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									 Dear readers,
  Welcome to the latest issue of our magazine. Since the spring break is coming we turn our atten-
tion to the students and ask what they seek when traveling. How many of them actually set for an
adventurous trip? Do they care about heritage sightseeing at all? Find the answers for your ques-
tions in the Active part. Then leave the students to themselves and read about the growing numbers
of women adventurers. The travel trade already knows – women are here and they are not to be
omitted. Come and read the Professional part about the experiences of women travelers in Asia,
Africa or even the Muslim world.
  Still remember our last supplement about medical tourism and its possibly undesirable conse-
quences? Now, it is not always that bad. Let us read about the pleasant European medical spas and
few novelties on the market in the Spa section. The various consequences of tourism as such are
presented in the Ethical part. Did you know that most of the money you spend for a trip does not
really go to the local hands? Come and read about the numerous side effects of the growing tourism
industry. Now, sit down and enjoy this issue. You might take your favorite glass of wine and start
with the Heritage section and the stories of the tasty sake, shining grappa or creamy cappuccino.

      Milada Sovadinova
H E r i tag E                                                       Heritage: Liquid Heritage .................................................................................. 4
                  Liquid Heritage

     Hot chocolate, frappe, juice, cocktails ... there are thou-

                                                                           CaPPuCCiNO: itaLiaN iNgeNuitY ...................................................................................................................5
     sands and thousands of different types of beverages peo-
     ple all over the world love and enjoy everyday. Let’s have
     a closer look at some of them and learn the story of the
     italian cappuccino or British cider. Come and see why sake
     is not really called sake and what grappa is actually made
     from. By the way, have you ever heard about the one and

                                                                           BrrrritiSH CCCCCider ......................................................................................................................................7
     only truly american black tea?

                                                                           JaPaN’S NuMBer ONe: SaKe.................................................................................................................................9
                                                                           itaLiaN graPPa deLigHt .................................................................................................................................11
                                                                           aMeriCaN tea PLaNtatiON?...........................................................................................................................13

ProfEssional                                                        PrOfeSSiONaL: WHat? WOMeN traveL? ......................................................... 15
           WHat? Women traveL?

                                                                           traveL fOr WOMeN: HOW Safe iS it? ...........................................................................................................16
     Let’s go girls! this is about you and for you – women trav-
     elers. ever thought about going solo to Jordan, malawi or
     Sri Lanka? ever wondered what kind of guys there are?
     then come and read the advice of the more experienced
     women adventurers. Listen carefully to their smart safety
     tips and be inspired for your next expedition.

                                                                           WOMeN & iSLaM: taLeS frOM tHe rOad .....................................................................................................19
                                                                           WHeN WOMeN traveL, iNduStrY LiSteNS .................................................................................................21
                                                                           eaSt afriCaN etiquette fOr SOLO traveLer ........................................................................................22
                                                                           gLOBetrOtterS fiNd HOMeS ON tHe rOad ..............................................................................................23
                                                                           gLOBetrOtterS fiNd HOMeS ON tHe rOad ..............................................................................................25

sPa anD MEDical                                                     SPa aNd MediCaL: PeCuLiar MediCaL traveLS ......................................... 27
       PeCuLiar mediCaL traveLS

                                                                           HeaLtH PrOBLeMS? eurOPeaN MediCaL SPaS Offer reLief ...............................................................28
     medical tourism is a huge part of the tourism as well as
     health market. every year new services and facilities
     emerge. Let’s get familiar with a few titbits from the world
     of medical travels. read about the innovative dentist in
     Bermuda, plastic surgery without scalpel as well as the
     vast possibilities of european medical spa.

                                                                           tHe NO-SurgerY – PLaStiC SurgerY ............................................................................................................30
                                                                           BerMuda deNtiSt BrigHteNS uP BuSiNeSS WitH SPa ServiCeS........................................................31
                                                                           Hair rePLaCeMeNt iN tHe CeNtraL eurOPe ...........................................................................................32

aDvEnturE                                                           adveNture: WHere did aLL tHe StudeNtS gO? ........................................... 34
   WHere did aLL tHe StudentS go?

                                                                           HeY guYS! get Out aNd traveL! ...................................................................................................................35
     Students and youth travelers have gained a huge share
     in the travel market. many stakeholders wonder what the
     students really seek, what thrills them and ... how much
     money they have as well. Come and read about the trends
     in the student travel, the destination the youth prefers and
     the information technology students love to use when trav-

                                                                           tHe YOuNg iNdePeNdeNt traveLer treNdS ...........................................................................................36

                                                                           tHe SPriNg BreaK traveL MarKet..............................................................................................................39
                                                                           aMeriCaN StudeNtS NOt Left BeHiNd ......................................................................................................40

EtHical                                                             etHiCaL: tOuriStS? NO, tHaNK YOu! .................................................................. 42
       touriStS? no, tHank You!

                                                                           tOuriSM, eCONOMY, & eNvirONMeNt .........................................................................................................43
     tourists move the world economy and governments usu-
     ally care a lot to lure as many travelers to the country as
     possible. However, it is quite clear also tourism causes
     quite serious side effects. Pollution, waste, lack of water,
     changed life of local communities, devastation of cultural
     heritage – the consequences are numerous.

                                                                           MiSSiON: Save tHe eaSter iSLaNd ................................................................................................................45
                                                                           traveL treNdS: frOM HiPPieS tO Sex tOuriSM ......................................................................................47
                                                                           eNvirONMeNt? Better Off WitHOut tOuriStS ....................................................................................50
                                                                           tHe CariBBeaN: Side effeCtS Of POPuLaritY ........................................................................................53
                                                                           greeN, greeN, greeNWaSHiNg ......................................................................................................................56

fairs & ExHibitions
traveL/touriSm in marCH 2008 BY regionS
                                                                    traveL/tOuriSM fairS & exHiBitiONS
                                                                        iN MarCH 2008 BY regiONS ........................................................................... 58
                                                                           WeSterN eurOPe .................................................................................................................................................59
                                                                           CeNtraL & eaSterN eurOPe ...........................................................................................................................62
                                                                           NOrtH aMeriCa & CariBBeaN .......................................................................................................................65
                                                                           aSia & PaCifiC .......................................................................................................................................................67
H E r i tag E
               Liquid Heritage

  Hot chocolate, frappe, juice, cocktails ... there are thou-
  sands and thousands of different types of beverages peo-
  ple all over the world love and enjoy everyday. Let’s have
  a closer look at some of them and learn the story of the
  italian cappuccino or British cider. Come and see why sake
  is not really called sake and what grappa is actually made
  from. By the way, have you ever heard about the one and
  only truly american black tea?
                                                                                                                                March, 2008
                                                H e r i tag e : Li qui d He r itage

                     itaLiaN iNgeNuitY
                                                                             It started with the unique thick coffee                invention
                                                                          known as espresso. Later, Ital-                         ians came
                                                                          up with cappuccino, which is                           similar to
                                                                          espresso but not as heavy,                           yet loaded
                                                                          with power. Eventually                          cappuccino’s fla-
                                                                          vor spawned other coffee                     conceptions, such
                                                                          as desserts (you ever have                         cappuccino
                                                                          ice cream?), frappuccino and                                 others.
                                                                          But cappuccino is quite a popular
                                                                          worldwide drink itself.
                                                                             Cappuccino is normally made using the
                                                                          rich and heavy espresso as its foundation. As
                                                                          a rule then, milk that has been steamed is added
                                                                          to the espresso, and finally a lovely foamy cream
                                                                          tops off the mixture. Naturally there are several
                                                                          deviations from this idea, such as equal parts
                                                                          of all three, or a huge amount of foam to tow-
                                                                          er over the cup, or a smaller amount of
                                                                          milk for a stronger cappuccino.
                                                                             In America, people usu-                                     ally
                                                                          drink cappuccino after din-                                ner, as
                                                                          a coffee substitute. But                              in Italy, it is
                                                                          often enjoyed during                                 the break-
                                                                          fast hour. When it is                               made strong,
                                                                          it can really wake you                            up for the day
                                                                          ahead. The cappuc-                              cino Americans
                                                                          enjoy is not quite so                        strong, rich or bold,
                                                                          but still quiet pleas-                      ant.
                                                                             Nowadays there                               are many coffee-
                                                                          houses that will serve                            cappuccino

I   talians are unique to the world when it comes to coffee. They
    aren’t content to just drink it the old ordinary way. They love
it so much that they also enjoy tinkering with the recipe.
                                                                          drinks at anytime of
                                                                          cappuccino can be
                                                                                                                              the day. Also
                                                                                                                              enjoyed        at
                                                                          many of the finer res-                                       tau-
                                                                          rants, whether Italian                                         o r
                                                                          not. Many places such as
    i COMe frOM…                                                          bookstores that feature
                                    from the order of fran-
       Cappuccino takes its name ed «cappuccini» from                     cafés serve many varieties
       ciscan Minor fria   rs, nam
                                     uccio» means hood in                 of cappuccino as well as cof-
       their hooded frock («capp been known by this
       italian). The dri nk has always                                    fee. For sure, cappuccino has
                                     coffee machine used to
       italian name. The espresso ed in italy, with the
                                    ent                                   become a stronghold among the
       make cappuccino was inv Luigi Bezzera in 1901.
       firs t patent being filed by                                       coffee drinkers of the world.
                                       ly by the early 1900s,
       The beverage was used in ita large espresso ma-                       And I must admit I love cap-
       and grew in popularity     as the
                                      rants were improved                 puccino far more than coffee. It is
       chines in cafés and restau r two. By the 1950s,
       during and after Wo     rld Wa                                     richer, has more flavor, and I just
                                     found its form.
       the italian cappuccino had                                         love to hear that unique sputter-                                              ing sound of when a cappuccino

                                                                                                              March, 2008
                                             H e r i tag e : Li qui d He r itage

maker is adding the frothy cream to the top. It makes me feel
that the restaurant is making something special just for me.                                         tage…
                                                                      tHe darK BrOWN Heri
   And cappuccino doesn’t stop with its drink in the cup. You                                             Muslims sometimes
can get cappuccino ice cream as mentioned earlier, and cap-              Coffee was discovered by the s first used and cul-
puccino cheesecake and cappuccino cookies. There is no limit             around the 10th centur y. it eating the beans, the
                                                                         tivated in Yemen.    instead of
to the variations of delicacies made with the cappuccino flavor                                          ng the famous drink
                                                                         Yemenis boiled them creati consensus that the
and texture.                                                             of al-qahwa. There is als Sufis who used it as
   The Italians have come a long way with improving on the               first users of co ffee were the
                                                                                                         ring late night Thikr
tropical born drink known as coffee. And as cappuccino testing           a stimulus to stay awake du e spread to the rest
continues, there will be even more wonderful versions of this            (remembrance of god). Coto the entire Muslim
                                                                         of Yemen an    d eventually
lovely drink to come.                                                                                 pilgrims and traders. it
                                                                         world through travellers, ey sometime in the late
By Jim Konerko                                                           reached Makkah and turk the16th centur y.
                                                                         15th centur y and Cairo in                                                               

                                                                                                                           March, 2008
                                               H e r i tag e : Li qui d He r itage


                                                                        changes these areas became less suitable for the growing of
                                                                        grapes. Gradually cider began to replace wine.
                                                                          In the UK and France, cider apples tended to be grown to-
                                                                        wards the western extremities because the climatic and soil
                                                                        conditions were most suitable. Under the influence of the Gulf
                                                                        Stream, the weather was relatively mild and the areas con-
                                                                        cerned had a fairly heavy annual rainfall. These combined fac-
                                                                        tors of climate and history established the cider producing areas
                                                                        of England as we know them today.
                                                                          After their conquest of England in 1066, the Normans intro-
                                                                        duced many changes – perhaps the drinking of cider was one of
                                                                        the best! The popularity of cider grew steadily; new varieties of
                                                                        apples were introduced, and cider began to figure in the tax re-
                                                                        cords. It became the drink of the people, and production spread
                                                                        rapidly. By 1300, there were references to cider production in
                                                                        the counties now known as Buckinghamshire, Devonshire, Es-
                                                                        sex, Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Kent, Nor-
                                                                        folk, Somerset, Suffolk, Surrey and Sussex and in most other
                                                                        counties as far north as Yorkshire.
                                                                          Cider was produced in substantial quantities on farms; every
                                                                        farm would have a few cider apple trees as well as cooking and
                                                                        dessert apple trees in the orchard, and it became customary in

C      ider, the alcoholic beverage made from the fermented
       juice of apples or pears (Perry), has a long and fascinat-
ing history in the UK. Although it had been assumed that cider
                                                                             Big aPPLe COuNtrY
                                                                                 Boasting the biggest cider mill in the worl
was introduced after the Norman Conquest, it is now thought to                                                               d,
                                                                                 than 350 years of cider production heritage more
have been here long before that.                                                 half of all cider produced in the uK, two , over
                                                                                 cycling routes, ancient traditions and          cider
   Apple trees were growing in the UK well before the Romans                    festivals, a Cider Museum and even a cath   modern
came but it was they who introduced organized cultivation. It                   which counts a Cider Bible amongst the          edral
                                                                                its chained library, Herefordshire is Brit books in
is likely that the wandering peoples, who travelled through the                                                            ain’s
countries which we now know as Spain and Northern France,                      apple’ country. farmers initially produced ‘Big
                                                                               to be drunk by the farm labor force duri cider
introduced their ‘shekar’ (a word of Hebrew origin for strong                  following year, especially the busy time ng the
drink) to the early Britons.                                                                                             s of
                                                                              making and harvest. in addition, they wou hay-
   However, it is true to say that the Normans had the most posi-             cider to local pubs and cider merchants for ld sell
                                                                              in towns and villages.                         resale
tive effect on the history of cider making. Northern France was  
renowned for the volume and quality of its orchards and vine-
yards, as indeed was Southern England, but owing to climatic

                                                                                     March, 2008
                                               H e r i tag e : Li qui d He r itage
the 18th Century to pay part of a farm laborer’s wage in cider. A
typical allowance on a farm would be 3-4 pints per day. Labor-
ers were rated by the amount they drank; one comment was
that a 2 gallon a day man was worth the extra he drank! In the
western counties of England in particular, a farm worker could

                                       united Kingdom, es-
        Cider is ver y popular in the nd, in comparison to
        pecially in South West engla highest per capita
        other countries. The uK has largest cider produc-
        consumpti   on as well as the
                                      , including H. P. Bul-
        ing companies in the world uK produces five
        mer, the largest. Overall, llion imperial gallons)
        million hectoliters (110 mi
        of cider per year.

receive perhaps one-fifth of his wage in cider. In the latter part
of the 19th Century, a campaign to stop payment in the form of
alcoholic beverages brought about the addition of a clause to
the Truck Act of 1887 which prohibited the payment of wages
in this way.
  Cider has been produced in the UK for longer than any other
drink. It has a rich heritage and tradition that is unique. Yet to
have remained so long a feature of the drinks market means
two things: There is significant and constant consumer interest
in the breadth of cider and perry products available, and cider
makers have constantly innovated to ensure that what they pro-
duce is relevant, contemporary and appealing to consumers. 


                                                                                                                             March, 2008
                                                H e r i tag e : Li qui d He r itage

JaPaN’S NuMBer ONe: SaKe

                                                                          the atmosphere these breweries carry into the town. One at-
                                                                          traction is that the sake brewery uses the most high tech brew-
                                                                          ing production lines and yet retains the old hand-made brewing
                                                                          methods. In addition, each kuramoto (brewery) allows us to en-
                                                                          joy the traditional sake making process by appealing to both the
                                                                          eye and the ear with their efforts to get the message across.
                                                                             Fushimi became a castle town in the late 16th century by
                                                                          Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and by the Edo period, water routes were
                                                                          organized and became a major gateway to Kyoto and Osaka.
                                                                          Fushimi flourished as a port as well as a convenient stop over
                                                                          town for sankin-kotai samurais (samurai on duty visiting Edo on

                                                                            JaPaNeSe WHiSKeY?
                                                                                                                 one of the world’s top
                                                                                Yamazaki, the birthplace ofof tennozan Mountain
                                                                                five whiskey, lies on the foo aka Prefecture where
                                                                                just between Kyoto and Os Yamazaki valley. The

A      lcohol consumption has seen an amazing increase during                   water is abundant from the njiro started brewing
                                                                                founder of Suntor y, torii Shi ambition to make
       the post war economic growth in Japan. After the 1980’s,                                                 the
                                                                                in Yamazaki in 1923 with1929, malt from barley
local wine and sake breweries boomed with people enjoying                       «Japan   ’s own whiskey.» in
                                                                                                               and distilled. after ag-
nihon-shu (rice wine), beer and shochu (distilled spirits) on vari-             was processed, fermented beginning of Japanese
                                                                                ing in white oak, wa    s the
ous times, places and occasions. In recent years, the quality                                                    r since, the brewer y
                                                                                whiskey, «Shiro fuda.» eve malt whiskey, allow-
of carbonated alcoholic beverages has improved and liqueur                      continues to ma    ke the finest
                                                                                                                  a long time.
consumption has increased, due to the popularity of cocktails                    ing it to age in the barrel for
with women.
  Although there are many sake-producing areas in Japan,                  alternate years) thus the number of kuramoto increased and be-
Nada (Hyogo prefecture) and Fushimi (Kyoto prefecture) rep-               came renowned as a sake making town as we know it today.
resent Japan’s finest breweries accounting for 45 % of total                 Even now, one can find the row of willow trees and dirt-built
production. In Nada, the water used for nihon-shu making is               breweries along-side the Hori River, where we can find the hints
miya-mizu (from Rokko mountain range), and the rice is Yamda              of the old fashioned nihon-shu making process. Nihon-shu
nishiki (from North Western Rokko) and toji (the chief sake mas-          from Nada was nationally renowned together with its famous
ter) from Tanba. In Fushimi, water from Fukuryusui is perfect for         Miya-mizu. It has appealed to the palates of many for its clear,
sake making. By the mid-Edo period, both areas had become                 sophisticated flavor, and the people in Edo have nicknamed it
known as sake makers of Japan.                                            «a sake trickled down from the kamigata (Kansai area which
  Nada and Fushimi are referred to as the number one sake                 is centered around the cities of Kyoto and Osaka).» The quality
spots in Japan not only for their share in production but also by         of sake greatly improved after the Meiji period with the evolution

                                                                                                                        March, 2008
                                                 H e r i tag e : Li qui d He r itage

in sake brewing processes, but in 1995, the Great Hanshin-Awaji
Earthquake destroyed much of these breweries. «Nada Gogo»
(the five sake producing areas in Nada district: Imazu-go, Nishi-           SaKe Or NiHONSHu?
nomiya-go, Uozaki-go, Mikage-go, and Nishi-go) came together to                                              c beverage made from
put extra efforts into reconstruction of the area and since then has
                                                                               Sake is a Japanese alcoholi sake does not specifi-
                                                                               rice. in Japanese, the word instead, the word Ni-
become one of the major tourist attractions of the Hanshin area.               cally refer to this beverage; alcoholic beverage»)
   As the saying goes, «where there’s good water, there’s good                 honshu (literally, «Japane m other beverages. in
sake;» nihon-shu requires good quality water. Needless to                      is used to distin guish it fro
                                                                                                             ver refers to anything
say, each area in Kansai – Hakusan Mountains in Fukui, Ha-                     english, the word sake ne is also commonly re-
kodate Mountains in Shiga, Katsuragi Mountains in Nara, Sat-                   other than Nihonshu. Sake wine», but the charac-
suki Mountain in Osaka, Chugoku Mountain ranges and Ibo                        ferred to in english as «rice curate. Wine is made
River in Hyogo, Kinokawa in Wakayamam, Suzuka Mountains,                       terization implied is not ac of plant juices. Sake
Nunobiki Mountains, Kii Mountains in Mie, and Yoshino River in                 from the single fermentati fermentation of rice,
                                                                               is produced by mu      ltiple
Tokushima – has good water, and good nihon-shu is available                                                   w beer is produced.
as a result.                                                                   which is more similar to ho


                                                                                                                              March, 2008
                                                H e r i tag e : Li qui d He r itage

itaLiaN graPPa deLigHt

The         best way to explore the unique taste of grappa is
            going to Bassano del Grappa, the city in Vicenza,
and to enjoy the free samples of grappa handed out by the lo-
                                                                           to visit during a day trip to Bassano are the Museo degli Alpini/
                                                                           Taverna, and the Museo del Grappa. By all means stop off in
                                                                           the Taverna and fortify yourself with another taste of Grappa,
cal distilleries that line the main road here. For the uninitiated,        or a stein of wheat beer. If the sun is shining, join the locals
grappa is the traditional Italian drink made from pomace, the              on the balcony overlooking the river, and appreciate a different
pressed skin and grapes after winemaking, and the result is                perspective of Palladio’s bridge.
a clear strong liqueur between 80 or 90 proof. It only takes                 Bassano’s Grappa museum is housed in the Poli distillery and
two or three sips for the undiluted strength and warmth of the             features an exhibit on the history and production of Grappa.
liqueur to take effect.                                                    The first copper vat used to distill grappa in town is housed in a
   Bassano is a postcard-perfect hill town at the base of the              glass display case, as well as a fascinating step by step account
Dolomites, the first place where grappa was distilled for com-             describing how Grappa is distilled. On the way out, the «cura-
mercial distribution. Bassano is also rich in history, having been         tors» /saleswomen offer a sampling of this season’s popular
home to one of the more famous battles of World War I, and                 varieties. My husband and I tried the honey and blueberry, both
the headquarters of the Alpini, Italy’s highly esteemed mountain           of which we found just a little too sweet. We much preferred the
brigade of soldiers. Even so, the tourism board clearly under-             Tagliatella, brewed by the A. Baggio distillery, a caramel colored
stands what the main draw is, and wisely couples its cultural              grappa that is also sweet, but not as cloying as Poli’s fruit fla-
heritage with its main export. As such, counted among the sites            vored ones.

                                                                                                                     March, 2008
                                              H e r i tag e : Li qui d He r itage
                                                                       In Italy, grappa is primarily served as a «digestivo» or af-
 Literally «grape stalk», grappa is made by distilling             ter-dinner drink. Its main purpose is to aid in the digestion of
 pomace, grape residue (mainly the skins, but also                 heavy meals. «It’s especially good with coffee,» the saleslady
 stems and seeds) left over from winemaking after
 pressing. it was originally made to prevent waste                 told us. In fact, the good people of Bassano have a special
by using leftovers at the end of the wine season. it               name for coffee with Grappa. It’s called caffe corretto, as in
quickly became commercialized, mass-produced,                      coffee that’s been corrected with Grappa. Another variation
and sold worldwide. The flavor of grappa, like that
of wine, depends on the type and quality of the grape              of this is the «ammazza caffè» (literally, «coffee-killer»): the
used as well the specifics of the distillation process.            espresso is drunk first, followed by a few ounces of grappa
                                                                   served in its own glass. In the Veneto, there is rasentin: after
                                                                   finishing a cup of espresso with sugar, a few drops of grappa
                                                                   are poured into the nearly empty cup and swirled, and drunk
                                                                   down in one sip.
                                                                       Among the most well-known producers of grappa are Nonino,
                                                                   Berta, Sibona, Nardini, Jacopo Poli, Brotto, Domenis and Bepi
                                                                   Tosolini. While these grappas are produced in significant quan-
                                                                   tities and exported, there are many thousands of smaller lo-
                                                                   cal and regional grappas, all with distinct character. Come and
                                                                   By Jessica Nierenberg


                                                                                                                                   March, 2008
                                                 H e r i tag e : Li qui d He r itage

aMeriCaN tea PLaNtatiON?

S     pecialty tea businesses in the United States have mush-
      roomed recently, catering to both veteran tea drinkers and
trying to mint new ones. In this culinary niche dominated by
                                                                               The plantation produces American Classic Tea and offers free
                                                                            public tours. Founded in 1960, the plantation has several hun-
                                                                            dred thousand tea bushes, which are descendants of bushes
imports, few people are familiar with the Charleston Tea Plan-              originally brought over from China and India during the 1800s.
tation. Located minutes from Charleston, South Carolina, the                   «Wadmalaw Island is in the heart of the historic Low Coun-
Plantation is America’s only black tea producer, capitalizing on            try and an ideal climate for growing tea because of sub-tropi-
what are believed to be the only conditions available on the vast           cal temperatures, frequent rain and high humidity,» says Lori
continent that are amenable to growing tea for profit. In fact, the         Bigelow, co-president of R. C. Bigelow, Inc. «The Bigelow fam-
tea plant, Camellia Sinensis, is a distant relative of the giant            ily purchased the plantation in 2003 and worked closely with
magnolia trees that grow along the Southeast Coastal Plains.                partner William Hall to make the plantation visitor-friendly and
   Tea plants thrive in tropical and subtropical climates, rooted in        once again capable of producing American Classic Tea.» Hall
sandy soil and bathed in heat, humidity, and rain. There are vast           is a third-generation tea expert who completed a four-year tea
acreages of ideal tea-growing land in countries that have tradi-
tionally provided the world’s tea – China, Japan, and India. As
luck would have it, South Carolina enjoys a small pocket of simi-                                                     for tourism. We did
                                                                                    «We didn’t buy it originally did. We just couldn’t
lar conditions. When the Charleston Tea Plantation opened its                       buy it jus t to save it; we truly
                                                                                                                    in america die. it was
                                                                                    let the only tea plantationfor the tea industry.»
Wadmalaw Island fields in 1987, it was a culmination of nearly                       for the countr y and it  was
a century-and-a-half of efforts to produce and market tea grown                   Lori Bigelow
in the United States.

                                                                                                                              March, 2008
                                                H e r i tag e : Li qui d He r itage

apprenticeship in England and created American Classic Tea                 is inspected by the FDA and the South Carolina Department
in 1987. This high-quality black tea has a mild tone and sweet             of Agriculture, and provides jobs for American workers. Along
flavor.                                                                    with being designated the Hospitality Beverage of South Caro-
   Together, Hall and Bigelow Tea have transformed the Charles-            lina, Wadmalaw Island’s Camellia Sinensis in 1987 earned the
ton Tea Plantation from a plantation into a beautiful and educa-           badge of an official White House tea.
tional tourist destination as well. According to many a «must                 «Tea has been enjoyed for nearly 5,000 years,» says Hall.
see» for tea lovers and tourists alike.                                    «Legend says tea was born when a leaf from a Camellia Si-
   Visitors to the Plantation are able to learn from Hall and other        nensis bush fell into the water being boiled for the Chinese em-
on-site tea experts, sample American Classic Tea, and expe-                peror. The emperor found the resulting drink so delicious that he
rience the craft of local artisans. They can view the tea-mak-             demanded it be served to him from then on, and today tea is the
ing process from a new factory featuring an air-conditioned                most consumed beverage in the world, apart from water.»
125-foot long window gallery overlooking the equipment needed
for manufacturing tea from the raw leaf to finished black tea.    
   The Charleston plantation’s marketing materials proudly pro-  
claim that their tea – grown, withered, cured, manufactured,
prepared, and packaged in America – is the freshest available
to American consumers, contains no pesticides or fungicides,                                                  

        WHat? Women traveL?

  Let’s go girls! this is about you and for you – women trav-
  elers. ever thought about going solo to Jordan, malawi or
  Sri Lanka? ever wondered what kind of guys there are?
  then come and read the advice of the more experienced
  women adventurers. Listen carefully to their smart safety
  tips and be inspired for your next expedition.
                                                                                                                                   March, 2008
                                       P rOf e S Si ONa L : WHAT? Wome n Trav el?

traveL fOr WOMeN:
HOW Safe iS it?
                                                                            try where your language is spoken would provide a safety net. A
                                                                            Canadian in Australia or a Quebecker in France would probably
                                                                            feel on solid ground.
                                                                               Then there are countries with vastly different cultures but that
                                                                            are known for their safety, such as Japan or Singapore. I’ve
                                                                            traveled on my own in both and not once have I ever felt either
                                                                            out of place or in any way threatened.
                                                                               There is a third tier of countries that may be less familiar
                                                                            but that don’t present any major hurdles for women wishing to
                                                                            travel there. These include countries like Panama, Thailand or
                                                                            China, where the culture may be unfamiliar but where wom-
                                                                            en – in my personal opinion – can feel relatively safe when
                                                                            they travel.
                                                                               Many of the world’s countries tend to fall into the fourth cat-
                                                                            egory, that of ‘watch your step’ countries where safety is more

T     ravel for women can be as safe as you make it. The more               tenuous but where women often can travel without incident –
      precautions we take and the more information we gather,               riskier than the first and second but with little reason to stay
the greater our peace of mind when we travel. Don’t let sensa-              away, with a bit of planning and proper caution. These include
tionalist news and the occasional highly publicized crime put               a number of developing countries, such as Morocco or Turkey
you off taking off. The fact is – things happen anywhere, on your           or Uganda. I’ve traveled alone in all of these with no problem,
doorstep or around the world.                                               although some women friends wouldn’t agree.
   The trick? Be prepared. Perhaps our most important precau-                  I would call the fifth category ‘go at your own risk’. These are
tion is to simply be aware – of our surroundings, but also of the           countries to which you might consider traveling but only if you
culture in which we travel. We’ll be a lot safer in some countries          had to. They could include certain parts of South Africa, some
if we wear modest clothing, whereas in others it won’t matter               Middle Eastern and Central Asian countries, and a number of
at all. The more we blend in with our surroundings, the more                African and Latin American countries. In some of these regions,
comfortable people will feel with us. And that comfort can go a             just being a woman is a safety issue. In Latin America, for ex-
long way towards making us feel safe.                                       ample, foreign women will be more noticed than men, as they
   The other key to safe travel for women is preparation. We                will be in the Middle East. Experienced women travelers can
have to research our destination, get ourselves into the right              and do visit these countries, but first-timers would be best to
physical and mental shape, pack what we need, and arm our-                  stay away or highly vigilant.
selves with information to stay safe.                                          The sixth and final category is the ‘no go’ category – avoid
                                                                            them, period. You can guess some of these: Iraq, Sudan, Ke-
   Safest Destinations for Women                                            nya (only recently though), Pakistan and certain parts of Central
   Not all destinations are created equal when it comes to safe             Africa, for example.
travel for women. But what exactly is a safe destination? Are we               These ‘no go’ countries change regularly, and what’s safe
talking about physical danger, as in wild animals and threaten-             one day can become dangerous the next. It’s important to stay
ing insects? Cultural dangers, such as lascivious men or teen-              abreast of political developments by keeping up with the news
age gangs? Or are we talking about social dangers, such as                  from countries you plan to visit, or by visiting some of the excel-
built-in discrimination against women or corrupt societies?                 lent government websites that provide travel advisories, includ-
   Whatever definition we use will be subjective but however we             ing the US, Australia, the UK and Canada.
define safety, some places do stand out as ‘safer’ than others.                Of course there is an easier way: you could simply sign up for
   Top of the safety list are countries most like our own. If you’re        a package tour or a semi-organized trip and let the organizers
American, travel to other US states or to Canada would prob-                take care of all the safety logistics. Travel in a group is definitely
ably qualify as safe. If you’re European, a country with a similar          safer and if you have any concerns about independent travel, a
culture would feel familiar, and thereby safer. Similarly, a coun-          group environment might be the perfect solution.

                                                                                                                                   March, 2008
                                       P rOf e S Si ONa L : WHAT? Wome n Trav el?
                                                                               Determine the location of the fire exits. Walk to them and
                                                                            count your steps. If a fire breaks out, you’re less likely to panic
                                                                            if you know where to head.
                                                                               I keep a flashlight in my shoe by the bed in case there is a
                                                                            fire alarm or a power failure. Since my shoes are the first thing
                                                                            I put on, I won’t run the risk of forgetting to grab the light if there
                                                                            is an emergency.
                                                                               Once you’ve checked out your room, keep the door locked
                                                                            when you’re inside. And don’t leave the key inside the door if
                                                                            you have the old-fashioned locking kind.
                                                                               Don’t open the door unless the person behind it is some-
                                                                            one you know. If someone undesirable gets in, it’s hard to
                                                                            get them out.
                                                                               Don’t leave or enter your hotel on your own. If you’re traveling
                                                                            alone, wait until a group goes in or out, and join them. No one
                                                                            will even notice you.
                                                                               When out of your room, leave the radio or TV on. The maid
                                                                            will probably turn it off, but for part of the time it’ll sound as
                                                                            though someone is in your room.
                                                                               Put any valuables in the hotel safe and don’t leave them lying
                                                                            around your room. Most people are honest, but many people
                                                                            who service rooms are also very poor. Temptation is better
                                                                               Carry money and credit cards in a money belt, around your
   Once You’re in Your Room                                                 waist, neck or leg.
   Once you’ve reached your destination, you’ll still have to pro-             Always carry the hotel’s card with you when you leave. You
tect yourself, your belongings and your money. You’d be sur-                may need to phone for directions, or to ask someone for an
prised at how many women travelers disregard the most basic                 address.
safety precepts of hotel living – they walk out of their rooms and
leave doors and windows open, or leave valuables lying around                  Stay in touch with someone back home. Let someone know
just begging to be ‘borrowed’.                                              when you’re leaving a place, and when you expect to arrive at
                                                                            the next one. Calling in or sending scheduled emails will ensure
   Whether you’re staying in a cheap youth hostel or a luxury               people know where you are – and come looking for you if you
hotel suite, there are some basic safety precautions you should             don’t show up.
take, no matter what. Here are some of my essentials:
   Stay on a low floor if you can. It’s easier to get out in case of           Travel Scams, Or How Not To Get Ripped Off
fire.                                                                          Safety during travel also means making sure you don’t get
   Low floor doesn’t mean ground floor. Make sure no one can                hoodwinked. Unfortunately, that happens too often. There are
gain entry to your room from the street. If you can, get a room             many travel scams, from the simple to the diabolical, but all are
that looks over a private courtyard rather than the street.                 designed with a single goal: to separate you from your money.
   Always make sure your windows are locked at night if you’re              Getting ‘taken’ places you in a position of inferiority and helps
on a ground floor or if you have a balcony. If your room is sti-            contribute to feelings of insecurity.
fling, use the fan or air conditioning. Otherwise, move to a high-             The best defense? Just knowing about scams should help
er floor – anything above the first few floors should be fine if you        you avoid most of them. Here are some of the most com-
want to leave your window open.                                             mon:
   Always lock your door. If you’re staying in an inexpensive ho-              Product substitution: you pay for something, but end up with
tel, check the lock before you check in. I carry a simple plastic           something else, substituted while you’re not looking.
doorstop with me just in case. You can also carry a simple por-                Illegal purchases: know the law. Just because something is
table doorlock. If you really can’t lock the door, put something            for sale doesn’t mean you are allowed to buy it. In many coun-
up against it, like a chair.                                                tries, buying antiques is illegal.
   If you’re in a high-crime area, search your room for unwel-                 Fake stones: if a ruby or an emerald seems incredibly cheap,
come visitors while the bellhop or assistant is still with you. That        they probably are fakes. Genuine dealers have their own net-
means checking the bathroom, the shower curtain, the closets                works, so beware if someone asks you to be an intermediary.
and behind the doors.                                                       It’s a shady deal.

                                                                                                                                March, 2008
                                      P rOf e S Si ONa L : WHAT? Wome n Trav el?
                                                                          them is to know prices beforehand. Just ask at the airport when
                                                                          you land or on travel forums before you leave.
                                                                             Diversions: beware small children grabbing your arm or hand.
                                                                          Often, they are part of a team, whose other half is dipping into
                                                                          your bag.
                                                                             Inattention: don’t put yourself in a position of vulnerability. If
                                                                          you’re in a strange place, avoid drinking alcohol and keep your
                                                                          wits about you. Don’t let your drinks out of your sight.
                                                                             Theft: make sure your passport, cards and tickets are safe,
                                                                          either in the hotel safe or in your money belt. And don’t use the
                                                                          ATM at night or in isolated areas.
                                                                             Stolen or counterfeit goods: those pretty alligator logos going
                                                                          for $5 aren’t worth more. They’re fakes. Buying them is often
                                                                          illegal, and they’ll fall apart in a day anyway.
                                                                            It’s Not That Scary
                                                                            These warnings may sound dire but don’t let them discour-
                                                                          age you from traveling. On the contrary, most of these even-
                                                                          tualities will never happen, especially if you’re forewarned. I’ve
                                                                          only rarely been scammed, have only been parted from my be-
                                                                          longings once (through my own fault), and have never suffered
                                                                          bodily harm, despite travels to places I would consider ‘no go’.
                                                                            So be prepared, be careful, and enjoy your trip. Trust your
                                                                          instincts, and if something feels wrong, walk away.

                                                                          By Leyla Giray
  Fake uniforms: a common scam is posing as a policeman                   Leyla Giray is a development worker with a love of
or soldier and extorting something from you. Make sure you                travel writing. She manages www.women-on-the-
ask for proper identification; stay near other people and well-lit , a website for women who love to travel
places if accosted by uniformed personnel.                                on their own.
  Taxi scams: overcharging, broken meters, taking a detour –
these are the commonest taxi scams. The best way to avoid

                                                                                                                             March, 2008
                                     P rOf e S Si ONa L : WHAT? Wome n Trav el?

WOMeN & iSLaM:
taLeS frOM tHe rOad
                                                                         They were not congregating in public spaces, for they do not
                                                                         have the socially acceptable freedom of leisure time outside
                                                                         their homes.
                                                                            Similarly, I went to an international music festival in Morocco,
                                                                         which drew thousands of people from around the country. I felt
                                                                         like I had crashed one giant locker room party with a handful
                                                                         of female tourists thrown in for good measure. When I asked
                                                                         a Moroccan where all the women were, the reply was, «Their
                                                                         families do not allow them out after ten o’clock at night.» The
                                                                         few Arab women present were there with their husbands.
                                                                            Removing half of the population from the public arena is not
                                                                         a natural state of affairs. The absence of women from shared
                                                                         space creates a strange, testosterone-heavy dynamic, like a
                                                                         seesaw with a pile of bricks on one end and a feather on the
                                                                         other. Without the calming effect of women, men seem to be
                                                                         walking around with a short fuse, the smallest thing leading to
                                                                         inflamed tempers and a yelling match. I witnessed two Moroc-
                                                                         can men almost come to blows over one accidentally taking the
                                                                         other’s seat on a bus. Later, when the bus ran out of gas, the
                                                                         driver got into a fistfight with the gas station attendant as soon
                                                                         as we pulled into the station.
                                                                            With Muslim women largely behind the scenes and out of
                                                                         reach, a foreign woman, even modestly dressed, stands out
                                                                         like a bikini-clad girl skiing down the slopes in mid-winter. On
                                                                         top of that, many Arab men, influenced by American movies and
                                                                         TV, subscribe to the common belief that western women are
                                                                         «easy.» A relationship with a foreigner also holds out the pos-
                                                                         sibility of work abroad. For Muslim men living in countries with
                                                                         high unemployment, this is equally as enticing as the prospect
                                                                         of sex. All of this did not make it easy for my friend and me in
                                                                         these countries. A small task like running to the corner store
                                                                         to buy some bottled water might as well be an uphill marathon

S     ince the September 11th terrorist attacks, there has been          for the amount of energy required to fight off the men who con-
      much discussion about the treatment of women in Islamic            stantly surrounded and propositioned us. The seeming inability
countries. As an American and non-Muslim, I cannot speak to              of these men to understand rejection and take «no» for an an-
what it is like to be a woman on a day-to-day basis in an Islamic        swer only further confounded and frustrated us.
country. However, having traveled throughout the Middle East                Experiencing this constant barrage of male attention over a
and North Africa, I can offer my own personal experience and             one-month period gave us plenty of time to discuss the reasons
insights as a window into Muslim culture.                                for this behavior. We came up with three theories:
   Setting foot into any one of the Islamic countries I have vis-           First, because segregated socialization begins at a young
ited leaves no doubt that it is a male-dominated society. Cairo’s        age, Muslim boys do not have the means to learn to interact
cafes and street corners were lined with men idling away the             with the opposite sex. By the time the adolescent has grown
day, giving me the eerie impression that either all the women            into a man, his interaction with women has been limited pri-
had been abducted by aliens or that I had somehow entered                marily to the female members of his family. Thus he does not
an open-air prison for men. The women I did see were going               have the opportunity to learn dating rituals, part of which is the
somewhere – to the store, to pick up the kids, or back home.             getting-to-know-each-other process. That explains why many

                                                                                    March, 2008
                                       P rOf e S Si ONa L : WHAT? Wome n Trav el?
a Moroccan man felt it perfectly acceptable to ask me to meet
him later without first even learning my name. This also explains
why that same man kept asking me out despite my repeated
rebuffs, and to our second theory. Having not been exposed to
rejection from women, he could not recognize it.
    Our third theory was that men had become so accustomed to
living in a male-dominated society and being the superior sex
that women’s feelings and desires became irrelevant. It does
not occur to them that it «takes two to tango.» This was why a
Tunisian man responded to my consistent rejection of his invita-
tion to accompany us to the beach with, «You don’t understand,
it is no problem for me.»
    This is not to say that my overall experience in these countries
was a bad one. I also met Muslim men who treated me as an
equal and, aware of my predicament as a foreign woman, tried
to shield me from the unwanted attention I attracted. However,
of my entire time spent traveling in the Islamic world, on only
one occasion did a woman attempt to talk to me. And even then
she expressed her frustration with her lack of freedoms. I find
it ironic that the only photo I have seen of pro-US supporters in
the Middle East was of all women. It showed me that given the
chance to have their voices heard Muslim women will play the
role they were intended to play – that of a balance to the oppo-
site sex. And the world would be all the better place for it.

By Melissa Vinitsky 


                                                                                                                                                           March, 2008
                                               P rOf e S Si ONa L : WHAT? Wome n Trav el?

WHeN WOMeN traveL,
iNduStrY LiSteNS
                                                                                          taken care of, from A-Z,» she said. This means that they’re more
                                                                                          interested in all-inclusive resorts and booking everything – from
                                                                                          entertainment, tourism, dining and transportation – in advance.
                                                                                          Other improvements that travelers can thank women for include
                                                                                          on-site exercise and spa facilities, as well as healthful, room-
                                                                                          service and hotel restaurant options. In recent years, hotels also
                                                                                          have improved the creature comforts of their rooms, from lighting
                                                                                          and bedding to roomy closets and workspaces.
                                                                                                     Tips for women travelers
                                                                                                     If you’re a traveling woman, you’re in good company. Wyndham
                                                                                                 Hotels and Resorts launched a marketing program called Women
                                                                                                 on Their Way for women travelers; American Airlines followed suit
A     ttention, travel industry: Women are now your No. 1 mar-
      ket. It’s become clearer in recent years that women make
most of the buying decisions for both business and leisure
                                                                                                 with a Web site dedicated to the interests and concerns of the
                                                                                                 woman traveler. Both sites have travel tips from advisory panels
                                                                                                 and site users – all women who are seasoned travelers – offer-
travel. Realizing that business travel is no longer dominated by                                 ing advice on everything from packing to avoiding weight gain.
men, hotels and airlines are making changes to appeal to in-                                     Morgan, with 18 years experience in business travel, has a few
creasing ranks of women.                                                                         tips of her own. To keep yourself safe, plan ahead and specifi-
   Women’s issues                                                                                cally map out your destination. «Being organized will reduce the
                                                                                                                            chance of getting lost or ending up in a location
   What’s on a woman traveler’s                                                                                             that might be dangerous,» Morgan said. Win-
                                                                        veL   StatiStiCS
mind? The No. 1 concern may aMerihCaN WOMeN tra n last year, u. S. women –ers and old,ers – kels has noted this is a particular strength of
                                                  32 million trips take owed, mothers, daught
be safety – including small things,                                   , wid
                                           gle, married, divorced force in the travel industr y. estimates are        r.    the women she’s worked with for leisure travel
                                            have become a drivingsome $125 billion on travel in the next yea
like writing down a hotel room              that women will spendsingle, married, and widowed are fueling an
                                                                old,                                                        as well. «Most don’t wing it – most women are
                                            Women – young,
number instead of announcing it             explosive growth in the
                                                                        travel industr  y.
                                                                                     e by women – regardle
                                                                                                             ss of who
                                                                                                                             very organized when they travel,» she says.
                                                        travel decisions are mad                        go.
upon check-in. «As a woman trav- • 80 % of allel with, who pays for l, adventure or re they trips are wom-
                                            they trav
                                                                                the trip or whe

eler myself, I think safety is a huge • 75 % of those who take
                                                                                                                                Morgan also suggests taking advantage of
                                            en.                                                  el companies in past        a hotel’s concierge for the most useful infor-
                                                                       ber of women-only trav
issue for women,» says Heather • 230 % increase in num
                                             six years.
Winkels, a travel specialist for • By 2010, womenare traveling.d to control 60
                                                                 are expecte
                                                                                                  percent of the u. S.       mation. «Even if a restaurant says it’s within
                                             wealth  and they
Bursch Travel in Rochester. Ma- • With 67 million participants, the                  potential of the women’s
                                                                                                                market       walking distance of your hotel, check with the
jor hotels have implemented new • While statistics are limited, an estimated 32year, lion about three in concierge for their recommendation,» Morgan
                                             exceeds $19 trillion ann                            mil     single ameri-

policies to give women guests a                                         least once in the last
                                              can women traveled at es or more, according to the travel industr
                                                                                                                         y    says. The concierge is a wealth of knowledge
                                                      e tracks five tim
sense of security, such as requir-
                                              10 mad
                                              association.                                      ear old male, but a 47-
                                                                                                                              about the attractions or tourist spots best for
                                                                     re traveler is not a 28-y
ing people to swipe a room key            • The average adventu
                                              year-old female.                                                            -
                                                                                                                              your particular needs – and they’ll know what
                                                                                                per individual on out
                                                                        age of $295 annually                                  to avoid if you’re a woman traveling alone.
                                          • Women spend an aver ent.
on the elevator in order to access             door apparel and equipm
guest room floors. Donna Mor- http://www.gut                                                         Morgan also encourages her fellow business
gan, administrator of the American                                                                                            travelers to take a little time for themselves
Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Rochester,                                      on each trip, if possible. «Depending on the destination, I may
says that high-quality service is high on her list, among other                                  add a day or two – or up to a week extra in Hawaii, a particular
things. «The hotel must meet all the criteria – quality of ser-                                  favorite – for vacation.» Winkels says that some of her female
vice, food, safety – equally. It’s not sufficient to excel in only one                           clients can get a little fearful of traveling to unknown destina-
area,» she said.                                                                                 tions, but she doesn’t see a need to worry. “I think women can
                                                                                                 be confident about traveling,» she said.
   Women, statistically more so than men, are tuned in to how well
airlines’ and hotels’ customer service meets their needs. Respon-                                By Kimberly Van Brunt
siveness was the top concern on a recent survey of women busi-                         
ness travelers. Winkels’ female clients seem to agree. «When
I’m booking travel for women, they want everything completely

                                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                      P rOf e S Si ONa L : WHAT? Wome n Trav el?

eaSt afriCaN etiquette
fOr SOLO traveLer

                                                                             In Tanzania, if you shake hands with a male and his finger
                                                                          rubs the palm of your hand mid-shake, he is very interested in
                                                                          you. This will feel a little strange at first, but rest assured that it
                                                                          is not a traditional tribal handshake and under no circumstances
                                                                          should you enthusiastically recreate it as you shake hands with
                                                                          this gentleman’s family.
                                                                             In your efforts to meet new people and learn about East Af-
                                                                          rican culture, what you deem friendly behavior may be inter-
                                                                          preted as encouraging of a romantic relationship. Chatting to a
                                                                          newfound friend on a long bus journey may well pass the time
                                                                          but be aware of the impression you are giving to your fellow–no
                                                                          doubt single–passenger. Many a pen pal agreement has led to
                                                                          persistent postal marriage proposals.
                                                                             While traveling in Malawi you may notice a gesture being
                                                                          used by young men when the thumb is pushed between the
                                                                          middle finger and forefinger, often accompanied by sniggering.
                                                                          It’s obviously a bit impolite and is best dealt with by simply ig-
                                                                          noring the perpetrators.
                                                                             When you beckon somebody with your hand, your palm

As      a woman traveling on my own in East Africa it soon be-
        came apparent that there was a fine line between ges-
tures of good will and those with a more romantic significance.
                                                                          should always face down and all of your fingers motion toward
                                                                          you. If your palm is turned up, what your fingers are suggesting
                                                                          has extremely rude connotations.
Conversations with friendly locals would frequently lead to justi-           The best way to prevent unwanted attention is to invent a
fications of why I had a problem with marrying an African man,            boyfriend and, should you need to produce evidence of your
and potential suitors quickly overtook garrulous con men and              claim, carry his photo with you at all times. In extreme situations
sticky-fingered pickpockets on my list of people to avoid.                wear a wedding ring and promote your pretend husband to a
   Not to walk after dark and not to expose too much bare flesh           position of immense influence and power.
is the kind of advice all women travelers have drilled into them
even before they buy their first Lonely Planet guidebook. How-
                                                                          By Terrie Chilvers
ever, there are often subtler rules to abide by in order to avoid
unwanted male attention in a culture where bagging a Western
wife is every young man’s dream. Unless you want to secure a
husband before you’ve had chance to learn Swahili for «I’m afraid
I’m already married,» here are some things to bear in mind:                                                     

                                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                       P rOf e S Si ONa L : WHAT? Wome n Trav el?

gLOBetrOtterS fiNd HOMeS
ON tHe rOad
                                                                            ing two months of travel in the country. And, I’d made friends
                                                                            for life.
                                                                               As you plan your next vacation–whether it’s to Indonesia or
                                                                            Burlington, Vt. –consider joining a hospitality club. As a mem-
                                                                            ber, you can stay with local families or individuals, and swap
                                                                            ideas, build new friendships and gain insight into each other’s
                                                                               In at least 130 countries worldwide, local hosts take visitors
                                                                            into their homes, and provide safe, friendly environments for
                                                                            cultural exchange. Some hospitality groups are geared specifi-
                                                                            cally to individual or women travelers–you stay with other wom-
                                                                            en around the globe–while others target senior adventurers or
                                                                            travel groups.
                                                                               When you join a hospitality club, you typically receive a list
                                                                            of hosts in the region you’re visiting, with information on each
                                                                            person’s background–address, job, family, interests, hobbies
                                                                            and languages spoken, as well as a notation on how many
                                                                            people he/she can host and for how long. Stays can range from
                                                                            two nights to a month or more, depending on the arrangements
                                                                            you’ve made with your host and how well you hit it off.
                                                                               During an 18-month, around-the-world journey, I spent any-
                                                                            where from two days to two weeks with 24 different host fami-
                                                                            lies, including a train conductor in New Zealand, students in
                                                                            Indonesia, a doctor in Malaysia, a retired teacher in Thailand,
                                                                            and a shoemaker in India. These were, by far, some of the most
                                                                            profound experiences of my trip.
                                                                               You can organize your stay before your vacation or once you
                                                                            reach your destination. Since my plans changed almost daily
                                                                            during my trip, I arranged visits en route through letters, e-mail
                                                                            or phone calls.
                                                                               In some cases, you may spend a majority of the visit with your

The         first time I visited Jakarta, Indonesia–feeling groggy
            after a 15-hour train ride and disoriented in this unfa-
miliar city–I was relieved I had arranged to stay with Margaretha
                                                                            hosts, taking part in daily life. In fact, people in lesser-visited,

and her family. As my local, Indonesian hosts, they welcomed
me into their home and shared their customs, values and view-
points with me, as well as a great city map.
  When Margaretha wasn’t working, we shopped for spices at
the markets, cooked gado-gado (noodles with peanut sauce)
in her kitchen, spent time with three generations of relatives,
and talked about everything from Javan dance rituals to wom-
en’s rights. We also explored areas of Jakarta not mentioned
in any guidebooks, places I never would have discovered on
my own.
  By the time I left Margaretha’s home, three days later, I un-
derstood more about Indonesian culture than I had learned dur-

                                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                       P rOf e S Si ONa L : WHAT? Wome n Trav el?
                                                                            just a few days on the slopes, you can spend your extra time
                                                                            living with a local family.
                                                                               Hospitality clubs are great for travel within the United States
                                                                            and even your home state, too. If you’re a Bostonian planning
                                                                            to visit Bend, Ore., stay with a local host and discover what life
                                                                            is like in a small-town ski haven, 3,000 miles away from home.
                                                                            Or, if you grew up on Cape Cod and have never been to the
                                                                            Berkshires, you can spend a weekend with a family in North
                                                                            Adams, for instance.
                                                                               You typically pay an annual fee to join a hospitality club and,
                                                                            in some countries, are occasionally asked to chip in for food,
                                                                            but you never pay for a place to sleep (which can range from a
                                                                            luxurious bed to a spot on a floor). These organizations, how-
                                                                            ever, are not free-accommodation clubs, and many have a strict
                                                                            screening process–an application and interview–to ensure that
                                                                            travelers are truly interested in cultural exchange, rather than a
                                                                            cheap crash pad.
                                                                               For your benefit, hosts are also screened before they’re al-
                                                                            lowed to join, to ensure that they can facilitate hospitality stays.
                                                                            If your aims, and those of your host, are noble, the exchange
                                                                            may be one of the most profound and rewarding travel expe-
                                                                            riences you’ll have, and the friendships you make may last a
                                                                               Here is a short list of some of the hospitality groups you can
                                                                            choose from: Hospitality Groups, Servas, Hospex, Seniors
rural areas may go out of their way to spend time with you.                 Abroad, or Women Welcome Women.
At other times, you may entertain yourself during the day and
spend evenings with your host.                                              By Kari J. Bodnarchuk
   A hospitality stay can be the entire focus of your vacation–visit 
a sheep herder in Scotland or a social worker in India, and im-
merse yourself in the culture. Or, it can be one aspect of your                                            
trip: If you’re planning a 10-day vacation to the Swiss Alps, with                                              

                                                                                                                                  March, 2008
                                       P rOf e S Si ONa L : WHAT? Wome n Trav el?

iN aSia?

The         people of India, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan were mysti-
            fied by the ideal of a single woman traveling for plea-
sure. The women were especially dumbfounded. This is not
                                                                            those of the women. Their gazes were full of curiosity but never
                                                                            of aggression.
                                                                               It is far more relaxing for women to travel in India than, say, in
surprising in view of the fact that they would not dream of travel-         Italy, and far more trouble free in Sri Lanka than in Spain. Even
ing further than the local market without an escort. In Pakistan            the occasional invitation from a stranger is likely to be motivated
women often don’t even get that far.                                        only by an innocent desire to improve their English. Approaches
   What is surprising is how commonly this sense of horror and              of this kind must be dealt with individually. A group of young
alarm is expressed by men and women in our own culture. And                 men urging you to visit their local tea estate almost certainly do
not by just one’s own mother. When I told friends I was plan-               not harbor evil designs, though if you feel at all anxious you are
ning an extended trip in Asia, they looked aghast rather than               always at liberty to decline. Whereas striking up conversations
delighted, and immediately began lecturing me. To hear their                with strangers is suspect, more so in Britain than in America, it
gloom predictions you’d think that every Sri Lankan citizen was             is the most natural thing in the world in Asia, and portends noth-
a Tamil terrorist and every Pakistani a Jack the Ripper.                    ing improper or threatening.
   My own view is that there is a pernicious mythology surround-               Of course, some exceptions are inevitable, but these will be
ing the lone female traveler, whether it be as a hitchhiker around          no more difficult to cope with than anywhere in the world. In fact,
Britain or a traveler in Southeast Asia. Many people instantly              they’ll probably be easier because they arise from a simple but
exaggerate the perils and dwell on a single woman’s vulner-                 profound misunderstanding of Western mores. A stern «NO» is
ability. Often this doom-ridden response is just an excuse for              universally understood. You are more likely to encounter prob-
their own timidity of spirit. In fact, traveling around most of Asia        lems in resorts that have been tainted by tourism. In European
is far safer, and more pleasant, than traveling on the Lexington            playgrounds such as Hikkaduwa in Sri Lanka or Kovalam in
Avenue line in New York City.                                               South India, there is inevitably a contingent of modern young
   I argue from experience. In Sri Lanka, for example, the two              men who try to integrate themselves with you. An extra mea-
main problems were not lecherous men and political upheavals,               sure of caution is called for on these occasions.
but heat and scorpions. The smiles of men were as innocent as                  One of the main differences between Pakistan and the south-
                                                                            ern sub-continent was not that the men were more forward, but
                                                                            that they were less so. A zealous young bank clerk, for instance,
                                                                            declined to shake my hand after having warmly shaken the
                                                                            hand of a male acquaintance. While traveling in the passenger
                                                                            seat of a jeep for part of the distance of Karakoram Highway,
                                                                            an official who was offered a lift squeezed in on the outside of
                                                                            the driver rather than share the seat with a female. Such puerile
                                                                            fastidiousness may make you feel like a leper, but at least lep-
                                                                            ers rarely get physically assaulted.
                                                                               Of course not all Muslims are as puritanical as that. Unfortu-
                                                                            nately, you must be prepared for the occasional peeping Tom
                                                                            and street groper. Before accepting a hotel room, make sure
                                                                            that the door can be bolted, and all windows or other open-
                                                                            ings locked or blocked; it is the norm. If you receive a late night

                                                                                                                                March, 2008
                                       P rOf e S Si ONa L : WHAT? Wome n Trav el?

knock, just repeat «GO AWAY» in an uncompromising tone.                      the Ends of the Earth by a Turbaned Terror» has more pub-ap-
Sure enough, this happened to me on the first night in Pakistan,             peal than «The Magnificent Temple Complex at Anuradhapura»
at of all places the Karachi Boy Scouts hostel that doubles as               of «the Awe-inspiring Mountains of the Lower Karakoram.» To
a youth hostel. By the end of my trip around the country, the                correct the imbalance, I shall refrain from telling my own true
efficacy of stern reprimands had been well proven, and I found               story, «The Day I Tried to Raise the Moral Tone of the Pakistani
this sort of behavior less upsetting, though still very tiresome.            Military Establishment in the Back of an Army Truck.» Annoying,
But there is still no need to overreact to such unpleasantness,              as that episode was at the time, in retrospect it is mostly amus-
since it occupies such a small part of your travels.                         ing (a pudgy Pathan wanting to «honor me with kisses» as he
   When walking in public, dress as modestly as you can. This is             so memorably put it).
even more important outside big cities where local sensibilities               I returned triumphantly to my alarmist friends. I would not
can be offended easily. Abandon any idea of getting a suntan                 have exchanged the pleasures of my trip for any amount of their
in Pakistan. Many Western women purchase the local costume,                  security. Besides, it seemed that they had had a far more anx-
called a shalwar kameez, consisting of trousers and a knee                   ious time than I had, by reading the papers and worrying about
length tunic dress with long sleeves. This is comfortable as well            curfews and bombings of which I had been entirely unaware.
as attractive and may perhaps deflect some of the unwelcome
attention.                                                                   By Susan Griffith
   One of the reasons that the myth of the endangered female         
persists is that so many returning travelers have a tale to tell that
substantiates it. There is no doubt that «How a Predatory Pun-
jabi Policeman Tried to Seduce Me» or «How I was Followed to                                                        

sPa anD MEDical
    PeCuLiar mediCaL traveLS

  medical tourism is a huge part of the tourism as well as
  health market. every year new services and facilities
  emerge. Let’s get familiar with a few titbits from the world
  of medical travels. read about the innovative dentist in
  Bermuda, plastic surgery without scalpel as well as the
  vast possibilities of european medical spa.
                                                                                                                                March, 2008
                                 SPa a N d M e diC a L : Pec uli ar Medi cal Trav el s

eurOPeaN MediCaL SPaS
Offer reLief
                                                                         been bathing in geothermal pools as a recreational activity and
                                                                         to ease rheumatic pain for thousands of years and «taking the
                                                                         waters» was all the rage in 18th century England.
                                                                            But there’s no denying that Europe is firmly on the map as a
                                                                         leader in medicinal waters. With thousands of thermal springs
                                                                         and many varied compositions, the European spa offers ex-
                                                                         tensive medical and rehabilitation treatments as well as being
                                                                         a relaxing and restorative place to recover and escape from
                                                                         the stress of modern day life. Offering a rich variety of medi-
                                                                         cal treatments and drawing on the local and natural therapeutic
                                                                         resources of mud, peat and brine European spas are equipped
                                                                         with ultra modern equipment and have qualified medical teams
                                                                         of doctors, cosmetologists, physiotherapists and auxiliary staff.
                                                                            Medical Spas utilize lasers and intense pulsed light technol-
                                                                         ogy as well as medical microdermabrasions, photofacials, Bo-
                                                                         tox and Restylene injections, medical peels and other medical
                                                                         beauty procedures. You can also get traditional spa services
                                                                         like facials, massages, and body treatments. A doctor generally
                                                                         has to oversee the procedures performed in a Medical Spa, but
                                                                         this does not mean he is always on the premises.
                                                                            A treatment program often lasts from two to four weeks. Trip to a
                                                                         medical spa should also be considered as a vacation that includes
                                                                         a full range of entertainment, excursions, and sport activities. Often,
                                                                         tranquil surroundings are favorable to an enjoyable stay.
For      over two thousand years people have been taking rest-
         ful breaks to rejuvenate, invigorate and heal. In Europe
the ‘Medical Spa’, a health, relaxation and rehabilitation centre
                                                                            Spas can treat a wide range of health conditions including
                                                                         rheumatism, arthritis, fibromyalgia, scoliosis, osteoporosis, joint
                                                                         pain to cardiovascular disease, psoriasis, eczema and stress. It
has been around for well over a hundred years and ‘Health Re-
                                                                         is recommended to take with you a brief diagnosis of your medi-
sorts’ cropped up where salty water was found bubbling be-
                                                                         cal conditions from your regular doctor together with details of
neath the ground. Salty and thermal waters were deemed to
                                                                         any medication that you are taking.
have healing properties and thousands would flock to drink the
water, indulge in huge tubs of mud or salt baths and undertake              Balneology
supervised medical treatments such as diathermy (an electro                 ‘Balneology’ (treatments based on thermal hot springs, miner-
magnetic heat used for healing) or heliotherapy (a chiropractic          al water or mud) is considered a field of medicine in its own right
treatment for muscle stimulation).                                       and medicinal spas in Europe use Balneology principles to help
   Furthermore, the spa town of Bath in the UK has been fa-              cure health problems such as arthritis, psoriasis, rheumatism,
mous for therapeutic baths since Roman times, Icelanders have            infertility, digestive, metabolic and skin disorders using mud or

                                                                                                                             March, 2008
                                  SPa a N d M e diC a L : Pec uli ar Medi cal Trav el s

peat, seawater gases and oxygen ozone mixtures. Some of                   seek peace and quiet and aim to restore a sense of equilibrium
Europe’s mineral springs have large quantities of carbon diox-            in their lives. Consequently, in addition to the medical spas in
ide which is used in the preparation of the carbon bath where             Europe, indulgent spas for health, wellbeing, pampering and
kidney, urinary and the respiratory tract problems are treated,           relaxation have emerged all over the world offering rejuvenat-
as well as obesity and nervous disorders.                                 ing treatments and therapies designed to take the pressure off.
  Mineral spring waters are especially good for curing intestinal         Therapies on offer range from Thalassotherapy, Detoxifying
and digestive problems, diabetes, gout and allergies. The baths           Body Wraps, Herbal Body Scrubs, yoga and reflexology to anti-
also help regain vigor and boost the immune system and it is              ageing or anti-stress Facials.
believed in many cases that bathing cures have an enormous                   The spa goer today can choose from dental spas (particu-
advantage over drugs and surgery.                                         larly beneficial for relaxing the patient before undergoing dental
                                                                          surgery), complementary and alternative spas with yoga and
   What you can expect from a Medical Spa                                 aromatherapy on the menu, spas focusing on aesthetics with
   European spas have been developed to help visitors improve             cosmetic surgery treatments, spas combining health and fitness
their health and as a rehabilitation centre. Treatments are de-           assessment with pampering to just purely decadent spas that
livered and managed by medical staff and doctors as part of a             aim to have you feeling like a royal princess bathing in a tub of
medical spa regimen and a Spa Physician will recommend a                  rose petals with ambient harp music in the background.
routine of tailor made treatments, which is likely to include mas-           As well as working with patients to prevent serious illnesses
sage, exercise (particularly walking which is especially pleasant         like diabetes or obesity in a hospital setting, the European spas
in Europe’s beautiful historic spa towns), drinking the water and         today also offer alternative therapies, pampering and beauty
following a lean, healthy diet. The spa stay will potentially be a        treatments to assist with relaxation and the wellbeing of their
catalyst for a healthier lifestyle.                                       spa clients. One thing is for certain, diagnostic and preventative
   Most spas include sauna, solarium, indoor and outdoor pools,           healthcare is big business, and a spa vacation is a good way
sun terrace, whirlpool, Jacuzzi, thermal bath, steam room and             of incorporating these factors, as well as a fabulous solution to
aroma cabin. Medicinal Treatments include drinking or bathing             twenty first century stress!
in therapeutic water or mud. Therapeutic Treatments include
balneotherapy, hydrotherapy, inhalation and complementary
treatments such as reflexology while the Wellbeing Treatments
include massage and hair and beauty.                             

  Health, wellbeing and luxury spas
  Due to the busy and frenetic lifestyle of the twenty first cen-
tury, spa vacationing has become extremely popular as people                                                  

                                                                                                                                March, 2008
                                   SPa a N d M e diC a L : Pec uli ar Medi cal Trav el s

tHe NO-SurgerY – PLaStiC
                                                                               Get Rid of Cellulite Now
                                                                               Once you’ve undergone body contouring and got rid of the
                                                                            fat in unwanted areas, its time to firm up the skin of the treated
                                                                            area. To get rid of cellulite the Accent radiofrequency lasers
                                                                            contract the skin and you can see a visible improvement in skin
                                                                            tightening. This breakthrough procedure treats both deeper cel-
                                                                            lulite and more superficial cellulite.
                                                                               Line-Smoothing Gel
                                                                               When rubbed onto the skin, this gel gently smooths out frown
                                                                            lines and crow’s feet. It contains botulinum toxin, just like Botox
                                                                            does. The difference – no injections, no pain, no bruising, lasts
                                                                            3 – 5 months.
                                                                               Fabulous Wrinkle Reduction
                                                                               In 5 % of Botox patients there occurs ‘drifting’ which causes
                                                                            the eyelids to droop in the short term. Although Botox is effec-

L     ooking for a non-surgical alternative to enhance your body?           tive, it does take several days to take effect. The new experi-
      You need not look any further. Numerous medical facilities            mental product PurTox, a highly diluted botulinum toxin aims to
and aesthetic clinics today offer a full range of procedures with           counteract these conditions. It can be injected into the face or
virtually no «down» time. You can have most of these procedures             neck to reduce wrinkles, and as it is diluted will hopefully cut
done during your lunch time and the beauty of it all is that no one         down healing time.
will know… yet they will notice the remarkable results. Without                Wrinkle Buster
surgery you can achieve that stunning, gorgeous body you’ve                    This laser can eliminate wrinkles in 70 seconds. The light
hankered after for so long, get rid of those extra centimeters and          stimulates skin cells to produce healthy, new skin-plumping col-
unsightly cellulite. Here are some examples of effortless walk-in,          lagen and slow the breakdown of existing collagen. The differ-
walk-out procedures to enhance your body from top to bottom.                ence – no burning or reddening of the skin. It can reduce pore
  Future Face-Lifts                                                         size and speed wound healing. Rest period between treatments
                                                                            are imperative for effectiveness.
  A machine that will lift and tighten muscles without surgery op-
erates on the concept of tightening the SMAS, a gauzy layer of                 UltraSonic Skin Rejuvenation
muscle fibers that sags with age. This is the area that many plastic           A wave of ultrasound stimulates a cream containing tiny
surgeons surgically tighten when performing face-lifts. Customers           molecules of bovine collagen, pushing them into the dermis.
can have a pain free face-lift, get in their car and drive home.            This cream stimulates the growth of new collagen and de-
                                                                            creases the kind of aged collagen that causes sagging and
  Fat Removal without Surgery                                               discoloration. It effectively fills wrinkles and adds moisture
  Two similar products compete, UltraShape and LipoSonix.                   without the needle.
Both eliminate small amounts of body fat at a time, allowing
patients to lose up to an inch in one treatment and go right back           By Bronwen Elisabeth Roberts
to work. The difference – safe, effective & surgery free Body      
Contouring Treatment. Areas like waist, abdomen, hips, but-        
tocks and outer thighs can be freed from fat without the pain
and discomfort of surgery.                                                                                       

                                                                                                                             March, 2008
                                 SPa a N d M e diC a L : Pec uli ar Medi cal Trav el s

BerMuda deNtiSt
BrigHteNS uP BuSiNeSS
WitH SPa ServiCeS

                                                                         a ‘re-evaluate package’ which involves photographing and ana-
                                                                         lyzing your skin to find out what could be done about it.
                                                                            The medical spa «seemed like a good fit to the dental practice
                                                                         here,» Dr. Fay said. «I was referring a lot of [procedures] out, so
                                                                         I decided to look at the industry closer.» The doctor said he was
                                                                         skeptical at first, but after seeing how it works, enrolled in the
                                                                         relevant courses to certify him to practice such treatments.
                                                                            He then invested close half a million dollars to convert three
                                                                         rooms within his Paget Dental Group office building into the new
                                                                         business. And with affluent people found in every corner of Ber-
                                                                         muda, he’ll have no trouble building a client base. «We’re trying
                                                                         to make sort of a high-end practice,» he said. «It’s small, but its

A     place where you can get your teeth whitened or crowned
      is now working on changing complexions. Dr. James Fay
of the Paget Dental Group has recently opened his new busi-
                                                                         high-end, high quality customer service.»
                                                                            Asked about the demographic that would be most attracted to
                                                                         his clinic, Dr. Fay said, «It’s not only women, pretty well 50 per
ness – the Azure Medical Spa, with a view to removing the im-            cent are men – getting the hair on their back lasered off, and
perfections from your face as well as your teeth.                        those who want to get their skin looking younger.»
   «The medical spa industry is different from the spa,» Dr. Fay
said. «It’s not necessarily a feel-good industry; it’s more based
on the medical treatments that will make you look better.» Those 
treatments include laser hair removal, Botox injections, Rest-
lyne and Juviderm wrinkle fillers, and microderm abrasions.
   And for those who are not happy with their complexion but                                            
aren’t sure what treatment they should consider, the spa offers                                              

                                                                                                                                      March, 2008
                                 SPa a N d M e diC a L : Pec uli ar Medi cal Trav el s

Hair rePLaCeMeNt iN tHe
CeNtraL eurOPe
                                                                         you, you can rest easy knowing that this operation has been
                                                                         done for more than 30 years.
                                                                            Hair loss in women
                                                                            Some doctors estimate one in every five women experience
                                                                         some type of hair loss, usually caused by ageing, illness or hor-
                                                                         monal changes. Women’s hair usually will thin slightly all over
                                                                         the head and does not disappear completely in one place as is
                                                                         common in men. Because this thinning is distributed all over the
                                                                         head, transplantation is very difficult, although medication can
                                                                         be useful. The efficiency of these medications is different for
                                                                         each client, but basically, they prevent further hair loss but don’t
                                                                         help new hair to grow. If you are considering a hair transplant, it
                                                                         is necessary to realize that it is impossible to achieve the same
                                                                         hair density as before the loss. Hair replacement can however
                                                                         cover thin places and fill empty the ones.
                                                                            Why hair replacement abroad?
                                                                            Many patients have already discovered the vast possibili-
                                                                         ties and advantages of medical tourism. Hair replacement is
                                                                         offered to international visitors by professional clinics in various
                                                                         countries including Canada, Poland, Spain, Lithuania as well
                                                                         as the Czech Republic. The biggest advantage is naturally the
                                                                         price which is often several times lower than in the U. S. or UK
                                                                         which makes the patients look for other possibilities than the
                                                                         local medical services offer. Through traveling abroad for one’s
                                                                         health procedures people also speak about the enjoyment of
                                                                         visiting and getting familiar with a country they would not other-
                                                                         wise rate as their No 1 holiday spot.

H    air has always been a symbol of beauty and an important
     part of one’s appearance. Thinning or the loss of hair can
be very frustrating to many people. Cosmetic surgery may have
                                                                           Hair traNSPL aNt
                                                                             Hair replacem
                                                                                                                      al anesthesia and is rel
                                                                                             ent is done under loc rs, but naturally, it depends
                                                                                                      ts quite a few hou
                                                                             time consuming. it las ng transplanted. The operation begins wit e
                                                                             on the area which is bei d hair cover from the nape area. The siz -
an answer: hair replacement.                                                                           goo
                                                                             a cut of hair graft with the size of the bald place which will be covr
                                                                             of this graft depends on the surger y, just the hair where the hai
                                                                                                       ore                                          to
  What is hair replacement?                                                  ered. immediately bef to 2mm in length. it is not necessary
                                                                              graft will be done is e edges of the site of the hair graft are subse-
  Hair replacement – or a hair transplant – involves the trans-               cut any other hair. Th er and only a discrete scar remains on the      d
                                                                              quently stitched togeth , the skin graft with quality hair is divides)
plantation of your own hair grafts or micro-grafts to fill places             nape. in the next phase fts containing either 1 – 3 (micro-graft
left bald because of missing or thinning hair. The treatment is               by a scalpel into smallhair roots. Micro-grafts are used to treat the
                                                                              or 3 – 6 (mini-grafts) helps to give a natural look.
best for men who have conventional hair loss, after hair loss or              future front hairline; it                              ent surger y used
                                                                                                            method of hair replacem
thinning has slowed or stabilized. Hair loss is caused mostly by              du  ring the most common hair roots are inserted with the help of
                                                                               nowadays, the grafts wit ns in the area to be transplanted. These
ageing, changes in hormonal processes or a hereditary predis-                  micro -forceps into incisio a special scalpel. in the new area, the
position.                                                                      cuts are usually done hair has the same characteristics as in the
                                                                               inserted  transplanted                             naturally, it can be
                                                                                                          r graft. The hair grows
  Hair loss can be also caused by burns or traumas. In such                    original place of the hai r necessary to realize that real hair growth
                                                                               cut, dyed etc. it is how treatment and the results of the hair trans-
cases the treatment is considered to be reconstructive and                      begins later after the ed for about five to six months after the treat-
therefore is usually covered by an insurance company. If you                    plant cannot be assess
and your doctor have decided that a hair transplant is right for

                                                                                          March, 2008
                                  SPa a N d M e diC a L : Pec uli ar Medi cal Trav el s
   The Czech Republic is in fact the home of modern plastic
surgery. Czech plastic surgeons are highly educated, trained,
skilled and qualified. Clinics are located in Prague, Brno and
other smaller cities. Both Prague and Brno have internation-
al airports for those who may be flying in to the country. The
Czech Republic is a fairly small country. Even if you choose a
clinic outside of Prague, travel time from the airport shouldn’t be
more than two hours.
   The Czech capital Prague has many attractive features for
those considering a hair transplant abroad. Its location in Central
Europe is easy to access; its mild climate is conducive to heal-
ing and its experienced clinics and hair replacement surgeons
ensure clients receive the best possible care. Central European
hair transplant costs are known for being much more affordable
than in the western countries. A very pleasant advantage is the
fact that the majority of Czech cosmetic surgeons speaks Eng-
lish and is internationally recognized. They regularly perform
lectures and share their innovative techniques with specialists
all over the world. Patients thus get the best pre-operative and
post-operative care from a professional English speaking staff.

By Tomas Dolezal, M. D. 


 WHere did aLL tHe StudentS go?

   Students and youth travelers have gained a huge share
   in the travel market. many stakeholders wonder what the
   students really seek, what thrills them and ... how much
   money they have as well. Come and read about the trends
   in the student travel, the destination the youth prefers and
   the information technology students love to use when trav-
                                                                                                                                    March, 2008
                                   a dv e N t u r e : Whe re D i d All the Stu d e nts G o?

HeY guYS! get Out
aNd traveL!

                                                                             ferent destinations and airlines. Work out an itinerary that would
                                                                             keep entertained for as long as you want – from one week to
                                                                             one year or more. Of course, the fun would be multiplied to no
                                                                             end if you decide to travel in groups. Groups are offered even
                                                                             better prices, and being together enhances the joy of any vaca-
                                                                             tion trip to anywhere in the world.
                                                                                Some ideas for student travel destinations
                                                                                If you are bitten by the travel bug, you will do good if you in-
                                                                             dulge in it as much as you can during your student days. Once
                                                                             you leave the education stream and step into the world, the
                                                                             «free rides» are over. You have many, many choices, just make
                                                                             the best and the most out of it as soon as you can.
                                                                                Visit all historic places in a continent, such as Europe, Asia,
                                                                             Africa, Australia, and so on. This type of a student travel trip
                                                                             is best endeavored with a group of colleagues and friends for

T      raveling is a compelling pastime from time immemorial.
       Humans love traveling; they get restless if they stay put
for too long a time in one place. Traveling answers to the quest
                                                                             three major reasons: traveling in group is great fun, traveling in
                                                                             group is safe, and traveling in a group gets the best discounts.
                                                                                Volunteer with the UN Forces or any other world-famous volun-
for knowing more about other people, other cultures, other cus-              teers, and travel wherever you are sent to help the fellow human
toms and traditions, other ways of living, other religions, and the          beings out of economical, political or health problems. All over the
list goes on.                                                                world, students make for more than 75 percent of volunteers in
   All this makes traveling thrilling and one of the greatest ways           development work, which is extremely commendable.
of relaxation of all. Everybody loves traveling, but those who                  You might have learned to climb a mountain and you want
simply thrive on it are the students. Students, all over the world,          to experience your prowess and strength. You might want to
undergo most trips in their pursuit of fun and adventure.                    find out what it is like to raft down the rapids of a river, or the
   What makes student travel so special                                      thrills that a Safari in an African jungle offers. The list is endless,
                                                                             because every day new quests are introduced by these young-
   Student travel is special simply because it is totally carefree.          sters, making impossible to know about everything all the time.
They have no worries to carry with them, they have their youth               However, the best thing is that you have some great choices
to support them, and they have the greatest possible discounts               waiting for you.
to encourage them. In short, student travel is actually the best
travel experience you will ever have in your life. So, if you are a          By Darlene Berkel
student, make sure you make the best of this opportunity.           
   The best way to get the most out of student travel is to seek
out the special offers at different times of the year offered by dif-                                              

                                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                  a dv e N t u r e : Whe re D i d All the Stu d e nts G o?

tHe YOuNg iNdePeNdeNt
traveLer treNdS
                                                                           these more ‘serious’ motivations accounted for over 70 % of all
                                                                           trips. There were some differences between men and women
                                                                           in terms of the purpose of trip. Women were more likely to be
                                                                           studying languages or volunteering, whereas men were more
                                                                           likely to be studying abroad or relaxing and having fun.
                                                                              What factors are important in planning a trip?
                                                                              Given the modest income and travel budgets of many young
                                                                           travellers, it is not surprising that 80 % base their travel planning
                                                                           on being able to travel as cheaply as possible. However, the
                                                                           ability to explore the destination is almost as important. Feeling
                                                                           safe in the destination is also an important consideration in trav-
                                                                           el planning, even though real or imagined risks are less likely
                                                                           to deter young travellers than most other tourists. Likewise, the
                                                                           ability to experience something different and do ‘non-tourist’ ac-
                                                                           tivities is highly regarded by a majority of young travellers.

V     arious studies have confirmed that travel is an increasing-
      ly important aspiration for young people around the world.
They are exploring further, spending more, and demanding new
                                                                             What sources do they use for planning?
                                                                             Youth and student travellers tend to be information intensive,
types of experiences to fulfill their desire to learn about and            consulting a wide range of information sources before departure.
discover the world around them. Youth travel is thus of great              Internet remains the main form of pre-trip information gathering
interest of all the stake holders. The global movement of young            (80 %), followed by family and friends (70 %). The dominance of
travellers generates exceptional financial, EUR 109 billion an-            internet as an information source is highlighted by the fact that
nually. The latest information of the current trends in the student        in 2007 tourist office information increased from 10 % to 52 %.
travel market was revealed in a recent survey of WYSE Travel               This indicates that not only is internet the most consulted me-
Confederation. The results underline the dynamic and buoyant               dium, but travellers are searching a number of different types
nature of the youth travel market.                                         of websites to find the information they need. The use of travel
                                                                           agencies and tourist office information also increased in 2007
  Are students well off?                                                   compared with 2002, which may indicate that these businesses
  An analysis by region of origin reveals large income differ-             are adapting to new market conditions, for example by provid-
ences between different areas of the world. There is a clear               ing more information over the internet.
division between young people in Africa and Asia, who predomi-
nantly have incomes lower than US$5000 a year, and those in
                                                                                YOuNg PeOPLe aNd StudeNtS are:
the Americas and Europe, who generally have incomes over
                                                                                • travelling more often: The average number of trips taken
US$5000. These differences underscore the importance of un-                         by young people has increased in the last five years.
dertaking regional analyses, both in terms of inbound and out-                 • exploring more destinations: Young people are taking
bound travellers. Despite their generally low income levels, the                    more trips outside their own home region and exploring
                                                                                    new areas of the world.
relatively large travel budgets of survey respondents indicate                 • Spending more on travel: average spending on a main
that most young travellers are able to save up for a major trip,                   trip abroad increased by almost 40 % between 2002 and
or can supplement their income by working abroad.                                  2007 to €1915, a higher rate of expenditure growth than
                                                                                   the international travel market as a whole. in proportion
                                                                                   of their total income, young people spend more than any
   Why are young people travelling?                                               other group on international travel.
   In terms of the main purpose of their most recent main trip,               • Booking more over the internet: Young travellers are ear-
                                                                                  ly adopters of new travel technology. More than 80 % of
exploring other countries and cultures was cited by over a third                 young travellers now use the internet to search for infor-
of travellers. Although fun and relaxation was the main aim of                   mation before departing on their trip, and the proportion
the trip for some, these ‘leisure’ motivations were far outweighed               of internet searches converted into bookings has grown
                                                                                 four-fold over the past five years.
by those wanting to explore or undertake more specific types of
travel such as learning a language or volunteering. Altogether

                                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                     a dv e N t u r e : Whe re D i d All the Stu d e nts G o?
   When asked about the specific features of travel websites they
value most, respondents were most likely to identify price com-
parison features and information about the destination. These
information-based features were rated well above functionality,
such as being able to book everything on one website (e. g.
flights, accommodation, surface transport) or saving enquiries
for later booking. Websites aimed specifically at youth travel-
lers were also not considered to be as important as information
   How do they book?
   There is little doubt that booking behavior is changing rapidly
with the introduction of new technology, or that young travellers
are among the most avid users of these new possibilities. The
2007 survey indicates that for those who made prior bookings,
about half the market is now reserving their air travel online,
and over 60 % are making accommodation bookings over the                      course of their entire ‘travel career’ to date, respondents had
internet. Travel agents are still very important in the surface and           visited many world regions, with over half having visited north-
air travel markets (and have an even larger share in terms of                 ern and Southern Europe and over 40 % having visited north
booking value), and also account for a large number of insur-                 America and Eastern Europe. This general pattern changed little
ance and tour product sales. Niche products, such as work and                 between the 2002 and 2007 surveys. It is clear, however, that
study abroad and volunteering are likely to be sold by a relative-            most regions showed an increase in visitation levels in the last
ly small number of specialist agencies. These figures indicate                five years. This result again underlines the growing frequency
that although the use of the internet to search for information               and range of youth travel.
has increased only slightly in the last five years (from 70 % to                 The most popular destinations for respondents’ last major trip
80 % of respondents), the percentage of bookings made on the                  were Australia, the United States and France, all of which were
internet has grown dramatically, from 10 % in 2002 to almost                  visited by more than 10 % of travellers. These figures match
50 % in 2007. These results indicate that the internet is increas-            fairly closely the international tourism arrivals data of the UN-
ingly considered a trusted medium for booking travel as well as               WTO, which listed France as the top international destination in
finding information.                                                          2005, and the USA as number three.
                                                                                 Some destinations tend to attract particular traveller styles
  Where do they go?                                                           more than others. For the most popular destinations in 2007, it
  Survey respondents were asked to indicate destinations they                 is clear that Thailand, New Zealand and Australia are the lead-
had visited during their entire travel career, as well as desti-              ing ‘backpacker’ destinations. In contrast, classic tourist desti-
nations they had visited during their last major trip. Over the               nations in Southern Europe, such as Turkey, Spain and Greece,
                                                                              tend to attract more ‘tourists’ and far fewer backpackers.
aNd YOuNg PeOPLe aNd StudeNtS                                                    Where do they stay?
                                                     want most of
• experience hungry: What young travellers experiences,
   all from their trave    l is a range of different                             The main form of accommodation for young travellers con-
                                                    re of the places
   often involving the ever yday life and cultu icularly im-                  tinues to be hostels, with over 60 % having stayed in some sort
   they visit . Contacts with local people are part
                                                    nts travel with           of hostel in 2007. Interestingly, the proportion of respondents
   portant in this process. 70 % of responde , volunteer-
   the purpose of exploring, learning a lang
                                                  uage                        staying in hotels also increased from 2002 to 2007, indicating
   ing, working and studying.                                                 the growing convergence between hostels and budget hotels in
                                            llers are consulting
• information hungry: Young trave sources in planning                         the youth market. The fact that young travellers seek out bud-
   a growing number         of information
                                                  th of visit is fall-        get accommodation or stay with friends and relatives means
   their trips, even though the average leng
   ing.                                                                       that a higher proportion of their total trip expenditure is likely
                                                 llers are deterred
• intrepid travellers: very few young trave disasters or epi-                 to be made with local businesses rather than national or global
   by problems such as       terrorism, natural
   demics. for them, travel is a way of life.
                                                  a certain level of          chains. This may have the effect of increasing their local eco-
   risk is a part of travel, even though this can be minimize                 nomic impact in relation to other types of visitors.
   through careful planning       .
                                              el experiences make               How long do they stay?
• getting a lot out of their travel: trav . Contact with oth-
   young people want to travel even more
   er people and cultures stimulate young trave
                                                       llers to learn           In line with general trends in the tourism market, it seems
   more and further develop         themselves. The experience of             that young people are travelling more frequently, but going on
                                                    their lifestyles,
   travel leads some young people to change of respondents                    shorter trips. In 2007, the number of trips of two weeks or less
   and is becoming     a lifestyle for many. 80 %
                                                    more apprecia-            grew considerably in comparison with 2002, and now account
   report that their travels have made them
    tive and tolerant of other cultures.                                      for over 45 % of all main trips taken. In contrast, there has been

                                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                  a dv e N t u r e : Whe re D i d All the Stu d e nts G o?
                                                                           travel continues to be a thirst for more travel. Once young peo-
                                                                           ple start travelling, they find it difficult to stop. This underlines
                                                                           the importance of attracting backpackers and young travellers
                                                                           early in their ‘travel careers’, as they are likely to remain avid
                                                                           travellers. Over 80 % of young travellers confirm that travel ex-
                                                                           perience made them more interested in learning about other
                                                                           cultures, more appreciative and tolerant of other cultures, and
                                                                           more self-confident and self-aware.
                                                                             Barriers to travel
                                                                             Young people are relatively fearless travellers. Only about
                                                                           3 % of respondents indicated that they had delayed their trip
                                                                           abroad because of terrorism, crime, political instability or other
                                                                           problems. The main reason for young travellers to avoid visiting
                                                                           certain destinations was crime, which is often more of a struc-
little change in the proportion of trips of six months or more,            tural issue in the areas visited than terrorism or war. Even then,
which still account for almost 8 % of all main trips. Reflecting           perceived levels of crime were more likely to produce a feeling
these changes, the average length of a main trip fell from 63              of anxiety rather than a change in travel plans. Interestingly, men
days in 2002 to just over 53 days in 2007.                                 tend to be more affected by terrorism, war or natural disasters
                                                                           than women, although women are slightly more likely than men
   What do they do on their travels?                                       to be anxious about travelling to places because of crime. In
   In terms of the activities young travellers most enjoy on a long        general, travellers with higher education levels, higher incomes
trip abroad, visiting popular tourist and cultural attractions top         and those taking longer trips are less likely to be concerned by
the list of selected responses, followed closely by meeting local          potential problems in the destination. Part of the explanation for
people. A sizeable group indicates that they prefer to get off the         this finding may be that travellers with these characteristics tend
beaten track. Those respondents most likely to seek non-tour-              to plan their trips carefully, and would therefore be well aware of
ist destinations are travellers from North America and Europe,             any problems in advance.
whereas African, Asian and Latin American travellers tend to be
more interested in popular tourist sites.                                  By Greg Richards (WYSE Travel Confederation) 
    What do they gain from their travels?                         
    The benefits of travel reported by respondents have changed
little between 2002 and 2007. The main benefit gained from                                                      

                                                                                                                               March, 2008
                                  a dv e N t u r e : Whe re D i d All the Stu d e nts G o?

tHe SPriNg BreaK traveL
                                                                            abroad in Dublin. Study abroad is another option for students
                                                                            who want to do something exciting over spring break.
                                                                               Erika Mabus (junior-biobehavioral health) is taking advantage
                                                                            of that spring break option this year when she studies abroad in
                                                                            Greece with a group of about 12 people during break. «[Greece]
                                                                            has always been a place I’ve wanted to go,» Mabus said. «I like
                                                                            traveling, so any way I can go somewhere is a good reason.»
                                                                               For first-time spring breakers, one can take a cue from a group
                                                                            of freshmen who will be spending their first college spring break in
                                                                            Fort Myers, Fla. Kris-
                                                                            ten Lutter (freshman-        tOP 10 iNterNatiONaL SPriNg Brea .COM
                                                                            kinesiology) planned              BOOKiNgS ON StudeNtuNiverSe

The         birds have it right when they migrate to the south, and
            several students seem to be following suit as they
plan their spring break vacations. Already seasoned in spring
                                                                            the trip with a few
                                                                            friends from her floor
                                                                                                         London, england
                                                                                                         amsterdam, Netherlands
                                                                                                         Paris, france
                                                                            in Beaver Hall. Her          rome, italy
break extravagance, Natalie Rogers (sophomore-marketing) is                 group’s plans to hit         florence, italy
headed to Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. She and 12 of her friends                the beach will be            frankfurt, germany
from Penn State will cross the border and spend March 10 to                 less expensive than          Madrid, Spain
                                                                                                         San Jose del Cabo, Mexico
March 14 in the Mexican town. The price comes out to roughly                other options, as            Sydney, australia
$1,000 per person, Rogers said.                                             they will be staying         Beijing, China
                                                                            at a friend’s condo.
   «None of us are 21,» Rogers said, adding that the drinking
age in Mexico is 18. «Some of us wanted to get out of the coun-             Rather than shell out
try, and Mexico was more different.» Although travel agencies               for a hotel, her only expense will be the plane ticket to get there.
all over are offering specials for students making their spring             «This is the first time I’m going on vacation with my friends,» Lutter
break plans, Rogers said she planned the trip herself.                      said. «No family at all, so I’m very excited.»
   STA travel, located in the HUB-Robeson Center, is offering                  Like Lutter, Ellen Turkewitz (freshman-hotel and restaurant
packages to students who need a little extra help planning their            management) plans to spend a few days in sunny Florida. But
vacations. Although it is late in the game and more incentives              instead of hanging out with friends, Turkewitz will be visiting her
were offered earlier in the year, limited opportunities are still           grandparents. «I haven’t seen them in a while,» Turkewitz said.
available, said David Pomeroy, an STA Travel representative.                «Plus, it’s warm, and my parents will pay for it.» Sydney Wagner
                                                                            (freshman-advertising) said she also plans to visit family. She will
   Lauren Baioni (senior-mathematics) and four of her friends               be heading to Santa Barbara, Calif., to visit her aunt and cousin.
will be traveling to Daytona Beach this year. It will be Baioni’s
                                                                               While some students are self-sufficient in planning their spring
first time celebrating spring break while in college. The price of          break trips and many take advantage of STA Travel’s proximity,
staying in a hotel for five nights is roughly $125 per night, on top        there are many different travel agencies available.
of additional gas expenses.
                                                                               There are several tips on how to make the most out of spring
   «We are driving down to Daytona, so it’s going to be an ad-              break, including different ways to pay for it. One major tip is to
venture,» Baioni said.                                                      book early.
   Snowboarding is exactly what Mike McKemey (senior-history)               By Shannon Simcox
plans to do while he spends his spring break in the Poconos.
An assortment of friends from home and from school will be
in attendance, he said. Last semester, McKemey was studying                                                       

                                                                                                                                March, 2008
                                  a dv e N t u r e : Whe re D i d All the Stu d e nts G o?

aMeriCaN StudeNtS NOt
Left BeHiNd
                                                                              Not only are today’s youth more technologically savvy than
                                                                           most adults, they also view the world as a place to see and
                                                                           explore. While student and youth travelers do want to see the
                                                                           typical tourist destinations that have been popular for decades,
                                                                           they are also more likely to be willing to travel to places that may
                                                                           have intimidated older generations.
                                                                              The world’s political climate has also had an influence on the
                                                                           evolution of student and youth travel. Tour Operators address
                                                                           parent and school concerns over safety issues and implement
                                                                           plans to be prepared to deal with any emergency that might
                                                                              When considering both the desire of young people to experi-
                                                                           ence new cultures and different parts of the world, and the politi-
                                                                           cal and safety concerns of school administrators and parents, it
                                                                           is easy to apply a natural assumption among all travelers:

The        student and youth travel industry continues to be one
           of the fastest growing revenue producing segments
in the travel industry. Student and youth travel is travel by youth
25 years of age and under, away from their community, not for
business, and not primarily to visit friends or relatives. Student
and youth travel includes: day and overnight trips and tours, do-
mestic and international travel, and group and individual travel.
   Mega Trends Affecting Student Travel
   For several years now, the travel industry and the world in
general have experienced mass globalization. The phrase «the
world keeps getting smaller» is a common saying when talking
about the ease of communicating with, doing business with, and
traveling to other parts of the world. This phrase is especially
applicable when talking about North American and European
students and young adults.

                                                                                                                          March, 2008
                                a dv e N t u r e : Whe re D i d All the Stu d e nts G o?
                                                                       years of age. Of these, the largest youth group consists of 15-
                                                                       19 year olds, which is a prime target age for student travel.
                                                                          There are approximately 18 million students in colleges and
                                                                       universities in the U. S. and Canada.
                                                                          In a nationwide study conducted by Michigan State Universi-
                                                                       ty’s Student and Youth Travel Research Institute (SYTRI) it was
                                                                       found that during a one year period, 60.5 % of young people
                                                                       aged 12-18 took a group trip. Further, the research reported
                                                                       that 23.1 % of the groups used a tour operator. Total spending
                                                                       by 5-25 year olds on group travel continues to rise. Not only is
                                                                       there a growing percentage of students traveling, but students
                                                                       are tending to start traveling at a younger age.
                                                                          Educational Ties to Travel
                                                                          Student travel has evolved based on factors such as the No
                                                                       Student Left Behind Act and safety and liability concerns by par-
                                                                       ents and school administrators. The student and youth travel
                                                                       industry has been able to address these concerns by helping
                                                                       trip sponsors identify and provide curriculum based itineraries
                                                                       for school sponsored trips. Other trends to note related to edu-
                                                                       cational travel include an increase in the number of tours occur-
                                                                       ring outside of the school day. There has been a trend in recent
                                                                       years toward weekend and school vacation travel. Additionally,
                                                                       there has been a rise in the number of other, non-school based
                                                                         Overall Predictions
                                                                         The future looks bright for student and youth travel. The
                                                                       industry’s forecast is for continued growth, based on the dedi-
                                                                       cated efforts of industry professionals as well as the recognized
                                                                       importance of travel as part of a well-rounded education. Based
                                                                       on a survey of SYTA Tour Operator members, 53 % of the re-
  • Group trips, typically organized by adults for youth aged          sponding companies expect sales and number of tour partici-
10-18, tend to be to destinations that are more tried and true.        pants to be up for the next year.
  • Young adults ages 18-25 are planning their own trips and
are more inclined to travel to new destinations, envisioning
                                                                       By Debbie Gibb
themselves as pioneers when it comes to seeing the world.
  Current Environment
  It is estimated that student and youth travelers make up over
20 % of all international travelers worldwide. In the U. S. and                                      
Canada, there are 85 million young people between 5 and 25                                                

   touriStS? no, tHank You!

 tourists move the world economy and governments usu-
 ally care a lot to lure as many travelers to the country as
 possible. However, it is quite clear also tourism causes
 quite serious side effects. Pollution, waste, lack of water,
 changed life of local communities, devastation of cultural
 heritage – the consequences are numerous.
                                                                                                                               March, 2008
                                         e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!

& eNvirONMeNt
                                                                         •  Learning about each other’s culture and customs
                                                                         •  Reducing negative perceptions and stereotypes
                                                                         •  Developing friendships
                                                                         •  Developing pride, appreciation, understanding, respect, and
                                                                            tolerance for each other’s culture
                                                                         • Increasing self-esteem of hosts and tourists
                                                                         • Psychological satisfaction with interaction
                                                                           The social contacts between tourists and local people may
                                                                         result in mutual appreciation, understanding, tolerance, aware-
                                                                         ness, learning, family bonding respect, and liking. Residents are
                                                                         educated about the outside world without leaving their homes,
                                                                         while their visitors learn about a distinctive culture. Local com-
                                                                         munities benefit from the improvement of the social infrastruc-
                                                                         ture like schools, libraries, health care institutions, internet ca-
                                                                         fes, and so on. Besides, if local culture is the base for attracting

T     oday, tourism is one of the largest and dynamically de-            tourists to the region, it helps to preserve the local traditions and
      veloping sectors of external economic activities. Its high         handicrafts that may be on the brink of extinction.
growth and development rates, considerable volumes of foreign              For example in Uzbekistan, particularly in such famous re-
currency inflows, infrastructure development, and introduction           gions as Samarqand, Buhara, and Horezm tourists contribute
of new management and educational experience actively affect             significantly to the preservation of traditional handcrafting wood
various sectors of economy, which positively contribute to the           carving, hammered copper work, handmade silk and carpets,
social and economic development of countries as a whole.                 and of course to preservation and maintenance of architectural
  Most highly developed western countries, such as Switzer-              and historical monuments. Since Uzbekistan proclaimed its
land, Austria, and France have accumulated a large part of their         independence in 1991 many museums and monuments were
social and economic welfare on profits from tourism. Accord-             renovated and opened to promote the national culture and tra-
ing to the recent statistics, tourism provides about 10 % of the         ditions. Growing interest in this culture makes the local people
world’s income and employs almost one tenth of the world’s               proud of their way of life.
workforce.                                                                  The Negative Impacts
  Many people emphasize the positive aspects of tourism as a                On the other hand, tourism can increase tension, hostility, and
source of foreign exchange, a way to balance foreign trade, an           suspicion. Claims of tourism as a vital force for peace are exag-
«industry without chimney» – in short, manna from heaven. But            gerated. Indeed there is little evidence that tourism is drawing
there is also a number of other positive and negative effects of         the world together. In this context economic and social impacts
the economic boom for local communities, which are not always            on the local community depend on how much of the income
considered by the advocates of tourism perspectives. Let us              generated by the tourists go to the host communities. In most
consider the main social and environment impacts of tourism at           all-inclusive package tours more than 80 % of travellers’ fees go
the country level.                                                       to the airlines, hotels and other international companies, not to
                                                                         the local businessmen and workers. On the other hand large
  The Positive Impacts                                                   hotel chain restaurants often import food to satisfy foreign visi-
  Socially tourism has a great influence on the host societies.          tors and rarely employ local staff for senior management posi-
Tourism can be both a source of international amity, peace and           tions, preventing local farmers and workers from reaping the
understanding and a destroyer and corrupter of indigenous cul-           benefit of their presence.
tures, a source of ecological destruction, an assault of people’s           Tourism has the power to affect cultural change. Success-
privacy, dignity, and authenticity.                                      ful development of a resource can lead to numerous negative
  Here are the possible positive effects of tourism:                     impacts. Among these are overdevelopment, assimilation, con-
• Developing positive attitudes towards each other                       flict, and artificial reconstruction. While presenting a culture to

                                                                                                                                      March, 2008
                                             e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!
                                                                                  Undoubtedly in some regions or countries the alternative in-
                                                                               dustries are even more harmful to the environment than tourism.
                                                                               In many countries of Asia and the Pacific, for example in Cook
                                                                               Islands, Samoa and others, tourism is the main source of income
                                                                               and the friendliest industry to the environment. It is at least better
                                                                               than chopping down the forests or destroying the coral reefs.
                                                                                  The impact of tourism on local communities can be also both
                                                                               positive and negative, whether it comes to economic, social,
                                                                               or environmental effects. It depends to what extent tourism is
                                                                               developed in the particular region. Every region has its bearing
                                                                               capacity, that is to say the limit of the incoming influence that
                                                                               does not harm the host community. If we exceed that limit the
                                                                               negative impacts of tourism will follow.
                                                                                  In order to decrease the negative effects on local societies we
                                                                               can check the following points when arranging a tourism activity
 tourists may help preserve the culture, it can also dilute or even
                                                                               in a region or taking part in it:
 destroy it. The point is to promote tourism in the region so that it
 would both bring profits and create respect for the local tradition           • Are local people involved in the tourism industry as employ-
 and culture.                                                                     ees?
                                                                               • Does the organization cooperate with the local businesses?
   Good or Bad?
                                                                               • Does it have a respectful attitude to the local culture?
   There are negative as well as positive impacts of tourism on
                                                                               • Is there respect to nature and how is it protected?
 the local ecology. Tourism often grows into the size of mass-
                                                                               • How much economic benefit will the local population get from
L e a Kag e                                                                    • Are tour operators concerned about ecological hotels, trans-
a study of tourism ‘leakage’ in Thailand estimated that                           port, and restaurants?
70 % of all money spent by tourists ended up leaving                              We can see it is a great challenge to make a profitable tour-
Thailand (via foreign-owned tour operators, airlines,                          ism business without some negative effect to the local com-
hotels, imported drinks and food, etc.). estimates for
other Third World countries range from 80 % in the                             munity. It is possible for the tourism industry to cooperate with
Caribbean to 40 % in india.                                                    other industries and bring benefits to both the tourism organi-                                                        zations and local businesses. The first step to achieve it is to
                                                                               understand the needs and desires of both the host community
                                                                               and the tourists.
 tourism. It leads to the over consumption, pollution, and lack of
 resources. However, from the ecological point of view tourism is              By Batir Mirbabayev & Malika Shagazatova
 often more acceptable and preferable than any other industrial
 production, as it is environmentally friendlier. The problem is      
 that it is not easy to change the traditional way of life of the local
 communities which might creates pseudo conflicts.                                                             

                                                                                                                                  March, 2008
                                           e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!

MiSSiON: Save tHe eaSter
                                                                               These ships may carry as many as 1000 passengers. When
                                                                            they arrive to the island, passengers and crew must be off-
                                                                            loaded in small tenders as there is no deep water port. While
                                                                            this eliminates some of the elderly passengers, it is common
                                                                            for 800-900 people to disembark in a few hours and then be
                                                                            taken around the island in buses to see the archaeological
                                                                            sites. Naturally, they are divided up into bus loads, but it is still
                                                                            800-900 persons trampling the sites. This is a huge impact on
                                                                            the island’s fragile sites. This is also the least beneficial type of
                                                                            tourism as cruise passengers are not on the island long enough
                                                                            to spend any money, they don’t eat or sleep on the island. So
                                                                            they make a huge impact, get back on their ship, and leave.
                                                                            The only benefit goes to the bus owners! This is not the kind of
                                                                            tourism that Easter Island needs or deserves.
                                                                               Another very superficial type of tourism has developed in the
                                                                            past few years. These are expensive private charters, usually
                                                                            on an ‘around the world’ tour. They fly in, spend one night at
                                                                            a hotel, and leave the next day. They are taken around to see
                                                                            the major sites, see a dance performance, and off again to an-
                                                                            other exotic island. Again, this is not the kind of tourism the
                                                                            island needs or deserves. These expensive charters stay at the
                                                                            Chilean-owned hotel (so the money goes off-island), the tour-
                                                                            ists have little time to shop, and have only a superficial look at
                                                                            the island. They are also easy to spot: the women are smartly
                                                                            dressed, wearing high heels and stockings and lots of jewelry.
                                                                            They complain because there are no cement sidewalks at the
                                                                            sites and their shoes get dirty.
                                                                               Many writers have compared Easter Island’s history to our
                                                                            world of today: a microcosmic example of what can happen if
The        tragedy of the oceanic islands lies in the uniqueness,
           the irreplaceability of the species they have devel-
oped by the slow processes of the ages. In a reasonable world
                                                                            we continue to despoil our natural resources and overpopulate
                                                                            our planet. This is a powerful analogy for those who value the
                                                                            irreplaceable treasures of our world. And now these small is-
men would have treated these islands as precious possessions,
as natural museums filled with beautiful and curious works of
creation, valuable beyond price because nowhere in the world
are they duplicated. (Rachel Carson)
   Easter Island is the only island in this part of the Pacific that
has regularly scheduled flights, a large choice of hotels, tourist
guides, shops and a thriving souvenir trade. It thus attracts tour-
ists coming from the direction of Tahiti as well as from Santiago.
Most of the year tourism is manageable; the summer months
(December – March) are, however, crowded and expensive.
Many come for the Tapati festival, held around the first part of
February. This is vacation time in the southern hemisphere. It
is also the time of year when huge cruise ships stop at the is-
land. They only stay one day (in some cases, only a few hours).
However, their impact is way out of proportion to the time they
are there.

                                                                                                                               March, 2008
                                           e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!

lands face global warming as well as the rising sea levels. Tour-           bers have gone up to 21,434 in 1999. It seems clear that, with
ism that is environmentally and culturally aware is a must, for             such an increase in visitors, something must be done to safe-
the harm that can be done by hordes of tourists is incalculable.            guard the fragile archaeological sites. If the numbers of tourists
When you visit Rapa Nui, forget about a 3-day tour and allow                continue to increase, the sites are bound to suffer from heavy
yourself time to savor this special place and meet the islanders.           foot traffic. Some sites, such as Orongo, are already severely
Take time to sit and reflect at the incredible archaeological sites.        impacted.
Spend time on the soft sands of the beaches and swim in the          
turquoise waters. Get in touch with the universe and yourself.
  The latest figures show a clear increase in tourism over the                                            
years. Since 1990 when the island had 4,961 tourists, the num-                                                 

                                                                                                                               March, 2008
                                           e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!

traveL treNdS: frOM HiPPieS
tO Sex tOuriSM

The        post-World War II increase in disposable income and
           leisure time in the West, the falling cost of air travel,
and the introduction of faster, larger planes fuelled the growth
                                                                               Mainstream holiday development soon followed the hippies
                                                                            and backpackers. For example, the island of Ko Samui in Thai-
                                                                            land was transformed from being an ‘undiscovered’ hippie des-
of tourism. The tourism industry also began to get involved in              tination in the early 1980s to a package tour destination with an
independent travel. Agencies such as STA Travel began selling               airstrip and modern hotels by the 1990s. The same thing has
cheap, round-the-world air tickets, and guidebooks gave people              happened in Hawaii, Ibiza, Goa, Bali, Mexico’s Yucatan penin-
access to almost any country.                                               sula, Fiji, the Sinai, Kenya, and elsewhere.
   Mass international tourism began in the 1960s with the ad-                  The growing trend however has been a source of numerous
vent of cheap air travel. At the same time, small numbers of                problems. Among the socioeconomic and cultural impacts of
hippies and adventurous travellers began backpacking to coun-               tourism count these factors:
tries such as India, Nepal, and Indonesia. The ‘Hippie Trail’ was           • Increased tourism activities can cause an influx of people
perhaps the first example of modern tourism in the develop-                    who see employment or entrepreneurial opportunities, but
ing world. While the number of Western travellers was small,                   who may not be able to find suitable jobs, causing stress to
they often had a disproportionate impact on local economies                    the communities.
and cultures because of their high visibility and (relative to local        • Sudden loss of income and jobs can be experienced in times
people) high spending power.                                                   of downturn, if the economy relies too heavily on tourism.

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                                           e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!
                                                                           Sex Tourism
     C Ha Ng e Or L O S S Of i N dig e NOu S                               Sex tourists are predominantly from developed countries.
        i de N t i t Y a N d va Lu e S
      Commodif ication: tourism can turn local cultures                 They may travel to a country specifically for sex, or they may
      into commodities when religious rituals, traditional              decide to buy sex once they arrive at their destination. Sex tour-
      ethnic rites and festivals are reduced and sanitized to           ists take advantage of their relative wealth to purchase sex from
     conform to tourist expectations, resulting in what has
     been called «reconstructed ethnicity.»                             local women, men, and children.
      Standardiz ation: destinations risk standardization                  Sex tourism takes advantage of the fact that in some coun-
      in the process of satisfying tourists’ desires for famil-
     iar facilities. While landscape, accommodation, food               tries, women have little option but to become prostitutes. For
     and drinks, etc., must meet the tourists’ desire for the           example, in Cuba there are few employment options that offer a
     new and unfamiliar, they must at the same time not                 liveable wage; this combined with an embargo that contributes
     be too new or strange because few tourists are actually
     looking for completely new things.                                 to substandard living conditions for the majority of the popula-
     Loss of authenticit y: adapting cultural expressions               tion, leads to women and girls flock turning to sexual employ-
     and manifestations to the tastes of tourists or even               ment in hotels, bars, restaurants and on the streets.
     performing shows as if they were «real life» constitutes
     «staged authenticity». as long as tourists just want a                Sex tourism results in high rates of sexually transmitted
     glimpse of the local atmosphere, a quick glance at lo-             diseases (STDs) in local communities and contributes to the
     cal life, without any knowledge or even interest, stag-
     ing will be inevitable.                                            spread of STDs (including HIV/AIDS) internationally. Sex tour-
     adaptation to tourist demands: tourists want sou-                  ism can lead to the trafficking of women and children as com-
     venirs, arts, crafts, and cultural manifestations, and in          modities, to the compulsion or duping of people into prostitution,
     many tourist destinations, craftsmen have responded                and to abuse and brutalization. However, because sex tourists
     to the growing demand, and have made changes in de-
     sign of their products to bring them more in line with             draw money to hotels, restaurants and other state-run busi-
     the new customers’ tastes.                                         nesses, some governments ignore, or even covertly promote,                                            sex tourism.
                                                                           Child sex tourism exploits the vulnerability of children and is
                                                                        illegal. Although child sex tourism mainly occurs in developing
• Economic benefits from tourism development may be un-
                                                                        countries (such as Cambodia, and Nicaragua), most of the de-
  equally distributed among members of local communities,
                                                                        mand for child sex comes from countries in the developed world
  leading to intergenerational conflicts and affecting gender
                                                                        (such as the USA and Britain). As many as 2 million children
                                                                        are exploited through child sex tourism each year. In a study of
• Much of the profit from foreign investment may be transferred         100 school children in Kalutara, Sri Lanka, 86 % had their first
  back to the home country, increasing inequalities and relative        sexual experience aged 12 or 13 – the majority with a foreign
  poverty in local communities.                                         tourist.
• Traditional practices and events may be influenced by tourist            Child sex tourists sometimes believe that children are not only
  preferences.                                                          less likely to contract sexually transmitted diseases and infec-
• Tourism development can lead to the loss of access by in-             tions (STI) such as HIV, but that children may be too young to
  digenous and local communities to their land, resources and           have contracted STIs yet. There is also the (incorrect and dan-
  sacred sites.                                                         gerous) belief in some Asian and African countries that having

                                                                                                                               March, 2008
                                            e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!
                                                                             ism industry (such as hotels, bars and nightclubs). Sex tours
                                                                             are usually arranged informally amongst friends or colleagues;
                                                                             however, there have been cases of travel agents being pros-
                                                                             ecuted for supplying and arranging sex tours as well.
                                                                               Tourism can be also a major source of income and employ-
                                                                             ment. It provides opportunities for economic development,
                                                                             economic diversification and the growth of related activities.
                                                                             However, developing countries are often under pressure to de-
                                                                             velop tourism as a source of income. As a result, governments
                                                                             sometimes ignore the adverse social and environmental impact
                                                                             of tourism in order to continue making money.
                                                                               Pro poor tourism is set up in developing countries as a means
                                                                             to improve the local economy for local people. It aims to en-
                                                                             hance the links between tourism businesses and poor people
                                                                             so that poverty is reduced and poor people are able to partici-
                                                                             pate more effectively in tourism development. The aims of pro
                                                                             poor tourism range from increasing local employment to involv-
                                                                             ing local people in decision making processes. The focus of
                                                                             pro poor tourism is on ensuring that poor people receive an
                                                                             increase in the net benefits from tourism.
                                                                               Sustainable tourism on the other hand attempts to make a
                                                                             low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping
  sex with a virgin will cure HIV. These beliefs lead child sex tour-        to generate income, employment, and the conservation of local
  ists to seek younger and younger children to abuse. However,               ecosystems. It is responsible tourism which is both ecologically
  the average rate for HIV infected children rescued from brothels           and culturally sensitive. For example, Bouma National Heritage
  is 50 percent, and some rates are as high as 90 percent.                   Park in Fiji is run by the indigenous people of Taveuni in part-
     Although tourism is not the cause of child sexual exploita-             nership with the Fijian government. The Park has strong local
  tion, exploiters make use of the facilities offered by the tour-           community support and environmental protection elements. Fiji
                                                                             Visitors Bureau marketing director Jo Tuamoto said the success
                                                                             of Bouma Park «… proves that it is possible to earn a sustain-
dePrivi Ng LO CaL PeOPLe Of aC CeSS                                          able income by preserving the natural environment and local
 There are numerous examples where local residents have lost                 culture.»
 access to local natural resources because of tourism develop-
 ment. On Boracay island in the Philippines, one quarter of
 the island has been bought by outside corporations, generat-         
 ing a crisis in water supply and only limited infrastructure
benefits for residents. Similarly, in Bali, indonesia, prime
agricultural land and water supplies have been diverted for
large hotels and golf courses, while at Pangandaran (Java, in-
donesia), village beach land, traditionally used for grazing,
repairing boats and nets, and festivals, was sold to entrepre-
neurs for construction of a five-star hotel.                                                                                    

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                                           e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!

eNvirONMeNt? Better
Off WitHOut tOuriStS

The         quality of the environment, both natural and man-made,
            is essential to tourism. However, tourism’s relationship
with the environment is complex. It involves many activities that
                                                                             water resources, and it can force local populations to compete
                                                                             for the use of critical resources.

can have adverse environmental effects. Many of these impacts                  DEPLETION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
are linked with the construction of general infrastructure such as             Tourism development can put pressure on natural resources
roads and airports, and of tourism facilities, including resorts, ho-        when it increases consumption in areas where resources are
tels, restaurants, shops, golf courses and marinas. The negative             already scarce.
impacts of tourism development can gradually destroy the envi-                 Water
ronmental resources on which it depends.                                       Water, and especially fresh water, is one of the most criti-
   On the other hand, tourism has the potential to create benefi-            cal natural resources. The tourism industry generally overuses
cial effects on the environment by contributing to environmental             water resources for hotels, swimming pools, golf courses and
protection and conservation. It is a way to raise awareness of en-           personal use of water by tourists. This can result in water short-
vironmental values and it can serve as a tool to finance protection          ages and degradation of water supplies, as well as generat-
of natural areas and increase their economic importance.                     ing a greater volume of waste water. In dryer regions like the
   Negative impacts from tourism occur when the level of visi-               Mediterranean, the issue of water scarcity is of particular con-
tor use is too great. Uncontrolled conventional tourism poses                cern. Because of the hot climate and the tendency of tourists to
potential threats to many natural areas around the world. It can             consume more water when on holiday than they do at home,
put enormous pressure on an area and lead to impacts such as                 the amount used can run up to 440 liters a day. This is almost
soil erosion, increased pollution, discharges into the sea, natu-            double what the inhabitants of an average Spanish city use.
ral habitat loss, increased pressure on endangered species and                 Golf course maintenance can also deplete fresh water re-
heightened vulnerability to forest fires. It often puts a strain on          sources. In recent years golf tourism has increased in popularity

                                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                          e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!
                                                                           tourism and recreational facilities has increased the pressure
  e N v i rON M e N ta L i M PaC t S                                       on these resources and on scenic landscapes. Direct impact
       at t H e g L OBa L L e v e L
                                                                           on natural resources, both renewable and nonrenewable, in the
  L oss of biolo gical diver sity
                                                                           provision of tourist facilities can be caused by the use of land for
  tourism, especially nature tourism, is closely linked to
  biodiversity and the attractions created by a rich and                   accommodation and other infrastructure provision, and the use
  varied environment. it can cause the loss of biodiver-                   of building materials.
  sity when land and resources are strained by excessive                      Forests also often suffer negative impacts of tourism in the
  use, and when impacts on vegetation, wildlife, moun-
  tain, marine and coastal environments and water re-                      form of deforestation caused by fuel wood collection and land
  sources exceed the carrying capacity. This loss of bio-                  clearing. For example, one trekking tourist in Nepal, an area
  diversity in fact means loss of tourism potential.                       already suffering the effects of deforestation, can use four to
  deple tion of the ozone layer                                            five kilograms of wood a day.
  Ozone depleting substances (OdSs) have contributed
  to the destruction of the ozone layer. The tourism in-                     POLLUTION
  dustry may be part of the problem; direct impacts start                    Tourism can cause the same forms of pollution as any other
  with the construction of new developments and con-
  tinue during daily management and operations. re-                        industry: air emissions, noise, solid waste and littering, releases
  frigerators, air conditioners and propellants in aero-                   of sewage, or oil and chemicals.
  sol spray cans, amongst others, contain OdSs and are
  widely used in the hotel and tourism industry. emis-                        Air Pollution & Noise
  sions from jet aircraft are also a significant source of                    Transport by air, road, and rail is continuously increasing in re-
  OdSs. according to tourism Concern, scientists pre-
  dict that by 2015 half of the annual destruction of the                  sponse to the rising number of tourists and their greater mobility.
  ozone layer will be caused by air travel.                                One consequence of the increase in air transport is that tourism
  Clima te chang e                                                         now accounts for more than 60 % of air travel and is therefore
  global tourism is closely linked to climate change. tour-                responsible for an important share of air emissions. One study
  ism involves the movement of people from their homes                     estimated that a single transatlantic return flight emits almost
  to other destinations and accounts for about 50 % of traf-
   fic movements; rapidly expanding air traffic contributes                half the CO2 emissions produced by all other sources (lighting,
  about 2.5 % of the production of CO2. air travel itself                  heating, car use, etc.) consumed by an average person yearly.
  is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect. Passen-                    Transport emissions and emissions from energy production
  ger jets are the fastest growing source of greenhouse gas
  emissions. The number of international travelers is ex-                  and use are linked to acid rain, global warming and photochemi-
   pected to increase from 594 million in 1996 to 1.6 billion              cal pollution. Air pollution from tourist transportation has impacts
   by 2020, adding greatly to the problem.                                 on the global level, especially from carbon dioxide (CO2) emis-
                                                                           sions related to transportation energy use. And it can contribute
                                                                           to severe local air pollution. Some of these impacts are quite
and the number of golf courses has grown rapidly. Golf courses             specific to tourist activities. For example, especially in very hot
require an enormous amount of water every day and, as with                 or cold countries, tour buses often leave their motors running for
other causes of excessive extraction of water, this can result in          hours while the tourists go out for an excursion because they
water scarcity. If the water comes from wells, overpumping can             want to return to a comfortably air-conditioned bus.
cause saline intrusion into groundwater. Golf resorts are more                Noise pollution from airplanes, cars, and buses, as well as
and more often situated in or near protected areas or areas                recreational vehicles such as snowmobiles and jet skis, is an
where resources are limited, exacerbating their impacts.                   ever-growing problem of modern life. In addition to causing an-
   Land Degradation                                                        noyance, stress, and even hearing loss for humans, it causes
                                                                           distress to wildlife, especially in sensitive areas. For instance,
   Important land resources include minerals, fossil fuels, fer-           noise generated by snowmobiles can cause animals to alter
tile soil, forests, wetland and wildlife. Increased construction of        their natural activity patterns.
                                                                              Solid Waste & Littering
                                                                              In areas with high concentrations of tourist activities and ap-
                                                                           pealing natural attractions, waste disposal is a serious problem
                                                                           and improper disposal can be a major despoiler of the natu-
                                                                           ral environment – rivers, scenic areas, and roadsides. For ex-
                                                                           ample, cruise ships in the Caribbean are estimated to produce
                                                                           more than 70,000 tons of waste each year. Today some cruise
                                                                           lines are actively working to reduce waste-related impacts. Solid
                                                                           waste and littering can degrade the physical appearance of the
                                                                           water and shoreline and cause the death of marine animals.
                                                                              In mountain areas, trekking tourists generate a great deal of
                                                                           waste. Tourists on expedition leave behind their garbage, oxy-

                                                                                                                               March, 2008
                                             e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!

t H e i M PaC t Of tOu r i SM
     i N t H e e u rOP e a N a L P S
tourism poses very direct threats to biodiversity: among ure
foremost is the disturbance to wildlife by modern advent
outdoor sports (mountain-biking, canyoning or paragliding) areas
or motor-based leisure activities, which often interest
previously untouched   by tourism. However, the most ecologi-
cally devastating form of leisure industry is the one connec
with winter ski tourism. Currently there are about 300 ski serv-
throughout the alps with about 10,000 transport facilities ski
ing more than 3400 km² of ski areas. The construction of ing
runs causes irreparable damage to the landscape. The increas of
use of snow canons sets off additional problems by their use
water, energy and chemical and biological additives.
http:// www.p anda.o rg/

  gen cylinders and even camping equipment. Such practices                  and extensive paving. In addition, road and airport construction
  degrade the environment with all the detritus typical of the de-          can lead to land degradation and loss of wildlife habitats and
  veloped world, in remote areas that have few garbage collec-              deterioration of scenery.
  tion or disposal facilities. Some trails in the Peruvian Andes and          In Yosemite National Park (US), for instance, the number of
  in Nepal frequently visited by tourists have been nicknamed               roads and facilities have been increased to keep pace with the
  «Coca-Cola trail» and «Toilet paper trail».                               growing visitor numbers and to supply amenities, infrastructure
      Sewage                                                                and parking lots for all these tourists. These actions have caused
                                                                            habitat loss in the park and are accompanied by various forms
      Construction of hotels, recreation and other facilities often         of pollution including air pollution from automobile emissions;
  leads to increased sewage pollution. Wastewater has polluted              the Sierra Club has reported «smog so thick that Yosemite Val-
  seas and lakes surrounding tourist attractions, damaging the              ley could not be seen from airplanes». This occasional smog is
  flora and fauna. Sewage runoff causes serious damage to coral             harmful to all species and vegetation inside the Park.
  reefs because it stimulates the growth of algae, which cover the
  filter-feeding corals, hindering their ability to survive. Changes           Deforestation
  in salinity and siltation can have wide-ranging impacts on coast-            Construction of ski resort accommodation and facilities fre-
  al environments. And sewage pollution can threaten the health             quently requires clearing forested land. Coastal wetlands are
  of humans and animals.                                                    often drained and filled due to lack of more suitable sites for
                                                                            construction of tourism facilities and infrastructure. These ac-
                                                                            tivities can cause severe disturbance and erosion of the local
                                                                            ecosystem, even destruction in the long term.
     Attractive landscape sites, such as sandy beaches, lakes,
  riversides, and mountain tops and slopes, are often transitional            Marina development
  zones, characterized by species-rich ecosystems. Typical phys-              Development of marinas and breakwaters can cause chang-
  ical impacts include the degradation of such ecosystems.                  es in currents and coastlines. Furthermore, extraction of build-
     An ecosystem is a geographic area including all the living or-         ing materials such as sand affects coral reefs, mangroves, and
  ganisms (people, plants, animals, and microorganisms), their              hinterland forests, leading to erosion and destruction of habi-
  physical surroundings (such as soil, water, and air), and the             tats. In the Philippines and the Maldives, dynamiting and mining
  natural cycles that sustain them. The ecosystems most threat-             of coral for resort building materials has damaged fragile coral
  ened with degradation are ecologically fragile areas such as              reefs and depleted the fisheries that sustain local people and
  alpine regions, rain forests, wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs            attract tourists.
  and sea grass beds. The threats to and pressures on these                   There are 109 countries with coral reefs. In 90 of them reefs
  ecosystems are often severe because such places are very at-              are being damaged by cruise ship anchors and sewage, by
  tractive to both tourists and developers.                                 tourists breaking off chunks of coral, and by commercial har-
     Physical impacts are caused not only by tourism-related land           vesting for sale to tourists. One study of a cruise ship anchor
  clearing and construction, but by continuing tourist activities           dropped in a coral reef for one day found an area about half the
  and long-term changes in local economies and ecologies.                   size of a football field completely destroyed, and half again as
                                                                            much covered by rubble that died later. It was estimated that
     Construction activities & infrastructure develop-                      coral recovery would take fifty years.
     The development of tourism facilities such as accommoda-        
  tion, water supplies, restaurants and recreation facilities can
  involve sand mining, beach and sand dune erosion, soil erosion                                          

                                                                                                                                March, 2008
                                         e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!

tHe CariBBeaN: Side effeCtS
Of POPuLaritY
                                                                          Caribbean since the colonial period, toward a tourism-based
                                                                          economy will build a much sounder economic foundation. Pro-
                                                                          ponents also contend that tourism has made important social
                                                                          impacts on the Caribbean, such as bringing a renewed internal
                                                                          consciousness and celebration of indigenous Caribbean cul-
                                                                          tures and historic sites. They point to the many local arts and
                                                                          crafts trades that have been revived and made into lucrative lo-
                                                                          cal industries by tourist interests, the renovation of historic sites
                                                                          and monuments as tourist attractions, and to the development
                                                                          and support of local festivals and cultural events because of
                                                                          heavy tourist participation and interest.
                                                                             However, critics contend that any relative benefits of tourism
                                                                          have been far outweighed by the negative impacts of the in-
                                                                          dustry in the Caribbean. They maintain that while the flow of
                                                                          foreign capital has increased within these countries, intra-island
                                                                          wealth distribution has been low. Indeed, they assert that too
                                                                          much profit from the tourist industry goes to foreign investors
                                                                          who own the hotels, communications systems, and intra – and
                                                                          inter – national transportation systems that have flourished dur-
                                                                          ing the tourism boom. They point out that the increases in real

T     ourism represents the biggest industry in the world. The            wages in the Caribbean are misleading.
      consistent growth of tourism receipts over the decades                 In fact, tourism has created new and strong wage divides
since international travel became accessible to the general               among the indigenous populations of the islands: between tour-
pubic, has convinced many developing nations that they can                ism workers with access to foreign currency and those outside
profit from tourism. Caribbean countries, such as Jamaica and             of the industry, as well as, between menial labor and manage-
Barbados, have had a history of tourism development, and the              ment. Many argue that tourism has reinvigorated racial and
region as a whole has seen much growth in the sector. Even                gendered labor divides, relegating Black people and women
with the global recession of the 1970s and early 1980s, tourist           to stereotypical, low-paying, low-skill service jobs. Critics also
arrivals to the Caribbean rose 52.2 % from 1978-1988. Islands             note that insufficient infrastructure, i. e. governmental, commu-
that were not apart of this initial surge in tourism are eager to         nication and transportation, means that many Caribbean tourist
obtain their share of the spoils, and those who are old hands in          destinations are unable to adequately control and monitor the
the industry seek to maintain or surpass their share. However, it         influx of goods and people. This has allowed for the develop-
is important that the Caribbean not take for granted their portion        ment of a largely uncontrolled criminal sector, including prostitu-
of the world’s tourists. In order to ensure continuing success in         tion and drugs, that is attached to the tourist industry; as well
the tourism industry, islands of the Caribbean need to aggres-            as, exploitation of many workers in the tourism sector whose
sively pursue a strategy of sustainable tourism development.              working conditions are not closely enough monitored.
                                                                             Furthermore, unlike proponents who claim that tourism has
  Pros and Cons                                                           ended the Caribbean’s dependency on cash-crop economies,
  Strategy development will consume a considerable amount of              critics claim that the growth of tourism in the Caribbean has cre-
resources at the individual, state, and regional level. Before the        ated a new mono-commodity system that is just as vulnerable
scarce resources of the Caribbean are committed to a strategy,            to the whims of the outside world; wherein the commodity is the
the question arises of whether the Caribbean should focus on              Caribbean land, people and culture. In fact, currently, the Carib-
tourism at all. There are, of course, pros to using tourism as a          bean is four times more dependent on tourism than any other
means of promise economic development. The tourism industry               region in the world, and it is becoming more dependent with
earns foreign exchange, provides jobs for citizens, and revenue           threats to its agricultural, mining, and textile industries.
to governments. Proponents of tourism argue that the move-                   In addition, some argue that tourism has had a detrimental
ment away from the cash-crop economy that dominated the

                                                                                                                              March, 2008
                                         e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!
                                                                          of promoting and developing mass tourism. Mass tourism is the
                                                                          practice of encouraging the maximum number of tourists pos-
                                                                          sible, equating economic success with the quantity of tourists
                                                                          instead of the quality of tourist. By 1965, tourism had become
                                                                          the country’s largest export. Over the years the Jamaican gov-
                                                                          ernment has continually invested in tourism development, and
                                                                          its «Come Back to Jamaica» advertisement campaign being a
                                                                          well-known example of that.
                                                                             While tourism has been a successful sector of the Jamaican
                                                                          economy, it has not escaped problems that question a focus on
                                                                          tourism as a means of national economic development. These
                                                                          problems fall into two broad categories: tourism’s negative im-
                                                                          pact on the environment and the impact the industry has on local
                                                                          inhabitants. There often appears to be an irresolvable conflict
                                                                          between economic growth and maintaining the environment.
                                                                          Large-scale tourist developments inevitably have an impact on
                                                                          local communities and wildlife habitats. For example, in 1992
                                                                          the Urban Development Corporation (UDC) planned to open a
                                                                          500-bedroom apartment hotel in Negril. The local Chamber of
                                                                          Commerce wished to delay this project until the town’s sewage
                                                                          plant was upgraded, and the nonprofit, Negril Coral Reef Preser-
                                                                          vation Society sought to have Negril designated as a protected
effect on the social and moral fabric of the Caribbean. The in-           area with a marine park. However, as the UDC’s plan was sup-
flux of luxury goods and services along with the tourists has             ported by Prime Minister Patterson, and the Natural Resources
changed the consumption needs and desires of the island pop-              Conservation Authority did not wish to oppose the government,
ulations, causing many to claim an increase in materialism. Due           tourism development took priority over environmental concerns
to increases in prostitution and drug selling and use, the tourist        and the UDC apartment hotel was built.
trade has also had a negative impact on the small islands. The
commodification of Caribbean culture, land, and people for for-
eigners must also necessarily have a strong impact on the way                Historically, tourism has played a small part in the Domini-
that nationals view themselves and their culture.                         can economy. The white sand beaches that come to mind when
                                                                          thinking «Caribbean vacation» are not abundant in Dominica.
   Politically, many believe that the overwhelming power of for-
                                                                          That and the lack of tourist infrastructure hindered development
eign interest through tourism is weakening the local political
                                                                          of the industry. Dubbed the «Nature Island of the Caribbean»,
voice. As the tourism industry claims a larger part of Caribbean
                                                                          its rugged beauty provided it with the opportunity for tourist
economies, the concerns of local people are being sidelined for
                                                                          development. The question is what type of tourism should be
those of the industry. A critical and oft-cited example of this is
                                                                          developed? A group of consultants developed a tourism sector
the handling of the ecological damage of tourism on the Carib-
                                                                          plan for 1991-1994, which considered whether cruise tourism
bean. Beaches and lagoons are being destroyed by overuse,
                                                                          or eco-tourism would be more beneficial to Dominica. The plan
pollution, and the stripping away of sand for use in the building
                                                                          concluded that eco-tourism was not viable in the short-term as
of commercial tourist structures. Tourists have also put enor-
                                                                          most visitors to Dominica were not special interest eco-tourists:
mous pressure on the existing eco-system and infrastructure
                                                                          bird watchers, whale watchers, etc. Additionally, the plan stated
through their inordinate consumption of water, electricity, and
                                                                          that eco-tourism and cruise tourism were incompatible and
seafood which can cause shortages, price increases, and/or, in
                                                                          could be pursued jointly only if accommodated separately. And
the case of seafood, depletion of local supplies.
                                                                          as the number of cruise ship visitors rose sharply from 6,602 in
   So it is clear that tourism is a complex issue. A look at the          1985 to 132,088 in 1995, while the number of stay-over tourists
islands of Jamaica and Dominica will illustrate some of the com-          increased from 21,453 in 1985 to 60,471 in 1995, the Domini-
plexities of tourism development that Caribbean islands face.             can government decided to follow the plan’s recommendations
  Jamaica                                                                 for tourism development which centered on cruise ship tourist.
  Tourism had an early start in Jamaica, when it was touted as a             However, the government also decided to make eco-tourism
health spa in 1862 and United Fruit Company ran cruises there.            a priority. Eco-tourism can be described as the non-consump-
A Tourist Trade Development Board was created in 1922, suc-               tive enjoyment of nature that sustains the well-being of local
ceeded in 1956 by the Jamaican Tourist Board, composed of                 people. Few years ago the European Union funded a project on
representatives form government, air and ground transportation            eco-tourism in Dominica. It identified 20 biological tourist sites,
groups, travel agents, hoteliers, which has pursued a strategy            developed management plans for the sites, and undertook

                                                                                                                            March, 2008
                                         e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!
                                                                         derstand constraints placed for reasons of environmental con-
                                                                         servation than other tourists. And so the question for Dominica
                                                                         is quantity or quality – the short-term numbers of cruise ship
                                                                         tourism or the long-term potential of eco-tourism?
                                                                           These are but some of the issues islands of the Caribbean
                                                                         are facing as they embark on their quest for tourism develop-
                                                                         ment. It is important to note that though it is often framed that
                                                                         way, the central issue is not necessarily that of mass tourism or
                                                                         eco-tourism. The issue is whether tourism development will be
                                                                         driven mainly by economic imperatives and therefore ignoring
                                                                         the environment and the people of the Caribbean.
                                                                           Tourism has a tendency to be more negative than positive
                                                                         when used as the sole, or primary, vehicle for development
                                                                         and when taken out of the hands of the local people who are
                                                                         most impacted. The Caribbean, like much of the Third World,
market research of stayover and cruise ship visitors to access
                                                                         is currently experiencing many of the negative side effects of
nature-oriented interests. It is noteworthy that the EU study did
                                                                         the tourist trade. However, principled tourism, i. e. a planned
not conclude that eco-tourism and cruise ship tourism were in-
                                                                         tourism that is developed with the community and with commu-
compatible. It recommended that a few sites be developed with
                                                                         nity’s interest in mind, has an enormous potential to improve the
cruise ship tourists in mind, and the rest developed as nature
                                                                         economies and living conditions of the indigenous population.
   For the short-term, eco-tourism is more capital intensive than
cruise tourism, as it would require greater marketing and site           By Dana King, Danielle LeBlanc, & Carlton R. Van Lowe
planning and development. But in the long term it has great       
potential for both revenue creation and conserving the envi-
ronment for the well being of Dominica’s citizens. As stayover
tourists, eco-tourists are more likely to spend more than cruise
visitors arriving for a few hours, and they are also consumers of                                      
local products. Furthermore, eco-tourists are more likely to un-

                                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                           e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!


A      lthough the travel writers have no union to represent their
       interests and fight on their behalf, the travel industry is pro-
tected and promoted by a variety of organizations, including the
                                                                                Codes such as this have no teeth but allow an organization
                                                                             to claim great sensitivity and responsibility. Few industry efforts
                                                                             demonstrate this more clearly than the WTTC’s Green Globe
American Society of Travel Agents (ASTA), The World Tourism                  logo program, endorsed by the Earth Council, which was set up
Organization (WTO) and The World Travel and Tourism Council                  to oversee implementation of the 1992 Earth Summit’s Agenda
(WTTC). Clearly, the travel industry has an interest in protecting           21. The WTTC’s president, Geoffrey Lipman, unveiled the Green
the world’s natural and cultural resources, which are at the core            Globe program at a 1994 Montreal conference titled «Building a
of its business activities. But it has other concerns as well, some          Sustainable World through Tourism». Lipman told the delegates,
of which run counter to the tenets of sound ecotourism. These                «The Green Globe symbol means that a company is committed
travel associations advocate, for instance, self regulation, ex-             to environmental improvement. It does not mean that a com-
panded tourism markets and a lowering of trade barriers. In                  pany has achieved it. I describe this as a diagnostic and self fit-
the mid to late 1990’s, industry associations responded to the               ness program, not an accreditation program. It offers business
growth of environmental concerns and the rise of ecotourism by               benefits; it offers cost saving and commercial positioning. I call
instituting changes that often amount to promoting minor, cost               this putting a Green Glove on Adam Smith’s hidden hand of the
saving environmental reforms – ecotourism lite – rather than                 market place». Under this scheme, for as little as $200, travel
seriously grappling with the principals and practices of ecotour-            and tourism companies can purchase the right to use the Green
ism.                                                                                                          Globe logo in all their publicity
   ASTA’s «Ten Command-                                                                                       and thereby give the impression
ments on Eco-Tourism»                  Many large industries         are using greenwashing tech-             that they are «going green». In
are among a growing num-               niques to sell    themselves these days and the tourism                return, the company pledges to
ber of voluntary codes of             indus  try is no exception. Knowing the difference be-                  work toward more environmen-
conduct written by various            tween «real» ecotourism and marketing hype can often                    tally sound corporate practices
organizations. Widely dis-           be confusing.                                                            as outlined in the United Nation’s
tributed to travel agents                                                                                     Agenda 21. To test Lipman’s
and the traveling public,                                                                                     description, Worldwide Televi-
the «Commandments» are printed on green paper and de-                        sion News (WTN) in London set up a phony business called
signed to slip into an airline ticket folder. Directed at sensitizing        «Greenman Travel» and sent an application and $200 to Green
travelers, not the travel agents who belong to ASTA they include             Globe. In return, Greenman Travel received a certificate stating,
such platitudes as «Respect the frailty of the earth,» «Always               «In recognition of commitment to environmental improvement».
follow designated trails,» and «Do not buy products made from                The WTTC did not verify Greenman Travel’s authenticity or ask
endangered plants or animals». Although they urge travelers                  why it wanted to join Green Globe. Thus, Green Globe is, in es-
to «Patronize those… dedicated to strong principals of conser-               sence, little more than a marketing ploy.
vation,» they do not specifically encourage travelers to patron-                Much of what is marketed as ecotourism is simply conventional
ize locally owned or community-based ecotourism ventures.                    mass tourism wrapped in a thin veneer of green. Ecotourism lite
Without further education of both travel agents and the public,              is propelled by travel agents, tour operators, airlines and cruise
ASTA’s «Commandments» are not good ecotourism.                               lines, large hotels and resort chains, and international tourism

                                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                           e t H iC a L : Tour i sts? No, T hank You!
organizations, which promote quick, superficially «green» visits            is stronger. Once some
within conventional packages. According to Diane Kelsay, a co-              of the world’s oldest
ordinator of the World Congress on Tourism for the Environmen-              and most prized nature
tal, «We’ve seen ecotourism used to mean all nature adventure               destinations, includ-
and cultural travel. Someone even published a definition that               ing the Galapagos Is-
includes Sunday afternoon drives». A lot of travel companies                lands, Nepal and even
used it to call attention to anything they were selling. Perhaps            Monteverde were vis-
more than any other big player in the tourism industry, the Walt            ited by only the most
Disney Company has tried to cash in on the traveling public’s               physically rugged and
desire to «go green» with an ecotourism lite theme park, Animal             intellectually curious.
Kingdom. Disney spent $800 million dollars to transform 500                 Now, however, with im-
acres of central Florida cow pasture into an African savanna,               proved air and ground
with fake wide-trunk Baobab Trees, a Zulu village and some                  transportation, better
one thousand real imported animals. This largest of Disney’s                accommodations and extensive publicity, these destinations
theme parks is designed to let the American public «go on sa-               are being marketed to a mass audience. When poorly planned,
fari» without leaving the shores of the United States. Although             unregulated and over hyped, ecotourism lite, like mass tour-
it has won praise from zoo-industry officials, Animal Kingdom               ism or even traditional nature tourism, can bring only marginal
opened in mid 1988 amidst protests from animal rights groups                financial benefits but serious environmental and social conse-
and an investigation by the US Department of Agriculture into               quences. Nowadays, some visitors reach mountain summits via
the deaths of some dozen animals, including representatives of              what is marketed as «ecotourism of the future» -and their only
endangered species. Two West African Crowned Cranes were                    step upward is into a helicopter. «Helicopter treks» fly visitors
run over by tour vehicles.                                                  to high mountain peaks, where they get out, stretch their legs,
   A sizable segment of the traveling public wants this type of             take photographs and then fly back. Such tours clearly do little
tourism. In recent years, there has been a gradual trend for                to educate the traveler and do nothing for conservation or local
many ecotourists to be less intellectually curious, socially re-            economic development.
sponsible, environmentally concerned and politically aware than                The travel industry’s efforts to water down ecotourism, to
in the past. Increasing numbers of older, wealthier and «softer»            sell ecotourism lite in exchange for short-term profits, have led
travelers have begun opting for comfort over conservation. Eco-             some travel experts to drop the word ecotourism and dismiss
tourism lite travelers are, as David Western puts it «entertained           the concept as simply a fad. As Bob Harvey puts it, «the word
by nature, but not unduly concerned with its preservation». Bi-             ecotourism became a buzz-word in the early 1990’s, but so
ologist guides on the Galapagos Islands say that tourists these             many people used it in so many different ways that it has be-
days, though far greater in number, are overall, less interested            come virtually meaningless». This is, however, a classic case
in the details of the island’s unique ecosystem than they were              of throwing out the baby with the bathwater. As a concept, as a
in the past and want simply a quick historical and ecological               set of principals and practices, ecotourism is still in its infancy.
overview of the islands. Several naturalist guides are contem-              In identifying what is ecotourism lite and determining where
plating quitting because they no longer get much professional               genuine ecotourism is being practiced today, we need also to
satisfaction.                                                               discover ways in which authentic ecotourism can move from
   These trends reflect the watering down of the true meaning of            being simply a niche market in the category of nature tourism to
ecotourism – a movement from real ecotourism toward ecotour-                becoming a broad set of principals and practices that transform
ism lite. The ultimate goal of ecotourism should be to infuse the           the way we travel and the way the tourism industry functions.
entire travel industry with the principals and practices of ecotour-
ism and thereby transform tourism into an environmentally and               By  Martha Honey  (Excerpts  from  her  book  «Ecotourism  and  Sus-
culturally sensitive activity that contributes to sustainable growth        tainable Development ») 
in developing countries. Clearly there is some movement in that      
direction on the part of many travelers and the mass market. But
the movement towards ecotourism lite, towards industry «gre-
enwashing» through advertising images and cosmetic changes                                                 

fairs & ExHibitions
traveL/touriSm in marCH 2008 BY regionS
                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                          fa i r S & e x H i B i t iON S

WeSterN eurOPe

    ideeS WeeK-eNd tOurS
Location         tours /france
Start / end      01 March 2008 / 02 March 2008
Provider         bo2

    freizeit, garteN & tOuriStiK
Location         Nuremberg / germany
Start / end      01 March 2008 / 09 March 2008
Provider         nürnberg Messe gmbH afag

    iNterNatiONaL HOteL iNveStMeNt fOruM
Location         Berlin / germany
Start / end      03 March 2008 / 05 March 2008
Provider         Hotel & Motel Management bHn (burba Hotel network)

    itB BerLiN – tHe WOrLd’S LeadiNg traveL trade SHOW
Location         Berlin / germany
Start / end      05 March 2008 / 09 March 2008
Provider         Messe berlin gmbH

Location         Hamburg / germany
Start / end      07 March 2008 / 12 March 2008
Provider         Hamburg Messe und congress gmbH

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                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                          fa i r S & e x H i B i t iON S

    MaHaNa LYON
Location         Lyon / france
Start / end      07 March 2008 / 09 March 2008
Provider         Exposium

    CaMPiNg, freizeit, tOuriStiK
Location         freiburg / germany
Start / end      08 March 2008 / 16 March 2008
Provider         fWtM Messe freiburg

    BritiSH traveL trade fair
Location         Birmingham / uK
Start / end      11 March 2008 / 12 March 2008
Provider         reed Exhibitions

    gLOBe 2008 - traveL fair iN rOMe
Location         rome / italy
Start / end      13 March 2008 / 15 March 2008
Provider         fiera roma rimini fiera gruppo.

    Le MONde a PariS
Location         Paris / france
Start / end      13 March 2008 / 17 March 2008
Provider         Exposium

    tur 2008
Location         gothenburg / Sweden
Start / end      13 March 2008 / 16 March 2008
Provider         svenska Mässan

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                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                          fa i r S & e x H i B i t iON S

    teMPO LiBerO
Location         vicenza / italy
Start / end      24 March 2008 / 01 April 2008
Provider         fiera di vicenza

    freetiMe 2008
Location         Jyväskylä / finland
Start / end      29 March 2008 / 30 March 2008
Provider         Jyväskylä fair ltd.

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                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                          fa i r S & e x H i B i t iON S

CeNtraL & eaSterN eurOPe

    iNterNatiONaL HeaLtH tOuriSM CONgreSS
Location         Belek / turkey
Start / end      14 March 2008 / 17 March 2008
Provider         sağlık turizmini geliştirme Derneği

    iNtOurMarKet itM
Location         Moscow / russia
Start / end      15 March 2008 / 18 March 2008
Provider         itM Expo

    HOLidaY WOrLd
Location         Prague / Cz
Start / end      14 February 2008 / 17 February 2008
Provider         incheba Praha

    HOteL & CateriNg
Location         Cluj-Napoca / romania
Start / end      18 March 2008 / 21 March 2008
Provider         Expo transilvania

    MOSCOW iNterNatiONaL MiCe fOruM
Location         Moscow / russia
Start / end      18 March 2008 / 18 March 2008
Provider         aigroup, russia

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                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                           fa i r S & e x H i B i t iON S

    MOSCOW gOLf & LuxurY traveL reCePtiON
Location         Moscow / russia
Start / end      20 March 2008 / 20 March 2008
Provider         aigroup, russia

    HOteL & reStauraNt exPO uKraiNe
Location         Kiev / ukraine
Start / end      26 March 2008 / 29 March 2008
Provider         Premier Expo itE group

    uitt 2008
Location         Kiev / ukraine
Start / end      26 March 2008 / 28 March 2008
Provider         itE group Plc

    HOLidaY - reLax - LeiSure tiMe
Location         Bratislava / Slovakia
Start / end      27 March 2008 / 30 March 2008
Provider         incheba Jsc

    reCreatiON & SPOrt 2008
Location         riga / Latvia
Start / end      27 March 2008 / 30 March 2008
Provider         international Exhibition company bt 1

    gLOB 2008
Location         Katowice / Poland
Start / end      28 March 2008 / 30 March 2008
Provider         international Katowice fair ltd.

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                                          fa i r S & e x H i B i t iON S

    tOuriSM fair Of rOMaNia ttr
Location         Bucharest / romania
Start / end      29 March 2008 / 01 April 2008
Provider         romexpo

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                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                           fa i r S & e x H i B i t iON S

NOrtH aMeriCa & CariBBeaN

    traveL SOutH SHOWCaSe
Location         gulf Coast, MS / united States of america
Start / end      01 March 2008 / 05 March 2008
Provider         travel south usa

    SOCiaL Media StrategieS fOr traveL 2008
Location         San francisco, Ca / united States of america
Start / end      05 March 2008 / 06 March 2008
Provider         Eyefortravel

    SPOrt & traveL exPO
Location         Hamburg, NY / united States of america
Start / end      06 March 2008 / 09 March 2008
Provider         Erie Promotions and Expositions, inc

    eaSterN iOWa SPOrtSHOW
Location         Cedar falls, ia / united States of america
Start / end      07 March 2008 / 09 March 2008
Provider         iowa show Productions inc.

    BOat & SPOrtSMeN’S SHOW
Location         abbotsford, BC / Canada
Start / end      07 March 2008 / 09 March 2008
Provider         Square Feet Northwest

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                                          fa i r S & e x H i B i t iON S

    NBta BuSiNeSS traveL fiNaNCiaL fOruM
Location         New York City, NY / united States of america
Start / end      10 March 2008 / 11 March 2008
Provider         nbta

    MaiNe CaravaN gift SHOW
Location         Portland, Me / united States of america
Start / end      18 March 2008 / 20 March 2008
Provider         bass shows

    adveNtureS iN traveL exPO
Location         Washington, d.C. / united States of america
Start / end      29 March 2008 / 30 March 2008
Provider         unicomm

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                                          fa i r S & e x H i B i t iON S

aSia & PaCifiC

    HOLidaY aNd traveL exPO - SYdNeY
Location         Sydney / australia
Start / end      15 March 2008 / 16 March 2008
Provider         Expertise Events

    traveL diStriButiON SuMMit aSia
Location         Singapore / Singapore
Start / end      18 March 2008 / 19 March 2008
Provider         Eyefortravel

    reSPONSiBLe tOuriSM iN deStiNatiONS
Location         Kerala / india
Start / end      21 March 2008 / 24 March 2008
Provider         Kerala tourism

    MediCaL tOuriSM aSia 2008
Location         rasa Sentosa resort / Singapore
Start / end      25 March 2008 / 28 March 2008
Provider         Medical tourism asia

    WOrLd traveL fair
Location         Shanghai / China
Start / end      27 March 2008 / 30 March 2008
Provider         vnu Exhibitions asia sicMo

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                                                                                                                 March, 2008
                                          fa i r S & e x H i B i t iON S

    CaravaN, CaMPiNg, 4Wd & HOLidaY SuPerSHOW
Location         Sydney / australia
Start / end      29 March 2008 / 06 April 2008
Provider         cia (caravan industry australia)

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