Odds and ends of English

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                                                                 # This book is especially
                                                                 written for advance
                                                                 students. It might not be
                                                                 helpful for those who
                                                                 lack in basic grammars. I
                                                                 also believe that it will
                                                                 not help you learn
                                                                 English thoroughly. But
    Odds and ends of English                                     it will forward you one
                                                                 step ahead in your
                                                                 whole learning process.
          An English learning book for advance learners          # When we see something
                                                                 wrong in anything, why
                                              Md. Zahid Akand.   don‟t we protest against it?
                                                                 If we used to do it, those
                                                                 incidents might not have
                                                                 happened in our own life.
                                                                 However we regret our lot
                                                                 then. Many a time haunts in
                                                                 our life when we don‟t accept
                                                                 our destiny. We feel like
                                                                 starting everything anew but
                                                                 that‟s not possible.

 Education                     Peace         Prosperity 2011
                                                                         If you have windows
                                                                         seven especially
E-mail:                                                                  ultimate edition, you
                                                                         can know much about                                                     customizing your
                                                                         windows seven                                                    through e-mail. Just
                                                                         type your questions                                                        and send an e-mail. I
                                                                         know you will face                                             problems when you
                                                                         are new in operating                                                        windows seven. I have
                                                                         solutions for you.

                    Odds and ends of English
                               By Md Zahid Akand (as good as hell).
                             E-mail address:

I am Zahid. It‟s a small contribution from me. If you like this book my effort will not
exhaust. Let me know whether you like it or not. I experienced difficulties to learn English
how I want. I tried to make such a script so that you don‟t find difficulties to learn English
in advance level. This book will not be helpful for the students who are ignorant of basic
grammars. I also believe that it will not help you learn English thoroughly. But it will
forward you one step ahead in your whole learning process.

                    This book is dedicated to rootless children.

    A participle is a form of verb working as both an adjective and a verb in the sentence.

    Gerund does the function of a verb and noun.
     Note: Gerund mainly works as a noun and participle works as a verb.

    “Each other” is used to indicate two persons.
     “One another” is used to indicate more than two persons.

    We use “used to” for a regular past habit but “would” for an irregular past habit.

    No sooner had+……………+than.
       No sooner had we sowed the seeds than it began to rain.
       Or, we had no sooner sowed the seeds than it began to rain.

       Hardly had+……………+when
       Hardly had we sowed the seeds when it started raining
       Or, we had hardly sowed the seeds when it started raining.

       Scarcely had+……………+when/before.
       Scarcely had we sowed the seeds when it began to rain.
       Or, we had scarcely sowed the seeds when it began to rain.
 Provided (that) =on condition that.
    E.g.: You can stay here provided (that) you will not speak.

 So long~
    God will save us so long our purpose is honest.

 Unless        sentence, Negative sentence.
    Unless you work hard, you can‟t shine in life.
    He can‟t go unless I give consent.

 Either………….or.
    He will either read or write.
    I shall go either to Rajshahi or Munshigonj.
    Either Jothi or Lithi came.

 Neither………..nor.
    Neither Sheuly nor Sohel works here.
    I shall neither wait nor tell others to wait.
    Note:            person      subjects “either.......or” “neither........nor”                       person
       sub.      verb     person             Singular     plural number       subjects   plural subjects
        ,   verb plural
    E.g.: Either he or I have done this.
         Rafael or his friends have stolen my watch.
         Neither Christina nor her brothers were hurt.

 Both…………and.
    Robindranath was both a poet and a dramatist.
    Both Monira and Monica are gentle.
    He will go both to USA and UK.
    He will both read and write.

 Such……………as.
    Such a kind person as Mohsin is rarely found.

 Until, till.
    E.g. wait here until I meet.
        They worked in the field till the sun set.

 Whereas~
    Safin is very hard-working, whereas his brother is lazy.

 “Since” to denote “point of time”. “For” to denote “period of time”.
 In/ after.
    “In” is used for future action. “After” is used for past action.
    E.g. they will come back in a week.
         She returned after a week.

 In time~ not late(early, enough)
  E.g. we reached the station in time.
  On time~ schedule, just time.
  E.g. the plane took off on time.

                                               more            ,   “er”
    E.g. David is more wise than old.

                               ,                     a
    E.g. Tagore was a poet and philosopher.

        sentence                                     comparative degree           the
    Who is the more beautiful,Katrina or Priyanka?
    Of the two proposals,which is the nicer?

 As well as~ সঙ্গে ।
    Marina as well as Melina was punished.
    They as well as I were involved in social activities.

 With, together with, as well as                     word          verb         sub.
    E.g. They with their father deserve admiration.
    Mr. Smith together with some of his friends is buying some novels.

 Not only-but also                         (plural) sub.           verb
    Not only Ratna but also her friends are discussing this.

 Subjects          tense               common auxiliary
    E.g. I have lost the pen but got the book.
         subjects     tense                     common auxiliary
    E.g. My father has retired but I have resigned.

 And                 subject                    no       not          subject           verb
    E.g. I and not my brother have done this.
         Only boys and no girl are guilty.

                                   :   - on.
                              :-     over.
                                     :-   above.

    Note: We don‟t use “above” for an area or surface. We use it for measurement such
          as temperature.
          E.g. Temperature will rise above freezing.
          We prefer “over” before a number.

 Last এবং Next এর ঩রর ক োন বোর বো মো঴ থো র঱ এবং adverb হ঵঴োরব বযবহৃত ঵র঱ তোরদর ঩ূ রবে ক োন preposition বর঴ নো
     E.g. I met him last month.
    হ ন্তু Next এবং Last যহদ noun এর ঩রর বর঴ তো঵র঱ তোর ঩ূ রবে ক োন preposition বর঴ ।
    E.g. I saw her on Sunday last.

 Gerund এর ঩ূ রবে the এবং ঩রর of বযবহৃত ঵র঱ তোর verbal noun বঙ্গে ।
    E.g. The reading of newspaper is a good habit.

 Be used to/ get used to/ got used to + (verb+ing).
  Dr. S. Gupto got used to criticizing others.
  He is used to drinking alcohol.

 Sentence এর শুরুরত would that থো র঱ subject এর পঙ্গর could বর঴ ।
    Would that I could study at Oxford University.

 হনহদষ্ট দদঘে য বো ঩হরমোণ বঝোরত ক োন noun কদখরত plural ঵র঱ও ঩রবতী verb singular ঵রব ।
    Forty miles is a long distance.
    Hundred dollars is a good sum.
    Five years is a long time.

 Every দ্বোরো যু ক্ত ঵ওয়োয় sentence স্বভোবতআ singular ঵য় হ ন্তু subject- এ যহদ ক োন plural item থোর তরব ঄বলযয়আ
    verb plural ঵রব ।
    E.g. Every cat and dog was fighting.
         Every buffalo and two Lions were fighting.

 Each of the এর ঩রর noun plural ঵রব হ ন্তু verb singular ঵রব ।
    E.g. Each of the students has got a consolation prize.
    ঴ংখযো বোচ লব্দ ঵র঱ Each বোর যর কলর঳ বর঴ ।
    These boys received ten dollar each.

 Dozen, hundred, Thousand, score and pair এর ঩ূ রবে several, many, a few আতযোহদ বর঴ এরদর ঩ু নঃ উহক্ত প্র োরল
    এগুর঱োর ঴োরথ s বো es কযোগ ঵য় ।
    He lost several hundreds dollars.
    I bought some pairs of shoes.
 Let এর ঩রর pronoun এর objective form বর঴ ।
    E.g Let you and me go out for a walk.

 Having + past participle form + object, Past indefinite tense.
  E.g Having forgotten Angelina, Brad Pitt wanted to be happy.

 ঴ীমোর মরধয বঝোরত in, ঴ীমোর বোআরর বু ঝোরত to, ঴ীমোর উ঩রর বঝোরত on বর঴ ।

 বযো঩ ঴মরয়র কলর঳ বঝোর঱ in হ ন্তু মরধয বঝোর঱ within বর঴ ।
    E.g We will have finished the work within 4 p.m.
        I reached Dhaka in two hours.

 Bread, Scenery, Business, Expenditure, Poetry, Information, Machinery, Folk আতযোহদ noun গুঙ্গেোর plural
    form নেই ।         ঩রর verb Singular ঵য় ।
    E.g I read many poetry of Tagore.
        The scenery of Cox‟s bazaar is charming.

 All together~঴বোআ এ রে ।
    Altogether~঴োহবে ভোরব ।

 এ োহধ subject এর কেরে 231 rule বঙ্গস ।
    You, he and I are getting the wind of conspiracy.
    হ ন্তু কদো঳ স্বী োর এর কেরে 123 rule বর঴ ।
    I, you and Sheila are guilty.

 Be busy + Present Participle.
  She is/was busy watching TV.

 The most useful verbs that are followed directly by the infinitive.
    Agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, bother, care(negative), choose, claim, condescend,
    consent, decide, decline, demand, determine, be determined, endeavour, fail, forget, guarantee,
    happen, hesitate, hope, learn, long, manage, neglect, offer, plan, prepare, be prepared, pretend,
    proceed, promise, prove, refuse, remember, resolve, seem, swear, tend, threaten, trouble(negative),
    try, undertake, volunteer, vow etc.

 To put a word between the „to‟ and the „verb‟ is called split infinitive. It‟s rather a bad style or
  manner to split infinitives.
  He tried to unduly alarm people. (=He tried to alarm people unduly.)

 „But‟ and „except‟ take the bare infinitive when they follow („verb to do‟ + anything/ nothing/
  everything etc.)
  My dog does nothing but bark in public place.
  We can do nothing but wait.
    I could do nothing except agree.

 Perfect Infinitives are as follows.
    Acknowledge, believe, consider, claim, expect, hope, promise, find, know, report, say, suppose, think,
    understand wish etc.

 Bare infinitives are as follows.
    Feel, hear, help, let, see, make, watch, bid etc.
    E.g. I feel her sleep with me.
         I helped her get into the bus.
         They saw her dance.

 “That” – clauses are possible after a large number of verbs. Some of the most useful
  are given below.
    Acknowledge, admit, advise, agree, allege, announce, appear, arrange, ask, assume, assure, beg,
    believe, command, confess, consider, declare, decide, demand, demonstrate, determine, discover,
    doubt, estimate, expect, fear, feel, find, forget, guarantee, happen, hear, hope, imagine, inform,
    imply, indicate, insist, know, learn, make out, mean, notice, observe, occurred to + object, order,
    perceive, presume, pretend, promise, propose, prove, realize, recognize, recommend, remark,
    remember, remind, request, resolve, reveal, say, see, seem, show, state, stipulate, suggest, suppose,
    teach, tell, think, threaten, turn out, understand, urge, vow, warn, wish, wonder etc.

 Since এর ঩ূ রবে present tense ঵র঱ ঩রর past tense ঵য় ।
    It has been two years since I left my homeland.
    Since এর ঩ূ রবে past tense ঵র঱ ঩রর past perfect tense হয় ।
    I resigned my post since I had found corruption there.
    Note: Here “Since” is a conjunction. As if/ as though এর হনয়মও উ঩ররর since এর মরতো ।

 Gotta -----Have got to.
  Gonna ----- going to.
  Wanna----- Want to.
  Tis ------- It is.
  Twas ----- It was.

 Let‟s not tease any girl.
  Or, Don‟t let‟s tease any girl – is also possible.

 A number of + noun (plural) + verb এর plural form.
    A number of people are trying to invest in share market.
    A number of female students love to take English as their first choice in higher study.
    But - The number of eve-teasers is increasing day by day.
 Few and Little means hardly (এতআ ম কয, নোআ ব঱র঱আ চর঱).
    Few pens mean not many pens.
    Little honey means not much honey.
    A few means some.
    A little means some too.
    I have (a) few friends.
    There was (a) little water in the pot.
    Couldn‟t you wait a little longer?
    Note: - Normally few or a few stands for countable noun and little or a little stands for uncountable

 13th ultimo----- গত মোর঴র ১৩ তোহরখ ।
    13th instant-----বতে মোন মোর঴র ১৩ তোহরখ ।
    13th proximo----- অগোমী মোর঴র ১৩ তোহরখ ।

 One- third of the mangoes has been rotten.
  Two-thirds of the grapes have been sweet.

 Many a + sub. এর ঩রর verb singular ঵য় ।
    Many a boy wants to be a singer.
    Many a teacher doesn‟t teach students well as they did earlier.

 „Should have‟ is equal to „ought to have‟.
  I should have informed you about it. is very much similar to I ought to have informed you about it.

 Some types of questions are as follows.
    What happens in front of the foreigners?
    What shakes his mind?
    Whose dress did you borrow?
    Who opened my letter?
    From whom does she bring these suggestions?
    How often did she commit this crime?
    How many times did you warn him?
    What was the weather like?
    Which car did the select?
    What questions did John ask?
    Which books did you lend her?
    How long have you been there?
    Of which country is Moscow the capital?
    What kinds of novels do you like reading?
    How and when will you let us know your decision?
    Who is saying what?
    To whom does Toya make a call on Friday night?
   At what station did Kate Anderson get down?
   On what day will you tell me that you love me?
   How long ago did she see you?
   Whom did you talk to?
   What is Dhaka famous for?
   Whom did she get the message from?
   Which way leads to the post office?

 Some important uses of preposition.
   He couldn‟t finish the work at a sitting.
   He can see better at a distance.
   He sold the watch at a loss.
   Farmers work by day/ night.
   She sent a letter by post/ hand.
   They paid by cheque.
   Eggs are sold by the dozen.
   She only knows me by name.
   She is older than I by two years.
   It is 5 p.m. by my watch.
   Mohamedan defeated Abahoni by four goals to nil.
   Can you finish the work by tomorrow?
   I touched her by mistake.
   I am speaking for my class.
   She cried out for fear.
   She was silent for shame.
   We do not write in red ink.
   I know her by face.
   She pulled me by the collar.
   She loves me at heart.
   Bangladesh team is on the off chance.
   I have been down at heel in search of a job.
   Cut the apple in two.
   People in general are ignorant of human rights.
   It is a novel in three parts.
   You may pay the amount in part.
   He is young in years but old in wisdom.
   She got married at sixteen.
   Most people work from nine to six.
   He left school in 1971. I haven‟t seen him since.
   He travelled in the desert for six month.
   I left without paying my bill.
   I apologize for not writing before.
   He insisted on paying for himself.
   He got off at the corner.
   Helen is a long way behind.
   She climbed over the wall.
   He ran up the stairs.
   The old lady went up in the lift.
 Some adverbs are placed before (a verb of motion + a noun subject). Those are away,
  down, in, off, out, over, round, up etc. Surprisingly enough, it doesn‟t make a difference in meaning.
  Away went the runners.
  Down fell a dozen apples.
  Out sprang the cuckoo.
  Round and round flew the plane.
  But if it is a pronoun subject, adverbs are placed before the pronoun subjects.
  Away they went.
  Down he fell.

 Modal Auxiliaries গুঙ্গেো হে be to, had better, would rather, have got to ইত্যোদি ।
    The prize giving ceremony is to take place tomorrow on the school premises.
    I had better not kiss a married woman.
    Hadn‟t you better wait for his call?
    I would rather die than steal.
    I have got to reach there within two minutes.

 Daresay means suppose and accept.
  I daresay you will do well in the final exam.
  I daresay you can marry twice, but it‟s risky nowadays.

 Dare as a modal verb.
    How dare you piss in public place?
    He dare not tease a girl in front of her parents.
    She dared not turn down the proposal of a rich, old man.
    Dare he call my names?
    I dared not complain.

 Use of „often‟
  Often she stared at me.
  He often goes to meet his grandfather.
  N.B: when we put „often‟ at the end of a sentence, it needs very or quite before it.
  She laughs quite often.
  We fall short of time due to traffic jam very often.

 Have/has/had/get/got + object + past participle means the narrator has paid, employed or persuaded
  somebody to perform the job.
  She had me love her. (Here, had is a bare infinitive.)
  She got me to love her.
  I am having her clean my room.
  However, „Get‟ is mostly used in British English.
  She got her mother to marry again.
    Bomb-bursting round!

       এ ঴োরথ ঄রন গুর঱ো ক঩েঁ চো বর঴ অরে , তোরদরর আংরোহিরত এ ঴োরথ হ ব঱বো ?
       A parliament of owls.

       হতনটো word ব঱ যোরদর মরধয ঩োচটি vowel অরে ।
       Education, facetious, abstemious.
              Vowel এর অরগ “The” এর উচ্চোরণ ঵রব – হদ ।
               হ ন্তু Consonant এর আঙ্গে “The” এর উচ্চোরণ ঵রব – দয ।

              NEWS শব্দটিঙ্গত্ ---------
               N এর ঩ূ ণেরূ঩ ঵রব – North.
               E এর ঩ূ ণেরূ঩ ঵রব – East.
               W এর ঩ূ ণেরূ঩ ঵রব – West.
               S এর ঩ূ ণেরূ঩ ঵রব – South.

    When we see something wrong in anything, why don‟t we protest against it? If we used to do it, those
     incidents might not have happened in our own life. However we regret our lot then. Many a time
     haunts in our life when we don‟t accept our destiny. We feel like starting everything anew but that‟s
     not possible. Is that for what we were not ready at all? A proverb goes – look before you leap. But we
     can think later too (when we can do nothing) so that it doesn‟t happen twice. However don‟t wound
     anybody‟s feelings. We can‟t distinguish people just by his or her appearance, caste and creed. We
     need to think deeper and deeper. Man is the best creation of Allah. But we see people around the
     world living like dogs. We should have sympathy for those unfit, dying people. They are really unfit
     because they have been deprived of their rights and defeated morally by the stronger opposition.
     They could not launch a wage against the odds they faced in life. So you have to acknowledge that
     environment has a deep impact in everyday, everybody‟s life. Strangely enough, people have the
     tendency to push people backward when they are in already hot water.

       However, Think well; be good.
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N.B: Do not edit this book. It is strictly prohibited to edit and its distribution for business
purpose will be regarded as an offence.

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