
                                                      TE: Testing station
                                                      PR: Processing station
                                                      HA: Handling station
                                                      BU: Buffer station
                                                      SO: Sorting station
                                                      PP: Pick and place station
                                                      FM: Station Fluidic Muscle Press
                                                      TR: Separating station
                                      The letters beginning with underscore designate the programming
                                      language of the PLC program:
                                      AS: Programming language GRAPH,
                                      KFA: Programming languages LDR, FCH and STL,
                                      KFAFF: Programming languages LDR, FCH and STL. The step
                                      structure of the process activity is simulated with flipflops.




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                                   The internal PLC supports to a large extent the command set of the S7-
                                   400 controllers, whereby the programs can be created in ladder
                                   diagram, function chart, statement list or in the form of graphic
                                   sequence control.



5.8                                S7-PLCSIM is a Soft PLC, which executes the PLC programs created in
Controlling a process              STEP 7. Within STEP 7, comprehensive testing and diagnostic functions
model via the external             are available to you for fault finding in the PLC program. They include,
Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM                 for instance, the status display of variables or the on-line display of the
                                   PLC program. You can make use of these functions when creating the
                                   PLC program for a process model in STEP 7 and subsequently when
                                   testing the PLC program during interaction with the process model.

                                   The exchange of the PLC input/output signals between the process
                                   model simulation and the Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM is effected via the EzOPC
                                   program. The EzOPC program forms part of the CIROS® Automation
                                   Suite and has been installed on your PC together with the CIROS®
                                   Mechatronics application.

                                   EzOPC is automatically invoked by CIROS® Mechatronics as soon as you
                                   start simulation of a process model and this process model is to be
                                   controlled via an external PLC.



Note                               If you work with the operating system Vista, please make sure that the
                                   used S7-PLCSIM-Version is Vista compatible.




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                                   The following requirements must be fulfilled in order for the PLC
                                   input/output signals to be correctly exchanged:
                                      When EzOPC is started, both communication users ‟ S7-PLCSIM and
                                      the process model simulation- must already be active. Only then can
                                      EzOPC set up the communication link to both stations.
                                      The EzOPC must be correctly configured for the data exchange.
                                      Therefore check the configuration as soon as EzOPC is started.




Configuration of EzOPC for data exchange with S7-PLCSIM




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                                   This is how you control a process model with S7-PLCSIM

                                   1. Start STEP 7 or the STEP 7 Manager and open the required
                                      S7 project.
                                   2. Start S7 PLCSIM by clicking onto Simulate Modules under Options.




                                   3. The S7-PLCSIM window now opens.




                                   4. Delete the contents of the virtual CPU of S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto
                                      the MRES button in the CPU 300/400 window.




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                                   5. Download the desired PLC program in S7-PLCSIM by highlighting the
                                      Modules folder. Then click onto Download in the menu Target
                                      System.




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                                   6. Load the appropriate process model in CIROS® Mechatronics.




                                   7. Select the setting for the process model to be controlled via an
                                      external PLC by activating the command Switch external PLC <->
                                      internal PLC in the Modeling menu.




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                                   8. The Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC window opens. The
                                      information regarding process model control is displayed in the
                                      columns Type and Program Name/OPC Server.
                                      - The name of the process model is Distributing.
                                      - The process model is controlled via the internal PLC. You can
                                      establish this by the item S7 PLC-Simulator.
                                      - The internal PLC executes the PLC program. The PLC program forms
                                      part of the STEP 7 project MPSC_V22.s7p, using the path specified.




                                   9. Highlight the entry for the process model. Activate the context
                                      sensitive menu of the right mouse button. Select the Switch
                                      command.
                                      Alternatively switch the controller by double clicking onto the item.




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                                   10. OPC Server is now entered in the Type column for the process
                                       model. The server name FestoDidactic.EzOPC.2 is displayed under
                                       Program Name/OPC Server. This entry means that the process
                                       signals for the Distributing process model are exchanged via an OPC
                                       server with the name FestoDidactic.EzOPC.2.




                                   11. Close the Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC window.
                                   12. Check whether the process model is to be in the initial position. If
                                       yes, then activate the Reset Workcell command in the Simulation
                                       menu.




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                                   13. Start the process model simulation by clicking onto Start under
                                       Simulation.
                                       As soon as simulation starts, the EzOPC program is automatically
                                       called up and you will see this from the item EzOPC displayed in the
                                       Start bar.




Note                               When EzOPC is started, both communication users - S7-PLCSIM and the
                                   process model simulation ‟ must already be active. Only then are the
                                   communication links correctly set up.




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                                   14. Click onto the EzOPC button in the Start bar. This opens the EzOPC
                                       window, where you configure the communication between CIROS®
                                       Mechatronics and S7-PLCSIM.
                                       The overview indicates that CIROS® Mechatronics is connected to
                                       S7 PLCSim via the virtual controller of EzOPC. The table shows which
                                       components are installed individually and whether EzOPC is in the
                                       process of accessing this component.
                                       Make sure that the communication links of your EzOPC are
                                       configured as shown below. The desired communication links are
                                       established by clicking onto the appropriate button.




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                                   15. Now click onto the Virtual Controller register where the virtual
                                       controller status and your inputs/outputs are displayed. 8 input
                                       bytes and 8 output bytes are preset for data exchange. You can
                                       accept this presetting unaltered.
                                       If a 1-signal is applied to an input/output byte bit, then this is shown
                                       illuminated.




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                                   16. Click onto the S7-PLCSIM register and check the settings. Here, the
                                       status of S7-PLCSim simulation and its inputs/outputs is displayed.
                                       8 input bytes and 8 output bytes are preset for data exchange. You
                                       can accept this presetting unaltered. However, only the first 4 bytes
                                       are required.
                                       If a 1-signal is applied to an input/output byte bit, then this is shown
                                       illuminated.




                                   17. Minimise the EzOPC window.
                                   18. Make sure that the process model simulation in CIROS®
                                       Mechatronics is active.




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                                   19. Start S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the box next to RUN in the window
                                       CPU 300/400. The LED for RUN should now start flashing.




                                   20. Operate the process model as planned and programmed in the PLC
                                       program.
                                   21. If faults still exist in the PLC program, then the on-line
                                       representation in STEP 7 will provide you with excellent support
                                       during fault finding. To do so, call up the program block in which you
                                       suspect the fault. Then click onto Monitor in the Test menu. You can
                                       now monitor in parallel with simulation, which PLC program sections
                                       are or are not being executed.




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5.9                                If you are creating and testing your own PLC program, we recommend
Controlling a process              that you download the programs to an external PLC and have these
model via an external PLC          executed from there.

                                   You can use the Soft PLC S7-PLC SIM as external PLC, if you are
                                   programming in STEP 7, in which case you will not require any
                                   additional hardware components.

                                   You can however also use any other control or programming system, in
                                   which case you download the PLC program to your hardware PLC. The
                                   exchange of the PLC input/output signals between the process model
                                   simulation and your external PLC is effected via the serial or the USB
                                   interface of the PC and via the EasyPort interface. Also included in the
                                   exchange of process signals is the EzOPC program.
                                   The advantage of this configuration is that you can use the PLC and
                                   programming system of your choice. Also available for fault finding in
                                   the PLC program are the testing and diagnostic functions intended for
                                   this purpose in the programming system.

                                   We recommend that you install the simulation software CIROS®
                                   Mechatronics and the PLC programming system on different computers.




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Possible configuration with a hardware PLC and two PCs




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                                   However, you can also choose a different configuration and install the
                                   two software packages on one PC. Your PC will need to be equipped
                                   with two serial interfaces or with one serial and one USB interface if you
                                   intend to make use of the testing and diagnostic functions during the
                                   process model simulation .

                                   The following can be used as EasyPort interface:
                                      EasyPort D16 interface box for 16 digital I/O (Order No.. 167121)

                                   The following data cables are required:
                                      PC data cable RS232 for EasyPort with PC to RS232 (Order No. 162
                                      305) or
                                      USB adapter RS232 for EasyPort with PC on USB (Order No. 540699)
                                      For PLC EduTrainer of Festo Didactic: I/O data cable with SysLink
                                      plugs at both ends to IEEE 488, cross paired (Order No.. 167 106)
                                      For any PLC: I/O data cable with SysLink plug at one end to IEEE 488
                                      and open cable end sleeves (Order No. 167 122)



                                   The EzOPC program
                                   The EzOPC program organises the exchange of PLC input/output signals
                                   between the process model simulation and the external PLC. EzOPC
                                   does not access the external PLC signals directly, but via the EasyPort
                                   interface.

                                   The EzOPC program forms part of the CIROS® Automation Suite and has
                                   been installed on your PC in conjunction with the CIROS® Mechatronics
                                   application. EzOPC is invoked automatically by CIROS® Mechatronics as
                                   soon as you start the simulation of a process model and this process
                                   model is to be controlled via an external PLC.




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                                   The following requirements must be fulfilled in order for the PLC
                                   input/output signals to be correctly exchanged:
                                      When starting EzOPC, both communication users ‟ EasyPort and the
                                      process model simulation - must be active. Only then can EzOPC set
                                      up the communication link to the two users.
                                      In the case of EasyPort this means that EasyPort must be connected
                                      to the PC via the serial interface and voltage applied to EasyPort.
                                      The EzOPC program must be correctly configured for the data
                                      exchange. Therefore check the configuration as soon as EzOPC is
                                      started.




Configuration of EzOPC for data exchange with an external PLC via EasyPort




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                                   This is how you control a process model via an external PLC

                                   1. Connect the PC with CIROS® Mechatronics to the external PLC via
                                      the EasyPort interface.
                                      ‟ The data cable with Order No. 162 305 connects the serial
                                        interface of the PC to the serial interface RS232 of EasyPort.
                                        If you are using the USB interface, then use the data cable of
                                        Order No. 540699.
                                      ‟ The PLC input/output signals for the process are applied at port 1
                                        of EasyPort.
                                      ‟ The PLC input/output signals for the control console are
                                        transmitted via port 2.
                                      ‟ If you are using EasyPort without USB interface:
                                        For the DIP switches under Mode at EasyPort, select the
                                        following setting: 1 ON, 2 OFF, 3 OFF.
                                      ‟ If you are using EasyPort with USB interface:
                                        Make sure that address 1 is set for EasyPort.
                                        The set address can be read or changed by pressing the two arrow
                                        buttons. Simultaneously pressing both buttons stores the address
                                        and exits address mode.




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Configuration with PLC EduTrainer




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Configuration with PLC board



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                                   2. Switch on the power supply for EasyPort.
                                   3. Load the desired process model to CIROS® Mechatronics.




                                   4. Effect the setting for the process model, i.e. that this is to be
                                      controlled via an external PLC. To do so, activate the command
                                      Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC in the Modeling menu.
                                   5. The window Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC now opens which
                                      displays the information regarding the process model control in the
                                      columns Type and Program Name/OPC Server.
                                      The name of the process model is Distributing.
                                      − The process model is controlled via the internal PLC. You can see
                                        this by the entry S7 PLC simulator.




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                                      − The internal PLC executes the PLC program. The PLC program
                                        forms part of the STEP 7 project MPSC_V22.s7p with the specified
                                        path.




                                   6. Highlight the entry for the process model. Activate the context
                                      sensitive menu of the right mouse button and select the command
                                      Switch.
                                      Alternatively switch the controller by double clicking onto the entry.




                                   7. OPC Server is not entered for the process model in the Type column.
                                      The server name FestoDidactic.EzOPC.2 is displayed under Program
                                      Name/OPC Server. This entry means that the process signals for the
                                      process model Distributing are exchanged via an OPC server named
                                      FestoDidactic.EzOPC.2.




                                   8. Close the Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC window.
                                   9. Check whether the process model is to be in the initial position. If
                                      yes, then activate the command Reset Workcell in the Simulation
                                      menu.



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                                   10. Start the simulation of the process model by clicking onto Start
                                       under Simulation.
                                       The EzOPC program is called up automatically when simulation
                                       starts. You will see EzOPC displayed in the Start bar.




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Note                               When EzOPC is started, both communication users - EasyPort and the
                                   simulation of the process model ‟ must already be active. Only then can
                                   the communication link be correctly set up.

                                   11. Click onto the EzOPC button in the Start bar to open the EzOPC
                                       window, where you configure the communication between CIROS®
                                       Mechatronics and EasyPort.




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                                   12. The overview shows that CIROS® Mechatronics is connected to S7
                                       PLCSim via the virtual controller of EzOPC.
                                       You will need a communication link between CIROS® Mechatronics
                                       and EasyPort. Click onto the PLC via EasyPort button to establish
                                       this.




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                                   13. The configuration link between CIROS® Mechatronics and EasyPort
                                       is configured.
                                       The table indicates which components are installed and whether
                                       EzOPC is currently accessing these components.




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                                   14. Now check the range of inputs/outputs via which data exchange is
                                       to be effected in the virtual controller. To do so, click onto the
                                       Virtual Controller register.
                                       8 input bytes and 8 output bytes are preset for data exchange. You
                                       can accept these presettings unaltered. Only the first 4 bytes are
                                       required.




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                                   15. Click onto the EasyPort register where the status of the connected
                                       EasyPort and its inputs and outputs are displayed. If a 1-signal is
                                       applied to an input/output byte bit, then this is shown illuminated.




                                   16. Minimise the EzOPC window.
                                   17. Download the PLC program to the PLC.
                                   18. Start up the PLC.
                                   19. Start the process model simulation.
                                   20. Operate the process model according to how you have planned and
                                       programmed it in the PLC program.




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5.10                               Use the Fault Setting window to set specific faults in the functional
Setting faults in a                sequence of a process model. Use the internal PLC and the sample PLC
process model                      program provided to control the process model. This ensures that a
                                   potential fault behaviour is caused solely by process components. The
                                   PLC program is operating error-free.

                                   The setting of faults is permissible by authorised users only. This is why
                                   the dialog for fault setting is password protected. The default for the
                                   password is didactic. The password can be changed at any time.

                                   Each process model contains a list of possible faults.




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                                   The following data is required if you want to generate a fault for one of
                                   the listed process components
                                       Type of fault
                                       Start of fault
                                       Duration of fault

                                   With some components, different faults can occur and you can select
                                   these faults from a list of options.

                                   The following mean:
                                      Reed switch displaced: Reed Switch is mechanically displaced.
                                      Reed switch jammed: A 1-signal is continually applied at the reed
                                      switch.
                                      Cable break: A 0‟signal is continually applied at a component.
                                      Short circuit - voltage: A 1-signal is continually applied at
                                      component.
                                      Malfunction: Complete failure of component.
                                      Tubing defective: Pneumatic tubing is defective, operating pressure
                                      not achieved.
                                      Compressed air supply malfunction: Pressure failure.
                                      Power supply malfunction: Voltage not available.

                                   The time stated for the start of malfunction refers to the simulation time
                                   after the fault is set.

                                   The duration of the fault is to be indicated in seconds.

                                   Error statuses influence the simulation of the process model as soon as
                                   the Fault Simulation is active.



Note                               Only in user models fault functions are stored if the process model is
                                   stored. The fault functions remain active until they are deactivated in
                                   the Fault setting window.




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                                   This is how you set faults in the process model

                                   1. Make sure that a user model is loaded. The process model is to be
                                      controlled via the internal PLC.
                                   2. Open the Fault Setting window by activating Fault Setting in the
                                      Extras menu under Fault Simulation.




Note                               You can also open the Fault Setting via Window Workspaces Teacher
                                   mode. Under Teacher mode are frequently-needed window
                                   combinations for the Fault operation.




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                                   3. A dialog box is displayed for the password to be entered.
                                      Enter the password. Provided that you have not changed the
                                      password since CIROS® Mechatronics has been installed, then the
                                      standard specified password is still valid.
                                      Enter didactic in the Password box.
                                      Note that the password is case-sensitive.
                                      Confirm your entry with OK.




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                                   4. The Fault Setting window is now displayed.




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                                   5. Set a fault function ‟ for example for the PLC input 1B1.
                                      Double click onto the appropriate field in the Type column to display
                                      a list of options. Open the list and select the type of fault, e.g. Cable
                                      break.
                                      The fault is to become active with the start of simulation and to
                                      remain so until the fault is cancelled in Fault Setting. No entry is
                                      therefore required in the Begin column field.
                                      The duration of the fault is arbitrary and likewise, no entry is
                                      therefore required in the Duration column.
                                      Entries in the Begin and Duration column are activated by means of
                                      a double click.




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                                   6. The selected faults are displayed in the Status column.




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                                   7. Now activate the Fault Simulation mode by selecting Fault
                                      Simulation in the Extras menu under Fault Simulation.




                                   8. Close the process model in order to deactivate the teacher mode.



                                   This is how you start the simulation of the process model with the set
                                   faults

                                   1. Open the process model with the set fault.
                                   2. Make sure that Fault Simulation is activated.
                                   3. Start the process model simulation.




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5.11                               Use the Fault Localisation window to eliminate error functions in the
Eliminating faults in a            process model. The set error functions only occur if the process model is
process model                      controlled via a PLC program and if the Fault Simulation mode is active.



Example                            Distributing process model: The process activity stops once a workpiece
                                   is ejected. The next step, moving the swivel arm into the magazine
                                   position, is not executed.
                                   When monitoring and analysing the process model simulation, you
                                   realise that voltage is applied to the sensor 1B1, but not to the
                                   respective PLC input. You therefore conclude that there is a cable break
                                   at the PLC input 1B1.




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                                   This is how you eliminate a fault in the process model

                                   1. Make sure that the process model is loaded.
                                   2. Open the Fault Localisation window by clicking onto the Fault
                                      Localisation window in the Extras menu under Fault Simulation.




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                                   3. The Fault Localisation window is displayed.




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                                   4. In the line 1B1 PLC input, double click onto No fault and select Cable
                                      break in the list.
                                      The button is now illuminated in yellow.
                                      If the fault Is correctly identified, the next process model simulation
                                      will be executed fault-free.




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                                   5. In teacher mode, the Fault Localisation window looks as follows:




Note                                  If you have correctly identified and entered the fault, the process
                                      model is executed correctly in the next simulation cycle.
                                      If you have failed to correctly identify the cause of the fault, then the
                                      fault remains in place.
                                      If you have erroneously identified the cause of the fault as a
                                      mechanically displaced sensor, then you have created an additional
                                      fault within the process as a result of this and the fault is active from
                                      the next simulation onwards.




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5.12                               Each action in the Fault Localisation window is logged in a log file.
Logging of eliminated              Authorised persons are able view the log file.
faults




                                   The log file contains a list of activities which have been listed in the
                                   Fault Localisation window. The entries contain the following data
                                   entered by the student.
                                      Date
                                      Time

                                   Faults, which have been correctly identified and eliminated are marked
                                   in green.




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                                   This is how you access the log file

                                   1. Open the Fault Log window by activiating Fault Log in the Extras
                                      menu under Fault Simulation.
                                   2. A dialog box is then displayed for you to enter the password.
                                      Enter the password. Provided that you have not changed the
                                      password since CIROS® Mechatronics has been installed, the
                                      standard specified password is still valid.
                                      Enter didactic in the Password box.
                                      Please note that the password is case-sensitive.
                                      Confirm your entry with OK.




                                   3. The Fault Log window is now displayed.




Notes                              To cancel the fault log, activate the context-sensitive menu via the right
                                   mouse button and select the appropriate command.




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                    CIROS® Mechatronics is a multimedia training aid for use in the field of
                    automated systems. The examples given represent practice-related
                    applications. The exercises are based on industrial process sequences
                    and aim to portray a holistic training process. With CIROS®
                    Mechatronics , you will be training in both methodology and
                    professional competency.



6.1                 CIROS® Mechatronics provides process models for systems of varying
Training contents   complexity from the production sector.

                    The general training aims to be achieved with CIROS® Mechatronics are
                    to be able to
                        Analyse and understand the mode of operation and system
                        structure of PLC controlled systems,
                        Create and test PLC programs or clearly configured systems and
                        Carry out systematic fault finding as part of maintenance and
                        corrective maintenance.

                    These general training aims cover all subject areas that can be taught by
                    means of simulated processes. The main focus of training is on a
                    methodical approach.



                    Significance of the training contents in industrial practice
                    One of the most important influences in industrial development over the
                    past few years has been the ever increasing degree of automation,
                    growing complexity of processes and faster operating cycles. The
                    keywords here are optimal utilisation of high investment, flexible and
                    cost effective production. More specifically these include:
                       High degree of machine efficiency,
                       Less downtimes,
                       Optimisation of systems,
                       Continual improvement processes.




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                                   As a result of this, those who are dealing directly with a system are to
                                   some extent faced with entirely new demands. A system operator now
                                   takes on minor maintenance work and possibly some corrective
                                   maintenance, as does the installer. A mechanical maintenance engineer
                                   must have sufficient knowledge and understanding of electrical and
                                   electronic control technology to draw the necessary conclusions
                                   regarding pneumatics, hydraulics and mechanics. Conversely, an
                                   electrical engineer requires knowledge about pneumatic and hydraulic
                                   actuators. At the same time, these changing requirements lead to new
                                   forms of collaboration.

                                   Grouped together, these requirements can be put into three areas
                                      Technology know-how
                                      System know-how and system understanding
                                      Socio-cultural skills

                                   With CIROS® Mechatronics you will develop your knowledge and
                                   practice your skills in the areas of technology know-how as well as
                                   system know-how and understanding. Apart from technical know-how,
                                   these skills also include decision-making responsibility and
                                   methodological compentency .



6.2                                The target group for CIROS® Mechatronics includes all those whose
Target group                       professional area of activities involves PLC programming, maintenance
                                   and corrective maintenance or those who need to have a basic
                                   knowledge on these topics.

                                   These include:
                                      Professional teachers/instructors
                                      ‟ Mechatronics engineers
                                      ‟ Electrical engineers, for instance specialising in automation
                                      technology
                                      ‟ Industrial mechanical engineers
                                      Professional qualifications in metal-working and electrical
                                      engineering
                                      Vocational training at colleges and universities




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6.3                                Knowledge is required of the following in order to work and train with
Previous knowledge                 CIROS® Mechatronics :
                                      A basic knowledge of control technology: Structure of an automated
                                      system
                                      A basic knowledge of PLC technology: Design and mode of operation
                                      of a PLC
                                      A basic knowledge of PLC programming and handling of a PLC
                                      programming tool, such as the programming system SIMATIC STEP 7
                                      A basic knowledge of pneumatic control technology: Drives, control
                                      elements
                                      A basic knowledge of sensor technology: Limit switches, contactless
                                      proximity sensors
                                      A basic knowledge of designing, wiring and tubing of
                                      electropneumatic systems.
                                      A basic knowledge of electrical engineering: Electrical variables,
                                      correlations and calculations thereof, direct and alternating current,
                                      methods of electrical measurement
                                      Basic knowledge of how to read and interpret circuit diagrams
                                      The ability to deal with and operate Windows programs



6.4                                Below is a list of training aims on the subjects of system know-how, PLC
Example: Assigning                 programming and systematic fault finding. The training aims are taken
training aims to training          from the 1999 sillabus for Mechatronics engineers. The contents have
courses                            been adapted and weighted accordingly such as for instance for the
                                   2003 syllabi for electronic engineers.

                                   Mechatronics and electronics engineers are two examples of how
                                   vocational training in Germany is currently updated and adapted to the
                                   new training area concept.

                                   The tables below list only those training aims which can also be taught
                                   with CIROS® Mechatronics.




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                                    Training content: Analysis of mode of operation and structure of a
                                    system



 Mechatronics engineer

 Area of training                             Training aims

 Area of training 1:                          To read and use technical documentation.
 Analysis of functional interrelationships
                                              To have a command of processes in order to be able to
 within mechatronic systems
                                              analyse and document functional interrelationships.

                                              To draw up and interpret block diagrams.

                                              To identify the signal, material and energy flow with the
                                              help of technical documentation.

 Area of training 4:                          To understand basic control technology circuits: To actuate
 Investigating the energy and information     (pneumatically and hydraulically) a single-acting and
 flow in electrical, pneumatic and            double-acting cylinder, basic logic operations, contactor
 hydraulic modules                            circuits, digital circuits.

                                              To read and use circuit diagrams.

                                              To identify power supply units in electrotechnology,
                                              pneumatics and hydraulics.

                                              To identify and describe the control functions of simple
                                              control systems.

                                              To design a control system (block diagram).

                                              To identify signals & measured values in control systems.

 Area of training 7:                          To understand and describe mechatronic subsystem
 Realisation of mechatronic subsystems        structures.

                                              To understand and analyse the mode of operation, signal
                                              behaviour and the use of components (sensors and
                                              actuators).

                                              To understand basic circuits and the mode of operation of
                                              drives.



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 Mechatronics engineers (continuation)

 Area of training                            Training aims

 Area of training 8:                         To describe the structure and signal pattern of mechatronic
 Design and construction of mechatronic      systems.
 systems
                                             To analyse the effect of changing operating conditions on a
                                             process cycle.

 Area of training 9:                         To describe the information structure (signal structure,
 Analysing the information flow in           signal generation, signal transmission) of a system with the
 complex mechatronic systems                 help of circuit diagrams.

                                             To establish the interrelationship between electrical,
                                             pneumatic and hydraulic components.

                                             To analyse signals (binary, analogue, digital) and to
                                             deduce potential error sources.

                                             To use computer-aided diagnostic methods, e.g. testing
                                             and diagnostic functions of a programming system or bus
                                             system.

 Area of training 11:                        To analyse mechatronic systems on the basis of technical
 Commissioning, fault finding and            documentation and to break down their configuration into
 corrective procedures                       function blocks.

 Area of training 13:                        To describe mechatronic systems.
 Handover of mechatronic systems to
                                             To create operating instructions and documentation.
 customers




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                                     Training content: PLC programming and testing of the program



 Mechatronics engineers

 Area of training                              Training aim

 Area of training 7:                           To understand the design and mode of operation of a PLC.
 Realisation of mechatronic subsystems
                                               To design and document control systems for simple
                                               applications.

                                               To program simple control processes via PLC: Logic
                                               operations, memory functions, timers, counters.

                                               To carry out programming in one of the PLC programming
                                               languages ‟ ladder diagram, function chart or statement
                                               list ‟ in accordance with DIN EN 61131-3.

                                               To document control systems in function diagrams and
                                               function chart according to DIN EN 60848.

 Area of training 8:                           To program mechatronic systems in one of the
 Design and creation of mechatronic            programming languages ‟ ladder diagram, function chart,
 systems                                       statement list, sequential function chart.

                                               To program the mode section.

                                               To program a sequence control.

 Area of training 9:                           To use computer-aided diagnostic methods, e.g. testing
 Analysing the information flow in             and diagnostic functions of the programming system.
 complex mechatronic systems


 Area of training 11:                          To eliminate errors in the PLC program.
 Commissioning, fault finding and
 corrective procedures




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                                    Training content: Systematic fault finding on systems



 Mechatronics engineers

 Area of training                             Training aim

 Area of training 4:                          Fault finding on simple modules with the help of
 Analysing the energy and information         measurement technology.
 flow in electrical and hydraulic modules

 Area of training 7:                          To check control systems for simple applications, e.g. by
 Realisation of mechatronic subsystems        means of signal analysis.

 Area of training 8:                          To identify errors by means of signal analyses at interfaces
 Design and creation of mechatronic           and eliminating error causes.
 systems
                                              Computer simulation

 Area of training 9:                          To analyse signals (binary, analogue, digital) and deduce
 Analysing the information flow within        potential error sources.
 complex mechatronic systems
                                              To use computer-aided diagnostic methods, e.g. the
                                              testing and diagnostic function of the programming
                                              system.

 Area of training 11:                         To understand the procedure for fault finding in electrical,
 Commissioning, fault finding and             pneumatic and hydraulic systems.
 corrective procedures
                                              To carry out a fault analysis.

                                              To have a command of and apply systematic fault finding.

                                              To recognise typical error causes.

                                              To make specific use of diagnostic systems.

                                              To document faults.

                                              To create a log of corrective procedures.




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6.5                                CIROS® Mechatronics is a motivating, multimedia training aid on the
The training concept of            subject of automated systems.
CIROS® Mechatronics
                                   The systems vary in complexity and can be flexibly programmed.
                                   Problem definitions can thus be formulated according to requirements
                                   and the instructor’s previous knowledge. It is therefore for instance
                                   possible to analyse the mode of operation of individual components.
                                   Similarly, it is possible to program and test the mode section of a
                                   system.

                                   Simulated processes have an innate didactic quality:
                                      They are practice-related and as representational as possible.
                                      The ability to experiment with process models creates an
                                      environment close to that of an actual system, which is the real
                                      object of training and knowledge is tested and consolidated.
                                      Practice-related experience with simulated processes lends a new
                                      dimension and quality to knowledge in that theoretical knowledge
                                      becomes application and practice-orientated competence.

                                   CIROS® Mechatronics supports self-motivated, experimental learning:
                                      A simulated system operates in the same way as an actual system.
                                      This enables students, for instance, to immediately see whether
                                      they have programmed the sequence of a system correctly. The
                                      effect of incorrect operation also is apparent without causing any
                                      damage to the system. This enables students to independently
                                      reach and analyse their findings.
                                      Students can access technical documentation about process models
                                      according to their needs.
                                      Students can practice their knowledge and skills on a wide range of
                                      different process models.




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                                   What are the advantages of CIROS® Mechatronics as a training medium?
                                     CIROS® Mechatronics is a PC-assisted training aid and therefore
                                     represents an alternative training method. Training can be devised
                                     in a diversified and motivating way.
                                     Industry-based process models are used to practice and consolidate
                                     the knowledge and skills acquired on actual systems.
                                     Simulated processes can be used to highlight and experiment with
                                     statuses, which would be too hazardous on actual systems.
                                     Efficient, practice-related hands-on training is possible without the
                                     use of an actual system.
                                     A one-off, actual system is available in the form of several simulated
                                     systems, which increases the availability of this system for training
                                     purposes.
                                     The actual and virtual world of automation can be combined in any
                                     way and adapted to the requirements of the learning process.
                                     All systems simulated in CIROS® Mechatronics are also available in
                                     the form of actual systems and can be ideally combined and
                                     supplemented for training.
                                     Skills and activities which can only be acquired and practiced on
                                     actual systems should not to be replaced, but supplemented,
                                     practised and consolidated.
                                     Simulation is an advanced tool for use with automated systems.
                                     Example 1
                                     To ensure that the PLC programs and design of a system are ready at
                                     the same time, appropriate simulation of the system is used to test
                                     the PLC program.
                                     Example 2:
                                     Since production systems should have as few downtimes as
                                     possible, simulated systems are often used to train and familiarise
                                     operators and maintenance personnel with systems.




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   structure of a system in CIROS® Mechatronics



                                 CIROS® Mechatronics supports you in many different ways with the
                                 familiarisation and analysis of a system.
                                 The systematic procedure you use to do so and the knowledge you
                                 acquire can be transferred to any system and of course also an actual
                                 system.

                                 Load a process model to CIROS® Mechatronics . Whilst the process
                                 model is being simulated, you can control, monitor and analyse the
                                 process, which follows the specification of the PLC program provided.
                                 The supplied PLC program defines a possible sequence and operation of
                                 the process. The process model can however also be controlled via a
                                 different PLC program.



Prerequisite                        The selected process model is operational and there are no faults in
                                    the process.
                                    The selected process model is to be controlled via the internal PLC.
                                    A correct STEP 7 PLC program is available in the form of a sample
                                    program. The sample program is downloaded to the internal PLC.



7.1                              These training aims can be taught with the use of CIROS®
Training aims                    Mechatronics:



Main training aim                   To analyse and understand automated systems on the basis of
                                    technical documentation and with the help of simulated processes.



General training aims               To identify the function and mode of operation of the individual
                                    components.
                                    To break down the system into function blocks in order to identify
                                    the system structure.
                                    To identify and track the signal, material and energy flow of the
                                    system.




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                                       To identify the controller behaviour and the operating sequence of
                                       the system with the help of the technical documentation, i.e.
                                       Function Chart.
                                       To familiarise students with the operation of the system.
                                       To understand the product and the processing method.
                                       To investigate the system with the help of the simulated process.
                                       To use the technical documentation specifically to investigate the
                                       system.
                                       The technical documentation is comprised of the following: Function
                                       chart, circuit diagrams, operating instructions, commissioning
                                       instructions, data sheets.
                                       To identify the advantages of a simulated process for the operating
                                       sequence.



7.2                                To be able to understand and analyse a system, you will need to
Methods                            subdivide.
                                   One possible way, is to subdivide a system into the areas of system and
                                   controller structure, mechanical configuration, drive technology, control
                                   elements, control system, signal generators and energy supply.



 No.    Function scope                 Components and component parts

 1      System structure and           Program flow charts, function charts, function diagrams,
        controller structure           description

 2      Mechanical configuration       Support and mounting unit, function units, adjustment

 3      Drive technology               Electrics, hydraulics, pneumatics, mechanics

 4      Control elements               Electrics, hydraulics, pneumatics, mechanics

 5      Control system                 Electrical relay controller, PLC, pneumatics, CNC, robot controllers

 6      Signal generators              Binary sensors, analogue sensors, digital sensors

 7      Energy supply                  Electrics, hydraulics, pneumatics


Structure of a system



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                                   This structure serves as the basis for a systematic procedure to analyse
                                   and investigate the system.

                                   Questions regarding the individual function scopes provide ideas and
                                   guidance as to what exactly you should investigate within the individual
                                   function scopes.



                                   Function scope - system and controller structure
Questions                          ‟ What is the function of the system?
                                   ‟ What is the system to produce?
                                   ‟ How is the operating sequence of the system defined?
                                   ‟ What control functions are provided?
                                   ‟ What display functions are provided?
                                   ‟ What type of control system is available: Logic control system,
                                      sequence control?
                                   ‟ What function units does the system consist of?
                                   ‟ Are the function units or components networked?
                                   ‟ What bus systems are used: PROFIBUS, AS-i, Ethernet, or similar?
                                   ‟ What information is exchanged within the system?
                                   ‟ What information is exchanged with other systems or higher order
                                      processes?
                                   ‟ What does the material flow look like?
                                   ‟ What does the signal flow look like?
                                   ‟ What does the energy flow look like?
                                   ‟ What does the information flow look like?
                                   ‟ What are the possibilities of tracing the signal flow?

Documents                          ‟   Program flow chart
                                   ‟   Function chart
                                   ‟   Function diagrams
                                   ‟   Description
                                   ‟   Operating instructions
                                   ‟   Commissioning instructions




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                                   Function scope - drive technology
Questions                          ‟ What drives are incorporated: Linear drive, swivel drive, rotary drive,
                                      electric motor
                                   ‟ Which drive technology is used: Electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic?

Documents                          ‟   Circuit diagrams
                                   ‟   Data sheets



                                   Function scope - control elements
Questions                          ‟ What control elements are incorporated?
                                   ‟ How are the control elements actuated: Electrically, pneumatically,
                                      hydraulically?
                                   ‟ How high is the control voltage used for electrically actuated control
                                      elements?
                                   ‟ What interfaces occur between the signal control section and the
                                      power section?
                                   ‟ How do the control elements react in the event of Emergency-Stop?
                                   ‟ What are the status display options of control elements?

Documents                          ‟   Circuit diagrams·
                                   ‟   Data sheets



                                   Function scope - the control sysem
Questions                          ‟ How is the control system realised: PLC, relay control, robot control,
                                      CNC, pneumatic control?
                                   ‟ Which control energy does the PLC require?
                                   ‟ What is the voltage applied at the PLC inputs?
                                   ‟ What is the voltage applied to the PLC outputs?
                                   ‟ Is a bus system used?
                                   ‟ Which fieldbus system forms part of the control system?

Documents                          ‟   Circuit diagrams
                                   ‟   Data sheets




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                                   Function scope - signal generators
Questions                          ‟ Which signal generators are incorporated: Binary, analogue, digital?
                                   ‟ Which electronic signal generators are incorporated: Optical
                                      sensors, inductive sensors, capacitive sensors, magnetic sensors?
                                   ‟ What is the design (polarity of the output signal) of the electronic
                                      sensors: PNP, NPN?
                                   ‟ Which mechanically actuated sensors are incorporated?
                                   ‟ Which pressure sensors are incorporated?
                                   ‟ What are the status display options of the sensors?

Documents                          ‟   Circuit diagrams
                                   ‟   Data sheets



                                   Function scope - energy supply
Questions                          ‟ Which energy supply is used?
                                   ‟ How high is the operating pressure in the case of pneumatic or
                                      hydraulic energy supply?
                                   ‟ Is direct or alternating current used?
                                   ‟ How high is the operating voltage: 24 V or 230 V?

Documents                          ‟   Circuit diagrams
                                   ‟   Data sheets




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7.3                                CIROS® Mechatronics supports you with the following during your
Support via                        analysis and investigation of the system:
CIROS® Mechatronics                   Simulation of the process model and execution of the PLC program
                                      in the internal PLC.
                                      Window for PLC inputs/outputs: Display of the PLC inputs/outputs.
                                      Window for manual operation: To monitor process activities and
                                      process statuses.
                                      Window for manual operation: To set breakpoints to enable you to
                                      monitor system operation step by step.
                                      Window for manual operation: To set specific breakpoints in order to
                                      stop the process at a particular step.
                                      CIROS® Mechatronics Assistant: Provides information on-line, such
                                      as circuit diagrams for the process model.


7.4
                                   Investigating the operating sequence of the Distributing station
Example



Exercise                           Investigate the operating sequence of the Distributing station. To do so,
                                   use the checklist containing the system structure.
                                   Answer the following questions:
                                       How is the initial position of the system defined?
                                       What is the purpose of the Reset function?
                                       What is defined as the start precondition: Does it include the
                                       execution of the Reset function?
                                       How does the Distributing station react if no more workpieces are
                                       available?
                                       No more workpieces are available in the stacking magazine. What
                                       do you need to do for the station to operate correctly again?




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Implementation                     1. Load the Distributing process model. Make sure that the process
                                      model is controlled via the intenal PLC using the sample PLC
                                      program. This applies in the case of the reference models.




                                   2. The system can be broken down into the following function blocks:
                                      Stacking magazine, swivel drive and electrical. The electrics also
                                      include the PLC.




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                                   3. Refer to the technical documentation for information regarding the
                                      initial position and start condition of the system.
                                      To do so, access the on-line help for the process model. Click onto
                                      Help on Work cell in the Help menu.
                                      The required information is available in the chapters „The
                                      Distributing Station“ and „Technical Documentation“.




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Result                             Initial position: Ejecting cylinder extended (1B2=1) and swivel arm at
                                   magazine (3B1=1) and workpiece not picked up (2B1=0).
                                   The system moves to the initial position via the Reset function.
                                   The start condition is met if the station is reset and in the initial
                                   position.



                                   4. Start the simulation of the process model by clicking onto Start in
                                      the Simulation menu.
                                   5. Control the process by means of the pushbuttons and switches of
                                      the control console.
                                      Carry out the reset function first by clicking onto the green
                                      illuminated Reset button.
                                      Then place two workpieces into the magazine by selecting the
                                      desired workpiece on the workpiece table via a mouse click. Now
                                      click onto the appropriate symbolic workpiece on the Distributing
                                      station.
                                      Start executing the process by clicking onto the Start button.
                                      You can now follow the implementation of the process.




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                                   6. If there are no further workpieces in the magazine, the swivel arm
                                      stops in the adjacent station position. The indicator light Q1 is
                                      illuminated. The designation of the indicator light in the circuit
                                      diagram is P3.




                                   7. Fill the magazine with workpieces. Click onto the illuminated Start
                                      button to acknowledge that you have finished filling the magazine.




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                                   8. Open the Manual Operation window, if you want to execute a
                                      process sequence step by step, to enable you to monitor it more
                                      effectively. To do so, click onto Manual Operation in the Modeling
                                      menu.
                                      Highlight all the process activities and set breakpoints at these
                                      process activities by activating the context sensitive menu via the
                                      right mouse button. Select Stop at Value Change.
                                      Start the simulation of the process model. Simulation stops at each
                                      value change. As soon as simulation is re-started, the next step is
                                      executed.




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                                   9. You can trace the signals in the process via the status display in the
                                       Manual Operation window or via the LEDs of the process
                                       components.
                                   10. To access information regarding the circuit diagram designations of
                                       process components, click onto the LED or the air connection of a
                                       component.



Note                               If, as a result of simulation, the process model reaches a status you
                                   cannot or do not want to work with any longer, return the process model
                                   to the initial position by stopping the simulation. Then click onto Reset
                                   Workcell in the Simulation menu.



7.5                                Determining the components of the Distributing station
Example



Exercise                           Investigate the design of the Distributing station. Use the checklist
                                   detailing the structure of the station and the questions regarding the
                                   system for this.
                                   Answer the following questions:
                                       With which valve is the swivel drive actuated?
                                       How is the vacuum generated?
                                       What are the designations of the solenoid coils of the valve for the
                                       ejection of the workpieces?
                                       Via which sensor is the filling level of the magazine monitored?
                                       How many PLC inputs and PLC outputs are required for the control of
                                       the Distributing station?




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Implementation                     1. Load the Distributing process model. Make sure that the process
                                      model is controlled via the internal PLC using the sample PLC
                                      program. This applies in the case of the reference models.




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                                   2. Refer to the technical documentation for information regarding the
                                      process components and their circuit diagram designations.
                                      To do so, open the on-line help for the process model and click onto
                                      Help on Workcell in the Help menu.
                                      The required information is available in the chapter „Technical
                                      Documentation“.




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Result                             The swivel drive is actuated via two 3/2-way solenoid valves. This valve
                                   combination has the function of a 5/3-way solenoid valve with mid-
                                   position pressurised. The circuit diagram designation for this valve is
                                   3V1.
                                   The vacuum is generated via a 2/2-way solenoid valve. The second
                                   2/2-way solenoid valve creates an ejector pulse, which results in
                                   reliable ejection once the vacuum is switched off. The circuit diagram
                                   designation for the valve is 2V1.
                                   All valves are housed on one valve terminal.
                                   The designation of the valve coil of valve 1V1 for the actuation of the
                                   ejecting cylinder is 1M1.
                                   The filling level of the magazine is checked via the optical sensor with
                                   the circuit diagram designation B4.



                                   3. Take a look also at the process components in the process model
                                      itself.
                                      Click onto the LED or the air connection in order to display the
                                      designation.
                                      To enlarge or turn the components, use the options in the View
                                      menu.
                                      You can restore the standard setting of the process model by
                                      clicking onto Standard Views in the View menu and then selecting
                                      Default Setting.




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                                   4. Determine the number of PLC inputs and outputs required to control
                                      the process.
                                      You will find the relevant information for this in the technical
                                      documentation via the on-line help.
                                      You can however also display the PLC inputs/outputs and their
                                      statuses in a separate window for the process model by clicking
                                      onto Inputs/Outputs under View and selecting Show Inputs and
                                      Show Outputs.




Result                             The process control system requires 12 PLC inputs and 8 PLC outputs.
                                   The additionally displayed inputs/outputs can be used to expand the
                                   control system.




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7.6                                Tracing the signal and energy flow on the Distributing process model
Example



Exercise                           Investigate the signal and energy flow of the Distributing station.
                                   To do so, trace the signal of the sensor 1B1 up to the respective PLC
                                   input.
                                   Trace the signal and energy flow from the PLC output 3M1 to the
                                   pneumatic drive.
                                   Answer the following additional questions:
                                       To which PLC input is the sensor 2B2 connected?
                                       To which PLC input is the sensor B4 connected?
                                       Which drive is actuated via the solenoid coil 1M1?
                                       To which PLC output is the vacuum generator connected?



Implementation                     1. Load the Distributing process model. Make sure that the process
                                      model is controlled via the internal PLC using the same PLC program.
                                      This applies in the case of the reference models.




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                                   2. Refer to the technical documentation for information regarding the
                                      signal and energy flow of the sensor 1B1 and the PLC output 3M1.
                                      To do so, open the on-line help for the process model and click onto
                                      Help on Workcell in the Help menu.
                                      The required information is available in the chapter „Technical
                                      Documentation“.



Result                             The sensor 1B1 is connected to the PLC input 1B1 (I0.2).
                                   The PLC output 3M1 (O 0.3) controls the valve coil 3M1 of the valve 3V1.



                                   3. Move the process model into the initial position by clicking onto
                                      Reset Workcell in the Simulation menu.
                                   4. Start the simulation by clicking onto Start in the Simulation menu.
                                   5. Establish where the components are located in the system and
                                      investigate the signals and energy flow of these. You will recognise
                                      the components by their circuit diagram designation.
                                   6. Control the process by using the pushbuttons and switches of the
                                      control console.
                                      First, carry out the reset function by clicking onto the green
                                      illuminated Reset button.
                                      Then fill the magazine with workpieces by clicking onto the
                                      workpiece on the station.
                                      Start the process operation by clicking onto the Start button.
                                      You can now follow the process execution.




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                                   7. Carry out the process activity step-by-step to enable you to better
                                      monitor everything. Open the Manual Operation window by clicking
                                      onto Manual Operation in the Modeling menu.
                                      Highlight all the process activities and set the breakpoints at these
                                      by activating the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button.
                                      Select Stop at Value Change.
                                      Start the simulation of the process model. Simulation stops with
                                      each value change. The next step in the process is executed as soon
                                      as you restart simulation.




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                                   8. Monitor the signal flow of the sensor 1B1.
                                      The sensor 1B1 is connected to the PLC input 1B1, i.e. to
                                      STATION_1B1. The sensor status can be established via the LED on
                                      the sensor. You can also monitor the switching status of the sensor
                                      in the Manual Operation window.
                                      If the sensor 1B1 switches, then a 1-signal is applied at the PLC
                                      input STATION_1B1. The status of the PLC inputs is displayed in the
                                      Inputs window. Open this window by clicking onto Inputs/Outputs
                                      in the View menu and select Show Inputs.




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                                   9. Monitor the signal and energy flow of the PLC output STATION_3M1.
                                      The PLC output STATION_3M1 is connected to the valve coil 3M1.
                                      The status of the PLC can be established in the Ouputs window.
                                      Open this window by clicking onto Inputs/Outputs in the View menu
                                      and select Show Outputs.
                                      If a 1-signal is applied at the PLC input, voltage is also applied at the
                                      valve coil 3M1. The LED of the valve coil is illuminated. If a 0-signal
                                      is also applied simultaneously at the valve coil 3M2, then the
                                      valve 3V1 switches. The swivel arm moves into the magazine
                                      position.




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   Mechatronics


                    When investigating a system, the main focus can be put on
                    familiarisation with the components, in which case the system will not
                    be not controlled via a PLC program.

                    To enable you to more closely observe the mode of operation and
                    behaviour of a component, CIROS® Mechatronics allows you to operate
                    individual actuators “by hand”, similar to an actual station. With manual
                    operation, an electrical signal is generated at the selected solenoid coil
                    and the valve switches according to the signal applied and controls the
                    drive.

                    The system components can be specifically controlled via manual
                    operation. You can trace the signal and energy flow, identify interfaces
                    and therefore systematically analyse and understand the system.



Prerequisite           The process model selected is operational and there are no faults
                       within the process.
                       The process model selected will not be controlled via a PLC. The
                       working energies current and compressed air are connected.



8.1                 The following training aims can be taught with the use of CIROS®
Training aims       Mechatronics:



Main training aim      Familiarisation with the individual components of an automated
                       system: Mode of operation, status display elements, mechanical
                       characteristics.




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General training aims                 Familiarisation with the mode of operation of sensors and limit
                                      switches.
                                      To be able to identify application areas for optical, magnetic,
                                      inductive and capacitive sensors.
                                      To be familiar with the DC motor as an example of an electrical drive.
                                      To know of examples for pneumatic linear drives and rotary drives.
                                      To be familiar with the design and mode of operation of
                                      electropneumatic valves.
                                      To analyse and understand the signal and energy flow of
                                      components.
                                      To be familiar with electropneumatic circuits.
                                      To be familiar with status display components on electrical
                                      components and to use these for signal tracing.



8.2                                Use a systematic approach to familiarise yourself with a system or
Methods                            system components. The instructions for a systematic procedure are set
                                   out in Chapter 7.



8.3                                CIROS® Mechatronics supports you with the following during your
Support via                        analysis and investigation of the components which formpart of a
CIROS® Mechatronics                system:
                                      Simulation of the process model. The PLC programs are not active
                                      during this.
                                      Window for manual operation: Monitoring of process activities and
                                      statuses.
                                      Window for manual operation: Initiating individual process
                                      activities.
                                      CIROS® Mechatronics Assistant: Provides information on-line, such
                                      as circuit diagrams for the process model.




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8.4                                Investigating the mode of operation of the ejecting cylinder in the
Example                            stacking magazine module



Exercise                           Investigate the mode of operation of the stacking magazine.
                                   Answer the following questions:
                                       How is the initial position of the stacking magazine defined?
                                       What is the status of the ejecting cylinder in the initial position?
                                       How do you identify whether the ejecting cylinder is extended or
                                       retracted?
                                       Via which valve is the ejecting cylinder actuated?
                                       What is the designation of the valve solenoid coil for the actuation of
                                       the ejecting cylinder?
                                       How can you identify whether voltage is applied at the solenoid coil?
                                       Is the sensor for workpiece detection an inductive, capacitive or
                                       optical sensor?
                                       Which signal is applied at the sensor if a workpiece is available in
                                       the magazine?




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Implementation                     1. Load the stacking magazine process model. No sample PLC program
                                      is available for the stacking magazine.




Note                               Proceed as follows, when carrying the investigation of individual
                                   components on a process model for which a sample program is
                                   available:
                                      Load the process model controlled via the internal PLC.
                                      Open the Manual Operation window.
                                      Activate the context-sensitive menu via the right mouse button.
                                      Select Disconnect all Controllers.
                                      Carry out your investigations by means of manual operation.
                                      Once you have completed your investigations and want to control
                                      the process model via the internal PLC, connect the simulation of the
                                      process model with the internal PLC. To do so, activate the context-
                                      sensitive menu via the right mouse button and select Restore I/O
                                      Connections.




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                                   2. Establish which components the stacking magazine consists of.
                                      You can find the relevant information by clicking onto the LED or the
                                      compressed air connection of the component. Additional
                                      information is available in the technical documentation. This
                                      technical documentation is available on-line. To access this, open
                                      the on-line help for the process model by clicking onto Help on Work
                                      cell in the Help menu.
                                      You will find the required information in the chapter „Technical
                                      Documentation“.




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Result                             The ejecting cylinder separates out the workpieces.
                                   The end positions of the ejecting cylinder are detected via two sensors:
                                   Sensor 1B1 (ejecting cylinder retracted), sensor 1B2 (ejecting cylinder
                                   extended).
                                   The valve for the actuation of the ejecting cylinder is a 5/2-way solenoid
                                   valve with the designation 1V1.
                                   The valve coil 1M1 actuates the valve 1V1.
                                   The optical sensor B4 detects whether a workpiece is available in the
                                   magazine.



                                   3. Make sure that the stacking magazine is in the initial position by
                                      clicking onto Reset Workcell in the Simulation menu.
                                      In the initial position, the ejecting cylinder is extended.
                                   4. Start the process model simulation by clicking onto Start in the
                                      Simulation menu.




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                                   5. Open the Manual Operation window by clicking onto Manual
                                      Operation in the Modeling menu.




                                   6. Add a workpiece into the magazine by clicking onto one of the
                                      workpieces on the slotted assembly board.
                                      Check whether the status of the sensor B4 changes.
                                      You can identify the switching status of the sensor on the LED of the
                                      sensor. You can however also establish the sensor status via the
                                      Manual Operation window.

Result                             No workpiece available:    B4=1
                                   Workpiece available:       B4=0.




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                                   7. Eject a workpiece from the magazine by applying a 1-signal at valve
                                      coil 1M1.
                                      Double click onto line 1 of the process activities. Valve coil 1M1 is
                                      set at value 1 and the ejecting cylinder ejects a workpiece. No
                                      compressed air tubing is shown in the simulation. Applied
                                      compressed air is signalled by means of a blue connection.




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                                   8. Return the magazine ejector to the magazine by double clicking onto
                                      line1 of the process activities. This double click changes the value of
                                      the valve coil from 1 to 0; the ejecting cylinder extends again.
                                   9. Remove the ejected workpiece by double clicking onto line 2 of the
                                      process activities. The workpiece is removed.




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   programming



                                 CIROS® Mechatronics offers you numerous process models for
                                 automated applications that are typical in industry. You determine the
                                 process sequence, which can be either simple or complex. You then
                                 create the PLC program for this sequence in the programming system
                                 and for the PLC of your choice. The PLC program is subsequently used to
                                 control the process model. You can immediately detect whether the PLC
                                 program is operating correctly. If errors occur, then use the testing and
                                 diagnostic functions of your programming system for error detection
                                 and error elimination.

                                 The main focus of CIROS® Mechatronics as part of PLC programming is
                                 on:
                                     Practising a systematic procedure to create the PLC program.
                                     Systematic testing of the PLC program on the simulated process.

                                 The advantage is that relevant actual systems exist for these process
                                 models. This enables you to carry out comprehensive commissioning on
                                 the actual systems with the tested PLC programs.



Prerequisite                        The selected process model is operational and there are no faults
                                    within the process.
                                    The process model selected is to be controlled via an external PLC.




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9.1                               CIROS® Mechatronics is a tool for the process of creating a PLC
Training aims                     program. With the help of this tool you can teach the following training
                                  contents.



Main training aim for the            To design, create and test PLC programs for simple motion
Beginners target group               sequences.
Beginners




General training aims for            To describe the design and function of a PLC.
the target group Beginners           To list the differences between a PLC and relay control.
                                     To realise simple control tasks using basic logic functions (and
                                     timers).
                                     To program simple control tasks in one of the programming
                                     languages: Ladder diagram, function chart or statement list
                                     according to DIN EN 61131-3.
                                     To test PLC programs for simple control tasks.
                                     To systematically solve simple control problems from problem
                                     definition and analysis through to finding a solution, programming,
                                     checking and documentation.



Main training aim for the            To design, create and test a PLC program for extensive control
Advanced target group                systems.



General training aim for             To program sequence control systems in sequential function chart
the Advanced target group            according to DIN EN 61131-3.
                                     To program the mode section.
                                     To utilise the diagnostic and testing functions of the PLC
                                     programming system.
                                     To systematically solve control tasks from problem definition and
                                     analysis through to finding a solution, programming, checking and
                                     documentation.




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9.2                                    PLC programs ‟ or more generally control programs - are an important
Methods                                component part of an automated system. In order for PLC programs to
                                       be as error-free, easy to maintain and cost effective as possible, they
                                       need to be systematically designed, well structured and documented in
                                       detail.
                                       Proceeding in stages has proved a successful method for the
                                       development of a PLC program. Breaking down the process into stages
                                       or sections provides a targeted, systematic approach and gives clearly
                                       configured results that can be checked against the problem definition.



 Stages                   Activities                                    Result/documents

 Specification            ‟ Description of the system                   ‟ Function description
 (description of the      ‟ Defining the system process                 ‟ Positional sketch
 control task)                                                          ‟ Technology layout

 Planning and design      ‟ Planning the system                         ‟ Circuit diagrams·
 (description of the      ‟ Defining the control technology             ‟ Parts lists·
 solution)                requirements (Emergency-Stop, modes           ‟ Solution in the form of a function
                          of operation, visualisation...)               table or logic diagram to IEC 617-12
                          ‟ Design of the PLC program (formal           for sequence controllers
                          representation of the sequence and            ‟ Solution in the form of a function
                          logic of the PLC program)                     chart to DIN EN 60848 for sequence
                                                                        controllers
                                                                        ‟ Function diagrams
                                                                        ‟ Definition of software modules

 Realisation              ‟ Programming of the PLC program              ‟ Annotated PLC program in one of
 (implementation of       ‟ Simulation and testing of program           the programming languages to DIN
 the solution)            sections and the overall program              EN 61131-3
                          ‟ Construction of the system

 Commissioning            ‟ Testing and commissioning of the            ‟ Operational PLC program
 (integration and         control system                                ‟ Commissioning report
 testing of the                                                         ‟ Storage medium with PLC program
 solution)                                                              ‟ Full documentation


Stages within the systematic solution of a control task



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9.3                               CIROS® Mechatronics with the following for PLC programming:
Support via                          Industry-typical, realistic process models of varying complexity.
CIROS® Mechatronics                  Simulation of the process model.
                                     Control of the process model via OPC interface using any PLC (for
                                     example via S7-PLCSIM).
                                     Window for PLC inputs/outputs: Display of PLC inputs/outputs.
                                     Window for manual operation: Monitoring process activities and
                                     process statuses.
                                     CIROS® Mechatronics Assistant: Provides information such as
                                     system description or circuit diagrams.



9.4                               Programming the display of the initial position of the Distributing
Example                           process model.



Exercise                          On the Distributing station, the indicator light H1 is to be illuminated if
                                  the station is in the initial position.



                                  The technical documentation for the station is to be used, such as the
Ancillary conditions
                                  circuit diagrams and symbols table. You will find these in CIROS®
                                  Mechatronics Assistant.



Your task                            Represent the control function in the form of a logic diagram.
                                     Program the control task in one of the following languages: Ladder
                                     diagram, function chart or statement list.
                                     Test the PLC program using the simulated process model.




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                                  Implementation using the programming system STEP 7and the Soft
                                  PLC S7-PLCSIM

                                  1. Start CIROS® Mechatronics .
                                  2. Load the Distributing process model. The process model is to be
                                     controlled via an external PLC. The prerequisite for this is that
                                     OPC Server is displayed in the Type column of the Switch external
                                     PLC <-> internal PLC window. Should this not be the case, then
                                     double click onto this line.




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                                  3. Use the technical documentation to find out how the initial position
                                     of the station is defined.
                                     To do so, open the on-line help for the process model and click onto
                                     Help on Workcell in the Help menu.
                                     You will find the required information in the chapters „The
                                     Distributing Station“ and „Technical Documentation“.



Result                            Initial position: Ejecting cylinder extended (1B2=1) and swivel arm at
                                  magazine (3B1=1) workpiece not picked up (2B1=0).



                                  4. Formulate the control function in the form of a logic diagram.



Result                            1B1       &           P1
                                  3B1
                                  2B1


Logic diagram



                                  5. Create the symbols table for the control function.
                                     Take the required inputs/outputs from the general symbols table for
                                     the Distributing station. The symbols table is available via the on-
                                     line Help for the work cell. Activate the on-line Help by clicking onto
                                     Help with the Work Cell in the Help menu.




Result                             Symbol       Addres       Data       Comment
                                                s            type

                                   1B2          I 0.1        BOOL       Ejecting cylinder extended

                                   2B1          I 0.3        BOOL       Workpiece picked up

                                   3B1          I 0.4        BOOL       Swivel arm in magazine position

                                   P1           O 1.0        BOOL       Indicator light Initial position




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                                  6. Start STEP 7 or the SIMATIC Manager.
                                  7. Plan a project for the control function.
                                  8. Create the PLC program and store this.




                                  9. Open S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto Simulate Module under Options in
                                      the SIMATIC Manager.
                                  10. Delete the contents of the virtual CPU of S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto
                                      the MRES button in the CPU 300/400 window.




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                                  11. Load the PLC program to the S7-PLCSIM. In order to do this,
                                      highlight the folder Module, then click onto Load in the Target
                                      System menu.
                                  12. Start the S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the box next to RUN in the CPU
                                      300/400 window.
                                  13. Start the process model simulation by activating Start in the
                                      Execute menu.



Note                              With the starting of the process model simulation, the communication
                                  program EzOPC is also started. If EzOPC is started, both communication
                                  users - S7-PLCSIM and process model simulation must already be
                                  active. Only then can the communication link be correctly set up.




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                                  14. Carry out the settings in EzOPC.
                                      Click onto the EzOPC button in the Start bar. This will open the
                                      EzOPC window.
                                      The current communication links are displayed in the Overview
                                      register. You can change the communication link by clicking onto the
                                      appropriate button. The following communication links must be
                                      available for your task: Process simulation in CIROS must be
                                      connected to the S7-PLCSIM controller via the virtual controller.




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                                  15. Now check the settings for the virtual controller by clicking onto the
                                      Vitual Controller register. 8 input bytes and 8 output bytes are
                                      preset for data exchange. You can accept this setting unaltered. The
                                      first two bytes are required at any one time.




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                                  16. Now check the settings for S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the
                                      S7-PLCSIM register. 8 input bytes and 8 output bytes are also
                                      preset in this case and you can accept these settings unaltered also.
                                      The first two bytes are required at any one time.




                                  17. Minimise the EzOPC window.
                                  18. If your PLC program is correct, the indicator light P1 is illuminated if
                                      the station is in the initial position.




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                                  19. If PLC program still contains errors, then the on-line view in STEP 7
                                      will support you ideally during fault finding. Call up the program
                                      module, in which you suspect the fault and activate Monitor in the
                                      Test menu. You can now monitor in parallel with simulation, which
                                      PLC program sections are or are not being executed.




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9.5                               Programming a simple sequence for the Distributing station
Example



Exercise                          A simple sequence is to be programmed for the Distributing station.
                                  The sequence is defined as follows:
                                  1. The swivel drive swivels to the „Succeeding Station“ position, if
                                      workpieces are detected in the magazine and the Start button is
                                      pressed.
                                  2. The ejecting cylinder retracts and ejects a workpiece from the
                                      magazine.
                                  3. The swivel drive moves to the „Magazine“ position.
                                  4. The vacuum is switched on. If the workpiece is reliably picked up, a
                                      vacuum switch switches.
                                  5. The ejecting cylinder extends and releases a workpiece.
                                  6. The swivel drive moves to the „Succeeding Station“ position.
                                  7. The vacuum is switched off.
                                  8. The swivel arm moves to the „Magazine“ position.



Ancillary conditions              The technical documentation for the station is to be used, such as
                                  circuit diagrams and the symbols table. You will find these in CIROS®
                                  Mechatronics Assistant.



Your task                            Represent the control task in function chart according to
                                     DIN EN 60848.
                                     Program the control task in sequential function chart.
                                     Test the PLC program with the simulated process model.




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                                  Implementation using the programming system STEP 7 and the Soft
                                  PLC S7-PLCSIM

                                  1. Start CIROS® Mechatronics .
                                  2. Load the Distributing process model. The process model is to be
                                     controlled via an external PLC. The prerequisite for this is that
                                     OPC Server is displayed in the Type column of the Switch external
                                     PLC <-> internal PLC window. If this is not the case, then double click
                                     onto this line.




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                                  3. Refer to the technical documentation to find out which process
                                     components are used and what the designations of the components
                                     are in the circuit diagram.
                                     Open the on-line help to do so and activate Help on Workcell in the
                                     Help menu.
                                     You will find the required information in the chapter „Technical
                                     Documentation“.
                                  4. Formulate the control task in function chart.




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                                      Function chart to DIN EN 60848 (IEC 60848)
Result


                                                1
                                              Start


                                                      Station in initial position and
                                                      part in magazine and Start button
                                                2
                                            Swivel arm     Swivel arm to
                                                 to
                                           “Succeeding     “Succeeding Station” position
                                           Station” pos.

                                                      Swivel arm in “Succeeding Station” position

                                                3          Magazine slide forward
                                              Eject
                                            workpiece      (ejecting cylinder to retract)

                                                      Workpiece ejected
                                                4
                                           Swivel arm      Swivel arm to
                                               to
                                           “Magazine”      “Magazine” position
                                            position

                                                      Swivel arm in “Magazine” position

                                                5
                                             Pick up       Vacuum ON
                                            workpiece

                                                           Magazine slide back
                                                           (ejecting cylinder to extend)
                                                      Workpiece picked up and
                                                      magazine slide back
                                                6
                                            Swivel arm     Swivel arm to
                                                 to
                                           “Succeeding     “Succeeding Station” position
                                           Station” pos.

                                                      Swivel arm in “Succeeding Station” position

                                                7
                                             Deposit       Vacuum OFF
                                            workpiece


                                                      Workpiece not picked up
                                                8
                                           Swivel arm      Swivel arm to
                                               to
                                           “Magazine”      “Magazine” position
                                            position

                                                      Swivel arm in “Magazine” position


Function chart for the control task




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                                  5. Create the symbols table for the control task.
                                     Take the required inputs/outputs from the general symbols table for
                                     the Distributing station. You will find the symbols table on the on-
                                     line help for the work cell.



Result                             Symbol        Address        Data       Comment
                                                                type

                                   1B2           I 0.1          BOOL       Ejecting cylinder extended

                                   1B1           I 0.2          BOOL       Ejecting cylinder retracted

                                   2B1           I 0.3          BOOL       Workpiece picked up

                                   3B1           I 0.4          BOOL       Swivel drive in magazine
                                                                           position

                                   3B2           I 0.5          BOOL       Swivel drive in succeeding
                                                                           station position

                                   B4            I 0.6          BOOL       Magazine empty

                                   S1            I 1.0          BOOL       Start button

                                   1M1           O 0.0          BOOL       Ejecting cylinder to retract
                                                                           (magazine slide advanced)

                                   2M1           O 0.1          BOOL       Switch on vacuum

                                   2M2           O 0.2          BOOL       Switch off vacuum

                                   3M1           O 0.3          BOOL       Swivel cylinder to magazine
                                                                           position

                                   3M2           O 0.4          BOOL       Swivel cylinder to
                                                                           succeeding station position




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                                  6. Start STEP 7, i.e. the SIMATIC Manager respectively.
                                  7. Create a project for the control task.
                                  8. Create the PLC program and store it.




                                  9. Open S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto Simulate Modules under Options
                                      in the SIMATIC MANAGER.
                                  10. Delete the contents of the virtual CPU of S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto
                                      the MRES button in the CPU 300/400 window.




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                                  11. Load the PLC program to S7-PLCSIM. To do so, mark the Modules
                                      folder and then activate Load in the Target System menu.
                                  12. Start S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the box next to RUN in the
                                      CPU 300/400 window.
                                  13. Start the simulation of the process model by clicking onto Start in
                                      the Simulation menu.



Note                              With the starting of the process model simulation, the communication
                                  program EzOPC is also started. If EzOPC is started, both communication
                                  users - S7-PLCSIM and the simulation of the process model ‟ must
                                  already be active. Only then will the communication links be correctly
                                  set up.




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                                  14. Carry out the settings in EzOPC.
                                      Click onto the EzOPC button in the Start bar to open the EzOPC
                                      window.
                                      The communication links are displayed in the Overview register. You
                                      can change the communication link by clicking onto the appropriate
                                      button. The following communication links must be available for
                                      your task: process simulation in CIROS must be connected to the
                                      S7-PLCSIM controller via the virtual controller.




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                                  15. Now check the settings for the virtual controller by clicking onto the
                                      Virtual Controller register. 8 input bytes and 8 out bytes are preset
                                      for data exchange. You can accept this setting without alteration.
                                      The first two bytes are required at any one time.




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                                  16. Now check the settings for S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the
                                      S7-PLCSIM register. 8 input bytes and 8 output bytes are also
                                      preset for data exchange in this case. You can accept these settings
                                      unaltered. The first two bytes are required in any one case.




                                  17. Minimise the EzOPC window.
                                  18. If your program is correct, you can start the sequence once you have
                                      inserted a workpiece by clicking onto the Start button.




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                                  19. If the PLC program still contains errors, the on-line view in STEP 7
                                      will support you ideally with fault finding. Call up the program
                                      module, where you suspect an error. Activate the command Monitor
                                      the Test menu. You can now monitor, in parallel with the process
                                      simulation, which PLC programs are or are not being executed.




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    a simulated system



                        CIROS® Mechatronics supports you in numerous ways during
                        systematic fault finding on a simulated system.
                        The systematic procedure, the working aids and diagnostic systems
                        used for this and the know-how you acquire, can be applied to any
                        system.

                        Load a process model in CIROS® Mechatronics . A fault has been
                        previously set on this process model. You can now control and monitor
                        the process model as it is being simulated. Analyse the fault behaviour
                        and determine the cause of the fault. When you have found the cause,
                        eliminate the fault by entering the cause of the fault in the window
                        provided. If you have identified the cause of the fault, then the process
                        model will operate correctly during the next simulation run.



Prerequisite               The selected process model is loaded and a fault set in the process
                           model by an authorised person.
                           The fault simulation mode is active.
                           The selected process model is controlled via the internal PLC. A
                           correct PLC program is available for this in the form of a sample
                           program. The sample program is automatically downloaded to the
                           internal PLC by opening the reference model.



10.1                    You can impart these training aims with the use of CIROS®
Training aims           Mechatronics :




Main training aim          Systematically repairing a system after a fault has occurred.



General training aims      To familiarise students with and apply a general procedure for
                           systematic repair work in the event of a fault.
                           To acquire information regarding the mode of operation of a system
                           and system components from technical documentation.




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                                        To determine the actual status of a system after a fault has
                                        occurred.
                                        To carry out systematic fault finding on PLC controlled
                                        electropneumatic systems.
                                        To become familiarised with and apply a strategy for fault finding on
                                        PLC controlled electropneumatic systems.
                                        To carry out a fault analysis.
                                        To know the typical causes of faults.
                                        To document faults.
                                        To make targeted use of diagnostic systems.
                                        To familiarise students with the working aids for fault finding.



10.2                                The basic prerequisite for systematic fault finding and corrective
Methods                             procedures is to understand the system. Only if you understand the
                                    system, its structure and function can you carry out corrective
                                    procedures.

                                    Eliminating faults by means of systematic corrective procedures.

                                    The following methods have proved successful with systematic fault
                                    finding and corrective procedures:
                                        Familiarisation with the system
                                        Systematic repair work after a fault has occurred
                                        Systematic determination of the actual status of the system
                                        Systematic fault finding in general
                                        Systematic fault finding for PLC controlled systems



Method: Familiarisation             Familiarise yourself with the system by:
with the system                        Investigating the system.
                                       Analysing the system documentation.
                                       Understanding the product and the processing technology.
                                       Conducting informative discussions with system operators.




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Method: Systematic                  In the event of an inadvertent interruption of the process, corrective
corrective procedures after         procedures are to be carried out according to the following schematic
a fault has occurred                representation:



                                     REQUIRED          Fault                   Fault                 Fault
                                     status            diagnosis               finding               located


                                                                                         No              Yes


                                      Com-
                                      parison                                                      Corrective
                                                                                                   procedures




                                      ACTUAL
                                      status
                                                                                                   Recom-
                                                                                                   missioning




                                                                                                   Production
                                                                                                   system




Systematic corrective procedures



                                    In the event of a fault signal, the actual status of the system is to be
                                    established first.
                                    Once the actual status has been determined and compared with the
                                    required status, the actual fault finding starts. The source of a fault is
                                    often found during this comparison if the fault
                                        is visible (e.g. mechanical damage on a signal generator)
                                        is audible (e.g. leakage on a valve)
                                        is detectable by suspicious odours (e.g. scorching of a cable).




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                                    If this is not the case, the fault can be found and eliminated by means of
                                    systematic fault finding.

                                    Once a fault is found, it is not enough to merely correct it. It is also
                                    necessary to establish the cause of the fault. A list of faults is is helpful
                                    for this and this should be stored in the system. This list describes all
                                    the faults and their causes.

                                    With the help of a fault list, it is possible to determine whether damage
                                    or faults occur regularly. In this way, it is possible to identify weak areas
                                    in the system. Once these are established, it is advisable to technically
                                    improve the system.




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Method: Systematically              First, the actual system status must be determined in the event of an
determining the actual              error message. Several options are available for this:
system status



 Establishing the actual status

 Step 1        Determining the fault             ‟ No start
               behaviour of the system           ‟ Standstill during process step
                                                 ‟ Faulty process sequence
                                                 ‟ Work result wrong

 Step 2        Establishing the actual status    ‟ Status displays (LED) on the system components:
               of the system                             ‟ Current mode of operation
                                                         ‟ Ready status
                                                         ‟ Signal status of signal generators
                                                         ‟ Switching status of control elements
                                                         ‟ Switching status of PLC input/outputs
                                                 ‟ Visible damage
                                                 ‟ Audible damage
                                                 ‟ Damage detectable by odour/smell
                                                 ‟ Screen:
                                                         ‟ Error message, diagnostic message
                                                         ‟ Status information
                                                         ‟ Machine status display




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Method: Systematic fault               The basis for systematic fault finding is again the desired/actual value
finding in general                     comparison.


                                                                 Determining of
                                                                 ACTUAL status

                                                                 Comparison with
                                                                 REQUIRED status




                                                                 Establishing possible
                                                                 error sources
                                                                 a
                                                                 ‟ Mechanical faults
                                                                 ‟ Pneumatic faults
                                                                 ‟ Hydraulic faults
                                                                 ‟ Electrical faults




                                                                 Investigating possible
                                                                 sources of faults by means
                                                                 of testing or measurement
                                                                 protocols




                                        NO
                                        (fault not found)
                                                                           Result



                                                                                  YES
                                                                                  (fault found)


                                                                 Elimination of fault
                                                                 and recommissioning




Overview of systematic fault finding




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Method: Systematic fault            Every controller functions on the principle of signal input, signal
finding for PLC controlled          processing and signal output.
systems                             Systematic fault finding for PLC controlled systems is based on this
                                    structure.

                                    A desired/actual value comparison enables you to narrow down the
                                    area of the fault within the process sequence. Investigate possible
                                    causes of faults by checking the components in the direction of the
                                    signal and energy flow, starting from the fault location.




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 Structure                              Working aids          Possible error sources

 Fault has occurred in the system

 Establishing the actual status

 Comparison of actual status with
 desired status

 Checking the electrical energy         Voltage tester        ‟ Voltage supply switched off
 supply                                                       ‟ Voltage supply to high or too low

 Checking of sensor                     Voltage tester        ‟ Sensor incorrectly adjusted
                                        LED                   ‟ Sensor mechanically displaced
                                                              ‟ Sensor faulty

 Monitoring of PLC input                LED                   ‟ PLC input module faulty
                                                              ‟ Cable break between sensor and PLC
                                                              input

 Checking of PLC                        LED                   ‟ PLC faulty
                                        Programming and       ‟ No voltage applied
                                        testing unit

 Checking of PLC output                 LED                   ‟ PLC output module faulty

 Checking of control elements           Voltage tester        ‟ Control element mechanically faulty
                                        LED                   ‟ Control element electrically faulty
                                        Manual override       ‟ Cable break between PLC output and
                                                              control element

 Checking of drive                      Visual inspection     ‟ Connections mixed up
                                                              ‟ Loss of electrical connection

 Checking of pneumatic or               Pressure gauge        ‟ Energy supply not switched on
 hydraulic energy supply                                      ‟ Leakage in network


Systematic fault finding of PLC controlled systems




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10.3                                CIROS® Mechatronics supports you with the following during the
This is how CIROS®                  monitoring and analysis of the actual system status:
Mechatronics supports                  Simulation of the process model and execution of the PLC program
you                                    via internal PLC.
                                       Window for PLC inputs/outputs: Display of PLC input/outputs.
                                       Window for manual operation: Display of process activities and
                                       process statuses.
                                       Window for fault localisation: Input and elimination the cause of the
                                       fault.
                                       CIROS® Assistant: Provides information on-line regarding the
                                       process model, such as circuit diagram or function chart.



10.4                                Finding and eliminating faults in the Distributing station
Example



Exercise                            A fault has occurred in the course of the sequence of the Distributing
                                    station. Eliminate the fault by means of systematic corrective
                                    procedures.




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Implementation                      1. Load the Distributing process model with the set fault. The process
                                       model is controlled via the internal PLC.




                                    2. Ensure that the Fault Simulation mode is active.
                                    3. Put the process model into the initial position by clicking onto Reset
                                       Workcellin the Simulation menu.
                                    4. Now start the simulation of the process model. To do so, click onto
                                       Start in the Simulation menu.
                                    5. Operate the process using the pushbuttons and switches of the
                                       control console.




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                                    6. A fault has occurred during execution, which stops the process.




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                                    7. Refer to the technical documentation to establish the correct
                                       process execution. Open the on-line help for the process model by
                                       clicking onto Help on Workcell in the Help menu.
                                       You will find the required information in the chapters „The
                                       Distributing Station“ and „Technical Documentation“.




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                                    8. Determine the actual status of the process and compare it with the
                                       required status, thereby narrowing down the area of the fault
                                       location within the process.



Result                              The fault is a stoppage during the process sequence. The process step
                                    „Move swivel arm to magazine position“ is not executed. Possible
                                    causes of the fault are: The swivel cylinder and its valve actuation or
                                    possibly also the sensors, which should trigger the movement of the
                                    swivel cylinder.



                                    9. We recommend that you check the energy flow, starting from the
                                        sensors through to the swivel cylinder. It is of course possible to
                                        proceed in reverse and to check the signal and energy flow from the
                                        swivel cylinder to the valve via the PLC to the sensor.
                                    10. Find out which sensor signals need to be applied in order for the
                                        swivel arm to move to the magazine position. Use the function chart
                                        and allocation list from the on-line help for the Distributing work
                                        cell.



Result                              If the reed switch 1B1 and the end position switch 3B2 are actuated, the
                                    swivel arm should move to the magazine position.




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                                    11. Check the switching status of the reed switch 1B1 and the end
                                        position switch 3B2.
                                        Two options are possible.
                                        Evaluate the LED in the process model. The designation of the
                                        respective component is displayed as soon as you click onto the
                                        LED.
                                        Or check the signal status of the sensors in the Manual Operation
                                        window by clicking onto Manual Operation in the Modeling window.




Result                              The LED of the reed switch 1B1 is illuminated and the sensor therefore
                                    switches.




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                                    12. Check the PLC input 1B1 connected to the sensor by opening the
                                        PLC Inputs window. To do so, open the PLC inputs window if this is
                                        not displayed.
                                        Click onto Inputs/Outputs in the View menu and select Show
                                        Inputs.
                                        The Inputs window is displayed.




Result                              A 0-signal is applied at the PLC input STATION_1B1, even though the
                                    sensor 1B1 switches.
                                    You therefore suspect that the cause of the fault is a cable break at the
                                    PLC input 1B1.




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                                    13. Open the Fault Localisation window to eliminate the fault.
                                        Click onto Fault Localisation under Fault Simulation in the Extras
                                        menu to do so.
                                        Then double click onto No fault on the line PLC input 1B2.
                                        Select Cable Break in the list of options.




Result                              The simulation of the process model is continued correctly. The cause of
                                    the fault has been correctly identified and eliminated.




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