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					A Special Theory & Practice
     of Interrelativity

           Joe McCarthy
         Connector in Chief
         Interrelativity, Inc


            interrelativity.com
                                  16 May 2006
                    Outline
 Motivation
   2 problems, 3 observations, a solution
 Proactive Displays
   UbiComp experience
   Other deployments
 Related Work
   Research projects and commercial systems
 Future Prospects



                        interrelativity.com    2
               Our Mission

  Interrelativity designs, develops & deploys
  technology that helps people relate in
  shared physical spaces, by integrating:
     • sensing technologies
     • display technologies
     • online personal content
             Bridging the gaps between people
by bridging the gaps between their online and offline worlds

                        interrelativity.com                    3
Shyness: a Connection Deficit
 We are social:
   fundamental need to belong
 We are shy:
   48% of US population is chronically shy
 We want to relate to and connect with others,
  but often feel unable or unwilling to do so
   Even at times and places specifically designed to
    encourage connections




                        interrelativity.com             4
   The Attention Economy
 Consumers are tuning out
  traditional sponsor channels
 Need to find new contexts and
  new content to attract viewers




       "We want to be part of our customers' lives every day …
       We want to connect with them where their passions are.“
       -- Katie Bayne, Coca-Cola's head of integrated marketing
                           interrelativity.com                    5
        Observations (1)
 Explosive growth in
   Sensing technologies (RFID)
   Display technologies
   Online revelation




                                        The Catalogue
                                        (Chris Oakley)
                  interrelativity.com                    6
                      RFID Market
 Today: $2.7B, 1.8B tags
  (500M passive, 1.3B active)
 2010: $12B;
  2016: $27B, 1 trillion tags
 RFID vs. barcodes
    5-10B barcodes / year
    To reach 10B tags / year,
     need < $0.01 / tag (2020)
    Requires new technology
        Source: IDTechEx



                                                        Etc.
  Hitachi mu-Chip     Philips
                                  interrelativity.com          7
 (0.15x0.15x0.0075)   (plastic)
 Access Control



                                      Countries
Buildings




 Ski resorts                         Containers

               interrelativity.com                8
            Healthcare



                Medications                    Patients
Equipment




                                          Surgical sites
            Blood
                    interrelativity.com                    9
             Transactions


ExxonMobil SpeedPass

                               Illinois Tollway    ASK @
                                     I-Pass       Olympics




MasterCard     AmEx
 PayPass     ExpressPay                  SST PowerPay
                       interrelativity.com                   10
             Asset Tracking

                                                      At school

Livestock       Salmon                         Pets



                                                      On the bus


Documents                             Beer & Wine
 & Folders   Airline luggage

                         interrelativity.com
                                                      At the park   11
            RFID + Children
 Sutter, CA, school district
    InCom Corporation
    Name badges + RFID
    Notification vs. consent
    6 complaints, 6000 news reports




                        interrelativity.com   12
    RFID + Mobile Phones
 KDDI
   RFID readers
   Active & Passive


 NTT DoCoMo n901iC FOMA®
   Sony FeliCa chip (+ surround sound, card scanner…)




                       interrelativity.com               13
            RFID + Sensors
 TempSens
   Up to 64 temp. readings
   Three modes
      Interval (2 sec – 18 hrs)
      Out-of-range events
      Out-of-range + max/min
   Shelf life: up to 18 months
   Applications: perishable food, drugs
   www.ksw-microtec.de



                            interrelativity.com   14
                RFID + Robots




      Kobe, Japan          Utah State University    Fukuoka, Japan
Mobility Support Project    Center for People        NTT + Tmsuk
                              with Disabilities


                              interrelativity.com                    15
            RFID in People
 VeriChip (Applied Digital Solutions)




                     Mexico               Spain        Cincinnati, OH
                Attorney General        Beach Club




                                                                   ?
                     John Halamka, M.D.,             Tommy Thompson
                  CIO Harvard Medical School         Gov WI, Sec HHS,
                                                       Applied Digital   16
                       interrelativity.com
Amal Graafstra




   Two implants: EM4102, Philips HITAG 2048 S

      interrelativity.com                       17
                         Risks
 Internet: aggregate electronic data
 RFID + Internet: aggregate physical world data (!)
   Tracking & tracing: people, places & things
   Item-level vs. supply chain




   BoycottBenetton.com   BoycottGillette.com   BoycottTesco.com
                         interrelativity.com                      18
                        Hacks


RFID Chips in Car Keys and Gas Pump Pay Tags Carry Security Risks
      Avi Rubin, et al., Johns Hopkins University, 29 January 2005
                          http://RFIDanalysis.org/




      Adi Shamir         How to Kill RFID Tags with a Cell Phone
   Weizmann Institute    Scientific American Blog, 14 February 2006

                          interrelativity.com                         19
Real ID Act
                 Passed May 10, 2005
                 Effective 2008
                 National ID Card
                      name, address, DOB, sex,
                       digital photo, ID number
                 "common machine-readable
                  technology“
                      not necessarily RFID
                      WA House Bill 2521
                 More info:
                        www.epic.org
                        www.aclu.org
                        www.schneier.com
                        www.unrealid.com
   interrelativity.com                            20
        Observations (2)
 Explosive growth in
   Sensing technologies
   Display technologies (FPD, digital signage)
   Online revelation




                   interrelativity.com            21
           Display Market
 FPD Public Display Strategy Report: out-of-home,
  indoor direct-view flat panel display [FPD] market is
  forecast to grow by 59% from $1.4B to almost $2.2B
  worldwide by 2008
   400K non-TV FPD units shipped in 2005
   Expected to reach 1.8M units by 2009 ($3B)




                       interrelativity.com            22
 Digital Signage Market
United States Narrowcasting Revenues, 2004 – 2009 ($Millions)




                   Commercial Digital Display Systems:
                   The Worldwide Market Outlook for Narrowcasting
                   January 20, 2005

                         interrelativity.com                        23
           Digital Signage
 Walkways




                                               Times Square, NYC
       Bristol, UK




     Glasgow, Scotland
                                                 NYC Subways
                         interrelativity.com                       24
                Digital Signage
 Malls




 Mall at Millenia, Orlando       Las Vegas           Sandton City, South Africa




 DestiNY USA, Syracuse       Flasma @ The Plaza         Reactrix Korea, Inc.
                                   London
                               interrelativity.com                                25
             Digital Signage
 Transportation




     Elevators     Train cars, Kiev         Basel Airport (CH)




    Bus stops            Buses               Chicago O’Hare
   (Mequon, WI)     (Milwaukee, WI)

                      interrelativity.com                        26
         Observations (3)
 Explosive growth in
   Sensing technologies
   Display technologies
   Online (& offline) revelation




                    interrelativity.com   27
   Revelation in
the Physical World




      interrelativity.com   28
              Revelation in
            the Digital World
 Instant Messaging             Newsgroups



 Weblogs                       eCommerce




 Social Network Systems        Online Dating




                      interrelativity.com        29
Online Profiles
    80
    54 million users (+ 1M / week)

    40+ million users

    5+ million users

    5+ million users

    16 million users (all online dating services)


    25 million Internet sellers

    10 million users
    2 million users (100 M photos)
      interrelativity.com                           30
               Online Profiles
 According to Pew Internet surveys:
    34% Use internet to get photos developed/display photos
     (9/2005)
    30% Look for religious/spiritual info (11/2004)
    30% Search for info about someone you know or might meet
     (9/2005)
    27% Read someone else’s web log or “blog” (9/2005)
    22% Use online classified ads or sites like Craig’s list (9/2005)
    19% Create content for the internet (11/2004)
    12% Send or receive an invitation to a meeting or party using an
     online invitation service (11/2004)
    10% Use online social or professional networking sites like Friendster
     or LinkedIn (9/2005)
    9% Create a web log or “blog” (9/2005)


                             interrelativity.com                          31
       Teen Online Profiles
 Some 57% of online teens create content for the internet.
  That amounts to half of all teens ages 12-17, or about 12
  million youth.
    The most popular Content Creating activities are sharing self-authored
     content and working on webpages for others.
    33% of online teens share their own creations online, such as artwork,
     photos, stories, or videos.
    32% say that they have created or worked on webpages or blogs for
     others, including those for groups they belong to, friends or school
     assignments.
    22% report keeping their own personal webpage.
    19% have created their own online journal or blog.
    About one in five internet-using teens (19%) says they remix content
     they find online into their own artistic creations.
 Pew / Internet, November 2005

                             interrelativity.com                         32
            Blogging Geyser
 April 2005 survey & report
  by Perseus
    number of hosted blogs on 20
     services expected to exceed
     53.3M by the end of 2005
    doesn’t include MySpace




                           interrelativity.com   33
                Technorati
 As of January 2006:
   75,000 new blogs are created every day = 1 / minute
   Blogosphere is doubling every 6 months
   1.2 M postings / day = 50 K postings / hour




                       interrelativity.com                34
 Putting it all together


       How do we address the problems of
                 connection deficits
          for individuals and organizations
in a way that takes advantage of the proliferation of
               sensing technologies,
             display technologies and
                  online revelation?




                     interrelativity.com                35
             The Solution:
           Proactive Displays


            +                  +                 =


Online          Physical               Large            Better
Profiles         Tokens               Displays        Real-world
                                                     Interactions
 “Bringing the best of online communities to physical spaces”

                         interrelativity.com                        36
             Connections via
            Proactive Displays
 Displays + sensors (+ algorithms + policies + …)
   Large displays that can sense & respond appropriately
    to the people & activities taking place nearby
   Implicit, ambient, background (periphery)
 Issues:
   Context(s)
      Where should they go?
   Content
      What should they show?
   Control
      How will they know?

                         interrelativity.com                37
              Experience
            UbiComp Project
 Desire for mutual revelation
    show & tell about you & your work
    learn about others & their work
 Restricted contexts
    Paper / panel sessions
    Demo / poster sessions
    Reception / breaks
 Available content
    Explicit: registration info
    Implicit: homepage data mining
 Control
    Register, activate and wear tags during the conference
    Opt out at any time (delete profile, discard tag)

                              interrelativity.com             38
Registration




   interrelativity.com   39
Activation




  interrelativity.com   40
                Experience!
AutoSpeakerID




                   Ticket2Talk




                                         Neighborhood Window




                   interrelativity.com                         41
Neighborhood
Window
                              AutoSpeakerID
Ticket2Talk




Kiosk          interrelativity.com            42
              AutoSpeakerID
 Keynote/Paper/Panel Q&A “augmentation”
    RFID: antenna (microphone), tag (badge)
    Display photo, name, affiliation
    Visual augmentation of common [oral] practice




                            interrelativity.com      43
AutoSpeakerID




    interrelativity.com   44
               Ticket2Talk
 Coffee Break
   Explicitly provided content
   Single person (at a time)




                        interrelativity.com   45
Ticket2Talk




   interrelativity.com   46
                    Ticket2Talk
 Queue Management: balancing freshness & fairness
      Tag recency: +                          TimeOutPeriod  TimeSinceTagSeeni 
                                   Pi  w1 
      Ticket recency: -                                TimeOutPeriod
      Minimize thrashing                     min  NumTickets, TicketCounteri 
                                        w2 
      “5 seconds of fame”                              NumTickets




                             interrelativity.com                                      47
   Neighborhood Window
 Demonstrations & Poster Session
   Implicit content (mined from homepages)
   Groups of people (& their words / phrases)




                       interrelativity.com       48
interrelativity.com   49
    Neighborhood Window
 TouchGraph™ visualization tool
   People (picture, name)
   Words from homepages (and/or interests)
      N “unique” words (TFIDF)
      2(N–1) “shared” words
 Crawling
   Only within domain
   Issues: frames, size, language
 Phrases
   NP = [adjective]* noun+ [PP]*
   PP = preposition NP
                         interrelativity.com   50
Evaluation




  interrelativity.com   51
                    Caveats
 Existing communities at conferences
   Variations in stature, approachability
   Newcomers vs. veterans
 Sociotechnical interventions
   Complete invisibility is undesirable
   Augmentation vs. interference
 Privacy
   Human subjects issues




                         interrelativity.com   52
Setting & Data Collection
 Conference deployment: UbiComp 2003
    Medium-sized, single-track, conference
    500 attendees (50% from USA)
    Two proactive displays:
        AutoSpeakerID (ASID)
        Ticket2Talk (T2T)
 Systematic Observation
    Observations + opportunistic interviews
 Post-conference Survey
    Mix of multiple choice and open-ended response
    94 respondents (19% response rate)



                            interrelativity.com       53
                      Analysis
 Simple descriptive statistics
      Proactive Display               Positive    Negative
      Application                     Impact      Impact

      AutoSpeakerID                    71 (77%)    10 (11%)

      Ticket2Talk                      39 (41%)      3 (3%)

 Open-ended survey responses
    Grounded approach
    Open coding (multiple rounds)

                          interrelativity.com                 54
               Design Goals
 Proactive displays at UbiComp 2003
  were designed to:
    Enhance the sense of community among attendees
    Mesh with existing practices (calm technology)
    Protect the privacy of participants … & non-participants
 Mixed successes
 Potential goal conflicts




                         interrelativity.com                    55
       Enhance Feeling of
          Community
 AutoSpeakerID
    It was nice to be able to see who was speaking to
    put their question in context if I didn't hear or
    forgot the person's introduction.


 Ticket2Talk
    I was chatting with someone I didn't know
    personally (small talk) about a recent presentation
    when I noticed his profile on the Ticket 2 Talk
    display and realized he was affiliated with an
    organization I really admire and would like to
    collaborate with ... Noticing this allowed me to
    redirect the conversation to that topic!



                     interrelativity.com                  56
   Mesh with Established
        Practices
 AutoSpeakerID
    It seemed distracting - in the sessions I was in it
    seemed that virtually every person who approached
    the microphone began by commenting on the speaker
    ID (e.g. "oh it's working, yes that's me" or "it's
    not working for some reason").


 Ticket2Talk
    People walk up with a big smile. Look at the person standing next to them
    and again at the display. Is that you?!? One is waving RFID tag in front of
    reader. Pick me up!




                              interrelativity.com                                 57
Manage Privacy Concerns
 Display agnostic (across both applications)
   Unconcerned
       ... it might had been nice that [the research]
       community directory information was downloaded
       automatically.
   Concerned
       I didn't want all this information to be
       available to everyone - would rather have more
       control over who gets to see what ... and might
       want to highlight interests differently to
       different people.




                     interrelativity.com                 58
                 Discussion
 AutoSpeakerID
   50% of questioners’ tags detected
   Introductions: oral only, visual only, visual + oral
   Spelling, intelligibility
   “Gaming”
      3 people, 7 questions
      24 comments in survey (18+, 6-)




                          interrelativity.com              59
                 Discussion
 Ticket2Talk
   Conversations, awareness
    among old & new friends
      Amarone, kitesurfing
      Scuba diving, when Jane met Peter
   Provocative content




                          interrelativity.com   60
Sample Tickets




     interrelativity.com   61
Sample Tickets




     interrelativity.com   62
            Lessons Learned
 Prepare for failure
    Networking issues
 Prepare for success
    No kiosks like more kiosks (5% vs. 50% vs. 95%)
 Don’t be overprotective
    Expect unanticipated uses … within limits
 Design for noise
    Expect noise, leverage it in the design
 Limits of “informed consent”
    Conflict between statistical paradigm and UI paradigm



                             interrelativity.com             63
Subsequent Deployments
   Sandia National Labs (Jul 2005, 50 people, 3 days)
   Washburn party (Dec 2005, 40 people, 3 hours)
   Seattle Games Conference (Feb 2006, 200 people, 1 day)
   Zino Society Roundtable (Feb 2006, 60 people, 3 hours)
   Dorkbot Seattle (Mar 2006, 75 people, 3 hours)
   Biznik meeting @ BalMar (Mar 2006, 40 people, 3 hours)
   Zino Society Roundtable (Apr 2006, 60 people, 3 hours)




                            interrelativity.com              64
             Three screen segments


           Profile
           •Photo
           •Name
           •Organization
           •Title
           •“ticket to talk” image
           •“ticket to talk” caption




            Queue (people detected nearby)
            Sponsor (banner)

interrelativity.com                          65
Sample Profiles (& Banners)




           interrelativity.com   66
         Sample Sponsors




Event Organizer      Event Sponsor         Local Business
 (other events)   (“Subscribe today!”)      (restaurant)
                     interrelativity.com                    67
Sample Tickets




     interrelativity.com   68
Sample Tickets




     interrelativity.com   69
Sample Tickets




     interrelativity.com   70
Sample Tickets




     interrelativity.com   71
                Surveys: Impact
8


7


6


5


    4


    3


    2


    1
                                                                                            Biznik
        0                                                                               Dorkbot

               No                                                                    Zino
                       None
            Response           Strong
                                         Moderate                                  Sandia
                              negative              Mixed
                                         negative           Moderate
                                                             positive   Strong
                                                                        positive


                                          interrelativity.com                                        72
       Subsequent Lessons
 Space
    Location, location, location: go with the flow
 Time
    Cost (registration) /
     Benefit (semi-serendipitous connections)
 Object re-use
    Repurposing profiles
 Technical literacy
    Lower than anticipated
 It takes a village
    Everyone’s a customer
        Vendors, employees, partners, media, investors,
         people who purchase your product or service
    You’re always selling
                              interrelativity.com          73
Related Work




    interrelativity.com   74
Related Work: Commercial (1)
 Networking / Tracking                         Digital Signage
      at Events




                                                 Clear Channel
                                            + Urban Display Network
                                           + Lighthouse Technologies
                                                + Webpavement




                         interrelativity.com                           75
Related Work: Commercial (2)
  Co-promotional Opportunities: The Brand “Us”




                   interrelativity.com           76
Related Work: Research (1)
 Intellibadge (UIUC)
   Active RF tags + signposts + readers
   Aggregate data, visualizations
 Meme Tags (MIT)
   Interpersonal display:
    display for other people
   RF + LEDs + programming
 Sotto Voce (PARC)
   Electronic guidebook for museum visits
   Enhance pairwise social interactions

                       interrelativity.com   77
Related Work: Research (2)
 PlasmaPoster (FXPAL)
    Interactive community bulletin board
    Corporate, conference, café contexts
 Opinionizer (Sussex)
    Shared display at social events
    Interaction through typed input
 Dynamo (Sussex)
    High school setting
    Interaction via USB disk
 AgentSalon (ATR)
    Interaction via PalmGuides (PDAs)
    Conversations mediated by animated agents
     Public and Situated Displays
     O’Hara, Perry, Churchill, Russell
                                interrelativity.com   78
Related Work: Alone Together




              Two Hours of Joint Solitude
   http://www.coffeegeek.com/opinions/cafestage/10-19-2005




                      Alone Together
                 http://blogs.parc.com/playon/

                        interrelativity.com                  79
   Related Work: Personal
 MusicFX
   Adaptive music in fitness center
   Preference profiles, employee badges
   Daily use, hundreds of users, 3+ years
 ActiveMap, EventManager
   Visual real-time &
    asynchronous awareness
   Infrared (IR) badges, webcams
   Daily use, hundreds of users, 7+ years
 UniCast, OutCast, GroupCast
   Ubiquitous peripheral displays
   IR badges, interest profiles
   Daily use, dozens of users, 1+ years


                            interrelativity.com   80
           Looking forward
 Three key issues for Proactive Displays
   Context
      Where should they go?
        – Trust, desire to relate to others
        – Macro & micro
   Content
      What should they show?
        – Type: images, text, video, audio, …
        – Storage: local vs. remote
   Control
      How will they know?
        – Implicit vs. explicit revelation
        – Anonymity vs. accountability

                              interrelativity.com   81
  New Sources of Content
 Repositories


 Devices




 Infrastructure
       Obje™

                   interrelativity.com             82
                                         Higgins
              New Contexts
 Digital Homes
   Implicit sharing
    of digital media
      Family / visitors’ photos
 Digital Workplaces
   Knowledge management
    through serendipity
      Nameless faces / faceless names
      Acquaintanceships  relationships
   New channel for
    employee recognition

                            interrelativity.com   83
              New Contexts
 The Great Good Place:
 Cafes, Coffee Shops, Bookstores,
 Bars, Hair Salons, & Other Hangouts
 at the Heart of a Community
   Ray Oldenburg




                           interrelativity.com   84
               Collaborators
 Experience UbiComp Project (Intel Research Seattle)
    Interns
       David Nguyen (Nokia Research),
        Al Rashid (Univ. Minnesota),
        Suzi Soroczak (UW Information School)
    Evaluation
       David McDonald (UW Information School)
 Interrelativity, Inc.
    Khai Truong, former CTO
 Immersion Arts
    Scott Axworthy, CEO

                          interrelativity.com           85
       For more information
   joe@interrelativity.com
   http://interrelativity.com
   http://interrelativity.com/joe
   http://gumption.typepad.com/blog/interrelativity/




                          Thanks!
                        interrelativity.com             86
Backup




 interrelativity.com   87
Registration




   interrelativity.com   88
                  Plasma Display & Cart




               Computer & Network Router




       Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
               Reader     Antenna    Tag




interrelativity.com                        89
  Entrepreneurial Lessons
 Nice to have vs. got to have
    Pain point, pay point
 Complex sales cycles
    Who is the customer? Who pays?
 It takes a village
    Everyone’s a customer
        Vendors, employees, partners, media, investors,
         people who purchase your product or service
    You’re always selling
 Proverbs
    “The biggest challenge faced by an entrepreneur
     is convincing your spouse that it's a good idea.”
    “Entrepreneurship is like getting into a car, driving 200 mph at a wall,
     and hoping it opens at the last minute, just like the bat cave.”

                              interrelativity.com                               90

				
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