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					From Bologna
  to Bergen:
What is going on in the European
   Higher Education Area?


            Ayhan Bilsel
    Dean, Faculty of Arts and Sciences
     Eastern Mediterranean University

                May 2004
Number of students in HEIs
         (2000)
   France                            2,161,000
   Germany                           2,055,000
   UK                                1,931,000
   Italy                             1,792,000
   Poland                            1,578,000
   Spain                             1,540,000
   Netherlands                         471,000
   Greece                              388,000
   Belgium                             352,000
   Sweden                              347,000
   USA                              14,500,000
                 Source: UNESCO-CEPES
Limitations of the number of places available in HEIs
                      2000-01




 Source: Eurydice
                   Fees (2000–01)




Source: Eurydice
Proportion of people aged 30–34 with
   university qualifications (2000)




Source: Eurostat.Labour force survey
Women per 100 man graduating from
           HEIs (2000)




  Source: Eurostat, UOE
         European ambitions
by 2010:
 Most competitive knowledge-based
  economy in the world
 sustainable economic growth

 better jobs

 greater social cohesion


(Lisbon: March 2000, EU Heads of State and Government)
          European ambitions

   European education and teaching
    systems should become a world quality
    reference.



    (Barcelona: March 2002)
“Reforms are needed
because
 European Higher Education is lagging
 behind. Compared to the United States,
 Europe is lagging behind in public and
 private investment in higher education. It
 is also lagging behind in the number and
 level of incoming students from other
 continents.”
                                 Viviane Reding
 European Commissioner for Education and Culture
                                     29 May 2003
       SCI papers (2002)
Rank     Country      Number
1        USA          247,182
2        Japan         71,829
3        UK            67,400
4        Germany       64,215
5        France        45,887
6        China         38,547
7        Canada        32,459
8        Italy         32,369
9        Russia        25,279
10       Spain         23,727
11       Australia     21,030
12       India         18,750
              Milestones

   Lisbon Convention            April 1997
   Sorbonne Declaration         May 1998
   Bologna Declaration          June 1999
   Salamanca Convention         March 2001
   Prague Communiqué            May 2001
   Graz Declaration             July 2003
   Berlin Communiqué      Sept. 2003
   Bergen                       May 2005
          Lisbon Convention
                  April 1997
   Jointly drafted by Council of Europe and
    UNESCO.
   Aims to facilitate the recognition of
    qualifications concerning HE in the
    European region
   Status as of March 2003: 41 signatures
             Cyprus signed on 25. 3. 1998
             Turkey (not yet)
        Sorbonne Declaration
                   May 1998
   Signed by Ministers of Education of
    France, Italy, UK, Germany.
   Harmonisation of the architecture of the
    European HE system.
   Europe of knowledge – strengthen
    intellectual, cultural and technical
    dimensions of Europe.
   Mobility and cooperation must be
    enhanced.
       Sorbonne Declaration
   A system of two main cycles:
    undergraduate and graduate.
   Use of credits (such as ECTS) and
    semesters.
   Diversity of programmes, multidisciplinary
    studies, proficiency on languages
         Bologna Declaration
                  June 1999
Signed by 29 Ministers of Education:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Rep., Denmark,
  Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
  Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
  Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands,
  Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak
  Rep., Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK
         Bologna Declaration
                June 1999

   Key document which marks a turning point
    in the development of European HE.
   Reflects a search for a common European
    answer to common European problems.
The Bologna Declaration…
 … commits their governments to
reforming their university systems to
create a so-called EUROPEAN HIGHER
EDUCATION AREA by 2010.

The action plan to achieve this goal is
known as the BOLOGNA PROCESS.
       Bologna Declaration

1. Adoption of a system of easily readable
   and comparable degrees

2. Adoption of a system essentially based
   on two cycles

3. Establishment of a system of credits
   (such as ECTS)
    Bologna Declaration

4. Promotion of mobility

5. Promotion of European co-operation in
   quality assurance

6. Promotion of the European dimension
   in higher education
      Salamanca Convention
               March 2001

>300 European HE institutions gathered with
 the objective of formulating views on the
 Bologna Process and prepare input to the
 Prague meeting of the ministers.
The convention expressed determination to
 build a EHEA and discussed 6 themes:
        Salamanca Convention
1.   Freedom with responsibility
     Universities need autonomy and want to
     be held accountable.
2.   Employability
     Universities should prepare students to
     cope with the European labour market.
     Universities should contribute to
     transparency and recognition of
     qualifications by specifying the learning
     outcomes.
        Salamanca Convention
3.   Mobility
     A central value, requiring implementation
     of recognition instruments, e.g. ECTS,
     Lisbon Convention, Diploma
     Supplement, etc.
4.   Compatibility
     A common, but flexible qualifications
     framework. ECTS should be used by
     universities not only for credit transfer but
     also for credit accumulation.
        Salamanca Convention

5.   QA and accreditation
     Need for a European platform to
     disseminate good practice. The role of
     ENQA should be considered.
6.   Competitiveness
     Competition promotes quality.
     Competitiveness and cooperation is not
     mutually exclusive.
        Prague Communiqué
                  May 2001


The ministers (now 33 with newcomers
 Turkey, Cyprus, Croatia, Liechtenstein) :

   Reaffirmed their commitment to the
    objectives of the Bologna Declaration
        Prague Communiqué

7. Promoting the attractiveness of the
    European Higher Education Area
    (EHEA)

8. The involvement of HE institutions    and
   students as active partners

9. Lifelong learning
    From Prague 2001 to Berlin
              2003
   Awareness of the importance of the BP
    dramatically increased.
   “Bologna” has became a new European
    higher education brand.
   BP developed from an intergovernmental
    action to a broad process encompassing
    international organisations, HE institutions,
    students, etc.
    From Prague 2001 to Berlin
              2003
   Principal contributors:
    •   EU Commission
    •   Council of Europe
    •   EUA (European University Association)
    •   EURASHE (European Association of
        Institutions in Higher Education)
    •   ESIB (National Unions of Students in Europe).
    From Prague 2001 to Berlin
              2003
   The Bologna Follow-up Group (BFUG)
    •   Composed of representatives of “Bologna
        Club” + EU Commission.
    •   10 official seminars between March 2002 and
        June 2003.
               BFUG Seminars
Place/Date     Topic                Main organiser
Amsterdam      QA and Accreditation CHEPS
March 2002
Lisbon         Recognition Issues   Council of Europe
April 2002
Stockholm      Development of       Ministry of Education,
May 2002       Joint Degrees        Sweden
Zürich         ECTS                 EUA
October 2002                        Swiss Confederation
                BFUG Seminars

Athens          Social Dimensions of     Ministry of Education
February 2003   HE                       Greece
Helsinki        Master-level Degrees     Ministry of Education
March 2003                               Finland
Copenhagen      Qualification Structures Ministry of Education
March 2003                               Denmark
Mantova         Integrated               Ministry of Education
April 2003      Programmes               Italy
            BFUG Seminars

Prague      Lifelong Learning        Ministry of Education
June 2003                            Czech Rep.
Oslo        Student Participation in Ministry of Education
June 2003   Governance in HE         Norway
           Berlin Communiqué
                 September 2003

1.   QUALITY ASSURANCE
     By 2005 national quality systems should
     include:
    a definition of the responsibilities of the bodies
     and institutions involved.
    evaluation of programmes or institutions,
     external review, participation of students, and
     publication of results
           Berlin Communiqué
    A system of accreditation, certification or
     comparable procedures.
    International participation, co-operation and
     networking.

2.   DEGREE STRUCTURE
     Adoption of system essentially based on two
     main cycles.

3.   PROMOTION OF MOBILITY
           Berlin Communiqué
4.   ECTS
    Goal: ECTS becomes not only a transfer but
     also an accumulation system.

5.   RECOGNITION OF DEGREES
    Lisbon Convention should be ratified by all
     countries participating in BP
    Every student graduating as from 2005 should
     receive the Diploma Supplement automatically.
          Berlin Communiqué
6.   STUDENTS
     Students are full partners in HE governance.

7.   PROMOTION OF EUROPEAN DIMENSION IN HE

8.   PROMOTION OF THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF EHEA
     Scholarships programmes for students from
     third countries.

9.   LIFELONG LEARNING
          Berlin Communiqué

10. EHEA and EUROPEAN RESEARCH AREA
   Importance of research and research training
    emphasised
   Doctoral level as the third cycle in the Bologna
    Process
   Increased mobility at doctoral and postdoctoral
    levels
       Berlin Communiqué
New members:
     “Countries party to the European Cultural
     Convention shall be eligible for
     membership of the EHEA provided that they
 at the same time declare their willingness to
 pursue and implement the objectives of the BP
 in their own systems of     HE.“
       Berlin Communiqué
New members accepted:
 Albania, Andorra, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Holy
 See, Macedonia, Russia, Serbia and
 Montenegro.


Total number of Bologna Club members: 40
                 Graz Declaration
                           July 2003

   Formal position of EAU.
   It sets out how universities see their role in the future, and
   what universities need to do to ensure that they remain
    central to the development of European society by
     • maintaining universities as a public responsibility
     • consolidating research as an integral part of HE
     • improving academic quality
     • furthering mobility and the social dimension
     • pushing forward the Bologna Process
       Networking and pilot projects
1. Tuning Educational Structures in
  Europe
Coordinated by Universities of Deusto and Groningen
  (Summer 2000). Main aim of Phase I was:

To design a methodology and identify points of reference
  for generic and subject-specific competences of 1st and
  2nd cycle graduates. (7 subject areas: business,
  chemistry, educational sciences, geology, history,
  mathematics and physics).

In the context of the BP, descriptions of competences
   provide a common language for describing what
   curricula are aiming at.
Networking and pilot projects

2. Joint Masters’ Project
   Launched by EUA in September 2002 (& sponsored
    through SOCRATES).
   Based on partnership among at least 3 universities from
    3 different countries.
   11 programmes involving 73 universities were selected.
3. Quality Culture Project
4. Joint Quality Initiative
Networking and pilot projects

5. European Network for Quality
  Assurance (ENQA)
   A network to disseminate information, experiences, good
    practices, and new developments in quality assessment
    and quality assurance in HE.
   An important step towards a pan-European framework of
    quality management.
   Originates from the European Pilot project for Evaluating
    Quality in HE. (September 1998, EC recommendation)
   Has been very active and important to BP.
Networking and pilot projects – ENQA


   Future role of ENQA in the European QA landscape?

    1. Mutually supportive voluntary membership body of
    independent European QA agencies, heterogeneous in
    nature, providing professional services to its members
    (i.e. continue the original role); OR

    2.   A more active policy-based role.

    Feedback from members: BOTH.
Networking and pilot projects

6. European Consortium for Accreditation
  (ECA)
   Representatives from 13 accreditation organisations from
    13 countries (A, B nl, D, IRL, NO, E, CH, NL) + Joint Quality
    Initiative + EC (Hague, June 2003).
   Initial aim: Development of a concept of accreditation that
    not only serves the national needs but also the needs of the
    emerging EHEA.
   Ultimate aim: Mutual recognition of accreditation.
   Participants were against imposing accreditation as the sole
    instrument for QA, and stressed that ECA should
    collaborate with ENQA.
Networking and pilot projects

7. Trans-National European Evaluation
  Project (TEEP)
   Supported by Socrates programme.
   Investigates operational implications of quality evaluation
    in 3 pilot disciplines: Physics, History and Veterinary
    Science.
8. European Access Network (EAN)
   Mission: To encourage wider access to HE for those
    under-represented (for the reasons of gender, ethnic
    origin, nationality, age, disability, vocational training, etc.)
Networking and pilot projects
9. ENIC / NARIC
ENIC: European Network on National Information Centres on
  Academic Mobility and Recognition
NARIC: Network of National Academic Recognition
  Information.
 They consider the BP the most important reform of HE in
  Europe, and aim to build bridges between education
  systems and qualifications.
 They see their further contribution to the EHEA in

   – facilitating recognition of qualifications issued

   – developing co-operation between the recognition and
     QA networks
   – improving recognition of joint degrees
                   Socrates
Aims
   To strengthen the European dimension of education
   To improve knowledge of European languages
   To promote cooperation and mobility
   To encourage innovation in education
   To promote equal opportunities in all sectors of
    education
      Socrates - Actions

Comenius   school education
Erasmus          higher education
Gruntvig         adult education
Lingua     learning European languages
Minerva    information and learning
           technologies in education
Socrates – Participating Countries
Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Greece, Spain, France,
 Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria.
 Portugal, Finland, Sweden, UK, Iceland,
 Liechtenstein, Norway, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary,
 Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Rep., Romania,
 Slovakia, Slovenia, Cyprus, Malta, Turkey (31)

Budget: EUR 1 850 million over seven years
              Erasmus
Students
   Study for 3 – 12 months at a university in
    another participating country
   Erasmus grant

Faculty
   Teacher exchanges
   Joint preparation of courses
   Intensive programmes
   Thematic networks
   Erasmus – National Agencies
The programme is managed by the national
 agencies in each country.

Examples:
 Turkey:     Devlet Planlama Örgütü
 Cyprus:     Ministry of Education
 UK:         University of Kent
 North Cyprus: Why not EMU?   ☺
           Leonardo da Vinci
   Vocational training programme
   It promotes transnational projects in an
    effort to
     – increase mobility

     – foster innovation

     – improve the quality of training
          Leonardo da Vinci
   The Leonardo da Vinci programme aims
    helping people improve their skills
    throughout their lives.
   In 2001, 38,000 people received a grant
    for a work-related stay abroad, and many
    projects were funded.
   Budget: Phase I (1995-99) EUR 793.8 m
             Phase II (2000-06) EUR 1.4 b
    ERASMUS UNIVERSITY
        CHARTER
To participate in the SOCRATES/Erasmus
 programme every university has to apply
 to the EC for an Erasmus University
 Charter (EUC).
Application procedure:
 Submit an on-line application and send
 two signed copies to EC together with a
 European Policy Statement (EPS).
     ERASMUS UNIVERSITY
         CHARTER
A list of approved institutions along with their
  EPS is published as a measure to improve
  transparency, and encourage an
  exchange of good practice and mutual
  understanding.

Application deadline for participation from
  2004-2005 onwards was 1. 11. 2003 
       EUROPEAN POLICY
             STATEMENT EUC.
Central to the application for the
We must address:
1.   What is the current situation of EMU’s
     international co-operation
2.   Given our strengths and weaknesses, what are
     EMU’s priorities; how EPS has been
     developed and how it will be implemented in
     EMU.
3.   How will EMU ensure high quality in both
     student and staff mobility within Erasmus
     cooperation projects.
European Credit Transfer
       System
History
 Pilot phase 1988 – 1995
   business administration,
    chemistry, history, mechanical
    engineering, medicine
 Since 1995: part of Socrates
           ECTS: Objectives
    As a credit transfer and accumulation
    system, the key goals of ECTS are:
   to facilitate widespread mobility
   to improve transparency and comparability
    of study programmes and qualifications
   to facilitate mutual recognition of
    qualifications
           ECTS: key features
   ECTS is based on student workload required to
    achieve the objectives of a programme. These
    objectives are specified in terms of learning
    outcomes.
   Based on the convention that 1 year = 60 credits.
   Bachelor’s degree = 180 – 240 ECTS.
   The Diploma Supplement and ECTS are
    complementary tools for enhancing transparency
    and facilitating recognition.
 ECTS Grading Scale
ECTS    % of successful          Definition
           students
grade
 A            10          Excellent
 B            25          Very Good
 C            30          Good
 D            25          Satisfactory
 E            10          Sufficient
 FX            -          Fail
 F             -          Fail
Situation regarding the introduction of ECTS
                     2003-04




  Source: Eurydice
           Diploma Supplement
Purpose:
 To provide data to improve the international transparency
 and recognition of qualifications.

1. INFORMATION IDENTIFYING THE HOLDER
2. INFORMATION IDENTIFYING THE QUALIFICATION
     Name of qualification and title conferred
     Main field(s) of study
     Name and status of awarding institution
     Language(s) of instruction/examination
             Diploma Supplement
3. INFORMATION ON THE LEVEL OF QUALIFICATION
     Level of qualification
     Official length of programme
     Access requirements
4. INFORMATION ON THE CONTENTS AND RESULTS
     Programme details
     Components, and the individual grades (transcript)
     Grading scheme, and if available, grade distribution
     Overall classification of the qualification
5. THE FUNCTION OF QUALIFICATION
     Access to further study
     Professional status
          Diploma Supplement
6. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
7. CERTIFICATION OF THE SUPPLEMENT
     Date
     Signature
     Capacity
     Official stamp or seal
8. INFORMATION ON THE NATIONAL HE SYSTEM
Status of the Diploma Supplement
              2003-04




Source: Eurydice
      Summary – ACTION LINES
Introduced in the Bologna Declaration:
1. Easily readable and comparable degrees
2. Two cycles system
3. ECTS
4. Mobility
5. European co-operation in QA
6. European dimension in HE
Introduced in the Prague Communiqué:
7. Lifelong learning
8. HEIs and students
9. Attractiveness of the EHA
Introduced in the Berlin Communiqué:
10. Doctoral studies and the synergy between EHEA and ERA
Bologna Club
          European Higher Education Harmonisation Committee
                              (EHEHC)
                                                                      Ayhan Bilsel
                                                                         Chair

                                                      Hasan A. Bıçak
                                                        Vice-chair

 SOCRATES                    ECTS                 LEONARDO                   ALT. FUNDS              EHEA               QA + ACCR.
Michael Walsh              Derek Hearl            Mustafa İlkan             Thomas Svatos        Sefika Mertkal         Mehmet Garip

           Senem Deviren             Mehmet Altinay               Hülya Akbil         Jan Asmussen            Gonca Aslan          N. Islekzade


            W/ Foysinski           S. Rogovchenko                 Pınar Çalay          Erzat Erdil           Nurcan Garip          Bahire Ozad


            Derek Hearl                  H. Yetiner                                   Erol Kaymak             Bahıre Özad          Barruck Opiyo


          C. Saricizmeli                                                                                                               R. Yucesoy
            EHEHC Seminars
26 May 2004

        Leonardo and Youth Programmes
         Mustafa İlkan


        Quality Assurance and Accreditation:
         What, Why, How?
         Mehmet Garip
            EHEHC Seminars
2 June 2004

        The Socrates Programme
         Cemil Sarıçizmeli


        European Credit Transfer System
         Derek Hearl
            EHEHC Seminars
9 June 2004

        EHEA: Objectives and Trends
         Şefika Mertkan

        Achieving Parity with European HE: A
         Paradigm-Shift in EMU’s Funding Principles
         Thomas Svatos

				
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