Soil_Quality_ESD_D_Wallace by chenmeixiu

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									Dynamic Soil Properties (DSPs)
 & Ecological Site Descriptions
            (ESDs)
     South Technology Workshop
            Tuskegee, AL
         November 3, 2009
            Daniel F. Wallace
State Resource Inventory Coordinator (SRIC)
               Athens, GA NRCS
                       OR




               The NRI Guy Explains it All.
           Presentation Outline
► Basicsof DSPs & ESDs.
► Current NRCS National Activities in DSPs &
  ESDs.
► Method of Field Sampling.
► Georgia Activities in DSP & ESD FY2009.
Dynamic Inherent Soil Properties
                     ►   Inherent =
                         stable human
                         lifetime
                     ►   1. Slope
                         2. Horizonation
                         3. Texture
                         4. Color
                         5. Structure
                         6. Bulk density
                         7. CEC
                         8. Mineralogy



 Cecil Soil Series                         Sapelo Soil Series
                     Inherent
► s=f(cl,pm,o,r,t,…) -Hans Jenny
► The  state of the soil is determined by the
  interactions of climate, parent material and
  organisms acting over time conditioned by
  relief. The interactions are processes of
  additions, removals, relocations and
  transformations.      –Kellogg, Buol et al., Brady

► Soilis a dynamic system in all places & times.
  Some dynamics are just more dynamic than
  others.
                    Inherent
► Morphology    = Profile
► Classification = Soil Orders
► Mapping = Morphology &
  Classification Spatially Located   A Calhoun gully pre & post




► However, Even Soil Orders are
  Changing in our Lifetimes
   Gullies – Ultisols to Entisols
   Liming – Ultisols to Alfisols

                                       http://calhoun.env.duke.edu
                                                          Precipitation

  Dynamic Soil                                  Runoff



   Properties
                                                          Infiltration
                                                          H+
                                H+
                                               H+   H+

► Change in Human
                                     H+
                               H+                                        H+
                                                           H+
                                    H+              H+
 Lifetime. Respond to
                                                          H+        H+
                                    H+     H+
                                                     H+
                                          H+

 Management.
                                                               H+
                               H+                                        H+



  1. pH
  2. Nutrient Concentrations
  3. Organic C
  4. Aggregate Stability
  5. Soil Biota Populations
  6. Moisture Content
  7. Temperature
  8. Compaction                                Inceptisol
              Dynamics Operate within the
                   Inherent Ranges

           Selected Soil Properties Reported in the
             Johnson & Laurens Soil Survey
Soil Series      % Organic Matter   Surface            Moist Bulk         pH
                                        Permeability      Density
Chastain         2-6                0.06 – 2.0 in/hr   1.20 – 1.40 g/cc   4.5 – 6.0

Lakeland         <1                 6 – 20 in/hr       1.35 – 1.65 g/cc   4.5 – 5.5
                 Dynamic
► Raise  a Chastain soil from 2% to 6%
  Organic C, and it will function completely
  differently.
► More than likely, the infiltration will
  increase, the bulk density will decrease and
  the pH of the surface horizon will increase.
► Which is to say, Organic C is central to this
  whole enterprise.
         Dynamics & Soil Quality
► Soil Quality Proponents First to Articulate
  Inherent & Dynamic.
► DSP’s an integral component of soil quality.
► Soil Quality Components:
   Soil Function Defined: What are the inherent
    properties of this soil?
   Assessment of Dynamic Soil Properties: Where
    within the range of inherent properties is this
    soil currently?
   Management Options to Achieve Desired
    Function: What actions are necessary to move
    this soil to the desired set of properties?
         Dynamic Questions
► Bulk Density - Inherent or Dynamic? pH -
  Inherent or Dynamic?
► New? New Clothes? New Angles?
► Not new to research. Not new to education.
  Not new to nutrient soil sampling (N?).
► But Soil Survey? NRCS Conservation
  Operations?
► Is soil information perfect?
            Dynamic Strengths
► DSP’s   strong in Carbon focus.

► DSP’s   have wholistic focus.

► DSP’s   encourage site analysis.
    Ecological Site Descriptions
► Definition: “Ecological Site is a distinctive
  kind of land with specific characteristics that
  differs from other kinds of land in its ability
  to produce a distinctive kind and amount of
  vegetation.”
► Ecological Site Description is a document
  describing an ecological site.
    Ecological Site Descriptions
► Heart   of an ESD is a State & Transition
 Model

   Heart of
   State &
   Transition
   Model is the
   Reference
   State.
   (Climax
   community)
    Ecological Site Descriptions
► ESD  correlation with soils is powerful tool
  for management decisions.
► Every map unit in a soil survey will have an
  ESD assigned to it.
      Ecological Site Descriptions

► Similar to Major Land
  Resource Areas,
  Ecoregions, Natural
  Communities, but finer
  scale.
► Also similar to Land
  Use/Land Cover, but not
  concentrated on current
  cover, but intrinsic
  characteristics.
                            Clinch Co., GA Atlantic Coast
                                         Flatwoods MLRA
                ESD Criticisms
1.   Isn’t the reference state in Eastern US too
     mangled to recognize? This has already been
     done in many places and ways = Natural
     Community Reports.
2.   Isn’t this just for restoration of natural
     communities? It’s a decision tool for guiding
     management treatments.
3.   Isn’t this the wrong scale for soil correlation?
     This effort is meant to recognize the same
     natural boundaries as soil mapping. Soil
     scientists use changes in vegetation to recognize
     changes in soil.
            National Activities
► Dynamic   Soil Properties
   Soil Change Guide: Procedures for Soil Survey &
    Resource Inventory
► Ecological   Site Descriptions
   Jornada Experimental Range – ARS
   NRI Grazing Land On-Site Study
   ESIS: http://esis.sc.egov.usda.gov/ESIS/
            Georgia Activities
► ESD – Dennis Chessman – Atlantic Coast
 Flatwoods Longleaf Pine Ecological Site
   Sampled 8 sites for Longleaf Pine
   Sampled 19 sites for NRI Grazing Lands
► DSP – Dynamic Soil Property Sampling on 4
 of the Longleaf Sites
   pH, Bulk Density, Infiltration, Slaking &
    Earthworm Populations
Longleaf Pine
Savannah
              October, 2009




April, 2009
With Fire.
             Without Fire.
► Transects
► Species
  Enumeration
► Productivity
  Estimates
                  Future
► Soil Change Guide Proposal to Assess
  Dynamic Soil Properties & Ecological Site
  Descriptions on Southern Coastal Plain
  MLRA Longleaf.
► Analyze the data from FY ’09.
► Literature Search on ecology and dynamics.
► Analysis of NASIS data for natural groupings
  – Frost Free Days, Land Capability Class and
  Taxonomic Group.
              Lessons Learned

► Big   Effort.                     Linneaus profundus
                                    Haba bigolwordum
                                    Confusin tediosum


► Plants   Experts.
                      Mike Owsley

► New    Perspectives on Old Data.

► Systematic      Planning & Data Wrangling.
Questions?

								
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