Handbook for Majors

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					Handbook for Majors
     Z
Department of Zoology
Miami University
Oxford, Ohio



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     Y                                                       212 Pearson Hall
                                                 http: //zoology.muohio.edu
                             DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY

Ecology &
 Environmental Biology                                                           Physiology

  aquatic ecology                                                      ecological physiology
   behavioral ecology                                                       endocrinology
     conservation                                                         neuroanatomy
       entomology                                                     neurophysiology
         environmental toxicology                                       neuroscience
           herpetology                                         molecular physiology
             ornithology
               terrestrial ecology


                            Developmental & Molecular Biology

                                            cell biology
                                            cryobiology
                                       developmental biology
                                         molecular biology
                                        molecular genetics
                                        population genetics


                                     Preprofessional Training

                                             predental
                                            premedical
                                        prephysical therapy
                                           preveterinary
                                           preoptometry
                                           prepharmacy


                                       Specialized Training

                                   scanning electron microscopy
                                 transmission electron microscopy
                                          INTRODUCTION



The Department of Zoology has prepared this HANDBOOK to help answer questions you may have
about the major in Zoology. The HANDBOOK is not a substitute for regular consultations with a faculty
advisor. Rather, it is our hope that the HANDBOOK will help you to prepare for conferences with your
advisor, thus making the best possible use of the advising system.

We have tried to address the questions most frequently received from Zoology students. If you have any
questions that are not answered in the HANDBOOK, please contact your advisor or feel free to contact
me.

For additional information about the Department, or its degree programs and faculty, please visit our web
page at: http://zoology.muohio.edu. In order to sign up as a Zoology major, or for other questions related
to advising, send an e-mail to: zooadvising@muohio.edu.



                                                                 Dr. Douglas B. Meikle
                                                                 Chair, Department of Zoology
                                                                 (meikled@muohio.edu)
All departments at Miami University are committed to supporting the learning of all students, irrespective
of sex, race, age, religion, handicapping condition, or sexual preference. Students should be able to
expect that their learning environments are free from sexism, racism, ageism, and other forms of
prejudice. Disparaging comments aimed at women or minority group members, any sexist or racist
humor, and any questioning of the seriousness of purpose or academic commitment of students based
upon gender or minority status may undermine Miami's educational mission. If such behavior occurs in a
class in which you are a student, please take steps to improve the environment for yourself as well as for
other students. Try talking first to your instructor and identifying for her or him the specific examples of
behavior that you found offensive or disparaging. If you are not content with this solution or its outcome,
consult with the Department Chair, and seek the Chair's assistance in improving the situation for you and
your classmates.




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Department of Zoology Faculty Members

    Faculty                             Room-PSN                             Ext.
    Robert A. Balfour
          balfoura@muohio.edu           292                                9-3149

    David J. Berg
          bergdj@muohio.edu             Hamilton Campus; 144 PSN     53-246/9-3174

    Michelle D. Boone
         boonemd@muohio.edu             178                                9-4901

    Alan B. Cady
          cadyab@muohio.edu             Middletown Campus; 148 PSN   73-258/9-3176

    Phyllis A. Callahan
           callahp@muohio.edu           290                                9-3147

    Thomas O. Crist
         cristto@muohio.edu             172                                9-6187

    Katia Del Rio-Tsonis
          delriok@muohio.edu            244                                9-3128

    Joyce J. Fernandes
          fernanjj@muohio.edu           250                                9-7211

    Melany Fisk
         fiskmc@muohio.edu              160                                9-3181

    María J. González
          gonzalmj@muohio.edu           180                                9-3189

    Paul A. Harding
          hardinpa@muohio.edu           Middletown Campus; 150 PSN   73-447/9-3187

    Tracy Haynes
          haynest@muohio.edu            286                                9-3146

    Susan M.G. Hoffman
          hoffmasm@muohio.edu           246                                9-3125

    Lori G. Isaacson
          isaacslg@muohio.edu           280                                9-3142

    Paul F. James
          jamespf@muohio.edu            278                                9-3129

    James M. Janik
          janikjm@muohio.edu            Middletown Campus; 144 PSN   73-230/9-3174

    Brian Keane
          keaneb@muohio.edu             Hamilton Campus; 150 PSN     53-256/9-3187




                                                                                     3
    Kathleen A. Killian
          killiaka@muohio.edu    260                       9-3310

    Richard E. Lee, Jr.
          leere@muohio.edu       264                       9-3141

    Douglas B. Meikle
         meikled@muohio.edu      212                       9-3103

    James T. Oris
          orisjt@muohio.edu      192                       9-3194

    David G. Pennock
          pennocdg@muohio.edu    248                       9-3127

    Michael Robinson
         robinsm5@muohio.edu     258                       9-2353

    David E. Russell
          russeld@muohio.edu     156                       9-3179

    Ann L. Rypstra
         rypstral@muohio.edu     Hamilton; 148 PSN   53-238/9-3176

    Paul J. Schaeffer
           schaefpj@muohio.edu   242                       9-3624

    Robert G. Sherman
          shermarg@muohio.edu    288                       9-6327

    Haifei Shi
           shih@muohio.edu       256                       9-3162

    Nancy G. Solomon
         solomong@muohio.edu     170                       9-5454

    Yoshinori Tomoyasu
          tomoyay@muohio.edu     252                       9-3126

    Michael J. Vanni
         vannimj@muohio.edu      188                       9-3192

    Jack C. Vaughn
          vaughnjc@muohio.edu    294                       9-3150

    Craig E. Williamson
          willia85@muohio.edu    158                       9-3180




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                                    TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                    Page


 1.   What is Zoology?                                                                6
 2.   How Many Students Major in Zoology?                                             6
 3.   What are Career and Employment Opportunities for Zoology Majors?                7
 4.   How do I Decide on a Career in Zoology to Pursue?                               8
 5.   How do I Find Out About Employment Opportunities?                               9
 6.   Where Can I Find Information About Graduate Programs in Zoology and
      Other Life Sciences?                                                            9
 7.   Does Zoology Offer Courses in Marine Biology?                                   9
 8.   How do I Obtain an Advisor?                                                     9
 9.   Where Can I Obtain Advice and Information About the Requirements for
      Admission to a Particular Professional Postgraduate Degree Program?            10
10.   What are the Admission Requirements for Some of the Professional Degree
      Programs?                                                                      10
11.   Should I Pursue a B.A. Degree or a B.S. Degree Program?                        16
12.   What are the Requirements for a B.A. Degree in Zoology?                        17
13.   What is a Typical Class Schedule for B.A. Degree Zoology Majors?               18
14.   What are the Requirements for the B.S. Degree in Zoology?                      20
15.   What is a Typical Class Schedule for B.S. Degree Zoology Majors?               21
16.   What are the Requirements for the Environmental Science Co-Major?              23
17.   What are the Requirements for a Minor in Molecular Biology or Neuroscience?    24
18.   What Clubs or Honoraries are Available that Emphasize Zoology Interests?       25
19.   What are the Employment Opportunities for Students Who are Majoring in
      Zoology While at Miami?                                                        26
20.   What are the Opportunities for Independent Study in Zoology?                   26
21.   Are There Lectures in Zoology Outside of Regular Courses?                      28
22.   Does the Department of Zoology Offer Student Awards?                           28
23.   How Can I Earn Departmental Honors in Zoology?                                 29
24.   What are the Qualifications for Phi Beta Kappa Membership?                     29




                                                                                           5
1.   What is Zoology?

     Zoology is the area of biology that focuses on animals, from the level of DNA up to ecosystems.
     Because it is broad, zoology contains many specific subdisciplines and zoologists approach their
     study from several different levels of organization. For example, physiologists are interested in the
     functioning of cells, tissues and organ systems; ecologists are interested in the interactions of
     organisms with one another and with their environment; developmental biologists are concerned
     with how a multicellular organism forms from a zygote; and molecular biologists study how
     specific molecules, such as nucleic acids, function. Some scientists study a particular group of
     animals, such as birds (ornithologist), mammals (mammalogist), amphibians and reptiles
     (herpetologist), insects (entomologist), and so on. These persons are concerned with all aspects of
     the group under study, including their taxonomic status, life history, physiology, ecology, genetics,
     etc.

     The faculty in the Department of Zoology conduct research with their students in the following
     specific areas: animal behavior; aquatic ecology; cell and developmental biology; conservation and
     environmental biology; environmental toxicology and risk assessment; evolutionary biology;
     genetics and molecular biology; neurobiology; physiology; and physiological ecology.

     Most professional zoologists employ sophisticated analytical methods and techniques in their
     studies. Thus, a solid background in chemistry, physics, mathematics and statistics is very useful.

     Zoological studies may be approached from the standpoint of basic science or as applied science.
     In the former, the zoologist is interested in the animal or life process itself, rather than in its direct
     applicability to human society or the commercial marketplace. Applied zoologists are interested in
     discovering and/or using information directly in the material world or to improve the human
     condition.

     Since there are so many facets to the field of Zoology, a student interested in animals usually begins
     with a broad area of interest. Training in-depth in one of the many zoological specialty areas
     follows later as a natural consequence of one's development as a zoologist.


2.   How Many Students Major in Zoology?

     The number of Zoology majors has been consistently between 850 and 950 for the past several
     years. It is one of the largest majors in the College of Arts and Science and in the entire university.
     This places Zoology at Miami University amongst the largest undergraduate programs in Zoology
     in the nation.

     The Zoology major is chosen by many students who seek a career in one of the several health care
     professions. It is selected by those who wish to pursue a career in teaching and/or research as a
     college or university professor. It is also chosen by numerous students who plan a career in one of
     the many areas within the environmental sciences.

     The faculty and staff in Zoology are proud that our majors compete very well with those from other
     departments and universities for jobs and for admission to professional and graduate schools.




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3.    What are the Career and Employment Opportunities for Zoology Majors?
     A.   Employment that may require only a B.A. or B.S. degree in Zoology:

           1.   Research assistant in a university or institutional lab
           2.   Lab technician at a pharmaceutical or chemical company, or a hospital or research lab
           3.   Salesperson or trainer for a pharmaceutical, chemical, or medical equipment company
           4.   Environmental analyst/planner for public or private agencies
           5.   Government worker for the EPA, Natural Resources, Wildlife Management, Health
                Department, etc.
           6.   Animal keeper, administrator or educator at a zoo or wildlife park
           7.   High school biology teacher (Teach for America or private school)
           8.   Salesperson, representative, or editor for publishing companies in the life sciences
           9.   Peace Corps worker
          10.   Administrator for health care delivery firm
          11.   Park naturalist or ranger
          12.   Veterinary technician
          13.   Pharmacy technician

     B.   Career positions that usually require additional graduate or professional training:

          Health Sciences
           1. Medical doctor (MD or DO)
           2. Dentist
           3. Veterinarian
           4. Pharmacist
           5. Physician's Assistant
           6. Advanced Nursing (nurse practitioner, midwife, anesthetist, etc.)
           7. Optometrist
           8. Physical/occupational therapist
           9. Genetic counselor
          10. Clinical research technician
          11. Radiology or medical imaging technician
          12. Dental assistant
          13. Anesthesiology assistant
          14. Podiatrist
          15. Health care administrator: hospitals, nursing homes, etc.

          Other
          16. Research biologist at university or institute
          17. Staff biologist for wildlife society, wildlife park, etc.
          18. Environmental scientist: public health analyst, park manager, toxicologist, etc.
          19. Researcher for biotechnology company
          20. Forensic scientist
          21. Biology teacher at advanced high school or college level
          22. Science librarian
          23. Environmental engineer
          24. Specialist in medical or environmental law
          25. Salesperson or trainer for advanced research or medical equipment
          26. Master's degree program for the undecided: the Master's degree program serves to
              strengthen a student's understanding of science, and it has helped many undecided
              students to select a career


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4.   How Do I Decide on a Career Within Zoology?

     Do not be overly concerned if at the outset you do not know your exact interests and goals. Explore
     different areas in Zoology. The courses that you take, the instructors that you encounter, and the
     laboratory and field work that you experience will help to shape your ultimate goals. It is important
     that you obtain a solid foundation in not only the basic core of Zoology courses, but also in basic
     chemistry, physics and mathematics. This foundation will enable you to pursue a range of different
     career opportunities later on. The Career Exploration and Testing Center, 196 Health Services
     Building, can help you clarify your vocational goals.

     Most Zoology majors take the same basic courses their first year. After you start your first year at
     Miami, you should set goals that point you toward a particular career. Your career goals may
     change as you encounter new areas that interest you while in college. Nonetheless, setting tentative
     goals will aid you in selecting courses for later years and in looking beyond the immediate future.

     It is wise to have several career options available until you are certain that you can enter a specific
     profession. Successful admission to a specific career is never guaranteed. Thus, in your career
     planning, try to pursue a course program that leaves more than one career option open for you.

     In setting goals for a career in Zoology, it is important to discuss career possibilities and
     requirements with members of the Zoology faculty and with area professionals. For example, most
     area dentists, physicians, optometrists, veterinarians, etc., are willing to discuss their profession
     with Miami students. In addition, there are designated faculty members in the Department of
     Zoology who serve to advise students, each on a particular type of career. A listing of these people
     appears on page 10. Your faculty advisor, assigned to you in the second semester of your first year,
     can be an invaluable consultant as well. Career counseling is also available at the Career
     Exploration and Testing Center located in the Health Services Center.

     In addition to your formal education, most professional schools, graduate schools and business
     firms look beyond just the formal course work and grade point average when they decide whom to
     accept. They like to see a moderate level of involvement in student clubs, organizations, athletics,
     music, hobbies and the like. Extracurricular activities help to develop the social aspects of one's
     abilities, and when engaged in moderately, they complement the formal course work.

     Involvement in one or more of the student preprofessional clubs serves to broaden your
     understanding of a particular profession. Members of these clubs often bring in practicing
     professionals to present a lecture to the club, and they often make visits to neighboring facilities
     where zoologically related work is ongoing. A list of these clubs appears on page 25.

     If you are planning to seek employment immediately after the completion of the baccalaureate
     degree, you should take a few technique or specific skill courses that may enhance your
     attractiveness to prospective employers. Conducting research in the laboratory of a faculty member
     gives you valuable practical work experience. This can be done for academic credit through
     enrolling in Zoology 320 or for a modest income through the Department of Zoology's program of
     hiring student laboratory assistants.

     When you apply for a job or for admission to a postgraduate school or program, you probably will
     be required to have letters of recommendation accompany your application. You should make an
     effort to become "known" by some of the faculty members so that they can provide a meaningful
     letter of recommendation for you.


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5.   How do I Find Out About Employment Opportunities?

     The best place to learn about employment possibilities is the Office of Career Services (OCS), 241
     Hoyt Hall. They will advise you on how to seek employment. Your faculty advisor also may give
     you valuable suggestions. Notices of job openings that are mailed to the Zoology Office are posted
     on a bulletin board located near the office. Information concerning summer jobs and internships is
     available through the OCS. Their office has a coordinator of Student Internship Services that
     accumulates and communicates such information. Also be alert to summer job and internship flyers
     posted on the Departmental bulletin boards.


6.   Where Can I Find Information about Graduate School Programs in Zoology and
     Other Life Sciences?

     A guide to North American graduate schools called Peterson's Guides is available on-line or at the
     Graduate School Office. In addition, notices that are received from other universities about their
     graduate programs in biology are posted on the large bulletin board located east of Room 221, near
     the Zoology Office.


7.   Does Zoology Offer any Courses in Marine Biology?

     The Department of Zoology does not offer any formal course work in marine biology. However,
     Miami University is a member of Duke University's Marine Sciences Education Consortium
     (MSEC). Membership in the MSEC gives Miami students priority access to advanced formal
     courses in the marine sciences given during the summer and/or regular academic year at the Duke
     Marine Laboratory in Beaufort, North Carolina, and to supervised research at the same facility.
     Students interested in this program should contact Dr. Michael Vanni, e-mail:
     vannimj@muohio.edu


8.   How do I Obtain an Advisor?

     Although you will not be formally assigned to a Departmental faculty advisor until the second
     semester of your freshman year, you are encouraged to see a Zoology advisor when questions
     or any problems arise.        Dr. Susan Hoffman, Chief Departmental Advisor (e-mail:
     zooadvising@muohio.edu), is responsible for assigning advisors.

     All faculty advisors in the Department are expected to provide sufficient advising opportunities to
     all advisees. Their office hours are posted at their respective offices, on the Departmental website,
     and with the Departmental secretaries. Appointments outside the published office hours are easily
     arranged and honored throughout the Department. Use e-mail to set up appointments.

     Students are urged to consult with their advisor on a regular basis. Your advisor is available to help
     you with questions concerning course selection within your major, Zoology major requirements,
     career planning, etc., and will endeavor to clarify the Miami Plan and College Liberal Education
     Requirements. You are urged to become familiar with all requirements for your degree; the
     ultimate responsibility for satisfying academic requirements rests with you!




                                                                                                         9
      The Miami Bulletin is considered to be the official document concerning graduation requirements.
      You will find all Departmental, College, and University requirements listed therein. Unusual
      problems concerning requirements may be directed to the Arts and Science Advising Office, 146
      Upham Hall. General questions concerning vocational goals and career planning may be directed
      to the Career Exploration and Testing Center, 196 Health Services Building, and the Office of
      Career Services, 241 Hoyt Hall. Summer internship opportunities may also be explored through the
      Office of Career Services.


9.    Where Can I Obtain Advice and Information About the Requirements for Admission
      to a Particular Professional Postgraduate Degree Program?

      There is a Zoology faculty member who serves as the advisor to students in each of the major
      professions elected by Miami Zoology majors. The preprofessional program and the faculty
      advisor for it are:

            1.    Pre-Dentistry - Mr. Robert A. Balfour             292 PSN       balfoura@muohio.edu
            2.    Pre-Medical - Mr. Robert A. Balfour               292 PSN       balfoura@muohio.edu
            3.    Pre-Physical Therapy – Mr. Robert A. Balfour      292 PSN       balfoura@muohio.edu
            4.    Pre-Veterinary - Dr. Susan M.G. Hoffman and       246 PSN    zooadvising@muohio.edu
                      Dr. Nancy G. Solomon                          170 PSN      solomong@muohio.edu

      Some additional career programs and the faculty advisor for each are:

            1. Biological Science Certification for Teaching in a
                     High School - Phyllis Mendenhall               404-D MCG mendenpn@muohio.edu
            2. Pre-Pharmacy - Dr. Michael Robinson                  256 PSN   robinsm5@muohio.edu
            3. Pre-Optometry - Dr. Katia Del Rio-Tsonis             244 PSN      delriok@muohio.edu
            4. Zoology Graduate Schools - Dr. Paul F. James         278 PSN     jamespf@muohio.edu
            5. Clinical (Medical) Lab Science - Dr. Marcia Lee       42 PSN       leemr@muohio.edu


10.   What Are the Admission Requirements for Some of the Professional Degree
      Programs?

      A.    Pre-Dental Programs:

            Approximately 14-20 Miami students successfully gain admission to dental school each year.
            Most attend a dental school in their state of permanent residence. Ohio State and Case
            Western Reserve are the two dental schools in Ohio. Requirements for admission vary from
            school to school. You should select several schools that you are interested in and visit their
            websites so that you can plan your undergraduate curriculum in accordance with their
            requirements.

            As a guide, the following are the typical basic requirements for dental school and the Miami
            courses that satisfy them:




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     DENTAL SCHOOL REQUIREMENTS                            MIAMI EQUIVALENTS
                                                             (Semester Courses)

     1 year of English                                     ENG 111, 112 or 113
     1 year of College Chemistry/with lab                  CHM 141, 142 and 144, 145
     1 year of Organic Chemistry/with lab                  CHM 241, 242 and 244, 245
     1 year of Physics/with lab                            PHY 171, 172; 183, 184
     1 year of Introductory Biology/with lab               ZOO 113, 114 or 115, 116


     The previous courses are the minimal requirements and most students complete more science
     courses than those listed. If you are undecided as to which courses would be most helpful in
     providing a foundation for the basic science courses to be taken in dental school, you may
     want to consider one or more of the following:

           ZOO 201-Comparative Anatomy                     ZOO 305-General Physiology
           ZOO 203-Cell Biology                            CHM 332 or 432-Biochemistry*
           ZOO 342-Genetics                                MBI 121 and 123 or 201
           Calculus is not required

           Note: If you intend to apply to Ohio State University for Dental School, they have
           three additional course requirements: A course in Biochemistry (CHM 332 or 432), a
           course in human or comparative anatomy (PHS 244 and 244L or ZOO 201 fulfills this
           requirement), a course in microbiology (MBI 121 and 123, 161, or 201), and a course
           in physiology (ZOO 161 or 305).

           *If you take one of these biochemistry courses in addition to the inorganic and organic
           chemistry sequences you would fulfill the requirements for a thematic sequence in
           Chemistry.

     In recent years, many Miami students with a GPA of 3.2 or higher have been successfully
     placed in Dental School. The GPA is only one factor in the selection process. Motivation,
     character, knowledge about the field of dentistry, demonstrated ability to relate to people and
     performance on the D.A.T. exam are also important factors in the selection process.

     There is an active Pre-Dental Club for students interested in a dental career. The activities of
     this Club help each member to become better acquainted with dentistry as a profession.

B.   Pre-Medical Program:

     Miami University's premedical program has been very successful through the years in placing
     students in medical school if they have a science GPA of at least 3.20, an overall GPA of 3.20
     or higher, and score at least average on the MCAT (Medical College Admission Test).
     During the 2005-08 period, over 78.6% of Miami applicants who met these minimum
     requirements were accepted into medical school. The average Miami applicant who has been
     accepted to medical school has achieved a science GPA of 3.56 and an overall GPA of 3.65
     and scored above average on the MCAT. During the 2005-08 period, 294 Miami
     undergraduates were accepted into medical school and 168 of these students were Zoology



                                                                                                  11
          majors. During the past 8 years a total of 93 different medical schools have offered
          acceptances to Miami students.

          Miami does not have a "premedical major". The choice of Departmental major is yours and
          is not specified by any medical school. Each year, more than one-half of Miami's premedical
          students choose a Zoology major; some combine Zoology with a major or minor in another
          department (non-science). It is strongly recommended that premedical students choosing to
          major in Zoology pursue a B.A. degree in Zoology rather than the B.S. degree.

          The minimal requirements for entrance to almost all of the 175 medical schools (both
          standard and osteopathic) in the United States and Canada are essentially the same:

          MEDICAL SCHOOL REQUIREMENTS                       MIAMI EQUIVALENT

          1 year English                                    ENG 111, 112 or 113
          1 year Biology with lab                           ZOO 113, 114 or 115, 116
          1 year General or College Chemistry               CHM 141, 142 and 144, 145
                with lab                                        or 158, 161
          1 year Organic Chemistry/with lab                 CHM 241, 242 and 244, 245 or
                                                                251, 252 and 254, 255
          l year Physics/with lab                           PHY 171, 172 and 183, 184 or
                                                                181, 182 and 183, 184
          1 year College Mathematics*

            * The specific math requirement varies with the medical school, but you will fulfill virtually
              all medical school math requirements if you take one semester of college math and a
              semester of statistics.

          Some medical schools add specific required courses to these minimal entrance requirements
          and many make additional recommendations. A semester of biochemistry is strongly
          recommended. Students should consult the Medical School Admission Requirements
          Handbook for such information. We strongly recommend that students include courses in
          their curriculum that will provide them with a broad liberal arts background and aid them in
          the future development of their communicative and quantitative skills.

          Your academic record is only one factor considered by medical schools in the admission
          selection process. Your motivation, character, experience in and knowledge about the field
          of medicine, involvement in people-related activities, and performance on the MCAT exam
          are also very important.

          Additional information can be obtained by contacting Miami's Chief Premedical Advisor, Mr.
          Robert Balfour, 529-3149. You are also encouraged to visit Miami's premed website
          (http://www.cas.muohio.edu/mwche/index.html).

     C.   Pre-Physical Therapy:

          Miami University does not offer a specific degree program in either Physical or Occupational
          Therapy. Rather, Miami students take courses at Miami that fulfill the course prerequisites
          for Physical or Occupational Therapy programs. Miami’s pre-Physical and pre-Occupational
          Therapy program is designed to provide students with the basic science and related courses


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needed for background preparation and admission into an accredited Physical or
Occupational Therapy program. Students interested in Physical or Occupational Therapy
usually complete their Bachelor’s Degree at Miami and then apply to Doctoral Degree
programs in Physical Therapy, or Master's or Doctoral Degree programs in Occupational
Therapy.

There are 10 accredited Physical Therapy Programs in the state of Ohio that offer the Doctor
of Physical Therapy Degree. These are Cleveland State University, College of Mount St
Joseph, Ohio University, The Ohio State University, The University of Findlay, University of
Cincinnati, University of Dayton, University of Toledo, Walsh University, and Youngstown
State University offer Doctoral Degree programs in Physical Therapy (DPT). For students
interested in pursuing a career in Occupational Therapy, Cleveland State University, The
Ohio State University, Shawnee State University, University of Findlay, and Xavier
University offer Master's Degree programs (MOT). Only the University of Toledo offers a
Doctoral Degree in Occupational Therapy (ODT).

If you decide to apply to Physical or Occupational Therapy schools, you can expect the
process to be competitive. Nevertheless, Miami University has an excellent track record,
with students getting accepted into schools nationwide. Most Miami students who desire to
pursue Physical or Occupational Therapy get into a program even if it takes more than one
year of applying. Miami students have been accepted to both large and small professional
schools across the country, including: Northwestern University, Mayo Clinic, The Ohio State
University, Ohio University, University of Dayton, Elon University, Washington University,
Drexel University, Emory University, Shenandoah University, Belmont University, and the
University of Indiana.

In order to complete your Bachelor's Degree in a timely manner and satisfy required course
work for Physical or Occupational Therapy programs, we recommend you do the following:

     1.    Research the course prerequisites for Physical and Occupational Therapy
           programs early in your undergraduate career. This way you can plan your
           undergraduate coursework accordingly.
     2.    Keep your grade point average above a 3.0 (the higher the better).
     3.    Become a member of Miami University’s Pre-Physical and Occupational
           Therapy (Pre-PT/OT) Club in order to learn more about new professional
           programs, changing requirements, and where Miami students have been
           accepted.
     4.    Regularly check in with a pre-Physical/Occupational Therapy advisor.

Course Selection - Each PT and OT school sets its own prerequisite courses for admission
into their program. Most Physical and Occupational Therapy programs require that students
have obtained a Baccalaureate Degree prior to admission. In order to graduate from Miami
University, students must meet all departmental requirements, College of Arts and Science or
School (School of Education and Allied Health Professions, Business, etc.) requirements, and
University requirements. The required course work for programs in Physical or Occupational
Therapy may or may not satisfy departmental requirements. Courses required by Physical or
Occupational Therapy graduate programs, but not by the student’s Baccalaureate Degree
program, should be taken as electives.




                                                                                         13
     The following is a list of courses many physical and occupational therapy programs require
     prior to admission. NOTE: This is only a general guideline. Students are responsible for
     determining the prerequisites for the programs of interest to them.

     General Prerequisite Courses                  Miami Equivalent
     1 year General Biology                               BMZ 115/116 or ZOO 113/114
     1 year College Chemistry with laboratory             CHM 141, 144 and 142, 145
     1 year College Physics with laboratory               PHY 171, 183 and 172, 184
     1 semester Human Anatomy                             ZOO 201, PHS 244 and 244L
     1 semester Human Physiology                          ZOO 161 or 305
     1 semester Statistics                                STA 261
     1 semester Biomechanics                              PHS 381
     1 semester Exercise Physiology                       PHS 468
     1 semester English Composition                       ENG 111 or 112
     1 semester General Psychology                        PSY 111
     1 semester Developmental Psychology§                 PSY 231
     1 course in Medical Terminology
         §Some programs also recommend Abnormal Psychology (PSY 242).

     Other suggested courses (courses required by some schools) are:

     Suggested Course                                     Miami Equivalent
     1 semester Organic Chemistry                         CHM 231
     1 semester Biochemistry                              CHM 332
     1 semester Philosophy/Medical Ethics                 PHL 131, 375 or SOC 357
     1 semester Sociology                                 SOC 151
     1 semester Speech                                    COM 135

     Students should also consider a course in CPR (level C) certification.

     Clinical Work or Summer Job Experience - Clinical hours (volunteer or paid) are required by
     physical and occupational therapy schools. Some clinical opportunities exist in the Oxford
     community. Many schools look for evidence of exposure to the kinds of patients with whom
     you will eventually work. Many schools prefer that you have experience in a variety of
     clinical settings. The number of hours required varies by school, with most schools requiring
     approximately 100 hours.

     Tests for Admission to Physical Therapy Programs - The majority of schools require the
     General Record Examination (GRE). This test should be taken in between the third or fourth
     year of your college program. Some schools require the Allied Health Professions Aptitude
     Test (AHPAT) for admission. Students must contact their schools of choice to determine
     which tests are required.

     Pre-Physical and Occupational Therapy (Pre-PT/OT) Club - This club is a useful source of
     information about the various physical therapy and occupational therapy schools and
     programs and about career opportunities in the field. In addition, the Pre-PT/OT Club
     provides a network of support for both current and former students. Dr. Helaine Alessio
     serves as faculty advisor to the club.




14
     Further Information - A Directory of Physical Therapy Education Programs, produced by the
     APTA, and a Directory of Occupational Therapy Education Programs, produced by the
     AOTA, can be accessed on the internet: www.apta.org or www.aota.org.

D.   Pre-Veterinary Medicine:

     Students are encouraged to apply to the veterinary school in their state of residence since in-
     state residents have a much higher acceptance rate than do out-of-state applicants. Entrance
     requirements vary somewhat among vet schools. Students are strongly encouraged to see
     their pre-vet advisor at least once per year. Either a B.A. or a B.S. program is acceptable.
     The Miami University course equivalents for Ohio State University vet school are shown
     below.

     Entrance to vet schools is extremely competitive; therefore, students are urged to pursue a
     baccalaureate degree program in the area of their choice to provide a viable alternative to
     veterinary medicine.

           OSU Vet School Requirements                  Miami Equivalent
           1 year General Biology with lab              BMZ 115/116 or 113/114 (labs included)
           1 year General Chemistry with lab            CHM 141 and 142, plus
                                                         144/145 labs
           1 year Organic Chemistry with lab            CHM 241 and 242, plus 244/245 labs
           1 semester Biochemistry                      CHM 332 or 432
           1 year Physics with lab                      PHY 171 and 172, plus 183/184 labs
           1 semester Genetics                          BOT/ZOO 342
           1 semester Calculus or Precalculus           MTH 104 or 123 or 125 or 141 or
                                                         151 or 153
           1 semester Microbiology with lab             MBI 201 or 161 (labs included), or
                                                         121 plus 123 lab
           1 semester English Composition               ENG 111
           14 semester hours of Humanities
           7 semester hours of Electives

           Applicants are required to take a standardized exam. The MCAT, or GRE will fulfill
           this requirement for the Ohio State applicants. Candidates scoring at the 75th
           percentile or higher will be given preference.

           The GPA for admission is not absolute, but generally one must earn a 3.00 or higher.
           Most admitted students have GPA's of at least 3.40.

           Work experience with a veterinarian (paid or volunteer) is required. Other animal
           experience (i.e. with zoos, agriculture, dog training, etc.) is desirable. You will need
           three letters of recommendation, including two letters from veterinarians.




                                                                                                 15
            2.    Additional Factors for Vet School Admission

                  Evidence of motivation over an extended period of time.

                  Realistic understanding of the daily routine for a veterinarian, salary, prospects for
                  group practice versus individual practice, awareness of veterinary occupations other
                  than small and large animal practice.

                  Demonstration of ability to communicate fluently both verbally and in writing.

                  Demonstration of leadership ability and good interpersonal skills.

            Special pre-vet scholarships are available for Zoology majors; applications are due in March.
            Additional information can be obtained by contacting the pre-veterinary advisors.

      E.    Graduate Programs in Zoology:

            The requirements for entering a graduate program in Zoology depend on the program that
            you select. If you plan to go to graduate school, you should see your advisor and begin to
            select schools where you might apply during your junior year to make sure you have all the
            prerequisites. If you are interested in Miami's graduate program in Zoology, you are
            expected to have had adequate undergraduate training in the following, or their equivalent:
            cell biology (ZOO 203), genetics (ZOO 342), general physiology (ZOO 305), ecology (ZOO
            209), at least one semester of organic chemistry (e.g., CHM 241/244, CHM 231), at least one
            semester of physics (e.g., PHY 171/183), and statistics (STA 261). A student lacking one or
            more of these courses may be required to take such courses, possibly for undergraduate
            credit.

            If you are interested in graduate programs, contact Dr. Paul F. James, Chair, Zoology
            Graduate Advisory Committee (e-mail: jamespf@muohio.edu).


11.   Should I Pursue a B.A. Degree or a B.S. Degree Program?

      The Department of Zoology offers two different degrees, one leading to the B.A. and one to the
      B.S. The degree requirements for both are described in the next sections of this Handbook.
      Students should select the degree program that best fits their academic and career objectives.
      Faculty advisors can provide advice on an individual basis.

      In general, the B.A. degree is designed for students who desire more breadth outside of the natural
      sciences. All Miami Plan Foundation and College of Arts and Science requirements (MPF and
      CAS) apply to this degree. The Departmental requirements are more flexible for the B.A. than for
      the B.S. degree and leave more room for electives.

      The Zoology major leading to the B.S. degree is designed for students who wish to complete a more
      intensive undergraduate program in the sciences. It contains more breadth within Zoology and
      requires the completion of select specific courses.

      Credit for one or two semesters of Introductory Biology may be earned through completion of the
      Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate Programs. See the Miami Bulletin for details.
      The Department of Zoology does not offer Departmental Proficiency Exams.


16
12.   What are the Requirements for a B.A. Degree in Zoology?

      A.   The Miami Plan for Liberal Education

                                                                                Minimum Credit
                                                                                     Hours

           Foundation courses (MPF I-V)                                               36 hrs.
           Focus courses (Thematic sequence-9 hrs; Capstone-3 hrs)                    12 hrs.

      B.   College of Arts and Science Requirements

           CAS A-E                                                                    45 hrs.

           Most of the CAS requirements, except for the Language, can in fact be met simultaneously by
           the same courses used to fulfill the MPF and major requirements. All A & S students must
           complete at least 56 hours of advanced (200 level and higher) course work. For a detailed
           outline of the University and College Liberal Education requirements, see the Miami Bulletin.

      C.   Zoology Courses:

           To earn a B.A. degree in Zoology at Miami University, at least 16 of the 32 credit hours
           required in Zoology must be earned at Miami.

           1.    100 Level Courses: Majors must take ZOO 113 or 115 and ZOO 114 or 116; these
                 courses are a prerequisite for all advanced Zoology courses. ZOO 121, 161, 171, and
                 172, plus certain advanced courses such as ZOO 325, are not designed for Zoology
                 majors and cannot be applied toward a major in Zoology.

           2.    Advanced Hours: A minimum of 24 semester hours of advanced course work is
                 required (courses numbered 200 or above, with the exception of those identified as not
                 applying toward a major in Zoology). There are no specific courses required to fulfill
                 the 24-advanced semester hour requirement. However, the following are strongly
                 recommended: ZOO 202, 203, 209, 305, and 342.

                 No more than a total of 3 hours of credit in Research in Zoology (ZOO 320),
                 Independent Study (ZOO 277, 377, 477), Internship (ZOO 340), and/or Independent
                 Research Capstone (ZOO 419.R) may be used to fulfill the 24-hour requirement.
                 Enrollment in ZOO 277, 320, 340, 377, 419.R, and 477 requires permission of
                 instructor and approval by the Department Chair. Enrollment in ZOO 340 requires
                 additional approval by the Dean.

                 As a general rule, you should avoid specialization as an undergraduate and should
                 select courses from different areas and levels. If you have a career goal in mind, you
                 should consult with your advisor and persons involved in the area for advice on specific
                 courses that may be required. The final decision as to the courses that you take is
                 yours.




                                                                                                      17
      D.   Related Hours:

           The requirement is 18 semester hours, including a year of chemistry. The remaining hours
           may be chosen from botany, chemistry, geography, geology, mathematics, microbiology,
           physics, psychology, statistics, and systems analysis.

           All B.A. majors must have a minimum of one year of chemistry (CHM 141, 142, 144 and
           145). Although not required, all majors should take a year of organic chemistry or a
           combination of organic and biochemistry. Many students may find the course in analytical
           chemistry (CHM 363 lecture, 364 lab) helpful in developing their quantitative skills.

           A year of laboratory physics and a year of mathematics, including some calculus and
           statistics, are strongly recommended for anyone who plans to continue graduate studies in
           Zoology.

      E.   Grade Point Average:

           All courses taken in Zoology and in related areas for the purpose of fulfilling the
           requirements for a degree in Zoology must, with the exception of ZOO 277, 340, 377, and
           477, be taken for grade. All majors must attain a cumulative GPA of at least 2.00 in Zoology.
           Only courses designed for majors will be included in the computation of this average.


13.   What is a Typical Class Schedule for B.A. Degree Zoology Majors?

      There is considerable flexibility in this plan of study. Note that the following schedule includes
      many more related hours than are required for a B.A. degree. However, most graduate programs
      and health professional schools require two years of undergraduate course work in chemistry and a
      year of physics.



                                               FIRST YEAR
      Semester I                                      Semester II

      1CHM 141 (MPF-IV B, CAS-D)             (3)         CHM 142                                 (3)
      CHM 144                                (2)         CHM 145                                 (2)
      ZOO 115/1132                           (4)         ZOO 116/1142
        (MPF-IV A, CAS-D/LAB)                              (MPF-IV A, CAS-D/LAB)                 (4)
      ENG 111/113 (MPF-I)                    (3)         ENG 112 (MPF-I)                         (3)
      MPF/ELECTIVE/                                      MPF/ELECTIVE/
         LANGUAGE 101                        (4)            LANGUAGE 102                         (4)

      TOTAL                                  16          TOTAL                                   16




18
                                      SECOND YEAR
Semester I                                    Semester II

3CHM  241                            (3)         CHM 242                               (3)
CHM 244                              (2)         CHM 245                               (2)
4ZOO 200+                            (4)         ZOO 200+                            (3-5)
MPF/ELECTIVE/                                    MPF/ELECTIVE/
   LANGUAGE 201                      (3)           LANGUAGE 202 (CAS-A)                (3)
5FA, HUM, SS                                     MTH/PHL (MPF-V, CAS-E)              (3-5)
   (MPF-II A, B, C, CAS-B, C)        (3)

TOTAL                                15          TOTAL                              14-18



                                       THIRD YEAR6
Semester I                                     Semester II

PHY 171                              (3)         PHY 172                               (3)
PHY 183                              (1)         PHY184                                (1)
7ZOO 200+                          (3-5)         ZOO 300+                            (3-5)
5WC (MPF-III A, B, CAS-C)            (3)         WC (MPF-III A, B, CAS-C)              (3)
FA, HUM, SS                                      FA, HUM, SS
   (MPF-II A, B, C, CAS-B, C)        (3)            (MPF-II A, B, C, CAS-B, C)         (3)
8ELECTIVE                            (3)         FA, HUM, SS
                                                    (MPF-II A, B, C, CAS-B, C)         (3)

TOTAL                             16-18          TOTAL                              16-18


                                      FOURTH YEAR
Semester I                                    Semester II

7ZOO 300+ or 400+                  (4-5)         ZOO 300+ or 400+                    (1-4)
ZOO 300+ or 400+                   (3-4)         9CAPSTONE                           (3-4)
ELECTIVES                          (8-9)         ELECTIVES                          (9-12)

TOTAL                             15-18          TOTAL                              13-18


NOTES:

1 MPF = Miami Plan Foundation Course; CAS = College of Arts and Science Requirement.
2 ZOO 113 and 114 are only offered on the Hamilton and Middletown Regional Campuses.
3 Some students may choose to substitute the one semester of Organic Chemistry (CHM 231, 4 hr)
  and one semester of Biochemistry (CHM 332, 4 hr) for the two-semester Organic Chemistry
  sequence (CHM 241, 242, 244, 245). Consult with your advisor before making this decision.



                                                                                             19
      4   No specific courses are specified to fulfill the 24 advanced semester hour requirement in
          Zoology. Your career goal may dictate your course selection. Consult with your advisor.
      5   FA/HUM/SS = Fine Arts /Humanities/Social Science; WC=United States Culture/World Culture.
      6   Students preparing for MCAT, DAT, etc., exams may wish to reduce their course load during
          Semester II.
      7   During the third and fourth years, courses at the 200, 300, or 400-level may be taken.
      8   Add up advanced hours (>200 level) accumulated to date. Many of your elective hours may have
          to be taken in courses at the 200 level or higher in order to attain the required 56 hours of
          advanced course work. Some of the elective hours in the third and fourth years are generally used
          to fulfill the Thematic Sequence.
      9   If the Capstone is completed in Zoology, the three or four hours of credit may also apply to the
          advanced hour requirement in Zoology.


14.   What are the Requirements for a B.S. Degree in Zoology?

      A.      The Miami Plan for Liberal Education

                                                                                    Minimum Credit
                                                                                         Hours

              Foundation courses (MPF I-V)                                                36 hrs.
              Focus courses (Thematic sequence-9 hrs; Capstone-3 hrs)                     12 hrs.

      B.      College of Arts and Science Requirements

              CAS A (only)                                                                14 hrs.

              All A & S students must complete at least 56 hours of advanced (200 level and higher) course
              work. For a detailed outline of the University Liberal Education and College Language
              requirements, see the Miami Bulletin.

      C.      Zoology Courses

              To earn a B.S. degree at Miami University, at least 18 of the 36 credit hours required in
              Zoology must be earned at Miami.

              1.    100 Level Courses: Majors must take ZOO 113 or 115 and ZOO 114 or 116; these
                    courses are a prerequisite for all advanced Zoology courses. ZOO 121, 161, 171, and
                    172, plus certain advanced courses such as ZOO 325, are not designed for Zoology
                    majors and cannot be applied toward a major in Zoology.

              2.    Advanced Hours: A minimum of 28 semester hours of advanced course work (courses
                    numbered 200 or above, with the exception of those identified as not applying toward a
                    major in Zoology). These courses must include the following: ZOO 203, 209, 305,
                    and 342. The remaining hours must be designed for majors and must be taken at or
                    above the 200 level. These must include at least three hours at the 400 level, other than
                    ZOO 400, 419.R, or 477.




20
                   No more than a total of 3 hours of credit in Research in Zoology (ZOO 320),
                   Independent Study (ZOO 277, 377, 477), Internship (ZOO 340), and/or Independent
                   Research Capstone (ZOO 419.R) may be used to fulfill the 28-hour requirement.
                   Enrollment in ZOO 277, 320, 340, 377, 419.R, and 477 requires permission of
                   instructor and approval by the Department Chair. Enrollment in ZOO 340 requires
                   additional approval by the Dean.

      D.   Related Courses (48 Hours)

           1.      CHEMISTRY - At least 18 hours to include: 141, 142, 144, and 145; either 231 and
                   332 or 432, or 241, 242, 244, and 245.

           2.      PHYSICS - At least 8 hours to include: 171, 172, 183, and 184, or 181, 182, 183, and
                   184.

           3.      MATH AND STATISTICS - At least 8 hours to include: a course in statistics (e.g.
                   STA 261); and a course in calculus (e.g. MTH 151).

           4.      OTHER RELATED HOURS - The remaining 9 to 14 hours required to meet the 48-hr
                   Related Course Requirement must be selected from formal courses offered by the
                   following departments: Botany, Chemistry, Geography, Geology, Mathematics &
                   Statistics (advanced hours - 200 level or higher), Microbiology, Physics, Psychology,
                   Systems Analysis, and Zoology (advanced hours - 200 level or higher).

           The remaining hours required to meet the 128-hr graduation requirement are open electives
           and may be selected according to the educational interests and goals of each student.

      E.   Grade Point Average

           All courses taken in Zoology and in related areas for the purpose of fulfilling the
           requirements for a degree in Zoology must, with the exception of ZOO 277, 340, 377, and
           477, be taken for grade. All majors must attain a cumulative GPA of at least 2.00 in Zoology.
           Only courses designed for majors will be included in the computation of this average.


15.   What is a Typical Class Schedule for B.S. Degree Zoology Majors?


                                                FIRST YEAR
      Semester I                                       Semester II

      1CHM 141 (MPF-IV B)                    (3)          CHM 142                                (3)
      CHM 144                                (2)          CHM 145                                (2)
      ZOO 113/115 (MPF-IV A)                 (4)          ZOO114/116 (MPF-IV A)                  (4)
      ENG 111/113 (MPF-I)                    (3)          ENG 112 (MPF-I)                        (3)
      MPF/ELECTIVE/                                       MPF/ELECTIVE/
        LANGUAGE 101                         (4)            LANGUAGE 102                         (4)

      TOTAL                                   16          TOTAL                                  16



                                                                                                       21
                                             SECOND YEAR
     Semester I                                      Semester II

     CHM 241                                (3)          CHM 242                                 (3)
     CHM 244                                (2)          CHM 245                                 (2)
     ZOO 200+                               (4)          ZOO 200+                              (3-4)
     MBP/ELECTIVE/                                       MPF/ELECTIVE/
        LANGUAGE 201                        (3)            LANGUAGE 202 (CAS-A)                  (3)
     2FA/HUM/SS (MPF-II A, B, C)            (3)          MTH/STA (MPF-V)                       (4-5)

     TOTAL                                  15           TOTAL                                15-17


                                              THIRD YEAR
     Semester I                                      Semester II

     PHY 171                                (3)          PHY 172                                 (3)
     PHY 183                                (1)          PHY184                                  (1)
     3ZOO 200+ or 300+                      (3)          ZOO 200+ or 300+                      (3-5)
     2WC (MPF-III A, B)                     (3)          2WC (MPF-III A, B)                      (3)
     2FA/HUM/SS (MPF-II A, B, C)            (3)          2FA/HUM/SS (MPF-II A, B, C)             (3)
     MTH/STA                              (4-5)          2FA/HUM/SS (MPF-II A, B, C)             (3)

     TOTAL                               17-18           TOTAL                                16-18


                                             FOURTH YEAR
     Semester I                                      Semester II

     3ZOO 300+ or 400+                    (4-5)          ZOO 300+ or 400+                      (3-4)
     ZOO 300+ or 400+                     (3-4)          5CAPSTONE                             (3-4)
     4ELECTIVES                           (8-9)          ELECTIVES                               (9)

     TOTAL                               15-18           TOTAL                                15-17

     NOTES:

     1 MPF = Miami Plan Foundation Course; CAS = College of Arts and Science Requirement.
     2 FA/HUM/SS = Fine Arts/Humanities/Social Science; WC = United States Culture/World Culture.
     3 During the third and fourth years, courses at the 200, 300, or 400 level may be taken.
     4 Add up advanced hours (>200 level) accumulated to date. Many of your elective hours may have
       to be taken in courses at the 200 level or higher in order to attain the required 56 hours of
       advanced course work. Some of the elective hours in the third and fourth years are generally used
       to fulfill the Thematic Sequence. Be sure that the courses you take also complete the 48-hour
       Related Course requirement in Zoology.
     5 If the Capstone is completed in Zoology, the three or four hours of credit may also apply to the
       advanced hour requirement in Zoology.


22
16.   What are the Requirements for the Environmental Science Co-Major?

      The Environmental Science Co-Major is a second major that is very easily combined with a major
      in Zoology. Because the co-major is a second major, it satisfies the Thematic Sequence
      requirement. It is called a co-major because it requires that you have another major (e.g., Zoology),
      which would be termed the "primary" major. Because of the overlap between the Zoology major
      and the co-major, you can usually do both by taking only about three courses more than the
      standard B.A. requirements for Zoology.

      Following are the courses that are recommended and/or required for a Zoology major who wants to
      also do the co-major. In some areas, courses are required regardless of primary major. You can
      acquire more information about the co-major at the Department of Zoology Office or contact the
      faculty advisor, Douglas Meikle (meikled@muohio.edu).

      Recommended and/or Required Courses:

            1.    Natural Science (total of 12 semester hours):
                  a.   Biological Science (4 semester hours):
                       ZOO 115 or ZOO 113

                  b.    Physical Science (8 semester hours):
                        One chemistry course:
                           CHM 142/145 (or 138/145) College Chemistry and Laboratory

                        One earth science course:
                           GLG 111, 121, 131, 141 (all require co-enrollment in GLG 115.L)
                           GEO 121

            2.    Statistics (3-4 semester hours):
                  STA 261 (MPF V) or STA 301

            3.    Social Science (6-7 semester hours), all of the following meet MPF III:
                  a.    Required course:
                        ECO 201

                  b.    Take one of the following courses:
                        ATH 175, GEO 101, POL 141, POL 261

            4.    Environmental Science (9-11 semester hours):
                  a.   Required course:
                       ENS 275
                          This course is cross-listed as BOT/CHM/GEO/GLG/MBI/MTH/ZOO 275.
                          The three courses required in the biological and physical sciences (listed
                          under “Natural Science” above) are pre- or co-requisites for enrollment in
                          ENS 275.




                                                                                                        23
                 b.    Two advanced courses (beyond ENS 275) in environmental science are required
                       and can include one of the following:

                       ZOO 333, 453, 462, 463, 467

                       In addition to one of the above courses, at least one approved course from outside
                       of the department has to be taken. The complete list can be acquired from the
                       Department of Zoology Office.

           5.    Practicum and Synthesis (3-5 semester hours):
                 These are courses at the 300-level or higher that involve field applications or synthesis
                 of environmental science concepts. Students must have completed ENS 275 and 64
                 credits of course work in order for one of the following courses to fulfill the Practicum
                 and Synthesis requirement.

                 One of these:
                      BOT 351
                      GEO 436
                      Field Based Workshops including but not limited to:
                             BOT/GEO 496 - Biodiversity of Kenya
                             BOT 499.A - Tropical Flora of the Bahamas
                             GLG 412 - Tropical Ecosystems of Costa Rica
                             GLG 413 - Tropical Marine Ecology
                             GLG 414 - Coastal Ecology of the Bahamas
                             Belize – Ecology and Natural History
                             Environmental Issues in Latin America
                             Stone Laboratory Workshop (advanced courses only)
                    * Honors Thesis (3 semester hours)
                      IES/ENS 431
                    * ZOO 340 (Internship)
                      ZOO 351
                    * ZOO 377 (Independent Study)
                           * must involve environmental science concepts and be approved by Advisory
                             Board and the Faculty Advisor.


17.   What are the Requirements for a Minor in Molecular Biology or Neuroscience?

      A.   Minor in Molecular Biology (18 semester hours)

           The minor in molecular biology enables students to pursue in depth a multidisciplinary study
           of biological phenomena at the molecular level. It provides a strong foundation for students
           planning careers in biotechnology industries or advanced work at the graduate level.

           A minimum of 2.0 grade point average is required for all courses in the minor. Students must
           complete a request form in the College of Arts and Science Advising Office in order to get a
           transcript notation for the minor. Contact Dr. David G. Pennock (pennocdg@muohio.edu)
           for additional information.




24
           Program Requirements:

                 1.    One course in biochemistry (CHM 332, 432 or 433).
                 2.    One course in cell biology (BOT 203, MBI 201, ZOO 203 or 443).
                 3.    One course in molecular biology (CHM 434; MBI 365, or ZOO 444).
                 4.    One course from three of the four Departments of Botany, Chemistry and
                       Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Zoology.
                 5.    One laboratory course (BMZ 424, BOT 415, CHM 438, MBI 465, ZOO 464) or
                       at least two credits of directed research in molecular biology.
                 6.    Other courses to bring the total number of semester hours to 18 hours. Courses
                       may be chosen from among:
                            BOT 203, 255, 342, 403, 415, 424
                            CHM 332, 424, 432, 433, 434, 438
                            MBI 201, 365, 414, 414.L, 424, 425, 445, 464, 465
                            ZOO 203, 342, 361, 424, 442, 443, 444, 449, 464, 471

      B.   Minor in Neuroscience (18 semester hours)

           The neuroscience minor is offered cooperatively through the Department of Zoology and
           Department of Psychology. This minor enables students to purse in depth a multidisciplinary
           study of the nervous system. It provides a basic framework for students planning advanced
           work in neuroscience at the graduate level. This minor may satisfy a thematic sequence.

           A minimum cumulative 2.0 grade point average is required for all courses in the minor. For a
           transcript notation of your minor, complete a request form in the College of Arts and Science
           Advising Office. Contact Dr. Kathleen Killian (killiaka@muohio.edu) for additional
           information.

           Program Requirements: (will change slightly in 2010-check updated departmental handout)

                 1.    Both of these: PSY 251, ZOO 305.
                 2.    At least 11 semester hours chosen from these courses (at least one course from
                       each department):
                             PSY 351, 356, 410.X, Y, or Z, 451, 456
                             ZOO 454, 457, 458, 469, 459, 465, 471
                             With prior approval by the Neuroscience Advisor, other selected Zoology
                             courses may count towards this requirement, such as ZOO 444, 464, or
                             select 400, 491, 492 courses.
                 3.    Other relevant course work in calculus, statistics, chemistry, computer science,
                       and philosophy of science. An independent research project (with PSY 477 or
                       ZOO 320) is also recommended.


18.   What Clubs or Honoraries are Available That Emphasize Zoology Interests?

      There are several very active groups to choose from as listed below. The Club Faculty Advisors
      may be contacted for further information.

      1.   Pre-Dental Club - Mr. Robert A. Balfour                     292 PSN              9-3149
      2.   Miami M.E.D. (Premedical Honorary) -
               Mr. Robert A. Balfour                                   292 PSN              9-3149


                                                                                                     25
      3.    American Medical Student Association (AMSA) -
                Mr. Robert A. Balfour                                       292 PSN               9-3149
      4.    Pre-Physical Therapy Club - Dr. Helaine Alessio                 26D PHI               9-2707
      5.    Pre-Veterinary Club - Dr. Susan Hoffman                         246 PSN               9-3125
      6.    Pre-Optometry Club - Dr. Katia Del Rio-Tsonis                   244 PSN               9-3128
      7.    Pre-Pharmacy Club - Dr. Michael Robinson                        256 PSN               9-2353
      8.    Primatology Club - Dr. Linda F. Marchant                        157 UPH               9-1594
      9.    Zoology Club - Mr. Michael Wright                               110 UPH               9-6084


19.   What are the Employment Opportunities for Students who are Majoring in Zoology
      While At Miami?

      The Department of Zoology hires students during each academic year and during the summer to
      help carry out its programs. Tasks include helping to teach the laboratory portion of an
      undergraduate course, routine office duties such as typing and filing, translating articles written in a
      foreign language into English, routine laboratory duties such as washing glassware and making
      solutions, caring for animals, maintenance of museum specimens, and conducting laboratory
      experiments. Each student employee works under the supervision of a member of the Zoology
      faculty.

      The Department of Zoology hires students who qualify for the College Work-Study Program
      (CWSP). A few students who do not qualify for the CWSP are also hired each year. To maximize
      the chances of gaining part-time employment in Zoology, you should visit the Student Financial
      Aid Office as early as possible and see if you qualify for the work-study program. Several months
      may be required to determine if you are eligible. At the same time, you should file an application
      for employment in the Department of Zoology Office. We encourage students to apply in the
      spring for positions to begin at the start of the next academic year.


20.   What are the Opportunities for Independent Study in Zoology?

      The Department of Zoology offers opportunities for students to pursue independent research studies
      on a one-to-one basis with a member of the faculty. The independent study may involve fieldwork,
      laboratory experimentation, or intensive library research. We recommend that students interested
      in pursuing graduate studies or other research oriented careers consider getting some research
      experience as early as possible in their undergraduate years.

      If you are interested, the first step is to choose an area in Zoology that appeals to you–look over the
      faculty research information on the departmental website and see which labs are doing research you
      find interesting. Then talk to those faculty members and see what openings are available in their
      labs. If you and a faculty member reach an agreement, you can join their research team in one of
      three ways.

            1.    Volunteer a few hours a week to learn how research is done in that lab–this is a good
                  way to get your foot in the door and to see if you like doing research.

            2.    Paid work is available in some labs; ask the faculty member if they have funds for this.

            3.    Academic credit may be earned for research work by enrolling in one or more of the



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            following independent study courses: ZOO 320 (Research in Zoology, 1-3 credits per
            semester, graded); ZOO 177, 277, 377, or 477 (Independent Study, 1-5 credits per
            semester, credit/no credit); and, for seniors only, ZOO 419.R (Independent Research
            Capstone, 3 credits, graded). Usually, 3-4 research hours each week during the term is
            worth one credit. To enroll for credit, complete an Independent Study Permit
            (available from the Zoology Office), get it signed by your faculty sponsor, and turn it in
            to the Zoology Office.

There are several funding sources that support undergraduate research. You can apply for
Undergraduate Research Awards to help fund your project (competitions in both fall and spring).
There are also several competitive scholarship programs that support full-time student research at
Miami over the summer (12 credit hours, the scholarships pay your tuition and a stipend). See
http://www.units.muohio.edu/oars/undergrad_research/index.php for details. Since the Department
may only partially fund the costs associated with undergraduate research projects, each student is
strongly encouraged to submit a research grant application to the Miami Undergraduate Research
Program Committee.


If you wish to get credit for work related experience outside of Miami University (e.g. research
laboratories, consulting firms, zoos, museums, industrial laboratories, or government agencies), you
can enroll in ZOO 340 (Internship) using the Independent Study Permit. This requires that you
arrange for a faculty sponsor and get approval of the Department Chair and the Dean of the College
BEFORE you begin the experience. Also, be aware that Miami University WILL charge you
tuition for the ZOO 340 credit hours you earn off-campus.

The following guidelines pertain to enrollment in independent study courses:

      1.    An accumulated total of three credits from all independent study or internship courses
            may be applied to the Zoology advanced hour (i.e., 200 level or above) requirement for
            the B.A. or B.S. The three credits may come from ZOO 277, 320, 340, 377, 419.R, or
            477.

      2.    ZOO 320 and ZOO 419.R are taken for letter grade. Work in ZOO 277, 340, 377, and
            477 will be evaluated only on a credit/no credit basis.

      3.    Students can accumulate a maximum of three credits of ZOO 320. They also can take
            only three credits of ZOO 419.R. The grades for those two courses (up to six credits
            total) will be used in the calculation of the GPA in the Zoology major. However, as per
            restriction (1) above, only three credits may be applied to the Zoology advanced hour
            requirement. Additional credits of independent study or internship can be applied to
            the University minimum of 128 credits for graduation and to the College of Arts and
            Science minimum of 56 advanced hours, according to guidelines set forth in the Miami
            Bulletin.

      4.    A student must register for ZOO 340 (Internship) before the internship begins.

      5.    A written report of the independent research or internship experience must be filed with
            the faculty sponsor at the end of the course and before a final grade is assigned. This
            report should summarize the important results of the work.




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      Additional obligations must be met to satisfy the requirements of ZOO 340 and 419.R. See the
      Miami Bulletin and your faculty sponsor for further details.



21.   Are There Lectures in Zoology Outside of Regular Courses?

      The Department of Zoology conducts an academic year lecture series in which 12-15 scientists
      from other institutions and agencies are invited to lecture in the Department. This program
      broadens the scope of our understanding of the current status of specialty areas in Zoology and
      provides valuable contacts for our faculty and students. Announcements concerning this program
      as well as other lecture series at Miami are posted on a bulletin board located next to the Zoology
      Office. All students are welcome to attend.


22.   Does the Department of Zoology Offer Student Awards?

      Each year, by vote of the faculty, the Department of Zoology may make several monetary awards to
      Zoology majors who have achieved a strong academic record and have been involved in
      noteworthy service activities and independent research. The winners of these scholarships are
      announced by the Office of Student Financial Aid. Those scholarships awarded by the Department
      of Zoology are listed below:

                                           Name and Award Criteria

            Sir Winston Carol I and Sir Winston Carol II Scholarship
                  Awarded to one or more beginning or continuing undergraduate students majoring in
                  Zoology on the basis of academic merit. Awards are limited to students who are
                  pursuing preveterinary studies and have declared their intention to enroll in a Doctor of
                  Veterinary Medicine degree program upon graduation.

            Robert E. Hayes Memorial Scholarship
                 Awarded to a premed student in junior or senior year.

            Malcolm E. Switzer, M.D. Award
                 Two awards, one by the Department of Chemistry and one by the Department of
                 Zoology, to be awarded to a junior premed Chemistry major and a senior premed
                 Zoology major.

            Birely J. Landis Scholarship
                  Awarded to undergraduate students of junior or senior standing.

            Marcia E. Buck Roll Memorial Scholarship
                 Two scholarships, one awarded by the Department of Botany and one awarded by the
                 Department of Zoology, alternating each year. The first award was made in the 1997-
                 98 school year by the Department of Botany.




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23.   How Can I Earn Departmental Honors in Zoology?

      The Department of Zoology encourages our majors with high academic ability to participate in our
      Departmental Honors Program. Successful completion of this program will result in Departmental
      recognition and the award of Departmental Honors upon graduation. The program consists of
      seminar courses coupled with independent research resulting in an Honors thesis.

      Students interested in pursuing Departmental Honors should begin by identifying a Departmental
      faculty member willing to supervise the Honors work (i.e. willing to serve as the Departmental
      Honors Advisor). Our Departmental web page (http://zoology.muohio.edu/zoo/research) is a good
      source of information about ongoing research projects and a way to identify potential research
      advisors. The student should then pick up an application form from the Department of Zoology
      office. One copy of the completed one-page form should be submitted to the identified Honors
      advisor and a second copy should be submitted to the Department of Zoology office.

      In order to allow time for the completion of the required course work, the development of a
      research proposal, data collection, and the writing of a thesis, the program should be initiated no
      later than the spring semester of a student’s junior year.

      Requirements for Departmental Honors in Zoology:

            1.    Attainment of a cumulative grade point average of 3.5 or higher in all course work
                  undertaken as well as in all biological courses undertaken.

            2.    Identification of a member of the Zoology faculty who agrees to oversee the work
                  undertaken for Departmental Honors. This faculty member will serve as the
                  Departmental Honors Advisor for the student.

            3.    Completion of a total of five credit hours, including a minimum of one credit hour from
                  ZOO 491 and/or 492, and three credit hours from ZOO 277, 320, 377, 477, or 419.R.

            4.    Submission to the Department of a bound copy of an Honors thesis based upon the
                  research undertaken. The thesis must be successfully defended before an examining
                  committee of three faculty members. The committee will be chaired by the student’s
                  Departmental Honors Advisor.

            5.    Submission of a completed copy of the Certificate for Awarding Departmental Honors
                  (obtained from the Department of Zoology office), approved by the Chief Departmental
                  Advisor and signed by the Honors Thesis Committee and the Department Chair.

      For additional information about this program, contact your Departmental academic advisor or the
      Chief Departmental Advisor (Dr. Susan Hoffman, e-mail: hoffmasm@muohio.edu).


24.   What are the Qualifications for Phi Beta Kappa Membership?

      Every year a number of our majors are elected to Phi Beta Kappa, one of the oldest and most
      prestigious academic honorary societies in this country. Many of our majors are not aware of the




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     qualifications for membership and, therefore, largely through oversight, fail to meet all these
     qualifications. In particular, we draw your attention to the following criteria:

           1.    Completion of 114 semester hours and enrollment for sufficient hours to insure
                 graduation by the end of the semester in which the election occurs. At least 60 hours of
                 the 128 required for graduation must have been taken at Miami University.

                 a.    Only hours taken for a grade (including grade of "S") may be counted in
                       satisfying the requirements for membership.
                 b.    At least 18 hours of credit must come from courses at the 300 level or above.
                       This is the criterion that probably most often excludes otherwise qualified
                       Zoology majors from election to membership.

           2.    Attainment of a cumulative grade point average of 3.60 or higher and rank in the top
                 10% of their class. A cumulative GPA of 3.7 is required of transfer students.

           3.    Completion of the 202 level of a foreign language at Miami before being considered for
                 election, or assignment of the equivalent transfer credit, or passage of the university
                 waiver or proficiency examination, or (for B.S. students only) passage of the reading
                 examination. Languages may not be taken credit/no credit.

     If you have the appropriate qualifications you will be reviewed automatically early in the second
     semester of your senior year by the Chapter Membership Committee. If you have not been notified
     of election but feel that you have met the qualifications, ask the Commencement Office to run a Phi
     Beta Kappa computer audit. If this printout shows that you have met the basic criteria, you should
     contact the Chapter Secretary of Iota Chapter. The secretary's name and phone number are
     available in the Office of University Honors and Scholars (96 Bishop Hall, 529-3399).




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