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                                 BLAID PROJECT

                                  Visiting Belgium

                                15-16-17 April 2008

                                    Zeliha KARAMAN

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Area……….. 30.520(square kilometers)
Currency….. 1 euro=100 cent
Languages… Flemish(Dutch),French&German

The Kingdom of Belgium is a country in northwest Europe bordered by France, the
Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg and is one of the founding and core
members of the European Union. Belgium has a population of over ten million
people, in an area of around 30,000 square kilometres.

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Straddling the cultural boundary between Romance and Germanic Europe,Belgium is
linguistically divided. It has two main languages: 60% of its population , mainly in
the region Flanders, speak Dutch, 35-40% of its population speaks French. Less than
1% speak German in the German speaking Community in the east of Wallonia.

At the start of 2004 nearly 92% of the Belgian population were nationalcitizens, and
around 6% were citizens from other European Union member countries. The
prevalent foreign nationals were Italian (183,021),French (114,943), Dutch (100,700),
Moroccan (81,763), Spanish (43,802),Turkish (41,336), and German (35,530).
The climate is maritime temperate, with significant precipitation in all seasons. The
average temperature is lowest in January at 3 °C , and highest in July at 18 °C.

Belgian cultural life is concentrated within each language community, and a variety
of barriers have made a shared cultural sphere less pronounced. There has beensince
the 1970s no bilingual universities except the Royal Military Academy, no common
media, and no single large cultural or scientific organization in which bothmain
communities are represented. Despite its politicaland linguistic divisions that have
been strongly changing during the centuries, the region corresponding to
today'sBelgium has seen the flourishing of major artistic movementsthat have had
tremendous influence on European art and culture.

Belgium is famous for its chocolates, which are appreciated the world over. Its
favourite dish is mussels and chips (French fries) which, according to legend, are a
Belgian invention.

All over the world, people appreciate the great taste of Belgian chocolate.
It's right there and it's calling to you: "Eat me, eat me!" But how do you choose the
very best, in a country that's renowned for its sweets?

A fine place to start is around Brussels' famed Grand-Place, where every third shop
seems to be selling chocolate. Don't drive yourself nuts trying to pinpoint the perfect
vendor. The Belgian government keeps strict control over chocolate production, so

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bad batches are rare. If you're worried, look for the AMBAO label with the white
cocoa bean, which guarantees the freshest, tastiest ingredients--and no vegetable fats
or genetically modified additives.

Among the best known Belgians are Georges Rémi (Hergé), creator of Tintin, writers
Georges Simenon and Hugo Claus, composer and singer Jacques Brel and cyclist
Eddy Merckx. Painters like James Ensor, Paul Delvaux and René Magritte are the
modern-day successors of Rubens and the other Flemish masters of yesteryear.

               Father of the Belgian comic strip: Hergé: Tintin /Kuifje

   Typical Belgian products
   •   Beers
   •   Chocolates
   •   Belgian lace
   •   Belgian tapestries
   •   Comic books: Smurfs, Tintin, Suske & Wiske…
   •   Books: Georges Simenon
   •   Crystal: Val-Saint-Lambert

                   Pierre Culliford: the Smurfs

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   • Historic cities: Brussel, Antwerpen, Leuven, Brugge, Gen,Leuven, Mechelen,
     Lier, Hasselt...

Brussels is the capital city of Belgium.Brussels is more than a 1000 years old.

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Brussels is the headquarters of the French and Flemish Communities. Brussels also
has an important international vocation : as the European capital the city is home to
the European Commission and to the Council of ministers of the European Union.
Brussels is the bilingual capital of Belgium. This means that both French and Dutch
are the official languages of the city. Street names and traffic sings are always in
these two languages. Furthermore, it is a cosmopolitan city where many different
cultures live together and where different languages can be heard on each street. This
liveliness and international flair is, of course, intimately related to its role as a
crossroads for all of Europe.

The same variety and contrast can also be found in the different architectural styles
that can be found in Brussels, the former capital of the medieval Duchy of Brabant.
Gothic cathedrals and churches are next to - and sometimes in stark contrast with -
gracious classical facades like the buildings around the Royal Square (Place Royale -
Koningsplein), or beautiful art nouveau and art deco houses.

The heart of Brussels and the place to start getting to know the city is the Grand'Place
(Grote Markt). This historic market square with its splendid guild houses and the
impressive Gothic beauty of the Town Hall, is widely considered to be one of the
most beautiful town squares.


"One of the most beautiful town squares in Europe, if not in the world", is a phrase
often heard when visitors in Brussels try to describe the
beauty of the central market square.

The heart of Brussels and the place to start getting to
know the city is the Grand'Place (Grote Markt). This
historic market square with its splendid guild houses
and the impressive Gothic beauty of the Town Hall, is
widely considered to be one of the most beautiful town
squares in Europe.

Writers like Victor Hugo and Baudelaire were also
struck by the charm of the market square with its
beautiful set of Guild houses dominated by the Town
hall and the King's house. The origins of the Grand-
Place, however, are humble. The site still formed a
sand-bank between two brooks which ran downhill to the river Senne. Once the sand-
bank was reclaimed it turned into the "Niedermerckt", or 'lower market'. Already in

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the 12th century Brussels had become a commercial crossroads between Bruges (in
Flanders) , Cologne , and France. English wool, French wines and German beer were
sold in the harbour and on the market.

During the early Middle Ages small wooden houses were scattered around the
market, but as from the 14th century the rich and powerful patrician families built
stone mansions. Gradually the market turned into the main commercial and
administrative centre of the city. In 1402 the construction of the town hall started
(which would eventually be completed around 1455). The square had by then already
become the political centre where meetings were held, where executions took place
and where dukes, kings and emperors where officially received. In the following
centuries most wooden houses where replaced with beautifully decorated stone ones,
mostly owned by the Brussels guilds.

On August the 13th 1695, however, the prestigious square was bombed to ruins by
Field Marchal DE VILLEROY. By order of Louis XIV of France he had Brussels
destroyed in reprisal of a lost Battle in Namur (south Belgium).Between 1695 and
1700 the guilds rebuilt all the houses. Also the heavily damaged townhall was
entirely reconstructed.In the 18th and 19th centuries most of the houses became
private property. After attempts of several owners to modernize the facades of their
houses, which would have resulted in a mutilation of the unity of style, the mayor of
Brussels, Karel Buls, decided that the houses of the Grand-Place had to be preserved
as much as possible in their original style. Since that year the owners of the houses
are bound by a servitude.

Nowadays, the Grand-Place is the main tourist attraction of the City of Brussels. All
through the year it is visited by thousands who like to spend some time wandering
around and admiring the beautiful buildings, or sitting down on one of the many
terraces having a good Belgian beer. Concerts and musical happenings are organized
all through the year on the square. The most famous events that take place here are
the annual Ommegang (an historical procession at the beginning of July) and the
biennial flower carpet.

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The fame and beauty of the Market Place do not lie only in the Town Hall and the
King's House, but perhaps first of all in the presence of a remarkably beautiful set of
elaborately decorated guild houses. The name "guild houses" is most commonly used
for the entire set of houses, although in reality they did not all belong to the medieval
guilds. Some of the houses were always privately owned.

During the Middle Ages and later every city in the Low Countries had guilds or
corporations which always had a stake in the city administration. Because they were
very wealthy and politically powerful , their importance had to show in their houses
in which they regularly met to discuss new rules or regulations within their specific
trade or commerce.

In Brussels the guilds built their houses, of course, around the main town square.
After the French bombardment of August 1695, the city ordered the guilds to submit
the restoration plans of the houses before a final approval could be given for the
construction. Because of this wise decision the unity of style could be preserved and
former irregularities could be done away with.
In the Middle Ages no house numbers were given , but names. There were so few
stone houses that most people could locate a house just by its name. On the Grand-
Place the names of the houses are often indicated by a little statue or some part of the
decoration. Here follows a list of the houses with their names and eventual specific
historic details. The list starts at the group of houses on the left side of the Town Hall
and continues clockwise:
(Now a renowned restaurant "La maison du Cygne (house of the swan). Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels stayed here in 1847 during meetings of the Deutsche
Arbeiterverein (the German labourers union) - The STAR (In the Middle Ages this
house was occupied by the Amman, the Duke's representative in the city. Under the
arcade is a statue of Everard 't Serclaes, a medieval Brussels hero. Legend has it that
striking the arm of the statue brings luck.

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At the Market Place, opposite the Town Hall, stands another of the remarkable
historical Buildings of Brussels. The beautiful neo-gothic building with its many
decorative statues is the "Maison du Roi" in French or "Broodhuis" in Dutch. It now
harbours the historical City Museum.

The Dutch name "Broodhuis" (i.e. bread house)
clearly shows what the origins of this building
were. In the beginning of the 13th century a
wooden construction stood here. It was used by
the bakers to sell their bread. In 1405 a stone
building replaced the original wooden bread hall.
When during the early 15th century the bakers
turned to selling their products from house to
house, the ancient bread hall began to be used
more and more for administrative purposes by the
Duke of Brabant, hence the French name "Maison
du Roi". During the reign of emperor Charles V,
the King's House was rebuild in flamboyant
Gothic style from 1515 until 1536. In one of the
rooms of the building the counts of Egmont and
Hoorne spent their last night before their execution
by order of Filip II of Spain on the Grand-Place on
June the 5th 1568.

After the French bombardment of 1695 the building was restored as far as necessary
to keep it from collapsing. In the following centuries it was used for different
purposes (e. g. as "Maison du Peuple - the people's house, after the French
revolutionists had taken over power in the country at the end of the 18th century).

In 1860 the mayor of Brussels, JULES ANSPACH, had convinced the city authorities
to buy the old King's House which was then in a sorry state. The entire building had
to be build up from scratch. The restoration was done in the then fashionable neo-
gothic style. The architect JAMAER was clearly influenced by the early 16th century
town hall of the City of Oudenaarde. On June the 2nd 1887 the King's House became
the City Museum of Brussels On exhibition are original statues of the town hall,
paintings, wall tapestries and different artifacts which have a relation to the history of
the city.

Opening hours:

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Tuesday to Friday : from 10 am till 5 pm
Weekends and holidays : from 10am till 1pm
Closed on Mondays.


In the Boterstraat / Rue au Beurre, close to the Market Place, is one of the oldest
churches of Brussels, the Saint Nicholas Church. The church was named after Saint
Nicholas, the patron saint of the traders, which was not surprising because the trade
center, the market, was just around the corner. The church was built in an
asymmetrical way because in the earlier days an irregular and small brook used to run
through this street.


The entrance to the Saint Nicholas church dates from the second half of the 12th
century. The choir was completed in 1381 and the side-chapel, devoted to the Holy
Virgin, was constructed in 1486. During the religious troubles in the 16th century, the
church was plundered. In 1695, during the bombing of Brussels by the French troops,
it burned completely. In one of the pillars of the Holy Virgin chapel one can still see
a canon ball from that tragic event. During the Middle-Ages the relatively high
church tower served as the city belfry (watchtower), but in 1714 it collapsed, killing 1
man and 1 pig.

In 1868 the relics of the so-called "martyrs of Gorkum" were transferred from
Holland to the Saint-Nicholas church. Since then a shrine containing these relics has
been exposed to the public. These martyrs were catholic priests that had been tortured
and executed on the 9th of July 1572 in the Dutch city of Gorinchem (or Gorkum)
during the religious troubles between Catholics and Protestants in the Low Countries.

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In 1929 a plan was proposed to demolish the church because it hindered the traffic in
the Boterstraat. Fortunately, the plan was never executed. Very remarkably, the old
houses surrounding the church have been preserved until today.

Location: Boterstraat / Rue au Beurre1000 Brussels


This church is to be found at the Treurenberg hill on the edge between lower and
upper town. Already at the beginning of the 11th century a church was situated here.
In 1047 the Duke of Brabant, Lambert II, had the relics of Saint Gudula transferred
from the Saint Gorik church in downtown Brussels to the new church at the
Treurenberg hill. From that moment on the Saint Gudula and Saint Michael church
took the lead over all the other churches in Brussels. Lambert II also gave the church
a chapter of 12 canons (= priests who took care of the services and possessions of the

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Because of its growing importance, the first St. Gudula church originally built in
Romanesque style was transformed in gothic style as from the 13th century. Today,
the foundations of the first church can still be seen under the crypt of the gothic
cathedral.The gothic choir was constructed between 1226 and 1276, nave and
transept in the middle of the 15th century. The western facade, completed between
1450 and 1490, follows the example of the French gothic facades.

Via a large staircase (built in 1861) the three gates of the entrance can be reached.
Inside, 12 pillars clearly determine the interior of the cathedral, whereas the triforia
and glass-stained windows accentuate the later gothic style which allowed more light
to fall in to the church. The choir is darker because of the smaller window openings.
In the northern chapel on the left side of the choir, one can see the portraits of several
kings and emperors who bestowed the richly decorated glass-stained windows: Joao
III of Portugal, Louis of Hungary, François I of France and Ferdinand I. In the choir
the windows of the following rulers can be seen: Maximilian of Austria, Philip the
Beautiful, Charles V, Philip II of Spain, Philibert of Savoy with his wife Margaret of


New York has the Statue of Liberty, Copenhagen has the mermaid and Brussels has
the Manneken Pis. This statue of a little boy in a somewhat compromising position
has since several centuries been a major tourist attraction in the city. When most
people see our 'manneken', the first reaction is always one of amazement: "Look, how
small he is ! Why does everybody want to see him ?" The people of Brussels,
                  however, accept him the way he is. After all, it doesn't always have
                  to be big to be beautiful. Imagine he would be the size of the Statue
                  of Liberty : Brussels would be continuously flooded !

                  Nobody actually knows why the manneken is there. He is believed
                  to be nothing more than a decoration on top of a fountain, where

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people in the Middle-Ages came to get fresh water. Already in the 15th century a
fountain called 'manneken-pis' existed in the Stoofstraat/Rue de l'étuve. The official
origin can be traced back to the 13th of August 1619 when the city ordered the
sculptor Jerome Duquesnoy to make a new bronze statue of manneken-pis to replace
an old and withered one. During the course of the centuries our little manneken has
often been hidden to protect him against bombs of invading armies. He has also been
stolen several times by plundering soldiers and even by the citizens of
Geraardsbergen, a city in Flanders that claims to possess the oldest statue of a peeing
boy in Belgium.

A lot of people do not know that the manneken-pis is very often
dressed. At the moment he has a wardrobe of more than 600
costumes, which are all preserved in the King's House, or City
Museum at the Grand-Place, the central market square of the city. He
received his first costume on May the 1st 1698. The governor of the
Austrian Netherlands gave the costume on the occasion of festivities
organized by one of the guilds of Brussels. Many more costumes
where to follow. Even nowadays he still receives new gear when
folklorist groups visit Brussels. To thank them for the gift, the
manneken offers the people of such groups beer which comes directly from a beer
barrel attached to the statue. Among the more special costumes are for instance : an
Elvis Presley outfit and a Mickey Mouse costume.

                    There are many legends about the Manneken. According to one
                    of them a little boy had watered against the door of a witch who
                    lived where the fountain now stands. The witch was so angry that
                    she turned the little boy into a statue.

                    Another legend says that a man had lost his little son. He found
                    the child after two days near the place where now the fountain of
                    manneken-pis can be seen. When the father spotted his child, the
                    latter was peeing. As a token of gratitude the father had the
                    fountain with a statue of a peeing boy constructed.

                     If the sight of manneken-pis inspires you to new legends, don't
hesitate to contact the city authorities!

Location: On the corner of Stoofstraat/Rue de L'Etuve and the Eikstraat/Rue du
Chêne (At the Grand-Place follow the street on the left side of the town hall)

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This monument from 1958 has become the Eiffel Tower of Brussels. The Atomium is
the visual representation of the concept of an "atom". It symbolizes an elementary
iron crystal with its 9 atoms and magnified 150 billion times. It honored the metal
and iron industry and the belief in the atomic power. The architect was André
WATERKEYN. It took 18 months to conceive and another 18 months to construct.
The monument is coated with aluminum, weighs 2.400 tons and<<Selectie in
document>> is 102 meters high. Each sphere has a diameter of 18 meters. An
elevator takes visitors to the upper sphere where one can enjoy a panoramic view of
the Heysel area and (if the weather is good) the city of Brussels. There is also a good
buffet-restaurant (Chez Adrienne) in the upper sphere. In the other spheres
expositions are organized. They can be visited by means of escalators. In the past
years the monument has been completely restored and renovated and is now as shiny
and beautiful again as in its first years.

Location: Eeuwfeestlaan/ Boulevard du Centenaire 1020 Brussels (Laken)

Opening hours: Sept. to March: 10 a.m. till 5.30 p.m. April to August: 9 a.m. till
7.30 p.m.

Admission: Adults : 5,45 € (Euro) per person, Children (under 12) : 3,97 € (Euro)
Groups (as from 20 persons): 4,46 € (Euro) per adult person, 3,47 € (Euro) per child under 12
Senior citizens : 3,72 € (Euro)

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During the Austrian rule in the 18th century, empress Maria-Theresia preferred not to
have the old palace rebuilt because she didn't want the Austrian governor in Brussels
to feel himself like a king. Only four houses where built on the site where the palace
now stands.

It was William I, king of the reunited Netherlands, who decided in 1815 to rebuild
these houses to turn them into a royal palace. This was finished in 1829. One year
later Belgium became independent and the new king of Belgium, Leopold I, decided
to use the new palace as his residence. It was king Leopold II, who had the original
building turned into the palace like we now know it. This transformation ended in

The palace was used as the residence of the Belgian King until after the death of
Queen Astrid in 1935, when her husband Leopold III, decided to move his residence
to the castle of Laken. His successors also resided in Laken. The royal palace in the
centre is now used as the office of the king and as the residence of the crown prince.
The royal palace harbours a museum called Belle-vue with a collection about the
Belgian royal dynasty.

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Opposite of the royal palace is the 'Palace of
the Nation', or the Belgian Parliament.
During the reconstruction of the royal quarter
in 1777, the town authorities decided to
construct a new building for the Council of
Brabant. This medieval institution was the
supreme court of justice for the dukedom of
Brabant, as well as the official institution that
gave executive power to the laws of the duke.

After the Belgian independence in 1830 it was, of course, the ideal place to house the
Parliament of the new state. The architect was Barnabé GUIMARD, who constructed
this monumental building in harmony with the other classical constructions around
the royal park.

In the 'Hertogstraat/Rue Ducale', on the left side of the royal palace stands the Palace
of Academics. The classical building with its sober decoration was built in 1820 to
become the residence of William-Frederic of Orange, crown prince of the United
                             Kingdom of the Netherlands (i.e.: the period between
                             1815 and 1830 when Belgium and Holland were
                             reunited for a short time). After the Belgian
                             independence the building was offered to crown-prince
                             Leopold II, the future King. Since he never stayed
                             there, the building became the seat of the Royal
                             Academy of Sciences, Literature and Beautiful Arts in

                                THE ROYAL PARK

                               The entire area of the royal park and the royal square is
                               situated on the site where the medieval court of Brabant
                               used to stand. This enormous palace dated from the
                               11th century when the duke of Brabant left his 'castrum'
                               in the centre of the city. A new castle was built on the
                               so-called 'Koudenberg' at the edge where the higher
part of Brussels stops and the lower part begins. The successors of the dukes (e.g.
Filip the Good and Charles V) kept enlarging the palace which turned into one of the
most beautiful and picturesque royal residences in medieval Europe. The entire
complex, however, burnt down in 1731 during the Austrian rule of the Southern
Netherlands. The palace was never reconstructed.

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A part of this royal residence was the 'warande', or the forest and the park of the
palace. In 1775 the Austrian governor decided, together with the City of Brussels, to
construct an new prestigious and modern residential area. The former park was
almost like a forest in the city, with hills and little valleys where game and other
animals lived. The Austrian empress Maria-Theresia agreed to turn the forest into a
new park in classical style for the rich citizens of Brussels to spend their free time in.
The park was leveled, new trees were planted and the roads where traced according to
geometrical plans. The architects were GUIMARD and the Austrian Joachim
ZINNER. Classical statues were placed in the park, some of which had come from
the burned residence. In 1780 a Waux-Hall was built, where music was to be played
and where people could sit down and relax while having a drink or something to eat.
In 1803 a dinner for 1800 people was organized there in honour of Napoleon and his
wife Josephine.
In September 1830 the royal park became the cradle of the Belgian independence.
After an uproar had broken out in the Brussels Opera, the revolutionary army fought
the Dutch army in the royal park in order to break away from the union with Holland
and the Dutch king, William I. The Dutch army had to leave Brussels on September
the 27th, which finally resulted in the creation of a new state, Belgium.


Sablon is one of the most prestigious and attractive areas in Brussels. In recent years
                                                     it has become the center of the
                                                     antiques shops and art galleries.

                                                    The name of this area refers to the
                                                    time when it was still situated
                                                    outside of the city walls of the
                                                    12th century. It was originally a
                                                    sandy road along which people
                                                    had access to the city gates.
                                                    Because of frequent use this road
                                                    had become hollow and on both
                                                    sides a yellowish earth layer could
                                                    be seen. This type of sandy clay
                                                    was called "zavel" in Dutch and
                                                    "sablon" in French. In the 14th
                                                    century a small chapel in the
sablon area was transformed into an important pilgrimage site where a miraculous
statue of Our Lady was venerated. Very soon the area became more populated and
was enclosed within the 14th century city walls. Around 1450 the little chapel had
been transformed into a beautiful gothic church, the Sablon church or church of Our

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Lady of the Victories. In the following centuries more and more noble men settled in
the area because it was close to the duke's palace.
A big change occurred in the second half of the 19th century. The Sablon was divided
into two parts by the construction of the Regentschapstraat/Rue de la Régence.
During this period the church was renovated in neo-gothic style and the houses which
had been attached to it were demolished. On the eastern side of the church a new park
was laid out, called "De kleine zavel/Le petit sablon". This park is still surrounded by
48 little statues representing the medieval guilds of Brussels. In the center is the
statue of the counts of Egmont and Hoorne who were executed at the Market Place by
order of Philip II of Spain in 1568.

Nowadays,                                                                 the Sablon is
visited by lovers of antiques and art because the entire area boasts hundreds of
antiques shops and art galleries. Especially popular is the weekly antiques market
which is held on Saturdays from 9 a.m till 6 p.m. and on Sundays from 9 a.m. till 1
p.m. A lot of people also visit the daily flea market (from 6 a.m. till 1 p.m.) which is
situated at the Vossenplein/Place du Jeu de Balle in the adjacent Marolles area. Not
only famous for its antiques, the Sablon also offers a range of good restaurants and
                          pleasant cafés. A visit to WITTAMER, the most exclusive
                          pastry maker in Brussels, is also a must.

                          THE PALACE OF JUSTICE

                          Although this gigantic edifice does not really belong to the
                          Sablon, it nevertheless dominates the area.

                          It was built between 1860 and 1880 by Joseph POELAERT
                          in eclectic style. It is believed to be the biggest building
                          constructed in the 19th century in the world.
                          The palace of justice is situated on top of a hill, which was
                          called "gallows hill" in the Middle Ages. The dimensions of
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the palace are awesome: it is 105 m high and covers a total surface of 24.000 square
meters. It still functions as the supreme court of law for Belgium.


In 1880 Belgium celebrated the 50th anniversary of its independence. Therefore, king
Leopold II wanted to have a world exhibition organized in Brussels. For its location a
former military exercising ground outside of the center of the city

was chosen, the so-called "Linthout" plains. In this exhibition the world would be
able to see that the new state of Belgium was prospering and able to take its place
between the important nations of Europe. In the second half of the 19th century
Leopold II had acquired the Congolese colony in Africa which supplied him with
considerable financial possibilities. He decided to use a part of his new fortune to
give Brussels the outlook of an important European city. One of his realizations was
this Cinquantenaire park with its imposing monuments.


The most eye-catching monument
is, of course, the triumphal arch.
This arch was built to serve as a
monument to illustrate the
glorious past of Brussels. It also
was to serve as a new entrance
gate to the center for people
entering from the eastern side of
Brussels, via the newly

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constructed Tervurenlaan/Avenue de Tervueren.

The arch was planned for the world exhibition of 1880, but would take a long time to
be finished. In 1880 only the basis of the colons had been constructed. During the
exhibition the rest of the arch was completed with wooden panels. In the following
years the construction and completion of the monument was the topic of a continuous
                                         battle between the king and the government.

                                         The Belgian government actually did not
                                         want to spend so much money on an (in their
                                         eyes) unnecessary monument. Via private
                                         funding (for which the king had provided the
                                         money) the arch was finally completed by
                                         1905, just in time for the 75th anniversary of
                                         the Belgian independence.

The monument was then also crowned with a quadriga, representing the province of
Brabant. The other 8 provinces were symbolized by allegoric statues at the foot of the

On both sides of the arch are 'galleries of the columns' with mosaics representing and
glorifying the 'peace-loving nation of Belgium'. These mosaics were made between
1920 and 1932.

The royal square lies at the Koudenberg/Coudenberg, a natural hill at the edge of the
medieval city center. Here, the duke of Brabant had a castle built in the 11th century.
His successors left the city of Leuven, which had been the old capital of the dukedom
and chose the castle in Brussels as their permanent residence. In the course of the
following centuries, the dukes of Burgundy and, later, the Habsburg kings and
                                        emperors all adapted the castle to their needs
                                        and wishes. Between 1452 and 1459 Philip the
                                        Good of Burgundy had the Magna Aula
                                        constructed. This hall was meant for the many
                                        meetings of the Council of Brabant and other
                                        festivities. By the 16th century, the palace had
                                        become one of the most impressive and
                                        picturesque royal residences in Europe. It also
                                        had a magnificent garden, which is now the
                                        royal park.

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In front of the palace was a square called "Baliënplein" where the citizens of the city
met, where markets were organized, as well as executions and festivities. Around this
square a lot of noble families had constructed their mansions and houses. The castle
itself remained the residence of the rulers and the governors of the Austrian
Netherlands until the night of 3 February 1731. That night, a fire broke out in the
kitchen of the residence. By the following day the entire royal complex lay in ruins
and could not be used anymore. Fortunately a large number of tapestries, paintings
and other art objects had been saved from the fire.

                                    In 1769 it was decided between the town
                                    authorities of Brussels and the court in Vienna
                                    (empress Maria-Theresa) that the former
                                    Balienplein should be rebuild in the then
                                    fashionable neo-classical style, the style of the
                                    age of enlightenment. Other European cities,
                                    such as Paris, Nancy and Reims, already had
                                    squares in that style. It reflected the new ideas
                                    of the French philosophers Descartes and
                                    Voltaire. They preferred cities to be urbanized
                                    according to plans and rules, rather than
                                    according to the illogical and whimsical
construction methods of the Middle Ages.

Until then Brussels had been basically a typical medieval city with winding streets
and little alleys. The construction of the new royal square was a breech with this
tradition and already announced the bigger transformations that would take place in
the city during the reign of king Leopold II in the 19th century. Noble families bought
part of the square to build their new "hôtels" on, however, according to strict
architectural rules to preserve the unity of style. The new abbot of the St. James
church also agreed to build a new church and two houses in exchange for his
appointment as abbot and member of the Council of Brabant. This church, built in
neo-classical style, was later crowned with a little tower which does not really fit in
with the style of the rest of the building.

Nowadays, one can see in the middle of the square the statue of Godfry of Bouillon,
leader of the first crusade in 1096. This statue was placed here in 1843 when the new
state of Belgium wanted to legitimize its historic roots and several statues with
national personae were erected in the entire country.

On the corner of the royal square are the buildings of the Museum of Ancient Art as
well as the Museum of Modern Art. Behind the museum of Modern art the former
palace of Charles of Lorraine can be seen. He was governor of the Austrian
Netherlands in the second half of the 18th century. Parts of his palace have been
replaced by the building of the National Library of Belgium. On the opposite site, a
beautiful Art Nouveau house attracts all attention. This former shopping center,

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called "Old England" was built in 1900 and has recently been renovated. It will be
used in the future as the Museum of musical instruments.


                                  The Museum of the Royal Institute for Natural
                                  sciences of Belgium gives a fascinating overview of
                                  natural life in Belgium and elsewhere, now and
                                  during the course of time. Some of the major rooms
                                  have been reconstructed to embellish and improve
                                  the presentation of the collection.

                                 The major attraction of the museum is its splendid
                                 collection of the so-called "Iguanadons of
                                 Bernissart". Skeletons of these dinosaurs were found
                                 in the late 19th century in the small village of
                                 Bernissart in the south of Belgium. The beautifully
                                 reconstructed skeletons draw lots of people every
year. This is an ideal museum to visit with children.

Other permanent collections are:

*the inhabitants of the seas of the Jurassic and
Cretaceous eras (e.g.: mosasaurs)

*"of Men and mammoths" : the evolution of mankind,
with special focus on Ice-age men and their

*the Ishango bone: earliest proof of
mathematical activity

*the insect world (e.g. an animated termite mound)

*whales : 18 skeletons

*mammals: on display are 80 of the 107 existing mammal families

*mineralogy : (also fragments of moon rock and meteorites)

Location: Rue Vautier / Vautierstraat, 291000 Brussels

Metro Station: Schumann
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This museum lies next to the Museum of modern art. Together they are called "The Museum of
Fine Arts". This museum harbours a splendid collection of paintings from both the low
countries and the world. In the entrance hall several sculptures can be seen of Belgian
and international sculptors (for instance: Meunier, Lambeau, Rodin, etc.) The main
accent, however, lies on the collection of old masters with its 1200 paintings.On the
                                           first floor are the masterpieces of the 15th
                                           and 16th century. Among the famous names
                                           are: the master of Flémalle, Rogier van der
                                           Weyden, the master of Aix, Barend van
                                           Orley, Dirk Bouts, Hieronymus Bosch,
                                           Lucas Cranach and Quentin Metsys.
                                           The pride of the museum is of course the
                                           Bruegel collection, of which the "Landscape
                                           with the fall of Icarus" is considered to be
                                           one of the seven wonders of Belgium". This
                                           is one of the masterpieces of the Brussels
Museum. One can see here a 'world-landscape', beautifully developed by the painter.
In it can be seen references to Italy (Bruegel visited this country), references to the
Flemish landscapes, and the sea landscapes. The fall of Icarus is actually only a detail
on this painting. When looking clearly, one can see the legs of the drowning Icarus,
after he fell out of the sky when his wax wings melted because of the heat of the sun.
Did Bruegel want to tell us that human aspirations mean nothing at all in the great
scheme of things ?

In another part of the museum the Rubens collection can be
seen (The Ascent to Calvary, The Martyrdom of Saint
Lievin, etc.), as well as works by other famous painters from
the 17th century like Jordaens, Teniers, Van Dijck. Present
is also a beautiful collection of 17th century Dutch
paintings. The lower level is taken in by the collection of the
19th century (from realism and the Free society of the fine
arts, to the symbolism of the 1890s)

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In 1984 a new museum complex was opened near the Royal Square. In this complex,
the collection of modern masters of the Museum of the Fine Arts is now housed. The
entrance, situated in a neo-classical building at Place Royal, leads to the underground
museum, built around a central light well, where the displays are arranged in
chronological order, from level -4 to level -8.

The 'modern' masters of the 19th century, however, are located on the ground level of
the Museum of Ancient art , which can be reached via an underground passage
between the two museums. Here are displayed Belgian masters such as: James Ensor
(The Scandalized Masks), Navez, Wappers, (The days of September), Gallait, Leys,
Portaels, Stevens, De Braeckeleer, Boulenger and Van Rysselberghe. Foreign artists
are: David, Ingres, Gauguin, Bonnard, Vuillard, Seurat, Signac, etc..


The AUTOWORLD museum in the
Cinquantenaire Parc is really a 'must' for
fanatics of old-timer cars. The more than
400 cars in this museum came mainly
from the automobile collections of
Ghislain Mahy and Charly De Pauw.

On display is the entire history of "the
Vehicle" of the 20th century, from 1886
up to the 1970's.

There is, first of all, a department with
Belgian automobiles. Although, nowadays, Belgian car brands do no longer exist,
names such as Minerva, FN, Imperia, Nagant, Germain and Vivinus still ring a bell
with lovers of the automobile. These came out of Belgian factories in the pre-World
War II era.

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                                                       There are also several foreign
                                                       cars from countries such as the
                                                       United States, Germany, France,
                                                       Italy, and the United
                                                       Kingdom.There are special
                                                       models which belonged to the
                                                       Belgian royal family, to the US
                                                       presidents Franklin Roosevelt
                                                       and J.F.Kennedy.

                                                       Some rare car models are
                                                       represented here: the Bentley
                                                       1928, the Bugatti 1930 and the
                                                       Cord 1930.

The Autoworld museum disposes of a shop where miniature models can be purchased
as well as different other paraphernalia. Many of the vehicles can be hired for special
events such as receptions or movies.

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Middle East and Ancient Iran

This collection comprises objects from an extended area, ranging from the
Mediterranean to the Zagros Mountain range and from the Caspian Sea to The Gulf :
Cyprus, Anatolia, Palestine, Mesopotamia, the Arab Peninsula, Syria, Fenicia and
Petra. The Ancient Iran collection gives an overview of the Iranian cultures from
6.000 B.C until the rise of Islam in the 7th century.


An overview of Egyptian art from prehistoric times until the Christian era One of the
most important objects is the so-called "Lady of Brussels", an archaic sculpture
representing a woman dating from the first dynasties and considered to be one of the
oldest Egyptian sculptures of a woman, circa 2650 B.C.

The Greek collection was composed primarily in the second half of the 19th century
and in the beginning of the 20th century with objects which came mainly from
private collections. The collection is constructed around Greek Vases that lead the
visitor from the Bronze Age until the Hellenistic era.

This collection is less important than the Greek one. The most important are the floor
mosaics from Apamea (Syria).

The Byzantine collection was founded in 1979 and is the only one of its kind open to
the public in Belgium. Some objects go back to the Byzantine era, others come from
different places and eras in the orthodox world.


In this part of the museuM, art objects can be seen from different non-European
civilizations such as: the Islam world, China and Korea, India and Southeast Asia,
pre-Colombian America, Polynesia and Micronesia (on display is a gigantic statue of
the Tuna God, brought back from Easter Island in 1935 by the Belgian training ship

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                      After the Second World War a number of European countries
                      felt the need for more cooperation amongst each other in order
                      to avoid any future armed conflicts, and also in order to avoid
                      being overshadowed by a strong American power. This resulted
                      in 1952 in the creation of the European Community for coal
                      and steel.

                     Already from the start the
                     countries disagreed on which
                     city would receive the European
organizations: France preferred the city of
Saarbrücken (then in France, now again in Germany),
Luxembourg proposed its own capital city of
Luxembourg, Holland choose The Hague (Den Haag)
and Belgium opted for Liège. A temporary solution
was found and the institutions were divided over Luxembourg and Strasbourg

At the end of 1957 the EEC (European Economic Community) was founded by
Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, France and Italy. The Belgian Prime
Minister Paul-Henri Spaak proposed Brussels as seat of the European organizations.
Again, no agreement was reached, and the political institutions of the EEC
were (temporarily) housed in Brussels (the European Commission), and Strasbourg
(the European Parliament). In anticipation of a report, a decision was taken to house
the administrative services of the EEC in Brussels. For this purpose, the Belgian
insurance company ROYALE BELGE, constructed offices between the
Kortenberglaan (Avenue de Kortenberg) and the Blijde Inkomstlaan (Avenue de la
Joyeuse Entrée) near the Cinquantenaire Park in Brussels.

In 1958 a vote was organized to come to a definitive solution. Brussels was in the
lead because of the improved road infrastructure (thanks to the World Exposition
which took place in Brussels in 1958), and also because of the central location of the
city and the neutral position of Belgium between the European powers.

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Although Brussels won the vote after two rounds, a definitive decision was again
postponed. Furthermore, the vote resulted in the start of a system of 'compensation
                                                   policy', whereby Luxembourg and
                                                   Strasbourg also received a part of
                                                   the institutions.

                                                   The Berlaymont building, seat of
                                                   the European Commission, built in
                                                   1968. Since 1991 the building is
                                                   empty because of the presence of
                                                   too much asbestos on the inside.
                                                   The renovation undertaken by the
Belgian State runs into the billions of BEF and sheduled to be finished by 2001.

In 1964 Luxembourg proposed to re-group and re-devise the administrative services
of the EEC. On May the 8th 1965 the following was decided upon : Brussels received
the European Commission, the Economic and Social committee, certain services of
the European Parliament, the Secretary of the Council of Ministers and the status
of " city where the Council would gather and function most of the time". Strasbourg
kept the half-round where the plenary sessions of the European Parliament took
place. The Secretary of the European Parliament remained in Luxembourg as well as
the European Court of Justice and the European Investment Bank.

As from 1981 numerous members of the European Parliament started to show signs
of dissatisfaction over the fact that the services of the European Parliament were
spread over the three cities Brussels, Luxembourg and Strasbourg. On October the
24th the European Parliament decided to construct a new seat for itself in the Quartier
Léopold (Leopoldswijk) in Brussels. This decision met with strong French opposition
(France could not accept that its city of Strasbourg would no longer house the
European Parliament half-round). This was later confirmed by the European Court
that decided "that the sessions of the European Parliament in Brussels should remain

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The European Parliament (Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary
institution of the European Union (EU). Together with the Council of the European
Union (the Council), it forms the bicameral legislative branch of the Union's
institutions and has been described as one of the most powerful legislatures in the
world.[1] The Parliament and Council form the highest legislative body within the
Union. However their powers as such are limited to the competencies conferred upon
the European Community by member states. Hence the institution has little control
over policy areas held by the states and within the other two of the three pillars of the
European Union. The Parliament is composed of 785 MEPs (Member of the
European Parliament), who serve the second largest democratic electorate in the
world (after India) and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world
(342 million eligible voters in 2004).

It has been directly elected every five years by universal suffrage since 1979.
Although the European Parliament has legislative power that such bodies as those
above do not possess, it does not have legislative initiative like most national
parliaments. While it is the "first institution" of the European Union (mentioned first
in the treaties, having ceremonial precedence over all authority at European level),
the Council has greater powers over legislation than the Parliament where codecision
procedure (equal rights of amendment and rejection) does not apply. It has, however,
had control over the EU budget since the 1970s and has a veto over the appointment
of the European Commission.

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 The European Parliament has two meeting places, namely the Immeuble Louise
Weiss in Strasbourg, France, which serves for plenary sessions and is the official seat
and the Espace Léopold complex in Brussels, Belgium, the smaller of the two, which
serves for preparatory meetings and complementary, non-plenary sessions. The cost
of having all MEPs and their staff moving several times a year from one place to
another has been of concern to some. The Secretariat of the European Parliament, the
Parliament's administrative body, is based in Luxembourg.

The President of the European Parliament (its speaker) is currently Hans-Gert
Pöttering (EPP), elected in January 2007. He presides over a multi-party chamber, the
two largest groups being the European People's Party-European Democrats (EPP-ED)
and the Party of European Socialists (PES). The last Union-wide elections were the
2004 Parliamentary Elections, however Romania and Bulgaria joined in 2007 and are
electing their members this year (see European Parliament election, 2007); the next
union-wide parliamentary elections are in 2009 (see European Parliament election,

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Antrewp is a city and municipality in Belgium and the capital of the Antwerp
province in Flanders, one of Belgium's three regions. Antwerp's total population is ca.
461,496 (as of January 2006) and its total area is 204.51 km² with a population
density of 2,257 inhabitants per km².

Antwerp has long been an important city in the nations of the Benelux both
economically and culturally. It is located on the right bank of the river Scheldt, which
is linked to the North Sea by the Westerschelde.

Antwerp is the real urban deal, a refreshingly down-to-earth yet vivacious
cosmopolitan habitat blessed with magnificent architecture, fashionable shop fronts,
beer-washed pubs, dazzling monuments, jazzed-up clubs, inspired artworks and
restaurant tables piled with plates of superb Belgian and multicultural food. Antwerp,
home of the Flemish Baroque master Rubens, not only has a wealth of outstanding
museums, picturesque galleries, sculpted streets and beautiful architecture, but is also
laced with refreshing greenery and urban haunts. Its culture, history, vibrant nightlife

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and world class shopping are within easy reach, thanks to excellent access by air,
train, motorway and even water. Antwerp, a pocketsize metropolis.

Antwerp ....the Rubens‟ city par excellence, the world diamond centre, a city of
fashion designers and fashion trendsetters, a world port and City-on-the-River, a
bustling Burgundian city, a real shoppers‟ paradise, a gallery of protected monuments
and cityscapes, a welcoming and multicultural metropolis with a convivial and
chockfull of atmosphere ... and of course a lot more.

Antwerp, city by the water

Antwerp owes its very existence and its prosperity to the River Scheldt. Over the
centuries the city and the port have expanded into a maritime metropolis.

Visitors who are strolling along the river quays will notice a lot of new buildings.
Contemporary architecture there often refers to the maritime aspect of the city -
Antwerp is very clearly facing the water again. At sunset the colours of the Scheldt
change. The signals on the water, the lights of the ships and the port installations
bring a surprisingly enchanting spectacle.

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The Port of Antwerp is the second largest port in Europe, is one of the ten largest
ports worldwide and also the most productive. A dense network of rivers and canals,
road and railways ensures an easy connection to the European hinterland.

Today the Antwerp Port covers the area north of the city and stretches out over some
13,500 ha. You can discover the area by boat or by car. For those who like to use
their own car, Tourism Antwerp has developed the 'Port Route' brochure. The
signposted route reduces your chances of getting lost on the 350 km of roads in the
Antwerp port. The Port Route itself takes you along a route of 40 or 65 km on a
voyage through 1,000 years of port history. The route starts at the medieval Steen
fortress and runs along the 19th Century port and the most modern installations.


Antwerp, Rubens‟ art room and contemporary culture experience
Antwerp has a rich, historic past and still is a cultural pole of attraction today.
Antwerp can rightfully pride itself on its rich , historic past with world famous artists
such as Rubens, Van Dyck, Jordaens and Brueghel. Through the centuries the city
has managed to develop a rich and unique, valuable cultural heritage. The city‟s
museums and historic churches are treasuries in which many of these riches are
preserved and on diplay. Take time to stop and admire the cityscapes, the protected
monuments and the various statues as well as the Madonnas and other saints that
grace Antwerp‟s streets.

And even today Antwerp has a sparkling cultural and artistique life. With world
famous and lesser known artists, big and small cultural talents. With many theatres,
cinemas, galleries, dance and concert stages. With big established culture houses and
experimental free ports. With talked-about and intimate architecture.

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Statue of Rubens on the Groenplaats

Antwerp; diamond centre of the world
Antwerp World Diamond Centre is not just a slogan. “Antwerp quality” and
“Antwerp cut” are international trade terms synonymous with perfect processing and
flawless beauty.

Antwerp has a long and magnificent tradition as a diamond city. Since the 15th
Century the city has played an important role in the diamond trade and industry.
After the port, the diamond industry is the second pillar of commercial activities.
Some 1,500 diamond companies are concentrated in the city centre. In less than one
square kilometre, nearby Central Station, more than half of all cut diamonds pass
through a network of diamond cutting shops, diamond bourses and selling centres. Of
the 25 diamond exchanges worldwide, 4 operate in Antwerp. Elegant showrooms
offer the visitor fascinating tours and the opportunity to visit interesting exhibitions.

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                           The Antwerp cut

Antwerp, city of fashion makers

As a fashion city Antwerp owes its reputation to the pioneers of the fashion
movement, the so-called 'Antwerp Six': Walter Van Beirendonck, Ann
Demeulemeester, Dries Van Noten, Dirk Van Saene, Dirk Bikkembergs and Marina
Yee travelled to London and Paris together in the Eighties as well as Martin Margiela
(the seventh). Together they conquered the fashion world with their very distinct
vision of fashion.

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In the wake of this inspirational movement a new generation of designers entered the
field in the Nineties: Lieve Van Gorp, Anna Heylen, Stephan Schneider, Wim Neels
and Christophe Broich. The movement has grown ever since. Raf Simons, Veronique
Branquinho, A.F. Vandevorst, Jurgi Persoons, Angelo Figus, Bernhard Willhelm,
Bruno Pieters, Tim Van Steenbergen, Anke Loh, Dirk Schönberger, Marjolijn Van
den Heuvel, Christian Wijnants, Haider Ackermann, Erik Verdonck, Tom Notte and
Bart Vandebosch for Les Hommes are all designers who have studied in Antwerp and
still have an atelier, showroom or store in Antwerp.

Since 2002 the fashionable city of Antwerp also has its own fashion centre: the

In this unique building in the historic centre of Antwerp the Flanders Fashion
Institute, the Antwerp Fashion Academy, an artistic book store and a brasserie have
all found a new home.

The high point of the Antwerp fashion season is the yearly fashion show of the
Antwerp Academy, which draws more than 6,000 international visitors.


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Geel is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Antwerp. The municipality
rather recently (80's) got the status of a city. It comprises Central-Geel which is
constituted of 4 old parishes a/o towns : St-Amand, St-Dimfna, Holven and
Elsum.Geel had a total population of 35,189. The total area is 109.85 km² which
gives a population density of 320 inhabitants per km². Geel‟s patron saint, the Irish
Saint Dymphna, inspired the town‟s unique method of care for the mentally ill. The
city is also featured in Ciaran Carson's novel Shamrock Tea (Granta 2001).

Geel is a regional agricultural, industrial, and commercial center offering medical and
educational services to the neighboring communities. The city is the location of a
Janssen Pharmaceutica chemical factory and a production site for the biotech
company Genzyme.

Some archeological founds in 2006 from the iron and Stone Age prove that some
people lived here between. 750 and 50 before Criste. Archeologist discovered also a
medieval farm from the 9th-12th century.

In 1247 Petrus Cameracencis (France), wrote down the „Vita Sanctae Dimpnae‟. He
wrote down the story of St.-Dimpna as told by the local people.

The first official document dates from 1155. Geel was a village in the “Kempen”, a
poor region with agriculture.

After the second World War the government concluded that the region of Geel was
economically undeveloped, with a great unemployment. Between the highway
“Boudewijnsnelweg” Antwerp-Luik and the canal “Albertkanaal” an import zone of
industry was created. The agriculture reconversion was directed to livestock-farming.

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It is famous for its large colony of mentally disabled persons, who live with private
families rather than in institutions.

The market square, facing the St-Amand church and bordered by attractive café
terraces, is the focal point of the city. The oldest part of the city hall dates from the
17th century. Not far away, the St-Dymphna church marks the place where the saint
was buried.

Geel is located along the river Nete, in the Campine region, which offers to its
visitors a varied landscape of forests and dunes, and a natural reservation, de Zegge,
owned by the Antwerp Zoo.

Among the city's attractions one counts a field of orchids, a centenary linden tree,
three wind mills, a military cemetery, and a handful a museums including a clock
museum, a lamp museum, and an old bakery. The Saint-Alexis college is emblazoned
with Art Nouveau sgraffiti by Gabriel van Dievoet.

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One of the largest reggae festivals in Europe, the Reggae Geel festival, takes place
usually early in August just outside the city.


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The museum is housed in the 15th-, 17th-, 18th-and 19th-century buildings of the Old
Hospital van Geel and offers a vivid picture of everyday happen in the Hospital and
the lives of Augustinian Hospital.
The museum also houses art from churches and chapels Geelse: silver, sculptures and
manuscripts. In addition, the memories of St. Dimpna survival. This Irish King, who
died Geel was martyred, lies at the gronslag of the world famous “Geelse
gezinsverpleging” (nurcery in the family) of the mentally ill.

Opening hours of the Museum:

Tuesday to Friday: 14.00 h until 17.30 h.
Sunday: 14.00 h until 17.30 h.

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Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen is a University
College with eleven departments and more than 6,200
students. KH Kempen University College has always
been an impulse for regional development in the
Kempen, a dynamic region in Flanders, the Dutch-
speaking part of Belgium.

The university college in its present form was founded in 1995, when six institutes of
higher education in the Kempen region merged. Each of those predecessors, however,
boast a reputation going back more than half a century.
In 2002 Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen formed an association with the Catholic
University of Leuven, 11 other Hogescholen and the Catholic University of Brussels.
Together, its partners have more than 70,000 students in 23 cities across Flanders.

Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen participates in ERASMUS , as well as in Leonardo
and Tempus projects involving both student and teacher mobility, pilot projects and
curriculum development. There is also an active participation in development projects
(via the KULeuven association) and in ERASMUS BELGICA, the exchange
programme for the different language communities in Belgium. KHKempen
University College co-finances all these projects.

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KHKempen University College maintains excellent connections with business and
industry of the Kempen region and beyond, especially small and medium-sized

The eleven KHKempen departments are spread over the Kempen, the region in the
North of Belgium, east of Antwerp.
Six of those departments, with roughly 4,000 students, form campus Geel in the city
of Geel. Three more KHKempen departments are located at campus Turnhout. The
two other campuses are situated in Lier and Vorselaar. All four locations are small
cities in a rural setting but with always something going on. Moreover, if you want to,
you can easily go to Antwerp, Brussels, Leuven or any other place by public transport
to get a taste of our historic places, recreational facilities and other places of interest.

We welcome international Erasmus students in five English modules, in which
international and Belgian students attend the lessons together.

*For Business Studies: the International Business Module (spring semester)

*For Social Work: Module of Social Work in an International Perspective (autumn

*For Teacher Education: “The international Class” or “Flanders‟ Heritage:
knowledge, culture and crafts” (spring semester).

*For Health Care: Health Care in an international perspective (spring semester)

*International Module Occupational Therapy

BLAID – project Visit to Belgium 15-17 April 2008 KHKempen p.42 /44
BLAID – project Visit to Belgium 15-17 April 2008 KHKempen p.43 /44
BLAID – project Visit to Belgium 15-17 April 2008 KHKempen p.44 /44

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