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					    Chapter 8
―America Secedes from the
         Empire‖
 Second Continental Congress
 Met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775,
  with no real intention of independence,
  merely a desire to continue fighting in the
  hope that the king and Parliament would
  consent to a redress of grievances.
 Meeting occurred after the Battle of
  Lexington and Concord
 Accomplishments of 2nd Congress
1. Adopted measures to raise money and to
   create an army and a navy
2. Selected George Washington as
   commander-in-chief of the Continental
   Army.
   General George Washington
 Forty-three year old
  Virginia planter
 Colonel in the Virginia
  militia
 Fought in the French and
  Indian war at the Battle of
  Fort Duquesne
 Political move by
  Congress since they
  needed Virginia’s support
  for the war                   George Washington in
                                  the uniform of the
                                  Virginia Regiment
                        Fort Ticonderoga
   1775 Attack – In the early morning hours of
    May 10, 1775, Ethan Allen and Benedict
    Arnold advanced upon Fort Ticonderoga.
    They approached the fort that was being
    held by a small British company of about
    twenty men under the command of Captain
    Delaplace.
    They marched on the fort in column, three
    abreast. A sentry on guard at the entrance
    attempted to fire at the intruders, but his gun
    misfired (a common problem even today —
    firing demonstrations held at the fort often
    misfire). The Americans stormed into the fort
    and Ethan Allen demanded surrender. When
    Captain Delaplace asked under whose
    authority, Allen responded, "the Great
    Jehovah and the Continental Congress."
    Delaplace surrendered and Ethan Allen and
    Benedict Arnold had taken the fort without
    firing a shot.
   Gave the Colonists much needed
    ammunition.
               Battle of Bunker Hill
 June 1775
 Fought on Breeds Hill
 Occurred after the Battle of Lexington and Concord when colonial
    militia surrounded the British in Boston
   The Americans worked through the night constructing extensive
    earthworks for their protection at the crest of the hill. On the morning
    of the 17th, the British command in Boston was shocked to see a
    colonial army putting the finishing touches on their fortification. The
    Americans continued their labors until midday despite bombardment
    by British ships below.
   British mounted an attack on the hill
   ―Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes.‖
   In the battle there were 1,054 British casualties, their heaviest toll of
    the war; the Americans suffered 441 casualties, most of them during
    the retreat.
Battle of Bunker Hill




          Here stand the raw American militia in the
          main redoubt at Breed's Hill as they are
          about to fire upon the seemingly endless
          advancing ranks of British regulars.
          Colonel Prescott stands on the works with
          his sword ready to give the famous
          command that would reshape American
          history forever.
Boston From Bunker Hill
                      Hessians
 German soldiers loyal to
  King George III who
  fought for Britain in the
  Revolutionary War. King
  George was from
  Hanover, an area in
  Germany, and called in a
  favor to his homeland,
  asking for soldiers willing
  to fight in the New World.
  The Hessians numbered
  almost 30,000, and they
  fought mostly in the
  Northern Campaign.
 The Abortive Conquest of Canada
 An attempt made by the
  colonists to take Canada
  and make it a 14th state.
 General Richard
  Montgomery pushed up
  the Lake Champlain route
  and captured Montreal.
 General Benedict Arnold
  joined with Montgomery
  in an attempt to also take
  Quebec.
 The attempt failed due in
  large part to cold weather   Benedict Arnold's troops work their way through the Maine
                               wilderness on their way to Canada
                               CREDIT: Adamson, Sydney, artist. "Working Against the Flood
                               on Dead River." Engraving by H. Davidson. The Century
                               Illustrated Monthly Magazine, January 1903. Prints and
                               Photographs Division, Library of Congress.
     Evacuation Day in Boston
 After Americans
  fortified Dorchester
  Heights over Boston,
  the British got in their
  boats and left Boston.
 1500 loyalist left with
  them
 Many colonists
  celebrated thinking
  the war was over.          Boston from the Dorchester Heights
            Common Sense
 Pamphlet written by
  British-born colonist
  Thomas Paine
 Urged Americans to
  forgo redress of
  grievances and go for
  complete separation
  from Britain.
Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution
 On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry
  Lee of Virginia introduced this
  legislation in the Second
  Continental Congress
  proposing independence for the
  American colonies.

 Resolved, That these United
  Colonies are, and of right ought
  to be, free and independent
  States, that they are absolved
  from all allegiance to the British
  Crown, and that all political
  connection between them and
  the State of Great Britain is, and
  ought to be, totally dissolved.
  Declaration of Independence
 In response to Lee’s resolution Second
  Continental Congress hired Thomas
  Jefferson to write a declaration of
  independence.
 He was assisted by John Adams and
  Benjamin Franklin.
                  John Hancock




John Hancock was President of the Second Continental Congress and
of the Congress of the Confederation; first Governor of Massachusetts;
and the first person to sign the United States Declaration of
Independence
       Preamble to Declaration of
            Independence
 When in the course of human events, it becomes
  necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands
  which have connected them with another, and to assume
  among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal
  station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God
  entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind
  requires that they should declare the causes which impel
  them to the separation.
 We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are
  created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator
  with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life,
  liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
                  Loyalists
 Also known as Tories
 About 20% of the American people
 Remained loyal to the King
 Conservative Americans generally were loyalists
 Loyalist were most numerous in the South were
  the Anglican Church prevailed (except Virginia)
 Loyalists were least numerous in New England
  area
                   Patriots
   Also known as Whigs
   Most numerous where Presbyterianism and
    Congregationalism flourished, notably in New
    England
   The Patriots were generally the younger
    generation, like Samuel Adams and Patrick
    Henry.
   ―Give me liberty or give me death‖ – Patrick
    Henry
   The Patriot militias constantly harassed small
    British detachments.
               Battle of Long Island
 After Britain's retreat from Boston
    Washington guessed that they
    would return to New York.
   July and August of 1776, 32,000
    British troops landed at Long
    Island
   Washington had only 20,000
    troops
   Americans were defeated by the
    British and retreated across the
    Delaware River and into
    Pennsylvania.
   British followed the Continental
    Army but did not engage in battle
   Hessians took over and watched
    the decimated Army
 Low Point for the Continental Army
 Washington and his men were at their
 lowest point, lacking shoes, food and
 shelter
              Paine’s Crisis
 THESE are the times that try men's souls. The
  summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in
  this crisis, shrink from the service of their
  country; but he that stands it now, deserves the
  love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny,
  like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have
  this consolation with us, that the harder the
  conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we
  obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: it is
  dearness only that gives every thing its value.
          Battle of Trenton
 On December 26th, Washington's Army
 crossed the Delaware and surprised the
 British at Trenton. The main attack was
 made by 2,400 troops under Washington
 on the Hessian Garrison. Washington's
 troops achieved total surprise and
 defeated the British forces. The American
 victory was the first of the war, and helped
 to restore American morale.
This famous event from the American Revolution was painted by German-born Emanuel Leutze
                 Battle of Trenton




Battle in the Streets of Trenton   The surrender to General George
                                   Washington of the dying Hessian
                                   commander, Colonel Rahl, at the
                                   Battle of Trenton
Britain’s 3-Pronged Plan to take the
          Hudson River Valley
1. General Burgoyne would push down the
   Lake Champlain route from Canada
2. General Howe’s troops in New York, if
   needed, could advance up the Hudson
   and meet Burgoyne in Albany.
3. A third and much smaller British force
   commanded by Colonel Barry St. Ledger
   would come in from the west by way of
   Lake Ontario and the Mohawk Valley.
         General William Howe
   General Howe, at a time
    when he should be starting
    up the Hudson, disobeyed
    orders and deliberately
    embarked on an attack on
    Philadelphia.
   Howe and his troops took
    Philadelphia but left
    Burgoyne to fend for himself.
   In May 1778, Howe was
    replaced as British Army
    Commander in America by
    Lt. General Henry Clinton.
 Treaty of Alliance With France
 France was eager to get back at Britain
  so they supplied the Americans with
  gunpowder and other supplies
  throughout much of the war.
 After Saratoga France believed that an
  American victory was possible so they
  decided to fully get involved.
           Battle of Saratoga
 Burgoyne began his mission with 7000 troops
  and a heavy baggage train consisting of a great
  number of the officers’ wives.
 Burgoyne’s doomed troops were bogged down,
  and the rebels swarmed in with a series of sharp
  engagements.
 Burgoyne surrendered his entire force at
  Saratoga, on October 17, 1777
 Turning Point of the Revolutionary War
        Turing Point of War
 General Burgoyne
 surrenders to
 General Gates
                  Valley Forge
 Of all the places
  associated with the
  American War for
  Independence, perhaps
  none has come to
  symbolize perseverance
  and sacrifice more than
  Valley Forge. The
  hardships of the
  encampment claimed the
  lives of one in ten, nearly
  all from disease.
 General Friedrich Von Steuben
 Despite his claims,
  the genial von
  Steuben was only a
  captain, not a former
  Prussian general; but
  he was a superb
  drillmaster.
 Hired by Washington
  to train the troops at
  Valley Forge

                           Washington and Von Steuben
General Benedict Arnold the Traitor
   Considered a hero at battles in Saratoga, New York
    and Quebec,
   Arnold was constantly persuaded that he was
    neglected and ill treated by Congress.
   He began a secret correspondence with Sir Henry
    Clinton, through Major John Andre.
   Arnold turned traitor by plotting with the British to sell
    out West Point.
   The plan was foiled when Andre was captured. Arnold
    escaped to the British and Andre was hanged as a
    spy. For the remainder of the war Arnold led British
    forces against American colonists, then settled in
    London as an officer.
            War in the South
   Tired of fighting against colonial militia, the
    British moved the fighting to the South in
    hopes of getting Loyalist support.
   Initially the British had success. Georgia was
    ruthlessly overrun in 1778-1779. Charleston,
    South Carolina, fell in 1780.
   In 1781, American riflemen wiped out a British
    detachment at King’s Mountain, and then
    defeated a smaller force at Cowpens.
   Continental Army General Nathaniel Greene
    helped clear the British out of most of Georgia
    and South Carolina.
                    Yorktown
   Retreating to Chesapeake Bay and assuming that the
    British would send more troops and supplies,
    Cornwallis instead fell into a trap. Washington’s army,
    which had come 300 miles from New York,
    Rochambeau’s French army, and the navy of French
    Admiral de Grasse surrounded Cornwallis and his
    men.
   King George wanted to continue the war, since he still
    had 54,000 troops in North America and 32,000 in the
    U.S., and
   Fighting continued for about a year after Yorktown,
    especially in the South, but America had won.
Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown (John Trumbull, 1797). Despite
the painting's title, Cornwallis (claiming illness) was not present and is
not depicted. Washington is on horseback in the right background;
because the British commander was absent, military protocol dictated
that Washington have a subordinate—in this case Benjamin Lincoln—
accept the surrender.
    Maneuvering Before the Treaty
    Benjamin Franklin, John
     Adams and John Jay were
     sent to Paris, with the hopes
     of negotiating a peace
     treaty. The three envoys
     were under instructions not
     to make a separate peace
     with the British. The
     negotiators, fearing French
     interests were not the same
     as those of the Americans,
     decided to open direct talks      Painting by Benjamin West: (from
     with the British, who were              left to right) John Jay,
     eager to entice one of the        John Adams, Benjamin Franklin,
     enemies from the alliance.               Henry Laurens, and
                                     William Temple Franklin. The British
                                                 commissioners
                                     refused to pose, and the picture was
                                                  never finished
          Treaty of Paris of 1783
 Great Britain had to
  acknowledge the United States
  as a free and independent
  country
    North to Canada
    West to the Mississippi River
    South to Florida
 The U.S. also retained fishing
  rights off of Newfoundland.
 Congress promised to
  recommend that loyalist
  property be returned by the
  states
 The Mississippi River was to
  remain open to both the U.S.
  and Great Britain.

				
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