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Impressionism - San Dieguito Union High School District

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					Impressionism
           1
                Impressionism
• The movement has its roots in: Romanticism (feelings
  and emotions) AND the Realists (challenging the
  academies)
• The term is coined from a Monet painting titled,
  Impression: Sunrise
• The Impressionists exhibited together at eight shows
  between 1874 and 1886 (this does not mean they were
  always in complete agreement with each other!)



                                                     2
    Impressionists: What they have in Common
• Painting captures an impression—a moment

• Brushwork: short and choppy

• The effects of light on color! Plein Air (painting outside)

• Limited use of black paint—Shadows created with dark
  green, blue, purple, and brown

• Juxtaposition of complementary colors to create vibrancy

• Creative, cropped compositions with unusual angles

• For most, the Parisian middle class--bourgeoisie
                  The Avant-Garde
• Originally used for the French military—the units that
  advanced further from the troops

• In art, those that led the way with bold concepts and
  works— “Ahead of the mainstream”

• Generally, they were misunderstood by the public and
  rejected by the salons

• When a style becomes mainstream (Impressionism does in
  the 1890s), it’s no longer considered avant-garde
CLAUDE MONET, Impression: Sunrise, 1872*. Oil on
canvas, 1’ 7 1/2” x 2’ 1 1/2”. Musée Marmottan, Paris.




                                                         5
                          Monet
• At 19, moves to Paris but rejects the conventional
  training of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, instead choosing
  the more relaxed private schools

• His wealthy family cuts him off, his wife dies and leaves
  him with two children, so he moves to Giverny

• In 1890, he buys property in Giverny and employs six
  gardeners

• Towards the end of his life, lives like a recluse with
  extremely failing eyesight
CLAUDE MONET,
Rouen Cathedral: The
Portal (in Sun), 1894*. Oil
on canvas, 3’ 3 1/4” x 2’ 1
7/8”. Metropolitan Museum
of Art, New York




                              7
CLAUDE MONET, Saint-Lazare Train Station, 1877*. Oil on
canvas, 2’ 5 3/4” x 3’ 5”. Musée d’Orsay, Paris. (Industrialization )




                                                                        10
GUSTAVE CAILLEBOTTE, Paris: A Rainy Day, 1877*. Oil on
canvas, 6’ 9” x 9’ 9”. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago




                                                               11
                  Caillebotte
• Wealthy engineer and boat builder who befriends the
  Impressionists

• Helped to finance Impressionist exhibitions and
  collected more than 60 pieces of their work—these
  were left to the French people when he died

• Although not with loose brushwork, subject matter and
  composition make it an Impressionist work
PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR, Le Moulin de la Galette, 1876*.
Oil on canvas, 4’ 3” x 5’ 8”. Musée d’Orsay, Paris.




                                                         13
                        RENOIR
• Most famous for genre paintings of the bourgeoisie of Paris
  (females)

• Friends with Monet

• Used the model, Suzanne Valadon in paintings

• In 1892, developed severe rheumatoid arthritis but continued
  to paint for over twenty years
ÉDOUARD MANET, Bar at the Folies-Bergère, 1882*. Oil on canvas,
3’ 1” x 4’ 3”. Courtauld Institute of Art Gallery, London.




                                                             16
          MANET WITH IMPRESSIONISM

• Influences Impressionism and in turn, they influence him

• Never exhibited with the Impressionists

• His style is hard to pinpoint (Realism? Impressionism?)

• Died at age 51, after complications due to syphilis and arthritis
                      DEGAS
• Focused on the female like Renoir

• Classically trained (outstanding draughtsman). Considered
  an Impressionist but rejected the term for “realist” instead

• Known for interior scenes—not “plein air” and did not
  adopt the same brushwork

• Although his works looks “spontaneous”, he produced
  MANY sketches beforehand but photography also affects
  his composition

• Later, his compositions adopt a “peering through a
  keyhole” approach and are influenced by Japanese
  woodblock prints
EDGAR DEGAS, Ballet Rehearsal, 1874*. Oil on canvas, 1’ 11” x 2’ 9”.
Glasgow Art Galleries and Museum, Glasgow




                                                                  19
Degas, The Rehearsal on Stage, c.1874*, pastel over brush and ink
Metropolitan Museum of Art
WOMEN ARTISTS DURING IMPRESSIONISM

• American (studied in Philadelphia), ex-patriot in Paris

• Degas encouraged her to participate in the 4th Impressionist
  exhibition

• Both Degas and Cassatt did not paint “en plein air”—
  focused on the domestic and social life of wealthy women

• Influenced by Degas and Japanese prints
MARY CASSATT, The Bath,
ca. 1892*. Oil on canvas, 3’ 3” x
2’ 2”. The Art Institute of
Chicago, Chicago




                                    23
Mary Cassatt
Maternal Caress
1891*
Drypoint, soft-
ground etching, and
aquatint on paper
                      Morisot

• Married to Eduoard Manet’s brother

• Exhibited with the Impressionists

• Focused on outdoor leisure of Parisian middle-class
  (weekends to resorts at sea or the Seine)—with a sense
  of melancholy

• Most paintings contain a main female figure, loose
  brushwork, natural light and color
BERTHE MORISOT, Villa at the Seaside, 1874*. Oil on canvas, 1’
7 3/4” x 2’ 1/8". Norton Simon Art Foundation, Los Angeles.




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Japonisme




            27
        Japanese Wood-block Prints

• In 1850, Japan opens itself to trade with the west

• Culture captivates Parisians: Japonisme

• A large exhibition of Japanese wood-block prints in
  1890 influences ENORMOUSLY!

• Ukiyo-e— “floating world”

• These prints are inexpensive and many Impressionists
  collected them
Hokusai, The Great Wave off Kanagawa, ca. 1826-1833
Left: EDGAR DEGAS, The Tub, 1886. Pastel, 1’ 11 ½” X 2’ 8 3/8”.
Musee d’Orsay, Paris. Right: TORII KIYONAGA, detail of Two
Women at the Bath, ca. 1780. Color woodblock, full print 10 ½” X 7
½”, detail 3 ¾” X 3 ½”. Musee Guimet, Paris.                         30
Monet with his collection of ukiyo-e

				
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