Chapter 8 ―America Secedes from the Empire‖ Second Continental Congress Met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775, with no real intention of independence, merely a desire to continue fighting in the hope that the king and Parliament would consent to a redress of grievances. Meeting occurred after the Battle of Lexington and Concord Accomplishments of 2nd Congress 1. Adopted measures to raise money and to create an army and a navy 2. Selected George Washington as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. General George Washington Forty-three year old Virginia planter Colonel in the Virginia militia Fought in the French and Indian war at the Battle of Fort Duquesne Political move by Congress since they needed Virginia’s support for the war George Washington in the uniform of the Virginia Regiment Fort Ticonderoga 1775 Attack – In the early morning hours of May 10, 1775, Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold advanced upon Fort Ticonderoga. They approached the fort that was being held by a small British company of about twenty men under the command of Captain Delaplace. They marched on the fort in column, three abreast. A sentry on guard at the entrance attempted to fire at the intruders, but his gun misfired (a common problem even today — firing demonstrations held at the fort often misfire). The Americans stormed into the fort and Ethan Allen demanded surrender. When Captain Delaplace asked under whose authority, Allen responded, "the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress." Delaplace surrendered and Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold had taken the fort without firing a shot. Gave the Colonists much needed ammunition. Battle of Bunker Hill June 1775 Fought on Breeds Hill Occurred after the Battle of Lexington and Concord when colonial militia surrounded the British in Boston The Americans worked through the night constructing extensive earthworks for their protection at the crest of the hill. On the morning of the 17th, the British command in Boston was shocked to see a colonial army putting the finishing touches on their fortification. The Americans continued their labors until midday despite bombardment by British ships below. British mounted an attack on the hill ―Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes.‖ In the battle there were 1,054 British casualties, their heaviest toll of the war; the Americans suffered 441 casualties, most of them during the retreat. Battle of Bunker Hill Here stand the raw American militia in the main redoubt at Breed's Hill as they are about to fire upon the seemingly endless advancing ranks of British regulars. Colonel Prescott stands on the works with his sword ready to give the famous command that would reshape American history forever. Boston From Bunker Hill Hessians German soldiers loyal to King George III who fought for Britain in the Revolutionary War. King George was from Hanover, an area in Germany, and called in a favor to his homeland, asking for soldiers willing to fight in the New World. The Hessians numbered almost 30,000, and they fought mostly in the Northern Campaign. The Abortive Conquest of Canada An attempt made by the colonists to take Canada and make it a 14th state. General Richard Montgomery pushed up the Lake Champlain route and captured Montreal. General Benedict Arnold joined with Montgomery in an attempt to also take Quebec. The attempt failed due in large part to cold weather Benedict Arnold's troops work their way through the Maine wilderness on their way to Canada CREDIT: Adamson, Sydney, artist. "Working Against the Flood on Dead River." Engraving by H. Davidson. The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine, January 1903. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Evacuation Day in Boston After Americans fortified Dorchester Heights over Boston, the British got in their boats and left Boston. 1500 loyalist left with them Many colonists celebrated thinking the war was over. Boston from the Dorchester Heights Common Sense Pamphlet written by British-born colonist Thomas Paine Urged Americans to forgo redress of grievances and go for complete separation from Britain. Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia introduced this legislation in the Second Continental Congress proposing independence for the American colonies. Resolved, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. Declaration of Independence In response to Lee’s resolution Second Continental Congress hired Thomas Jefferson to write a declaration of independence. He was assisted by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin. John Hancock John Hancock was President of the Second Continental Congress and of the Congress of the Confederation; first Governor of Massachusetts; and the first person to sign the United States Declaration of Independence Preamble to Declaration of Independence When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Loyalists Also known as Tories About 20% of the American people Remained loyal to the King Conservative Americans generally were loyalists Loyalist were most numerous in the South were the Anglican Church prevailed (except Virginia) Loyalists were least numerous in New England area Patriots Also known as Whigs Most numerous where Presbyterianism and Congregationalism flourished, notably in New England The Patriots were generally the younger generation, like Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry. ―Give me liberty or give me death‖ – Patrick Henry The Patriot militias constantly harassed small British detachments. Battle of Long Island After Britain's retreat from Boston Washington guessed that they would return to New York. July and August of 1776, 32,000 British troops landed at Long Island Washington had only 20,000 troops Americans were defeated by the British and retreated across the Delaware River and into Pennsylvania. British followed the Continental Army but did not engage in battle Hessians took over and watched the decimated Army Low Point for the Continental Army Washington and his men were at their lowest point, lacking shoes, food and shelter Paine’s Crisis THESE are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: it is dearness only that gives every thing its value. Battle of Trenton On December 26th, Washington's Army crossed the Delaware and surprised the British at Trenton. The main attack was made by 2,400 troops under Washington on the Hessian Garrison. Washington's troops achieved total surprise and defeated the British forces. The American victory was the first of the war, and helped to restore American morale. This famous event from the American Revolution was painted by German-born Emanuel Leutze Battle of Trenton Battle in the Streets of Trenton The surrender to General George Washington of the dying Hessian commander, Colonel Rahl, at the Battle of Trenton Britain’s 3-Pronged Plan to take the Hudson River Valley 1. General Burgoyne would push down the Lake Champlain route from Canada 2. General Howe’s troops in New York, if needed, could advance up the Hudson and meet Burgoyne in Albany. 3. A third and much smaller British force commanded by Colonel Barry St. Ledger would come in from the west by way of Lake Ontario and the Mohawk Valley. General William Howe General Howe, at a time when he should be starting up the Hudson, disobeyed orders and deliberately embarked on an attack on Philadelphia. Howe and his troops took Philadelphia but left Burgoyne to fend for himself. In May 1778, Howe was replaced as British Army Commander in America by Lt. General Henry Clinton. Treaty of Alliance With France France was eager to get back at Britain so they supplied the Americans with gunpowder and other supplies throughout much of the war. After Saratoga France believed that an American victory was possible so they decided to fully get involved. Battle of Saratoga Burgoyne began his mission with 7000 troops and a heavy baggage train consisting of a great number of the officers’ wives. Burgoyne’s doomed troops were bogged down, and the rebels swarmed in with a series of sharp engagements. Burgoyne surrendered his entire force at Saratoga, on October 17, 1777 Turning Point of the Revolutionary War Turing Point of War General Burgoyne surrenders to General Gates Valley Forge Of all the places associated with the American War for Independence, perhaps none has come to symbolize perseverance and sacrifice more than Valley Forge. The hardships of the encampment claimed the lives of one in ten, nearly all from disease. General Friedrich Von Steuben Despite his claims, the genial von Steuben was only a captain, not a former Prussian general; but he was a superb drillmaster. Hired by Washington to train the troops at Valley Forge Washington and Von Steuben General Benedict Arnold the Traitor Considered a hero at battles in Saratoga, New York and Quebec, Arnold was constantly persuaded that he was neglected and ill treated by Congress. He began a secret correspondence with Sir Henry Clinton, through Major John Andre. Arnold turned traitor by plotting with the British to sell out West Point. The plan was foiled when Andre was captured. Arnold escaped to the British and Andre was hanged as a spy. For the remainder of the war Arnold led British forces against American colonists, then settled in London as an officer. War in the South Tired of fighting against colonial militia, the British moved the fighting to the South in hopes of getting Loyalist support. Initially the British had success. Georgia was ruthlessly overrun in 1778-1779. Charleston, South Carolina, fell in 1780. In 1781, American riflemen wiped out a British detachment at King’s Mountain, and then defeated a smaller force at Cowpens. Continental Army General Nathaniel Greene helped clear the British out of most of Georgia and South Carolina. Yorktown Retreating to Chesapeake Bay and assuming that the British would send more troops and supplies, Cornwallis instead fell into a trap. Washington’s army, which had come 300 miles from New York, Rochambeau’s French army, and the navy of French Admiral de Grasse surrounded Cornwallis and his men. King George wanted to continue the war, since he still had 54,000 troops in North America and 32,000 in the U.S., and Fighting continued for about a year after Yorktown, especially in the South, but America had won. Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown (John Trumbull, 1797). Despite the painting's title, Cornwallis (claiming illness) was not present and is not depicted. Washington is on horseback in the right background; because the British commander was absent, military protocol dictated that Washington have a subordinate—in this case Benjamin Lincoln— accept the surrender. Maneuvering Before the Treaty Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and John Jay were sent to Paris, with the hopes of negotiating a peace treaty. The three envoys were under instructions not to make a separate peace with the British. The negotiators, fearing French interests were not the same as those of the Americans, decided to open direct talks Painting by Benjamin West: (from with the British, who were left to right) John Jay, eager to entice one of the John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, enemies from the alliance. Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. The British commissioners refused to pose, and the picture was never finished Treaty of Paris of 1783 Great Britain had to acknowledge the United States as a free and independent country North to Canada West to the Mississippi River South to Florida The U.S. also retained fishing rights off of Newfoundland. Congress promised to recommend that loyalist property be returned by the states The Mississippi River was to remain open to both the U.S. and Great Britain.
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