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Human Body Systems - PowerPoint

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 54

									        Class: Mammalia
 Domain: Eukarya
 Kingdom: Animalia
 Phylum: Chordata
 Class: Mammalia
          What is a mammal?
 Mammalia stems from the mammary glands
  which are used to nurse young.
 They also must have hair. It’s useful in the
  following ways:
    – Waterproofing
    – Conservation of body heat
    – Insulation
 There are 3 types of Mammals
1.   Monotremes
2.   Marsupials
3.   Placentals
           1. Monotremes
 Monotremes lay eggs
 There are only five species of Monotreme in
  the world
 Found only in Australia, Tasmania, and
  New Guinea
             2. Marsupials
 Marsupials have live young that are kept in
  a fur/skin pouch
 Most are found in Australia
                3. Placentals
 Placentals nourish their young
  using a placenta during gestation
 The baby is carried in the
  mother’s uterus
 The placenta provides food,
  allows gas exchange through the
  blood, and removes waste.
 95% of mammals are placental!
From Fertilization to Implantation
Structure of Placenta
       Function of Placenta
 Umbilical Blood Vessels – carry blood (w/
  and w/out O2) to and from the baby
 Chorionic Villus – carry blood from
  umbilical blood vessels to mom. These are
  attached to the uterus
 Yolk Sac – Provides early nourishment and
  circulation
 Amnion – protective layer for embryo
      Stages of Development
 Fertilization sperm and egg join  Zygote
 Zygote Divides  Blastocyst
 Blastocyst implants  Embryo
 Embryo weeks 2 – 9  Fetus
 Fetus weeks 8 – birth  Infant
Placental Development
Human Body Systems
          Respiratory System
   Functions:
    – Breathing brings air into the lungs and removes
      waste gases
    – Cellular respiration converts oxygen and
      glucose to carbon dioxide, water and energy
Respiratory system
            Upper and Lower
             respiratory tracts
Fact
     The surface area of the
      aveoli in your lungs is
      about 70 square
      meters, or about the
      same as three lanes of
      a bowling alley.
Diseases of respiratory system
                  Lung Cancer -3rd
                   leading cause of death
                   in men and women in
                   the U.S.
                  Emphysema (causes
                   aveoli to enlarge)
                  Asthma (lung
                   disorder)
        Cardiovascular System

   Coronary circulation is the flow of blood to and
    from the tissues of the heart.
   Pulmonary circulation is the flow of blood through
    the heart, to the lungs, and back to the heart.
   Oxygen rich blood is moved to all tissues and
    organs of the body and is called systemic
    circulation.
Organs of the circulatory
        system
                Heart
                Veins
                Arteries
                Capillaries
Heart
      Made of cardiac muscle
       tissue
      Has 4 compartments
       called chambers: two
       upper are atriums, two
       lower are ventricles.
      Heart has arteries and
       veins just like any other
       muscle
Fact
     Your heart beats 60-70
      times per minute. Each
      time it pumps 60 mL
      of blood. How many
      mL’s in 24 hours?
     5184000 mL’s, which
      is equivalent to…
     5184 liter bottles
Heart
      When these arteries
       are blocked, it starves
       the heart of oxygen
       and nutrients, resulting
       in a heart attack
                    Veins
   Veins carry blood back to the heart
   Veins have valves
   2 major veins carry return blood from your body
    to your heart: the superior vena cava returns
    blood from your head and the inferior vena cava
    from your lower body
                   Arteries
   Carry blood away from your heart
   Have thick, elastic walls made of tissue and
    smooth muscle
                Capillaries
   Microscopic blood vessels
   Walls are only one cell thick
   Bloodshot eyes
   Nutrients and oxygen diffuse from body cells
    into capillaries
Blood
      Carries oxygen from
       lungs to body
      Takes carbon dioxide
       away
      Carries waste products
       to kidneys
      Transports nutrients
      Cells in blood fight
       infections
Blood
      Made up of plasma (55%),
       mostly water.
      Platelets: help with
       clotting
      Red blood cells: made at
       rate of 2-3 million per
       second; deliver oxygen &
       remove waste
      White: help fight bacteria,
       viruses, etc.
Diseases of the Blood
              Sickle-cell anemia
              Anemia is a disease of
               the red blood cells
              Leukemia produces
               immature white blood
               cells that don’t fight
               infections
Fact
     First blood transfusion
      was in early 1800’s.
     French physician Jean
      Baptiste Denis
      successfully used
      sheep’s blood.
       – His second patient
         died.
Excretory System
           Includes many
            systems such as
            digestive, respiratory,
            skin and urinary
            system.
           Each gets rid of waste
            in its own way.
Digestive System
           Food and liquid in
           Water and undigested
            food out
Respiratory System
            Part of excretory
             system
            Oxygen in
            Carbon dioxide and
             water out.
                        Skin
   Part of excretory system
   Salt and some organic substances out
Urinary System
          Water and salts in
          Excess water, metabolic
           wastes and salts out
          Controls blood volume
           (blood pressure)
          Works in conjunction with
           hypothalamus to balance
           fluid levels in blood
Organs of Urinary System
               Kidneys are bean
                shaped organs
               Located at back of
                abdomen near waist
                level
               Kidney filters blood of
                waste products, creates
                waste product called
                urine
Kidneys
       All of your blood is
        filtered through your
        kidneys in about 5
        minutes
       Connected to bladder
        through two ducts
        called ureters
       Drains urine into your
        bladder
Bladder
       Bladder is where urine
        is held until you
        release it
       Bladder is an elastic,
        muscular organ that
        can stretch to hold .5
        liter of urine.
       Avg. human produces
        approximately 1 liter
        of urine daily
Diseases of the Urinary System
                  A person can live
                   normally with one
                   kidney
                  If both kidneys fail, a
                   person must use a
                   dialysis machine to
                   filter wastes out of the
                   blood to prevent death
Skeletal System
           Function:
            –   Shape and support
            –   Produces red blood cells
            –   Stores minerals
            –   Protects organs and soft
                tissue
           At birth you have 300
            bones
           As an adult you have 206
            bones
Muscular System
           Over 600 muscles in
            your body
           Control movement
           Voluntary muscles:
            you choose to move
            them
           Involuntary muscles:
            move without you
            telling them to move,
            ie. heart
Muscles
       3 types
        – Skeletal: attached to
          bones to help you
          move
        – Cardiac: heart
        – Smooth: intestines,
          bladder, blood vessels,
          internal organs
Nervous System
          Responds to stimuli to
           maintain homeostasis
          Central nervous is
           your brain and spinal
           cord
          Peripheral nervous
           system is all the
           nerves other than the
           CNS
Brain
   Three main parts:
       – Cerebrum
       – Cerebellum
       – Brain stem
      You also have a left
       and right half
Brain
   Your brain contains
     approximately 100
     billion neurons
    Cerebrum:
     – Interprets input from
       senses
     – Controls movement
     – Responsible for
       learning and memory
Brain
      Cerebellum
       – Responsible for
         coordinating your
         muscles and balance
       – Keeps you from falling
         down when you walk
Brain
      Brain stem
       – Controls involuntary
         actions such as
         breathing and heartbeat
Endocrine System
           Endocrine system
            produces chemicals
            that control many of
            the body’s daily
            activities as well as
            long term changes
            such as growth and
            development
Endocrine
        Endocrine system is
         made up of glands
        Glands produce
         hormones
        Hormones are
         chemicals that turn
         off, turn on, speed up,
         and slow down the
         activities of organs
         and tissues
Endocrine
        Each gland produces a
         different hormone
         responsible for a
         different task.
         – Adrenal glands
           produce adrenaline
         – Testes produce
           testosterone
         – Ovaries produce
           estrogen
Immune System
          Body has several lines
           of defense: skin,
           breathing passages,
           mouth and stomach.
          Pathogens land on
           skin and most are
           destroyed by
           chemicals in oil and
           sweat.
Immune
      Pathogens get through
       skin usually only
       when there is break in
       skin: a scab quickly
       forms to protect the
       pathway.
Immune
      Breathing: pathogens
       enter but are trapped
       and destroyed by
       mucus layer. Cilia in
       nose move
       accumulated material
       out.
Immune
      Pathogens found in
       food are destroyed
       first by saliva, and
       then by powerful acids
       in stomach.
“T” Cells & “B”Cells
             T-cells identify
              pathogens by
              identifying a chemical
              marker on the
              pathogen called an
              antigen
             Some T-cells attack
              pathogens; others
              activate B-cells.
Immune
      B-cells are called
       lymphocytes and
       produce proteins
       called antibodies.
       When antibodies bind
       to the antigens on a
       pathogen, they mark it
       for destruction by
       phagocytes.

								
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