Expanding the sentence Information in this lesson was drawn from Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar, 3rd edition, New York: Longman 2002, and Deakins, Alice, et al, The Tapestry Grammar, Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 1994. Think about it What are the four types of sentences? What are the characteristics of each type? Jot down your ideas in your notebook. Basic sentence structure A subject, stated only once A complete verb phrase An independent clause Compound sentences Two independent clauses I.C. + , + FANBOYS word + I.C. I.C. + ; + transition word + , + I.C. Complex sentences A dependent clause + an independent clause The dependent clause can be a Noun clause Adverb clause Relative clause Compound-Complex sentences Contain a minimum of two independent clauses and one dependent clause. Expanding the independent clause You can add information to the beginning or end of an independent clause. Words or groups of words that add information to the entire subject or predicate are called sentence adverbials. Deakins, Alice, et al, The Tapestry Grammar, Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 1994, p. 43 Types of sentence adverbials 1 Single words Today, more people than ever own cars. Noun phrases This time, I tried harder and succeeded. Prepositional phrases In the United States, it’s polite to shake hands when you meet someone. Types of sentence adverbials 2 Verbal Phrases (a word or phrase that begins with a verb form that does not show tense) To reduce our expenses, we are cutting down on restaurant meals. Dependent clauses After you finish the project, you’ll take a break. Deakins, Alice, et al, The Tapestry Grammar, Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 1994, pp. 44-45 Placement of adverbials Adverbials at the end of the sentence give information about where, when, how, how often, and why something happens. She ate her lunch at her desk in a hurry so that she wouldn’t interrupt her train of thought. Think about it Do you know the correct order for end- sentence adverbials? Order of end-sentence adverbials 1. Direction (from where/to where) 2. Position (where? at what place?) 3. Manner (how?) 4. Time (when?) 5. Frequency (how often?) 6. Purpose (for what purpose?) 7. Reason (why?) Adverbial placement notes 1 Position and manner may be reversed. She ate lunch in a hurry at her desk. She ate lunch at her desk in a hurry. Adverbial placement notes 2 If both direction and position are present, position must come immediately after direction and manner follows position (direction/position/manner) I ran to the bus stop at the corner quickly. X I ran to the bus stop quickly at the corner. Note that in this example, quickly could precede the verb: I quickly ran to the bus stop at the corner. Adverbial placement notes 3 Time and frequency may be reversed. Rob goes swimming at 8:00 every morning. Rob goes swimming every morning at 8:00. Adverbial placement notes 4 Shorter adverbials tend to come before longer ones. An adverbial can occur first for emphasis. If there are two adverbials in the same category, the more specific adverbial precedes the more general one. He was born at 3:17 pm on March 27, 1978. Model sentences Write three model sentences. Each sentence should use three adverbials. Underline the adverbials and note what type they are. Check that you have used the correct order. Adverbials at the beginning of the sentence Adverbials at the beginning of the sentence also give information about time, place, manner, frequency, purpose, or reason. Adverbials of direction are not usually placed at the beginning of a sentence. Usually only one adverbial comes at the beginning. Punctuation of adverbials at the beginning of a sentence Use a comma after an adverbial at the beginning of the sentence if it is three words or longer or if it is an adverb clause. Whenever I hear that song, I think of him. A comma is optional after an adverbial at the beginning of the sentence if it is one or two words long. Today I’m going to get a lot of work done. Model sentences Rewrite your three models sentences so that one of the adverbials comes at the front of the sentence. Punctuate appropriately. Forming and using verbals You can expand the independent clause with a verbal phrase at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a sentence. Believing that Juliet was dead, Romeo took his own life. Romeo took his own life, believing that Juliet was dead. Romeo, believing that Juliet was dead, took his own life. Verbals that modify the whole sentence are one type of adverbial, as we saw before. Understanding the meaning of verbals Verbals are often reduced adverb or relative clauses. They contain a verbal with –ing or –ed form. Verbals with –ing come from active verbs. Verbals with –ed come from passive verbs. When can adverb clauses be reduced? Adverb clauses can only be reduced if the subject of the adverb clause is the same as the subject of the independent clause. Adverb clauses beginning with when, while, before, after, since, and because can be reduced. Reducing adverb clauses with after, before, and since Adverb clauses of time beginning with after, before, and since can be reduced. Keep the subordinator. Change the main verb to –ing form. Since she began her studies, Angela has had little time for herself. Since beginning her studies, Angela has had little time for herself. Reducing adverb clauses with while Adverb clauses of time with while can be reduced. These phrases give the idea that the events in the verbal phrase are happening at the same time as the events in the main clause. While can be retained or omitted. While Harry was watching the movie, he fell asleep. While watching the movie, Harry fell asleep. Watching the movie, Harry fell asleep. Reducing adverb clauses with because and since 1 Adverb clauses of cause and effect using because or since can be reduced. Omit the subordinator and the subject. Change the verb to –ing form. Because he realized the importance of first impressions, Kevin got a haircut before his job interview. Realizing the importance of first impressions, Kevin got a haircut before his job interview. Reducing adverb clauses with because and since 2 If a form of be is present (as in passive voice, progressive tenses, or be + adjective), change it to being or omit it. These examples show be + adjective. Because she was unable to complete her tax forms on time, Keisha asked for an extension. Being unable to complete her tax forms on time, Keisha asked for an extension. Unable to complete her tax forms on time, Keisha asked for an extension. When be is omitted, the reduced clause cannot go at the end of the sentence. Reducing adverb clauses with because and since 3 These examples show passive voice, be + past participle. Because it is known as “The Sunshine State,” Florida draws many winter visitors. Being known as “The Sunshine State,” Florida draws many winter visitors. This structure is considered awkward. Known as “The Sunshine State,” Florida draws many winter visitors. When be is omitted, the reduced clause cannot go at the end of the sentence. Reducing adverb clauses with because and since 4 To show the idea that one thing happened before another, use having + past participle whether the original clause uses present perfect or past perfect. Since I have never tasted Burmese food, I am really excited about going to the new Burmese restaurant. Never having tasted Burmese food, I am really excited about going to the new Burmese restaurant. Because we had just bought a new car, we didn’t respond to our neighbor’s offer. Having just bought a new car, we didn’t respond to our neighbor’s offer. Reducing adverb clauses with when Adverb clauses with when can be reduced. Omit when and change the verb to –ing form. Introduce the phrase with upon or on. When I received my first paycheck, I treated myself to some new clothes. Upon receiving my first paycheck, I treated myself to some new clothes. On receiving my first paycheck, I treated myself to some new clothes. Punctuating reduced adverb clauses The patterns for adverb clauses are: DC, IC. IC DC. exceptions: whereas, while (showing contrast), in which case the pattern is IC, DC. Use a comma after a reduced adverb clause comes at the beginning of a sentence. Use a comma before and after a reduced adverb clause in the middle of the sentence. Use a comma before a reduced adverb clause at the end of the sentence unless it begins with upon or on. Try it yourself Reduce these adverb clauses, if possible: Because she has already seen the movie, Heidi would rather stay home tonight. Linda was stung by a wasp while she was gardening. When he graduated from college, he began to work for IBM. After Bob turned in his paper, the professor graded it. Model sentences Write model sentences in your notebook to illustrate each of the following structures: reduced adverb clause with after, before, or since reduced adverb clause with while reduced adverb clause with because or since -ing form, being, having + pp reduced adverb clause with when Next, rewrite the sentences to move the reduced clause to the middle or end of the sentence when possible. When can relative clauses be reduced? Relative clauses can also be reduced. Use commas if the full clause requires them. Reduced relative clauses should immediately follow the noun they modify. Reduced relative clauses If the relative clause contains a form of be, omit the relative pronoun and be. The woman who is standing over there is Ms. Yang. The woman standing over there is Ms. Yang. The materials which were used in the project were inexpensive. The materials used in the project were inexpensive. Reduced relative clauses 2 If be is the main verb of the clause, the reduced clause is called an appositive. Fittingly, Thomas Jefferson, who was the author of the Declaration of Independence, died on the Fourth of July. Fittingly, Thomas Jefferson, the author of the Declaration of Independence, died on the Fourth of July. Reduced relative clauses 3 If the relative clause does not contain a form of be, omit the relative pronoun and change the verb to –ing. Applicants who need a credit check are advised to allow sufficient time for the process. Applicants needing a credit check are advised to allow sufficient time for the process. Jalilla, who has never had chicken pox, should get the vaccine as soon as possible. Jalilla, never having had chicken pox, should get the vaccine as soon as possible. Try it yourself! Reduce these relative clauses. The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet. Mr. Gardiner is from a town that is located in southern Maryland. Riversdale, which was built in the 18th century, has had many famous occupants. Anyone who exhibits flu-like symptoms should consult a physician promptly. Model sentences Write model sentences in your notebook that illustrate reduced relative clauses: a clause containing a progressive verb a clause containing a passive verb a clause containing a simple tense verb Summary 1 Adverbials modify the whole sentence. Adverbials can take different forms Single words Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Verbal phrases Dependent clauses Adverbials can occur at the beginning or end of a sentence. The order of adverbials is important. Use a comma to separate an initial adverbial from the rest of the sentence if it is long. Summary 2 Adverb and relative clauses may be reduced to verbal phrases. Adverb clauses can only be reduced if the subject of the adverb clause is the same as the subject of the independent clause. Reduced adverb clauses are a type of adverbial. They modify the whole sentence. They can come at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a sentence. Use commas. Summary 3 Reduced relative clauses modify a noun. They should immediately follow the noun they modify. If commas are used to separate the clause from the rest of the sentence, commas should also be used with the verbal phrase.