Subpart A-General by chenmeixiu

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									          PART 193 – LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY
                                  STANDARDS


Subpart A–General                                  Subpart D–Construction

Sec.                                               193.2301   Scope.
193.2001             Scope of part.                193.2303   Construction acceptance.
193.2005             Applicability.                193.2304   Corrosion control overview.
193.2007             Definitions.                  193.2321   Nondestructive tests.
193.2009             Rules of regulatory
                     construction.
193.2011             Reporting.                    Subpart E–Equipment
193.2013             Incorporation by reference.
193.2017             Plans and procedures.         193.2401 Scope.
193.2019             Mobile and temporary LNG
                     facilities.                   Control Systems

                                                   193.2441 Control center.
Subpart B–Siting Requirements                      193.2445 Sources of power.

193.2051    Scope.
193.2057    Thermal radiation protection.          Subpart F–Operations
193.2059    Flammable vapor-gas
            dispersion protection.                 193.2501   Scope.
193.2067 Wind forces.                              193.2503   Operating procedures.
                                                   193.2505   Cooldown.
                                                   193.2507   Monitoring operations.
Subpart C–Design                                   193.2509   Emergency procedures.
                                                   193.2511   Personnel safety.
193.2101 Scope.                                    193.2513   Transfer procedures.
193.2119 Records.                                  193.2515   Investigations of failures.
                                                   193.2517   Purging.
Impoundment Design and Capacity                    193.2519   Communication systems.
                                                   193.2521   Operating records.
193.2155       Structural requirements.
193.2161       Dikes, general.
193.2167       Covered systems.                    Subpart G–Maintenance
193.2173       Water removal.
193.2181           Impoundment capacity; LNG       193.2601   Scope.
                   storage tanks.                  193.2603   General.
                                                   193.2605   Maintenance procedures.
LNG Storage Tanks                                  193.2607   Foreign material.
                                                   193.2609   Support systems.
193.2187 Nonmetallic membrane liner.               193.2611   Fire protection.
                                                   193.2613   Auxiliary power sources.
                                                   193.2615   Isolating and purging.

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                                  STANDARDS


193.2617 Repairs.                          193.2903 Security procedures.
193.2619 Control systems.                  193.2905 Protective enclosures.
193.2621 Testing transfer hoses.           193.2907     Protective enclosure
193.2623     Inspecting LNG storage                     construction.
             tanks.                        193.2909 Security communications.
193.2625     Corrosion protection.         193.2911 Security lighting.
193.2627     Atmospheric corrosion         193.2913 Security monitoring.
             control.                      193.2915 Alternative power sources.
193.2629     External corrosion control;   193.2917 Warning signs.
             buried or submerged
             components.                   Authority: 49 U.S.C. 5103, 60102, 60103,
193.2631     Internal corrosion control.   60104, 60108, 60109, 60110, 60113, 60118;
193.2633 Interference currents.            and 49 CFR 1.53.
193.2635 Monitoring corrosion control.
193.2637 Remedial measures.                [Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980
193.2639 Maintenance records.              as amended by Amdt. 193-10, 61 FR 18512,
                                           Apr. 26, 1996; Amdt. 193-13, 62 FR 8402,
                                           Feb. 25, 1997, Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,
Subpart H–Personnel Qualifications and     March 1, 2000; Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,
Training                                   March 10, 2004]

193.2701 Scope.
193.2703    Design and fabrication.
193.2705    Construction, installation,
            inspection, and testing.
193.2707    Operations and maintenance.
193.2709    Security.
193.2711    Personnel health.
193.2713    Training; operations and
            maintenance.
193.2715    Training; security.
193.2717 Training; fire protection.
193.2719 Training; records.


Subpart I–Fire Protection

193.2801 Scope.


Subpart J–Security

193.2901 Scope.

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                                  STANDARDS


Subpart A–General                                      (b) If an existing LNG facility (or facility
                                                   under construction before March 31, 2000 is
                                                   replaced, relocated or significantly altered
§193.2001 Scope of part.                           after March 31, 2000, the facility must
                                                   comply with the applicable requirements of
    (a) This part prescribes safety standards      this part governing, siting, design,
for LNG facilities used in the transportation      installation, and construction, except that:
of gas by pipeline that is subject to the              (1) The siting requirements apply only to
pipeline safety laws (49 U.S.C. 60101 et           LNG storage tanks that are significantly
seq.) and Part 192 of this chapter.                altered by increasing the original storage
    (b) This part does not apply to:               capacity or relocated, and
    (1) LNG facilities used by ultimate                (2) To the extent compliance with the
consumers of LNG or natural gas.                   design, installation, and construction
    (2) LNG facilities used in the course of       requirements would make the replaced,
natural gas treatment or hydrocarbon               relocated, or altered facility incompatible
extraction which do not store LNG.                 with the other facilities or would otherwise
    (3) In the case of a marine cargo transfer     be impractical, the replaced, relocated, or
system and associated facilities, any matter       significantly altered facility may be
other than siting pertaining to the system or      designed, installed, or constructed in
facilities between the marine vessel and the       accordance with the original specifications
last manifold (or in the absence of a              for the facility, or in another manner subject
manifold, the last valve) located                  to the approval of the Administrator.
immediately before a storage tank.
    (4) Any LNG facility located in                [Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980
navigable waters (as defined in Section 3(8)       as amended by Amdt. 193-1, 45 FR 57418,
of the Federal Power Act (16 U.S.C.                Aug. 28, 1980; Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390,
796(8)).                                           Oct. 23, 1980; Amdt. 193-8, 58 FR 14519,
                                                   Mar. 18, 1993, Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980         March 1, 2000; Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,
as amended by Amdt. 193-1, 45 FR 57402,            March 10, 2004]
Aug. 28, 1980; Amdt. 193-10, 61 FR 18512,
Apr. 26, 1996]
                                                   §193.2007 Definitions.

§193.2005 Applicability.                               As used in this part:

     (a) Regulations in this part governing           Administrator means the Administrator,
siting, design, installation, or construction of   Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety
LNG facilities (including material                 Administration or his or her delegate.
incorporated by reference in these
regulations) do not apply to LNG facilities           Ambient vaporizer means a vaporizer
in existence or under construction when the        which derives heat from naturally occurring
regulations go into effect.

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heat sources, such as the atmosphere, sea         the design pressure to determine the
water, surface waters, or geothermal waters.      thickness of any specific part.

    Cargo transfer system means a                     Determine means make an appropriate
component, or system of components                investigation using scientific methods, reach
functioning as a unit, used exclusively for       a decision based on sound engineering
transferring hazardous fluids in bulk             judgment, and be able to demonstrate the
between a tank car, tank truck, or marine         basis of the decision.
vessel and a storage tank.
                                                     Dike means the perimeter of an
    Component means any part, or system of        impounding space forming a barrier to
parts functioning as a unit, including, but not   prevent liquid from flowing in an
limited to, piping, processing equipment,         unintended direction.
containers, control devices, impounding
systems, lighting, security devices, fire            Emergency means a deviation from
control equipment, and communication              normal operation, a structural failure, or
equipment, whose integrity or reliability is      severe environmental conditions that
necessary to maintain safety in controlling,      probably would cause harm to people or
processing, or containing a hazardous fluid.      property.

    Container means a component other                 Exclusion zone means an area
than piping that contains a hazardous fluid.      surrounding an LNG facility in which an
                                                  operator or government agency legally
    Control system means a component, or          controls all activities in accordance with
system of components functioning as a unit,       §193.2057 and §193.2059 for as long as the
including control valves and sensing,             facility is in operation.
warning, relief, shutdown, and other control
devices, which is activated either manually           Fail-safe means a design feature which
or automatically to establish or maintain the     will maintain or result in a safe condition in
performance of another component.                 the event of malfunction or failure of a
                                                  power supply, component, or control device.
    Controllable emergency means an
emergency where reasonable and prudent                g means the standard acceleration of
                                                                                     2
action can prevent harm to people or              gravity of 9.806 meters per second (32.17
                                                                 2
property.                                         feet per second ).

   Design pressure means the pressure                 Gas, except when designated as inert,
used in the design of components for the          means natural gas, other flammable gas, or
purpose of determining the minimum                gas which is toxic or corrosive.
permissible thickness or physical
characteristics of its various parts. When            Hazardous fluid means gas or hazardous
applicable, static head shall be included in      liquid.


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                                    STANDARDS


    Hazardous liquid means LNG or a                 Normal operation means functioning
liquid that is flammable or toxic.              within ranges of pressure, temperature, flow,
                                                or other operating criteria required by this
   Heated vaporizer means a vaporizer           part.
which derives heat from other than naturally
occurring heat sources.                            Operator means a person who owns or
                                                operates an LNG facility.
    Impounding space means a volume of
space formed by dikes and floors which is           Person means any individual, firm, joint
designed to confine a spill of hazardous        venture, partnership, corporation,
liquid.                                         association, state, municipality, cooperative
                                                association, or joint stock association and
    Impounding system includes an               includes any trustee, receiver, assignee, or
impounding space, including dikes and           personal representative thereof.
floors for conducting the flow of spilled
hazardous liquids to an impounding space.           Pipeline facility means new and existing
                                                piping, rights-of-way, and any equipment,
    Liquefied natural gas or LNG means          facility, or building used in the
natural gas or synthetic gas having methane     transportation of gas or in the treatment of
(CH4) as its major constituent which has        gas during the course of transportation.
been changed to a liquid.
                                                     Piping means pipe, tubing, hoses,
    LNG facility means a pipeline facility      fittings, valves, pumps, connections, safety
that is used for liquefying natural gas or      devices or related components for containing
synthetic gas or transferring, storing, or      the flow of hazardous fluids.
vaporizing liquefied natural gas.
                                                    Storage tank means a container for
    LNG plant means an LNG facility or          storing a hazardous fluid.
system of LNG facilities functioning as a
unit.                                               Transfer piping means a system of
        3
                                                permanent and temporary piping used for
   m means a volumetric unit which is one
                                        3
                                                transferring hazardous fluids between any of
cubic meter, 6.2898 barrels, 35.3147 ft. , or   the following: Liquefaction process
264.1720 U.S. gallons, each volume being        facilities, storage tanks, vaporizers,
considered as equal to the other.               compressors, cargo transfer systems, and
                                                facilities other than pipeline facilities.
   Maximum allowable working pressure
means the maximum gage pressure                    Transfer system includes transfer piping
permissible at the top of the equipment,        and cargo transfer system.
containers or pressure vessels while
operating at design temperature.                    Vaporization means an addition of
                                                thermal energy changing a liquid to a vapor
                                                or gaseous state.

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                                  STANDARDS


    Vaporizer means a heat transfer facility    §193.2011 Reporting.
designed to introduce thermal energy in a
controlled manner for changing a liquid to a       Leaks and spills of LNG must be
vapor or gaseous state.                         reported in accordance with the
                                                requirements of Part 191 of this chapter.
    Waterfront LNG plant means an LNG
plant with docks, wharves, piers, or other      [Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980]
structures in, on, or immediately adjacent to
the navigable waters of the United States or
Puerto Rico and any shore area immediately      §193.2013 Incorporation by reference.
adjacent to those waters to which vessels
may be secured and at which LNG cargo
operations may be conducted.                        (a) Any document or portion thereof
                                                incorporated by reference in this part is
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980      included in this part as though it were
as amended by Amdt. 193-1, 45 FR 57402,         printed in full. When only a portion of a
Aug. 28, 1980; Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390,        document is referenced, then this part
Oct. 23, 1980; Amdt. 193-10, 61 FR 18512,       incorporates only that referenced portion of
Apr. 26, 1996, Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,       the document and the remainder is not
March 1, 2000; Amdt. 193-18, 68 FR 11748,       incorporated. Applicable editions are listed
Mar. 12, 2003; 70 FR 11135, Mar. 8, 2005]       in paragraph (c) of this section in
                                                parentheses following the title of the
                                                referenced material. Earlier editions listed in
§193.2009 Rules of regulatory                   previous editions of this section may be used
construction.                                   for components manufactured, designed, or
                                                installed in accordance with those earlier
    (a) As used in this part:                   editions at the time they were listed. The
    (1) "Includes" means including but not      user must refer to the appropriate previous
limited to;                                     edition of 49 CFR for a listing of the earlier
    (2) "May" means is permitted to or is       editions.
authorized to;                                      (b) All incorporated materials are
    (3) "May not" means is not permitted to     available for inspection in the Pipeline and
or is not authorized to; and                    Hazardous Materials Safety Administration,
    (4) "Shall" or "must" is used in the        400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC,
mandatory and imperative sense.                 or at the National Archives and Records
    (b) In this part:                           Administration (NARA). For information on
    (1) Words importing the singular include    the availability of this material at NARA,
the plural; and                                 call 202-741-6030 or go to:
    (2) Words importing the plural include      http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/co
the singular.                                   de_of_federal_regulations/IBR_locations.ht
                                                ml.
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980]


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                                  STANDARDS


   Documents incorporated by reference are               D. Gas Technology Institute (GTI), 1700
available from the publishers as follows:            S. Mount Prospect Road, Des Plaines, IL
   A. American Gas Association (AGA),                60018.
400 North Capitol Street, NW., Washington,               E. National Fire Protection Association
DC 20001.                                            (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box
   B. American Society of Civil Engineers            9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101.
(ASCE), Parallel Centre, 1801 Alexander                  (c) Documents incorporated by
Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191-4400.                   reference.
   C. ASME International (ASME), Three
Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990.

            Source and name of referenced material                        49 CFR reference
A. American Gas Association (AGA):                                 §§ 193.2513; 193.2517;
    (1) ―Purging Principles and Practices,''(3rd edition, 2001).   193.2615.
B. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE):                     §193.2067.
    (1) SEI/ASCE 7-02 ―Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures,'' (2002 edition).
C. ASME International (ASME):                                      §193.2321.
    (1) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII,
Division 1, ―Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels,''
(2004 edition, including addenda through July 1, 2005).
    (2) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII,        §193.2321.
Division 2, ―Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels--
Alternative Rules,'' (2004 edition, including addenda through
July 1, 2005)
.D. Gas Technology Institute (GTI):                                §193.2057.
    (1) GRI-89/0176 ―LNGFIRE: A Thermal Radiation Model
for LNG Fires,'' (June 29, 1990).
    (2) GTI-04/0049 (April 2004) ―LNG Vapor Dispersion             §193.2059.
Prediction with the DEGADIS 2.1: Dense Gas Dispersion
Model for LNG Vapor Dispersion''.
    (3) GRI-96/0396.5 ―Evaluation of Mitigation Methods for        §193.2059.
Accidental LNG Releases, Volume 5: Using FEM3A for LNG
Accident Consequence Analyses,'' (April 1997).
E. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA):                    §§ 193.2019; 193.2051;
    (1) NFPA 59A (2001) ―Standard for the Production,              193.2057; 193.2059; 193.2101;
Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG).''.           193.2301; 193.2303; 193.2401;
                                                                   193.2521; 193.2639; 193.2801.

[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980           2005; Amdt. 193-19, 71 FR 33402, June 9,
as amended by Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,             2006]
March 10, 2004; 70 FR 11135, Mar. 8,


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                                  STANDARDS


§193.2017 Plans and procedures.                 §193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG
                                                facilities.
    (a) Each operator shall maintain at each
LNG plant the plans and procedures required         (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities
for that plant by this part. The plans and      for peakshaving application, for service
procedures must be available upon request       maintenance during gas pipeline systems
for review and inspection by the                repair/alteration, or for other short term
Administrator or any State Agency that has      applications need not meet the requirements
submitted a current certification or            of this part if the facilities are in compliance
agreement with respect to the plant under the   with applicable sections of NFPA 59A
pipeline safety laws (49 U.S.C. 60101 et        (incorporated by reference, see §193.2013).
seq.). In addition, each change to the plans        (b) The state agency having jurisdiction
or procedures must be available at the LNG      over pipeline safety in the State in which the
plant for review and inspection within 20       portable LNG equipment is to be located
days after the change is made.                  must be provided with a location description
    (b) The Administrator or the State          for the installation at least 2 weeks in
Agency that has submitted a current             advance, including to the extent practical,
certification under section 5(a) of the         the details of siting, leakage containment or
Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act with respect    control, fire fighting equipment, and
to the pipeline facility governed by an         methods employed to restrict public access,
operator's plans and procedures may, after      except that in the case of emergency where
notice and opportunity for hearing as           such notice is not possible, as much advance
provided in 49 CFR 190.237 or the relevant      notice as possible must be provided.
State procedures, require the operator to
amend its plans and procedures as necessary     [Amdt. 193-13, 62 FR 8402, Feb. 25, 1997
to provide a reasonable level of safety.        as amended by Amdt. 193.13A, 62 FR
    (c) Each operator must review and           36465, Jul. 8, 1997; Amdt. 193-14, 62 FR
update the plans and procedures required by     41311, Aug. 1, 1997; Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR
this part—                                      11330, March 10, 2004]
    (1) When a component is changed
significantly or a new component is
installed; and
    (2) At intervals not exceeding 27
months, but at least once every 2 calendar
years.

[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980;
as amended by Amdt. 193-3A, 50 FR 4578,
Amdt. 193-7, 56 FR 31087, July 9, 1991;
Amdt. 193-10, 61 FR 18512, Apr. 26, 1996;
Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330, March 10,
2004]


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                                  STANDARDS


Subpart BSiting Requirements                    §193.2057 Thermal radiation
                                                 protection.
§193.2051 Scope.
                                                     Each LNG container and LNG transfer
     Each LNG facility designed, constructed,    system must have a thermal exclusion zone
replaced, relocated or significantly altered     in accordance with section 2.2.3.2 of NFPA
after March 31, 2000 must be provided with       59A (incorporated by reference, see
siting requirements in accordance with the       §193.2013) with the following exceptions:
requirements of this part and of NFPA 59A            (a) The thermal radiation distances shall
(incorporated by reference, see §193.2013).      be calculated using Gas Research Institute's
In the event of a conflict between this part     (GRI) report GRI-89/0176 (incorporated by
and NFPA 59A, this part prevails.                reference, see §193.2013), which is also
                                                 available as the ―LNGFIRE III” computer
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980       model produced by GRI. The use of other
amended by Amdt. 193-1, 45 FR 57402,             alternate models which take into account the
Aug. 28, 1980, Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,        same physical factors and have been
March 1, 2000; Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,        validated by experimental test data shall be
March 10, 2004]                                  permitted subject to the Administrator's
                                                 approval.
                                                     (b) In calculating exclusion distances,
§193.2055 General.                               the wind speed producing the maximum
                                                 exclusion distances shall be used except for
    An LNG facility must be located at a site    wind speeds that occur less than 5 percent of
of suitable size, topography, and                the time based on recorded data for the area.
configuration so that the facility can be            (c) In calculating exclusion distances, the
designed to minimize the hazards to persons      ambient temperature and relative humidity
and offsite property resulting from leaks and    that produce the maximum exclusion
spills of LNG and other hazardous fluids at      distances shall be used except for values that
the site. In selecting a site, each operator     occur less than five percent of the time
shall determine all site-related                 based on recorded data for the area.
characteristics which could jeopardize the
integrity and security of the facility. A site   [Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980
must provide ease of access so that              as amended by Amdt. 193-1, 45 FR 57402,
personnel, equipment, and materials from         Aug. 28, 1980; Amdt. 193-3A, 50 FR 4578,
offsite locations can reach the site for fire    Amdt. 193-13, 62 FR 8402, Feb. 25, 1997;
fighting or controlling spill associated         Amdt. 193-16, 63 FR 37500, July 13, 1998,
hazards or for evacuation of personnel.          Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950, March 1, 2000;
                                                 Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330, March 10,
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980       2004]
amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,
March 1, 2000]



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                                  STANDARDS


§193.2059 Flammable vapor-gas                    the U.S. Department of Commerce, or as an
dispersion protection.                           alternative where the model used gives
                                                 longer distances at lower wind speeds,
    Each LNG container and LNG transfer          Atmospheric Stability (Pasquill Class) F,
system must have a dispersion exclusion          wind speed = 4.5 miles per hour (2.01
zone in accordance with sections 2.2.3.3 and     meters/sec) at reference height of 10 meters,
2.2.3.4 of NFPA 59A (incorporated by             relative humidity = 50.0 percent, and
reference, see §193.2013) with the following     atmospheric temperature = average in the
exceptions:                                      region.
    (a) Flammable vapor-gas dispersion               (3) The elevation for contour (receptor)
distances must be determined in accordance       output H = 0.5 meters.
with the model described in the Gas                  (4) A surface roughness factor of 0.03
Research Institute report GRI-89/0242            meters shall be used. Higher values for the
(incorporated by reference, see §193.2013),      roughness factor may be used if it can be
―LNG Vapor Dispersion Prediction with the        shown that the terrain both upwind and
DEGADIS Dense Gas Dispersion Model.”             downwind of the vapor cloud has dense
Alternatively, in order to account for           vegetation and that the vapor cloud height is
additional cloud dilution which may be           more than ten times the height of the
caused by the complex flow patterns induced      obstacles encountered by the vapor cloud.
by tank and dike structure, dispersion               (c) The design spill shall be determined
distances may be calculated in accordance        in accordance with section 2.2.3.5 of NFPA
with the model described in the Gas              59A (incorporated by reference, see
Research Institute report GRI 96/0396.5          §193.2013).
(incorporated by reference, see §193.2013),
―Evaluation of Mitigation Methods for            [Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980
Accidental LNG Releases. Volume 5: Using         as amended by Amdt. 193-1, 45 FR 57402,
FEM3A for LNG Accident Consequence               Aug. 28, 1980; Amdt. 193-3A, 50 FR 4578,
Analyses”. The use of alternate models           Amdt. 193-13, 62 FR 8402, Feb. 25, 1997;
which take into account the same physical        Amdt. 193-15, 63 FR 7721, Feb. 17, 1998;
factors and have been validated by               Amdt. 193-16, 63 FR 37500, July 13, 1998,
experimental test data shall be permitted,       Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950, March 1, 2000;
subject to the Administrator's approval.         Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330, March 10,
    (b) The following dispersion parameters      2004]
must be used in computing dispersion
distances:
    (1) Average gas concentration in air =       §193.2067 Wind forces.
2.5 percent.
    (2) Dispersion conditions are a                 (a) LNG facilities must be designed to
combination of those which result in longer      withstand without loss of structural or
predicted downwind dispersion distances          functional integrity;
than other weather conditions at the site at        (1) The direct effect of wind forces;
least 90 percent of the time, based on figures
maintained by National Weather Service of

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                                  STANDARDS


    (2) The pressure differential between the
interior and exterior of a confining, or
partially confining, structure; and
    (3) In the case of impounding systems
for LNG storage tanks, impact forces and
potential penetrations by wind borne
missiles.
    (b) The wind forces at the location of the
specific facility must be based on one of the
following:
    (1) For shop fabricated containers of
LNG or other hazardous fluids with a
capacity of not more than 70,000 gallons,
applicable wind load data in SEI/ASCE 7-
02 (incorporated by reference, see
§193.2013).
    (2) For all other LNG facilities:
    (i) An assumed sustained wind velocity
of not less than 150 miles per hour, unless
the Administrator finds a lower velocity is
justified by adequate supportive data; or
    (ii) The most critical combination of
wind velocity and duration, with respect to
the effect on the structure, having a
probability of exceedance in a 50-year
period of 0.5 percent or less, if adequate
wind data are available and the probabilistic
methodology is reliable.

[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980
as amended by Amdt. 193-1, 45 FR 57402,
Aug. 28, 1980; Amdt. 193-3A, 50 FR 4578,
Amdt. 193-8, 58 FR 14519, Mar. 18, 1993;
Amdt. 193-16, 63 FR 37500, July 13, 1998,
Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950, March 1, 2000;
Amdt. 193-19, 71 FR 33402, June 9, 2006]




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                                  STANDARDS


Subpart CDesign                               system's performance reliability and
                                               structural integrity as a result of the
                                               following:
§193.2101 Scope.                                   (1) The imposed loading from–
                                                   (i) Full hydrostatic head of impounded
    Each LNG facility designed after March     LNG;
31, 2000 must comply with requirements of          (ii) Hydrodynamic action, including the
this part and of NFPA 59A (incorporated by     effect of any material injected into the
reference, see §193.2013). In the event of a   system for spill control;
conflict between this part and NFPA 59A,           (iii) The impingement of the trajectory of
this part prevails.                            an LNG jet discharged at any predictable
                                               angle; and,
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980         (iv) Anticipated hydraulic forces from a
as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,       credible opening in the component or item
March 1, 2000; Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,      served, assuming that the discharge pressure
March 10, 2004]                                equals design pressure.
                                                   (2) The erosive action from a spill,
                                               including jetting of spilling LNG, and any
                      MATERIALS                other anticipated erosive action including
                                               surface water runoff, ice formation,
                                               dislodgment of ice formation, and snow
§193.2119 Records.                             removal.
                                                   (3) The effect of the temperature, any
    Each operator shall keep a record of all   thermal gradient, and any other anticipated
materials for components, buildings,           degradation resulting from sudden or
foundations, and support systems, as           localized contact with LNG.
necessary to verify that material properties       (4) Exposure to fire from impounded
meet the requirements of this part. These      LNG or from sources other than impounded
records must be maintained for the life of     LNG.
the item concerned.                                (5) If applicable, the potential impact
                                               and loading on the dike due to–
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980         (i) Collapse of the component or item
as amended by Amdt. 193-1, 45 FR 57402,        served or adjacent components; and
Aug. 28, 1980]                                     (ii) If the LNG facility adjoins the right-
                                               of-way of any highway or railroad, collision
                                               by or explosion of a train, tank car, or tank
   IMPOUNDMENT DESIGN AND CAPACITY             truck that could reasonably be expected to
                                               cause the most severe loading.
§193.2155 Structural requirements.                 (b) An LNG storage tank must not be
                                               located within a horizontal distance of one
   (a) The structural members of an            mile (1.6 km) from the ends, or ¼ mile (0.4
impoundment system must be designed and        km) from the nearest point of a runway,
constructed to prevent impairment of the       whichever is longer. The height of LNG

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                                  STANDARDS


structures in the vicinity of an airport must   draining may be acceptable subject to the
also comply with Federal Aviation               Administrator's approval.
Administration requirements in 14 CFR               (b) The water removal system must have
Section 1.1.                                    adequate capacity to remove water at a rate
                                                equal to 25% of the maximum predictable
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980      collection rate from a storm of 10-year
as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,        frequency and 1-hour duration, and other
March 1, 2000]                                  natural causes. For rainfall amounts,
                                                operators must use the ―Rainfall Frequency
                                                Atlas of the United States” published by the
§193.2161 Dikes; general.                       National Weather Service of the U.S.
                                                Department of Commerce.
    An outer wall of a component served by          (c) Sump pumps for water removal
an impounding system may not be used as a       must–
dike unless the outer wall is constructed of        (1) Be operated as necessary to keep the
concrete.                                       impounding space as dry as practical; and
                                                    (2) If sump pumps are designed for
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980      automatic operation, have redundant
as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,        automatic shutdown controls to prevent
March 1, 2000]                                  operation when LNG is present.

                                                [Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980
§193.2167 Covered systems.                      as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,
                                                March 1, 2000]
    A covered impounding system is
prohibited except for concrete wall designed
tanks where the concrete wall is an outer       §193.2181 Impoundment capacity; LNG
wall serving as a dike.                         storage tanks.

[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980          Each impounding system serving an
as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,        LNG storage tank must have a minimum
March 1, 2000]                                  volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of:
                                                    (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's
                                                maximum liquid capacity for an
§193.2173 Water removal.                        impoundment serving a single tank;
                                                    (b) 100 percent of all tanks or 110
    (a) Impoundment areas must be               percent of the largest tank's maximum liquid
constructed such that all areas drain           capacity, whichever is greater, for the
completely to prevent water collection.         impoundment serving more than one tank;
Drainage pumps and piping must be               or
provided to remove water from collecting in         (c) If the dike is designed to account for
the impoundment area. Alternative means of      a surge in the event of catastrophic failure,
                                                then the impoundment capacity may be

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reduced to 100 percent in lieu of 110
percent.

[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980
as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,
March 1, 2000]


               LNG STORAGE TANKS


§193.2187 Nonmetallic membrane liner.

    A flammable nonmetallic membrane
liner may not be used as an inner container
in a storage tank.

[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980
as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,
March 1, 2000]




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                                  STANDARDS


Subpart DConstruction                          or reliability of the component or any
                                                associated components.
                                                    (b) The repair, replacement, or
§193.2301 Scope.                                significant alteration of components must be
                                                reviewed only if the action to be taken–
    Each LNG facility constructed after             (1) Involves a change in the original
March 31, 2000 must comply with                 materials specified;
requirements of this part and of NFPA 59A           (2) Is due to a failure caused by
(incorporated by reference, see §193.2013).     corrosion; or
In the event of a conflict between this part        (3) Is occasioned by inspection revealing
and NFPA 59A, this part prevails.               a significant deterioration of the component
                                                due to corrosion.
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980
as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,        [Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980
March 1, 2000; Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,       as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,
March 10, 2004]                                 March 1, 2000]


§193.2303 Construction acceptance.              §193.2321 Nondestructive tests.

    No person may place in service any              The butt welds in metal shells of storage
component until it passes all applicable        tanks with internal design pressure above 15
inspections and tests prescribed by this        psig must be radiographically tested in
subpart and NFPA 59A (incorporated by           accordance with the ASME Boiler and
reference, see §193.2013).                      Pressure Vessel Code (Section VIII Division
                                                1), except that hydraulic load bearing shells
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980      with curved surfaces that are subject to
as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,        cryogenic temperatures, 100 percent of both
March 1, 2000; Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,       longitudinal     (or     meridional)      and
March 10, 2004]                                 circumferential (or latitudinal) welds must
                                                be radiographically tested.

§193.2304 Corrosion control overview.           [Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980
                                                as amended by Amdt. 193-8, 58 FR 14519,
    (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this        Mar. 18, 1993; Amdt. 193-10, 61 FR 18512,
section, components may not be constructed,     Apr. 26, 1996; Amdt. 193-16, 63 FR 37500,
repaired, replaced, or significantly altered    July 13, 1998, Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,
until a person qualified under §193.2707(c)     March 1, 2000]
reviews the applicable design drawings and
materials specifications from a corrosion
control viewpoint and determines that the
materials involved will not impair the safety


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                                  STANDARDS


Subpart E–Equipment                             performed from another control center
                                                which has personnel in continuous
                                                attendance.
§193.2401 Scope.                                    (d) If more than one control center is
                                                located at an LNG plant, each control center
    After March 31, 2000, each new,             must have more than one means of
replaced, relocated or significantly altered    communication with each other center.
vaporization equipment, liquefaction                (e) Each control center must have a
equipment, and control systems must be          means of communicating a warning of
designed, fabricated, and installed in          hazardous conditions to other locations
accordance with requirements of this part       within the plant frequented by personnel.
and of NFPA 59A (incorporated by
reference, see §193.2013). In the event of a    [Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980]
conflict between this part and NFPA 59A,
this part prevails.
                                                §193.2445 Sources of power.
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980
as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,            (a) Electrical control systems, means of
March 1, 2000; Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,       communication, emergency lighting, and
March 10, 2004]                                 firefighting systems must have at least two
                                                sources of power which function so that
                                                failure of one source does not affect the
                 CONTROL SYSTEMS                capability of the other source.
                                                    (b) Where auxiliary generators are used
                                                as a second source of electrical power–
§193.2441 Control center.                           (1) They must be located apart or
                                                protected from components so that they are
    Each LNG plant must have a control          not unusable during a controllable
center from which operations and warning        emergency; and
devices are monitored as required by this           (2) Fuel supply must be protected from
part. A control center must have the            hazards.
following capabilities and characteristics:
    (a) It must be located apart or protected   [Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980]
from other LNG facilities so that it is
operational during a controllable emergency.
    (b) Each remotely actuated control
system and each automatic shutdown control
system required by this part must be
operable from the control center.
    (c) Each control center must have
personnel in continuous attendance while
any of the components under its control are
in operation, unless the control is being

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                                  STANDARDS


Subpart FOperations                                 (5) Equipment within cold boxes.
                                                     (g) Cooldown of components according
                                                 to the requirements of §193.2505.
§193.2501 Scope.
                                                 [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980;
    This subpart prescribes requirements for     as amended by Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,
the operation of LNG facilities                  March 10, 2004]

[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
                                                 §193.2505 Cooldown.

§193.2503 Operating procedures.                      (a) The cooldown of each system of
                                                 components that is subjected to cryogenic
     Each operator shall follow one or more      temperatures must be limited to a rate and
manuals of written procedures to provide         distribution pattern that keeps thermal
safety in normal operation and in responding     stresses within design limits during the
to an abnormal operation that would affect       cooldown period, paying particular attention
safety. The procedures must include              to the performance of expansion and
provisions for:                                  contraction devices.
     (a) Monitoring components or buildings          (b) After cooldown stabilization is
according to the requirements of §193.2507.      reached, cryogenic piping systems must be
     (b) Startup and shutdown, including for     checked for leaks in areas of flanges, valves,
initial startup, performance testing to          and seals.
demonstrate that components will operate
satisfactory in service.                         [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
     (c) Recognizing abnormal operating
conditions.
     (d) Purging and inserting components        §193.2507 Monitoring operations.
according to the requirements of §193.2517.
     (e) In the case of vaporization,                Each component in operation or building
maintaining the vaporization rate,               in which a hazard to persons or property
temperature and pressure so that the             could exist must be monitored to detect fire
resultant gas is within limits established for   or any malfunction or flammable fluid that
the vaporizer and the downstream piping.         could cause a hazardous condition.
     (f) In the case of liquefaction,            Monitoring must be accomplished by
maintaining temperatures, pressures,             watching or listening from an attended
pressure differentials and flow rates, as        control center for warning alarms, such as
applicable, within their design limits for:      gas, temperature, pressure, vacuum, and
     (1) Boilers;                                flow alarms, or by conducting an inspection
     (2) Turbines and other prime movers;        or test at intervals specified in the operating
     (3) Pumps, compressors, and expanders;      procedures.
     (4) Purification and regeneration
equipment; and

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                                  STANDARDS


[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980;             (i) The LNG plant fire control
as amended by Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,          equipment, its location, and quantity of units
March 10, 2004]                                   located throughout the plant;
                                                      (ii) Potential hazards at the plant,
                                                  including fires;
§193.2509 Emergency procedures.                       (iii) Communication and emergency
                                                  control capabilities at the LNG plant; and,
    (a) Each operator shall determine the             (iv) The status of each emergency.
types and places of emergencies other than
fires that may reasonably be expected to          [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980;
occur at an LNG plant due to operating            as amended by Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,
malfunctions, structural collapse, personnel      March 10, 2004]
error, forces of nature, and activities
adjacent to the plant.
    (b) To adequately handle each type of         §193.2511 Personnel safety.
emergency identified under paragraph (a) of
this section and each fire emergency, each            (a) Each operator shall provide any
operator shall follow one or more manuals         special protective clothing and equipment
of written procedures. The procedures must        necessary for the safety of personnel while
provide for the following:                        they are performing emergency response
    (1) Responding to controllable                duties.
emergencies, including notifying personnel            (b) All personnel who are normally on
and using equipment appropriate for               duty at a fixed location, such as a building or
handling the emergency.                           yard, where they could be harmed by
    (2) Recognizing an uncontrollable             thermal radiation from a burning pool of
emergency and taking action to minimize           impounded liquid, must be provided a
harm to the public and personnel, including       means of protection at that location from the
prompt notification of appropriate local          harmful effects of thermal radiation or a
officials of the emergency and possible need      means of escape.
for evacuation of the public in the vicinity of       (c) Each LNG plant must be equipped
the LNG plant.                                    with suitable first-aid material, the location
    (3) Coordinating with appropriate local       of which is clearly marked and readily
officials in preparation of an emergency          available to personnel.
evacuation plan, which sets forth the steps
required to protect the public in the event of    [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
an emergency, including catastrophic failure
of an LNG storage tank.
    (4) Cooperating with appropriate local
officials in evacuations and emergencies
requiring mutual assistance and keeping
these officials advised of:



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                                  STANDARDS


§193.2513 Transfer procedures.                         (7) Deactivate cargo transfer systems in
                                                   a safe manner by depressurizing, venting,
     (a) Each transfer of LNG or other             and disconnecting lines and conducting any
hazardous fluid must be conducted in               other appropriate operations.
accordance with one or more manuals of                 (c) In addition to the requirements of
written procedures to provide for safe             paragraph (b) of this section, the procedures
transfers.                                         for cargo transfer must be located at the
     (b) The transfer procedures must include      transfer area and include provisions for
provisions for personnel to:                       personnel to:
     (1) Before transfer, verify that the              (1) Be in constant attendance during all
transfer system is ready for use, with             cargo transfer operations;
connections and controls in proper positions,          (2) Prohibit the backing of tank trucks in
including if the system could contain a            the transfer area, except when a person is
combustible mixture, verifying that it has         positioned at the rear of the truck giving
been adequately purged in accordance with a        instructions to the driver;
procedure which meets the requirements of              (3) Before transfer, verify that:
AGA "Purging Principles and Practice."                 (i) Each tank car or tank truck complies
     (2) Before transfer, verify that each         with applicable regulations governing its
receiving container or tank vehicle does not       use;
contain any substance that would be                    (ii) All transfer hoses have been visually
incompatible with the incoming fluid and           inspected for damage and defects;
that there is sufficient capacity available to         (iii) Each tank truck is properly
receive the amount of fluid to be transferred.     immobilized with chock wheels, and
     (3) Before transfer, verify the maximum       electrically grounded; and,
filling volume of each receiving container or          (iv) Each tank truck engine is shut off
tank vehicle to ensure that expansion of the       unless it is required for transfer operations;
incoming fluid due to warming will not                 (4) Prevent a tank truck engine that is off
result in overfilling or overpressure;             during transfer operations from being
     (4) When making bulk transfer of LNG          restarted until the transfer lines have been
into a partially filled (excluding cooldown        disconnected and any released vapors have
heel) container, determine any differences in      dissipated;
temperature or specific gravity between the            (5) Prevent loading LNG into a tank car
LNG being transferred and the LNG already          or tank truck that is not in exclusive LNG
in the container and, if necessary, provide a      service or that does not contain a positive
means to prevent rollover due to                   pressure if it is in exclusive LNG service,
stratification.                                    until after the oxygen content in the tank is
     (5) Verify that the transfer operations are   tested and if it exceeds 2 percent by volume,
proceeding within design conditions and that       purged in accordance with a procedure that
overpressure or overfilling does not occur by      meets the requirements of AGA "Purging
monitoring applicable flow rates, liquid           Principles and Practice";
levels, and vapor returns.                             (6) Verify that all transfer lines have
     (6) Manually terminate the flow before        been disconnected and equipment cleared
overfilling or overpressure occurs; and,

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                                  STANDARDS


before the tank car or tank truck is moved       §193.2517 Purging.
from the transfer position; and,
    (7) Verify that transfers into a pipeline        When necessary for safety, components
system will not exceed the pressure or           that could accumulate significant amounts of
temperature limits of the system.                combustible mixtures must be purged in
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]        accordance with a procedure which meets
                                                 the provisions of the AGA "Purging
                                                 Principles and Practice" after being taken
§193.2515 Investigations of failures.            out of service and before being returned to
                                                 service.
    (a) Each operator shall investigate the
cause of each explosion, fire, or LNG spill      [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
or leak which results in:
    (1) Death or injury requiring
hospitalization; or                              §193.2519 Communication systems.
    (2) Property damage exceeding $10,000.
    (b) As a result of the investigation,            (a) Each LNG plant must have a primary
appropriate action must be taken to              communication system that provides for
minimize recurrence of the incident.             verbal communications between all
    (c) If the Administrator or relevant state   operating personnel at their work stations in
agency under the pipeline safety laws (49        the LNG plant.
U.S.C. 60101 et seq.) investigates an                (b) Each LNG plant in excess of 70,000
incident, the operator involved shall make       gallons (265,000 liters) storage capacity
available all relevant information and           must have an emergency communication
provide reasonable assistance in conducting      system that provides for verbal
the investigation. Unless necessary to restore   communications between all persons and
or maintain service, or for safety, no           locations necessary for the orderly shutdown
component involved in the incident may be        of operating equipment and the operation of
moved from its location or otherwise altered     safety equipment in time of emergency. The
until the investigation is complete or the       emergency communication system must be
investigating agency otherwise provides.         independent of and physically separated
Where components must be moved for               from the primary communication system and
operational or safety reasons, they must not     the security communication system under
be removed from the plant site and must be       §193.2909.
maintained intact to the extent practicable          (c) Each communication system required
until the investigation is complete or the       by this part must have an auxiliary source of
investigating agency otherwise provides.         power, except sound-powered equipment.

[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980         [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980
as amended by Amdt. 193-3A, 50 FR 4578,          as amended by Amdt. 193-16, 63 FR 37500,
Amdt. 193-10, 61 FR 18512, Apr. 26, 1996]        July 13, 1998]



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                                  STANDARDS


§193.2521 Operating records.

    Each operator shall maintain a record of
results of each inspection, test and
investigation required by this subpart. For
each LNG facility that is designed and
constructed after March 31, 2000 the
operator shall also maintain related
inspection, testing, and investigation records
that NFPA 59A (incorporated by reference,
see §193.2013) requires. Such records,
whether required by this part or NFPA 59A,
must be kept for a period of not less than
five years.

[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980
as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,
March 1, 2000; Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,
March 10, 2004]




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                                  STANDARDS


Subpart G–Maintenance                            §193.2605 Maintenance procedures.

                                                     (a) Each operator shall determine and
§193.2601 Scope.                                 perform, consistent with generally accepted
                                                 engineering practice, the periodic
   This subpart prescribes requirements for      inspections or tests needed to meet the
maintaining components at LNG plants.            applicable requirements of this subpart and
                                                 to verify that components meet the
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]        maintenance standards prescribed by this
                                                 subpart.
                                                     (b) Each operator shall follow one or
§193.2603 General.                               more manuals of written procedures for the
                                                 maintenance of each component, including
     (a) Each component in service, including    any required corrosion control. The
its support system, must be maintained in a      procedure must include:
condition that is compatible with its                (1) The details of the inspections or tests
operational or safety purpose by repair,         determined under paragraph (a) of this
replacement, or other means.                     section and their frequency of performance;
     (b) An operator may not place, return, or   and
continue in service any component which is           (2) A description of other actions
not maintained in accordance with this           necessary to maintain the LNG plant in
subpart.                                         accordance with the requirements of this
     (c) Each component taken out of service     subpart.
must be identified in the records kept under         (c) Each operator shall include in the
§193.2639.                                       manual required by paragraph (b) of this
     (d) If a safety device is taken out of      section instructions enabling personnel who
service for maintenance, the component           perform operation and maintenance
being served by the device must be taken out     activities to recognize conditions that
of service unless the same safety function is    potentially may be safety-related conditions
provided by an alternate means.                  that are subject to the reporting requirements
     (e) If the inadvertent operation of a       of §191.23 of this subchapter.
component taken out of service could cause
a hazardous condition, that component must       [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980,
have a tag attached to the controls bearing      as amended by Amdt. 193-5, 53 FR 24942,
the words "do not operate" or words of           July 1, 1988; Amdt. 193-5(1), 53 FR 26560,
comparable meaning.                              July 13, 1988; Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,
                                                 March 10, 2004]
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]




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                                  STANDARDS


§193.2607 Foreign material.                          Each auxiliary power source must be
                                                 tested monthly to check its operational
    (a) The presence of foreign material,        capability and tested annually for capacity.
contaminants, or ice shall be avoided or         The capacity test must take into account the
controlled to maintain the operational safety    power needed to start up and simultaneously
of each component.                               operate equipment that would have to be
    (b) LNG plant grounds must be free           served by that power source in an
from rubbish, debris, and other material         emergency.
which present a fire hazard. Grass areas on
the LNG plant grounds must be maintained         [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
in a manner that does not present a fire
hazard.
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]        §193.2615 Isolating and purging.

                                                     (a) Before personnel begin maintenance
§193.2609 Support systems.                       activities on components handling
                                                 flammable fluids which are isolated for
    Each support system or foundation of         maintenance, the component must be purged
each component must be inspected for any         in accordance with a procedure which meets
detrimental change that could impair             the requirements of AGA "Purging
support.                                         Principles and Practice," unless the
                                                 maintenance procedures under §193.2605
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]        provide that the activity can be safely
                                                 performed without purging.
                                                     (b) If the component or maintenance
§193.2611 Fire protection.                       activity provides an ignition source, a
                                                 technique in addition to isolation valves
    (a) Maintenance activities on fire control   (such as removing spool pieces or valves
equipment must be scheduled so that a            and blank flanging the piping, or double
minimum of equipment is taken out of             block and bleed valving) must be used to
service at any one time and is returned to       ensure that the work area is free of
service in a reasonable period of time.          flammable fluids
    (b) Access routes for movement of fire
control equipment within each LNG plant          [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
must be maintained to reasonably provide
for use in all weather conditions.
                                                 §193.2617 Repairs.
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
                                                     (a) Repair work on components must be
                                                 performed and tested in a manner which:
§193.2613 Auxiliary power sources.                   (1) As far as practicable, complies with
                                                 the applicable requirements of Subpart D of
                                                 this part; and

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    (2) Assures the integrity and operational    [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980
safety of the component being repaired.          as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,
    (b) For repairs made while a component       March 1, 2000]
is operating, each operator shall include in
the maintenance procedures under                 §193.2621 Testing transfer hoses.
§193.2605 appropriate precautions to
maintain the safety of personnel and                 Hoses used in LNG or flammable
property during repair activities.               refrigerant transfer systems must be:
                                                     (a) Tested once each calendar year, but
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]        with intervals not exceeding 15 months, to
                                                 the maximum pump pressure or relief valve
                                                 setting; and
§193.2619 Control systems.                           (b) Visually inspected for damage or
                                                 defects before each use.
     (a) Each control system must be properly
adjusted to operate within design limits.        [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
     (b) If a control system is out of service
for 30 days or more, it must be inspected and
tested for operational capability before         §193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks.
returning it to service.
     (c) Control systems in service, but not         Each LNG storage tank must be
normally in operation, such as relief valves     inspected or tested to verify that each of the
and automatic shutdown devices, and              following conditions does not impair the
control systems for internal shutoff valves      structural integrity or safety of the tank:
for bottom penetration tanks must be                 (a) Foundation and tank movement
inspected and tested once each calender          during normal operation and after a major
year, not exceeding 15 months, with the          meteorological or geophysical disturbance.
following exceptions:                                (b) Inner tank leakage.
     (1) Control systems used seasonally,            (c) Effectiveness of insulation.
such as for liquefaction or vaporization,            (d) Frost heave.
must be inspected and tested before use each
season.                                          [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980,
     (2) Control systems that are intended for   as amended by Amdt. 192-34(1), 47 FR
fire protection must be inspected and tested     32720, July 29, 1982]
at regular intervals not to exceed 6 months.
     (d) Control systems that are normally in
operation, such as required by a base load       §193.2625 Corrosion protection.
system, must be inspected and tested once
each calendar year but with intervals not            (a) Each operator shall determine which
exceeding 15 months.                             metallic components could, unless corrosion
     (e) Relief valves must be inspected and     is controlled, have their integrity or
tested for verification of the valve seat        reliability adversely affected by external,
lifting pressure and reseating.

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internal, or atmospheric corrosion during          (i) An external protective coating
their intended service life.                   designed and installed to prevent corrosion
    (b) Components whose integrity or          attack and to meet the requirements of
reliability could be adversely affected by     §192.461 of this chapter; and
corrosion must be either–                          (ii) A cathodic protection system
    (1) Protected from corrosion in            designed to protect components in their
accordance with §§193.2627 through             entirety in accordance with the requirements
193.2635, as applicable; or                    of §192.463 of this chapter and placed in
    (2) Inspected and replaced under a         operation before October 23, 1981, or within
program of scheduled maintenance in            1 year after the component is constructed or
accordance with procedures established         installed, whichever is later.
under §193.2605.                                   (b) Where cathodic protection is applied,
                                               components that are electrically
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]      interconnected must be protected as a unit.

                                               [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980,
§193.2627 Atmospheric corrosion                as amended by Amdt. 192-34(1), 47 FR
control.                                       32720, July 29, 1982]

    Each exposed component that is subject
to atmospheric corrosive attack must be        §193.2631 Internal corrosion control.
protected from atmospheric corrosion by:
    (a) Material that has been designed and        Each component that is subject to
selected to resist the corrosive atmosphere    internal corrosive attack must be protected
involved; or                                   from internal corrosion by:
    (b) Suitable coating or jacketing.             (a) Material that has been designed and
                                               selected to resist the corrosive fluid
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]      involved; or
                                                   (b) Suitable coating, inhibitor, or other
                                               means.
§193.2629 External corrosion
control; buried or submerged                   [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
components.

    (a) Each buried or submerged               §193.2633 Interference currents.
component that is subject to external
corrosive attack must be protected from            (a) Each component that is subject to
external corrosion by:                         electrical current interference must be
    (1) Material that has been designed and    protected by a continuing program to
selected to resist the corrosive environment   minimize the detrimental effects of currents.
involved; or                                       (b) Each cathodic protection system
    (2) The following means:                   must be designed and installed so as to


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minimize any adverse effects it might cause          (e) If a component is protected from
to adjacent metal components.                   internal corrosion, monitoring devices
    (c) Each impressed current power source     designed to detect internal corrosion, such as
must be installed and maintained to prevent     coupons or probes, must be located where
adverse interference with communications        corrosion is most likely to occur. However,
and control systems.                            monitoring is not required for corrosion
                                                resistant materials if the operator can
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]       demonstrate that the component will not be
                                                adversely affected by internal corrosion
                                                during its service life. Internal corrosion
§193.2635 Monitoring corrosion control.         control monitoring devices must be checked
                                                at least two times each calendar year, but
    Corrosion protection provided as            with intervals not exceeding 7½ months.
required by this subpart must be periodically
monitored to give early recognition of          [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
ineffective corrosion protection, including
the following, as applicable:
    (a) Each buried or submerged                §193.2637 Remedial measures.
component under cathodic protection must
be tested at least once each calendar year,         Prompt corrective or remedial action
but with intervals not exceeding 15 months,     must be taken whenever an operator learns
to determine whether the cathodic protection    by inspection or otherwise that atmospheric,
meets the requirements of §192.463 of this      external, or internal corrosion is not
chapter.                                        controlled as required by this subpart.
    (b) Each cathodic protection rectifier or
other impressed current power source must       [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
be inspected at least six times each calendar
year, but with intervals not exceeding 2½
months, to ensure that it is operating          §193.2639 Maintenance records.
properly.
    (c) Each reverse current switch, each           (a) Each operator shall keep a record at
diode, and each interference bond whose         each LNG plant of the date and type of each
failure would jeopardize component              maintenance activity performed on each
protection must be electrically checked for     component to meet the requirements of this
proper performance at least six times each      part. For each LNG facility that is designed
calendar year, but with intervals not           and constructed after March 31, 2000 the
exceeding 2½ months. Each other                 operator shall also maintain related periodic
interference bond must be checked at least      inspection and testing records that NFPA
once each calendar year, but with intervals     59A (incorporated by reference, see
not exceeding 15 months.                        §193.2013) requires. Maintenance records,
    (d) Each component that is protected        whether required by this part or NFPA 59A,
from atmospheric corrosion must be              must be kept for a period of not less than
inspected at intervals not exceeding 3 years.   five years. (b) Each operator shall maintain

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                                  STANDARDS


records or maps to show the location of
cathodically protected components,
neighboring structures bonded to the
cathodic protection system, and corrosion
protection equipment.
    (c) Each of the following records must
be retained for as long as the LNG facility
remains in service:
    (1) Each record or map required by
paragraph (b) of this section.
    (2) Records of each test, survey, or
inspection required by this subpart in
sufficient detail to demonstrate the adequacy
of corrosion control measures.

[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980
as amended by Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,
March 1, 2000; Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,
March 10, 2004]




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                                  STANDARDS


Subpart HPersonnel Qualifications and           required by this part are satisfactorily
Training                                         performing their assigned function.

                                                 [Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980
§193.2701 Scope.                                 as amended by Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,
                                                 March 10, 2004]
    This subpart prescribes requirements for
personnel qualifications and training.
                                                 §193.2707 Operations and maintenance.
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980]
                                                     (a) Each operator shall utilize for
                                                 operation or maintenance of components
§193.2703 Design and fabrication.                only those personnel who have demonstrated
                                                 their capability to perform their assigned
    For the design and fabrication of            functions by–
components, each operator shall use–                 (1) Successful completion of the training
    (a) With respect to design, persons who      required by §§193.2713 and 193.2717;
have demonstrated competence by training             (2) Experience related to the assigned
or experience in the design of comparable        operation or maintenance function; and,
components.                                          (3) Acceptable performance on a
    (b) With respect to fabrication, persons     proficiency test relevant to the assigned
who have demonstrated competence by              function.
training or experience in the fabrication of         (b) A person who does not meet the
comparable components.                           requirements of paragraph (a) of this section
                                                 may operate or maintain a component when
[Part 193 - Org., 45 FR 9184, Feb 11, 1980]      accompanied and directed by an individual
                                                 who meets the requirements.
                                                     (c) Corrosion control procedures under
§193.2705 Construction, installation,            §193.2605(b), including those for the
inspection, and testing.                         design, installation, operation, and
                                                 maintenance of cathodic protection systems,
     (a) Supervisors and other personnel         must be carried out by, or under the
utilized for construction, installation,         direction of, a person qualified by
inspection, or testing must have                 experience and training in corrosion control
demonstrated their capability to perform         technology.
satisfactorily the assigned function by
appropriate training in the methods and          [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
equipment to be used or related experience
and accomplishments.
     (b) Each operator must periodically
determine whether inspectors performing
construction, installation, and testing duties


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§193.2709 Security.                                   (iii) To carry out aspects of the operating
                                                  and maintenance procedures under
   Personnel having security duties must be       §§193.2503 and 193.2605 that relate to their
qualified to perform their assigned duties by     assigned functions; and
successful completion of the training                 (2) All personnel–
required under §193.2715.                             (i) To carry out the emergency
                                                  procedures under §193.2509 that relate to
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]         their assigned functions; and
                                                      (ii) To give first-aid; and,
                                                      (3) All operating and appropriate
§193.2711 Personnel health.                       supervisory personnel–
                                                      (i) To understand detailed instructions
    Each operator shall follow a written plan     on the facility operations, including controls,
to verify that personnel assigned operating,      functions, and operating procedures; and
maintenance, security, or fire protection             (ii) To understand the LNG transfer
duties at the LNG plant do not have any           procedures provided under §193.2513.
physical condition that would impair                  (b) A written plan of continuing
performance of their assigned duties. The         instruction must be conducted at intervals of
plan must be designed to detect both readily      not more than 2 years to keep all personnel
observable disorders, such as physical            current on the knowledge and skills they
handicaps or injury, and conditions requiring     gained in the program of initial instruction.
professional examination for discovery.
                                                  [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]

                                                  §193.2715 Training; security.
§193.2713 Training; operations and
maintenance.                                          (a) Personnel responsible for security at
                                                  an LNG plant must be trained in accordance
    (a) Each operator shall provide and           with a written plan of initial instruction to:
implement a written plan of initial training          (1) Recognize breaches of security;
to instruct–                                          (2) Carry out the security procedures
    (1) All permanent maintenance,                under §193.2903 that relate to their assigned
operating, and supervisory personnel–             duties;
    (i) About the characteristics and hazards         (3) Be familiar with basic plant
of LNG and other flammable fluids used or         operations and emergency procedures, as
handled at the facility, including, with regard   necessary to effectively perform their
to LNG, low temperatures, flammability of         assigned duties; and,
mixtures with air, odorless vapor, boiloff            (4) Recognize conditions where security
characteristics, and reaction to water and        assistance is needed.
water spray;                                          (b) A written plan of continuing
    (ii) About the potential hazards involved     instruction must be conducted at intervals of
in operating and maintenance activities; and,     not more than 2 years to keep all personnel

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                                  STANDARDS


having security duties current on the            §193.2719 Training; records.
knowledge and skills they gained in the
program of initial instruction.                      (a) Each operator shall maintain a system
                                                 of records which–
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]            (1) Provide evidence that the training
                                                 programs required by this subpart have been
                                                 implemented; and
§193.2717 Training; fire protection.                 (2) Provide evidence that personnel have
                                                 undergone and satisfactorily completed the
    (a) All personnel involved in                required training programs.
maintenance and operations of an LNG                 (b) Records must be maintained for 1
plant, including their immediate supervisors,    year after personnel are no longer assigned
must be trained according to a written plan      duties at the LNG plant.
of initial instruction, including plant fire
drills, to:                                      [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
    (1) Know the potential causes and areas
of fire;
    (2) Know the types, sizes, and
predictable consequences of fire; and
    (3) Know and be able to perform their
assigned fire control duties according to the
procedures established under §193.2509 and
by proper use of equipment provided under
§193.2801.
    (b) A written plan of continuing
instruction, including plant fire drills, must
be conducted at intervals of not more than 2
years to keep personnel current on the
knowledge and skills they gained in the
instruction under paragraph (a) of this
section.
    (c) Plant fire drills must provide
personnel hands-on experience in carrying
out their duties under the fire emergency
procedures required by §193.2509.

[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980;
as amended by Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,
March 10, 2004]




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                                  STANDARDS


Subpart IFire Protection


§193.2801 Scope.

    Each operator must provide and maintain
fire protection at LNG plants according to
sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of
NFPA 59A (incorporated by reference, see
§193.2013). However, LNG plants existing
on March 31, 2000, need not comply with
provisions on emergency shutdown systems,
water delivery systems, detection systems,
and personnel qualification and training until
September 12, 2005.

[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980
as amended by Amdt. 193-4, 52 FR 674,
Jan. 8, 1987, Amdt. 193-17, 65 FR 10950,
March 1, 2000; Amdt. 193-18, 69 FR 11330,
March 10, 2004]




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                                  STANDARDS


Subpart JSecurity                                   (g) Liaison with local law enforcement
                                                 officials to keep them informed about
                                                 current security procedures under this
§193.2901 Scope.                                 section.

    This subpart prescribes requirements for     [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
security at LNG plants. However, the
requirements do not apply to existing LNG
plants that do not contain LNG.                  §193.2905 Protective enclosures.

[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980             (a) The following facilities must be
as amended by Amdt. 193-4, 52 FR 674,            surrounded by a protective enclosure:
Jan. 8, 1987]                                        (1) Storage tanks;
                                                     (2) Impounding systems;
                                                     (3) Vapor barriers;
§193.2903 Security procedures.                       (4) Cargo transfer systems;
                                                     (5) Process, liquefaction, and
    Each operator shall prepare and follow       vaporization equipment;
one or more manuals of written procedures            (6) Control rooms and stations;
to provide security for each LNG plant. The          (7) Control systems;
procedures must be available at the plant in         (8) Fire control equipment;
accordance with §193.2017 and include at             (9) Security communications systems;
least:                                           and,
    (a) A description and schedule of                (10) Alternative power sources.
security inspections and patrols performed in
accordance with §193.2913;                           The protective enclosure may be one or
    (b) A list of security personnel positions   more separate enclosures surrounding a
or responsibilities utilized at the LNG plant;   single facility or multiple facilities.
    (c) A brief description of the duties            (b) Ground elevations outside a
associated with each security personnel          protective enclosure must be graded in a
position or responsibility;                      manner that does not impair the
    (d) Instructions for actions to be taken,    effectiveness of the enclosure.
including notification of other appropriate          (c) Protective enclosures may not be
plant personnel and law enforcement              located near features outside of the facility,
officials, when there is any indication of an    such as trees, poles, or buildings, which
actual or attempted breach of security;          could be used to breach the security.
    (e) Methods for determining which                (d) At least two accesses must be
persons are allowed access to the LNG            provided in each protective enclosure and be
plant;                                           located to minimize the escape distance in
    (f) Positive identification of all persons   the event of emergency.
entering the plant and on the plant, including       (e) Each access must be locked unless it
methods at least as effective as picture         is continuously guarded. During normal
badges; and,                                     operations, an access may be unlocked only

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                                  STANDARDS


by persons designated in writing by the          §193.2911 Security lighting.
operator. During an emergency, a means
must be readily available to all facility             Where security warning systems are not
personnel within the protective enclosure to     provided for security monitoring under
open each access.                                §193.2913, the area around the facilities
                                                 listed under §193.2905(a) and each
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]        protective enclosure must be illuminated
                                                 with a minimum in service lighting intensity
                                                                                 c
                                                 of not less than 2.2 lux (0.2 ft ) between
§193.2907 Protective enclosure                   sunset and sunrise.
construction.
                                                 [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
    (a) Each protective enclosure must have
sufficient strength and configuration to
obstruct unauthorized access to the facilities   §193.2913 Security monitoring.
enclosed.
    (b) Openings in or under protective              Each protective enclosure and the area
enclosures must be secured by grates, doors      around each facility listed in §193.2905(a)
or covers of construction and fastening of       must be monitored for the presence of
sufficient strength such that the integrity of   unauthorized persons. Monitoring must be
the protective enclosure is not reduced by       by visual observation in accordance with the
any opening.                                     schedule in the security procedures under
                                                 §193.2903(a) or by security warning systems
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980         that continuously transmit data to an
as amended by Amdt. 193-12, 61 FR 27789,                             At
                                                 attended location. 3 an LNG plant with
June 3, 1996; Amdt. 193-12A, 61 FR 45905,        less than 40,000 m (250,000 bbl) of storage
Aug. 30, 1996]                                   capacity, only the protective enclosure must
                                                 be monitored.

§193.2909 Security communications.               [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]

     A means must be provided for:
     (a) Prompt communications between           §193.2915 Alternative power sources.
personnel having supervisory security duties
and law enforcement officials; and                   An alternative source of power that
     (b) Direct communications between all       meets the requirements of §193.2445 must
on-duty personnel having security duties and     be provided for security lighting and security
all control rooms and control stations.          monitoring and warning systems required
                                                 under §§193.2911 and 193.2913.
[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]
                                                 [Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980]



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                                  STANDARDS


§193.2917 Warning signs.

    (a) Warning signs must be conspicuously
placed along each protective enclosure at
intervals so that at least one sign is
recognizable at night from a distance of 30
m (100 ft.) from any way that could
reasonably be used to approach the
enclosure.
    (b) Signs must be marked with at least
the following on a background of sharply
contrasting color: The words "NO
TRESPASSING", or words of comparable
meaning.

[Amdt. 193-2, 45 FR 70390, Oct. 23, 1980,
as amended by Amdt. 192-34(1), 47 FR
32720, July 29, 1982]




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