Expanding the sentence

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					Expanding the sentence


Information in this lesson was drawn from Azar, Understanding and
Using English Grammar, 3rd edition, New York: Longman 2002, and
Deakins, Alice, et al, The Tapestry Grammar, Boston: Heinle &
Heinle, 1994.
           Think about it

 What are the four types of sentences?
 What are the characteristics of each
  type?
 Jot down your ideas in your notebook.
    Basic sentence structure


 A subject, stated only once
 A complete verb phrase
 An independent clause
          Compound sentences

   Two independent clauses
       I.C. + , + FANBOYS word + I.C.
       I.C. + ; + transition word + , + I.C.
             Complex sentences

   A dependent clause + an independent
    clause
       The dependent clause can be a
          Noun clause
          Adverb clause

          Relative clause
        Compound-Complex
           sentences
   Contain a minimum of two independent
    clauses and one dependent clause.
                Expanding the
             independent clause
   You can add information to the
    beginning or end of an independent
    clause. Words or groups of words that
    add information to the entire subject or
    predicate are called sentence
    adverbials.

Deakins, Alice, et al, The Tapestry Grammar, Boston: Heinle & Heinle,
   1994, p. 43
    Types of sentence adverbials 1

   Single words
       Today, more people than ever own cars.
   Noun phrases
       This time, I tried harder and succeeded.
   Prepositional phrases
       In the United States, it’s polite to shake
        hands when you meet someone.
    Types of sentence adverbials 2

   Verbal Phrases (a word or phrase that
    begins with a verb form that does not
    show tense)
       To reduce our expenses, we are cutting
        down on restaurant meals.
   Dependent clauses
       After you finish the project, you’ll take a
        break.

Deakins, Alice, et al, The Tapestry Grammar, Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 1994, pp.
   44-45
        Placement of adverbials


   Adverbials at the end of the sentence
    give information about where, when,
    how, how often, and why something
    happens.
       She ate her lunch at her desk in a hurry so
        that she wouldn’t interrupt her train of
        thought.
             Think about it

   Do you know the correct order for end-
    sentence adverbials?
Order of end-sentence adverbials

1.   Direction (from where/to where)
2.   Position (where? at what place?)
3.   Manner (how?)
4.   Time (when?)
5.   Frequency (how often?)
6.   Purpose (for what purpose?)
7.   Reason (why?)
    Adverbial placement notes 1

   Position and manner may be reversed.
       She ate lunch in a hurry at her desk.
       She ate lunch at her desk in a hurry.
    Adverbial placement notes 2

   If both direction and position are
    present, position must come
    immediately after direction and manner
    follows position
    (direction/position/manner)
       I ran to the bus stop at the corner quickly.
       X I ran to the bus stop quickly at the
        corner.
            Note that in this example, quickly could
             precede the verb: I quickly ran to the bus stop
             at the corner.
    Adverbial placement notes 3

   Time and frequency may be reversed.
       Rob goes swimming at 8:00 every
        morning.
       Rob goes swimming every morning at
        8:00.
    Adverbial placement notes 4

   Shorter adverbials tend to come before
    longer ones.
   An adverbial can occur first for emphasis.
   If there are two adverbials in the same
    category, the more specific adverbial
    precedes the more general one.
       He was born at 3:17 pm on March 27, 1978.
           Model sentences

   Write three model sentences. Each
    sentence should use three adverbials.
    Underline the adverbials and note what
    type they are. Check that you have
    used the correct order.
Adverbials at the beginning of
        the sentence
   Adverbials at the beginning of the
    sentence also give information about
    time, place, manner, frequency,
    purpose, or reason. Adverbials of
    direction are not usually placed at the
    beginning of a sentence. Usually only
    one adverbial comes at the beginning.
    Punctuation of adverbials at
    the beginning of a sentence
   Use a comma after an adverbial at the
    beginning of the sentence if it is three words
    or longer or if it is an adverb clause.
       Whenever I hear that song, I think of him.
   A comma is optional after an adverbial at the
    beginning of the sentence if it is one or two
    words long.
       Today I’m going to get a lot of work done.
           Model sentences

   Rewrite your three models sentences so
    that one of the adverbials comes at the
    front of the sentence. Punctuate
    appropriately.
     Forming and using verbals
   You can expand the independent clause with
    a verbal phrase at the beginning, in the
    middle, or at the end of a sentence.
       Believing that Juliet was dead, Romeo took his
        own life.
       Romeo took his own life, believing that Juliet was
        dead.
       Romeo, believing that Juliet was dead, took his
        own life.
   Verbals that modify the whole sentence are
    one type of adverbial, as we saw before.
    Understanding the meaning
            of verbals
 Verbals are often reduced adverb or
  relative clauses.
 They contain a verbal with –ing or –ed
  form.
 Verbals with –ing come from active
  verbs.
 Verbals with –ed come from passive
  verbs.
    When can adverb clauses be
            reduced?
 Adverb clauses can only be reduced if
  the subject of the adverb clause is the
  same as the subject of the independent
  clause.
 Adverb clauses beginning with when,
  while, before, after, since, and because
  can be reduced.
Reducing adverb clauses with
  after, before, and since
    Adverb clauses of time beginning with
     after, before, and since can be reduced.
     Keep the subordinator. Change the main
     verb to –ing form.
       Since she began her studies, Angela has had
        little time for herself.
       Since beginning her studies, Angela has had
        little time for herself.
Reducing adverb clauses with
                         while
   Adverb clauses of time with while can be
    reduced. These phrases give the idea that
    the events in the verbal phrase are
    happening at the same time as the events in
    the main clause. While can be retained or
    omitted.
       While Harry was watching the movie, he fell
        asleep.
       While watching the movie, Harry fell asleep.
       Watching the movie, Harry fell asleep.
Reducing adverb clauses with
    because and since 1
   Adverb clauses of cause and effect using
    because or since can be reduced. Omit the
    subordinator and the subject. Change the
    verb to –ing form.
       Because he realized the importance of first
        impressions, Kevin got a haircut before his job
        interview.
       Realizing the importance of first impressions,
        Kevin got a haircut before his job interview.
Reducing adverb clauses with
    because and since 2
   If a form of be is present (as in passive voice,
    progressive tenses, or be + adjective), change it to
    being or omit it.
            These examples show be + adjective.
       Because she was unable to complete her tax forms on time,
        Keisha asked for an extension.
       Being unable to complete her tax forms on time, Keisha
        asked for an extension.
       Unable to complete her tax forms on time, Keisha asked for
        an extension.
                  When be is omitted, the reduced clause cannot go at the end of
                   the sentence.
Reducing adverb clauses with
    because and since 3
         These examples show passive voice, be + past participle.
    Because it is known as “The Sunshine State,”
     Florida draws many winter visitors.
    Being known as “The Sunshine State,” Florida
     draws many winter visitors.
              This structure is considered awkward.
    Known as “The Sunshine State,” Florida draws
     many winter visitors.
              When be is omitted, the reduced clause cannot go at the
               end of the sentence.
Reducing adverb clauses with
    because and since 4
   To show the idea that one thing happened before
    another, use having + past participle whether the
    original clause uses present perfect or past perfect.
       Since I have never tasted Burmese food, I am really excited
        about going to the new Burmese restaurant.
       Never having tasted Burmese food, I am really excited about
        going to the new Burmese restaurant.
       Because we had just bought a new car, we didn’t respond to
        our neighbor’s offer.
       Having just bought a new car, we didn’t respond to our
        neighbor’s offer.
Reducing adverb clauses with
                         when
   Adverb clauses with when can be reduced.
    Omit when and change the verb to –ing form.
    Introduce the phrase with upon or on.
       When I received my first paycheck, I treated
        myself to some new clothes.
       Upon receiving my first paycheck, I treated myself
        to some new clothes.
       On receiving my first paycheck, I treated myself to
        some new clothes.
              Punctuating reduced
                adverb clauses
   The patterns for adverb clauses are:
       DC, IC.
       IC DC.
            exceptions: whereas, while (showing contrast), in which case
             the pattern is IC, DC.
   Use a comma after a reduced adverb clause comes at
    the beginning of a sentence.
   Use a comma before and after a reduced adverb
    clause in the middle of the sentence.
   Use a comma before a reduced adverb clause at the
    end of the sentence unless it begins with upon or on.
                 Try it yourself

   Reduce these adverb clauses, if possible:
       Because she has already seen the movie, Heidi
        would rather stay home tonight.
       Linda was stung by a wasp while she was
        gardening.
       When he graduated from college, he began to
        work for IBM.
       After Bob turned in his paper, the professor
        graded it.
                  Model sentences
   Write model sentences in your notebook to
    illustrate each of the following structures:
       reduced adverb clause with after, before, or since
       reduced adverb clause with while
       reduced adverb clause with because or since
            -ing form, being, having + pp
       reduced adverb clause with when
   Next, rewrite the sentences to move the
    reduced clause to the middle or end of the
    sentence when possible.
 When can relative clauses be
         reduced?
 Relative clauses can also be reduced.
  Use commas if the full clause requires
  them.
 Reduced relative clauses should
  immediately follow the noun they
  modify.
        Reduced relative clauses

   If the relative clause contains a form of be,
    omit the relative pronoun and be.
       The woman who is standing over there is Ms.
        Yang.
       The woman standing over there is Ms. Yang.
       The materials which were used in the project were
        inexpensive.
       The materials used in the project were
        inexpensive.
     Reduced relative clauses 2

   If be is the main verb of the clause, the
    reduced clause is called an appositive.
       Fittingly, Thomas Jefferson, who was the
        author of the Declaration of Independence,
        died on the Fourth of July.
       Fittingly, Thomas Jefferson, the author of
        the Declaration of Independence, died on
        the Fourth of July.
     Reduced relative clauses 3
   If the relative clause does not contain a form
    of be, omit the relative pronoun and change
    the verb to –ing.
       Applicants who need a credit check are advised to
        allow sufficient time for the process.
       Applicants needing a credit check are advised to
        allow sufficient time for the process.
       Jalilla, who has never had chicken pox, should get
        the vaccine as soon as possible.
       Jalilla, never having had chicken pox, should get
        the vaccine as soon as possible.
                Try it yourself!

   Reduce these relative clauses.
       The people who are waiting for the bus in
        the rain are getting wet.
       Mr. Gardiner is from a town that is located
        in southern Maryland.
       Riversdale, which was built in the 18th
        century, has had many famous occupants.
       Anyone who exhibits flu-like symptoms
        should consult a physician promptly.
              Model sentences

   Write model sentences in your
    notebook that illustrate reduced relative
    clauses:
       a clause containing a progressive verb
       a clause containing a passive verb
       a clause containing a simple tense verb
                       Summary 1
   Adverbials modify the whole sentence.
   Adverbials can take different forms
          Single words
          Noun phrases
          Prepositional phrases
          Verbal phrases
          Dependent clauses
   Adverbials can occur at the beginning or end
    of a sentence.
   The order of adverbials is important.
   Use a comma to separate an initial adverbial
    from the rest of the sentence if it is long.
                Summary 2
   Adverb and relative clauses may be reduced
    to verbal phrases.
   Adverb clauses can only be reduced if the
    subject of the adverb clause is the same as
    the subject of the independent clause.
   Reduced adverb clauses are a type of
    adverbial. They modify the whole sentence.
    They can come at the beginning, in the
    middle, or at the end of a sentence. Use
    commas.
            Summary 3

 Reduced relative clauses modify a noun.
 They should immediately follow the
  noun they modify.
 If commas are used to separate the
  clause from the rest of the sentence,
  commas should also be used with the
  verbal phrase.

				
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posted:6/28/2011
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