Class: Mammalia Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia What is a mammal? Mammalia stems from the mammary glands which are used to nurse young. They also must have hair. It’s useful in the following ways: – Waterproofing – Conservation of body heat – Insulation There are 3 types of Mammals 1. Monotremes 2. Marsupials 3. Placentals 1. Monotremes Monotremes lay eggs There are only five species of Monotreme in the world Found only in Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea 2. Marsupials Marsupials have live young that are kept in a fur/skin pouch Most are found in Australia 3. Placentals Placentals nourish their young using a placenta during gestation The baby is carried in the mother’s uterus The placenta provides food, allows gas exchange through the blood, and removes waste. 95% of mammals are placental! From Fertilization to Implantation Structure of Placenta Function of Placenta Umbilical Blood Vessels – carry blood (w/ and w/out O2) to and from the baby Chorionic Villus – carry blood from umbilical blood vessels to mom. These are attached to the uterus Yolk Sac – Provides early nourishment and circulation Amnion – protective layer for embryo Stages of Development Fertilization sperm and egg join Zygote Zygote Divides Blastocyst Blastocyst implants Embryo Embryo weeks 2 – 9 Fetus Fetus weeks 8 – birth Infant Placental Development Human Body Systems Respiratory System Functions: – Breathing brings air into the lungs and removes waste gases – Cellular respiration converts oxygen and glucose to carbon dioxide, water and energy Respiratory system Upper and Lower respiratory tracts Fact The surface area of the aveoli in your lungs is about 70 square meters, or about the same as three lanes of a bowling alley. Diseases of respiratory system Lung Cancer -3rd leading cause of death in men and women in the U.S. Emphysema (causes aveoli to enlarge) Asthma (lung disorder) Cardiovascular System Coronary circulation is the flow of blood to and from the tissues of the heart. Pulmonary circulation is the flow of blood through the heart, to the lungs, and back to the heart. Oxygen rich blood is moved to all tissues and organs of the body and is called systemic circulation. Organs of the circulatory system Heart Veins Arteries Capillaries Heart Made of cardiac muscle tissue Has 4 compartments called chambers: two upper are atriums, two lower are ventricles. Heart has arteries and veins just like any other muscle Fact Your heart beats 60-70 times per minute. Each time it pumps 60 mL of blood. How many mL’s in 24 hours? 5184000 mL’s, which is equivalent to… 5184 liter bottles Heart When these arteries are blocked, it starves the heart of oxygen and nutrients, resulting in a heart attack Veins Veins carry blood back to the heart Veins have valves 2 major veins carry return blood from your body to your heart: the superior vena cava returns blood from your head and the inferior vena cava from your lower body Arteries Carry blood away from your heart Have thick, elastic walls made of tissue and smooth muscle Capillaries Microscopic blood vessels Walls are only one cell thick Bloodshot eyes Nutrients and oxygen diffuse from body cells into capillaries Blood Carries oxygen from lungs to body Takes carbon dioxide away Carries waste products to kidneys Transports nutrients Cells in blood fight infections Blood Made up of plasma (55%), mostly water. Platelets: help with clotting Red blood cells: made at rate of 2-3 million per second; deliver oxygen & remove waste White: help fight bacteria, viruses, etc. Diseases of the Blood Sickle-cell anemia Anemia is a disease of the red blood cells Leukemia produces immature white blood cells that don’t fight infections Fact First blood transfusion was in early 1800’s. French physician Jean Baptiste Denis successfully used sheep’s blood. – His second patient died. Excretory System Includes many systems such as digestive, respiratory, skin and urinary system. Each gets rid of waste in its own way. Digestive System Food and liquid in Water and undigested food out Respiratory System Part of excretory system Oxygen in Carbon dioxide and water out. Skin Part of excretory system Salt and some organic substances out Urinary System Water and salts in Excess water, metabolic wastes and salts out Controls blood volume (blood pressure) Works in conjunction with hypothalamus to balance fluid levels in blood Organs of Urinary System Kidneys are bean shaped organs Located at back of abdomen near waist level Kidney filters blood of waste products, creates waste product called urine Kidneys All of your blood is filtered through your kidneys in about 5 minutes Connected to bladder through two ducts called ureters Drains urine into your bladder Bladder Bladder is where urine is held until you release it Bladder is an elastic, muscular organ that can stretch to hold .5 liter of urine. Avg. human produces approximately 1 liter of urine daily Diseases of the Urinary System A person can live normally with one kidney If both kidneys fail, a person must use a dialysis machine to filter wastes out of the blood to prevent death Skeletal System Function: – Shape and support – Produces red blood cells – Stores minerals – Protects organs and soft tissue At birth you have 300 bones As an adult you have 206 bones Muscular System Over 600 muscles in your body Control movement Voluntary muscles: you choose to move them Involuntary muscles: move without you telling them to move, ie. heart Muscles 3 types – Skeletal: attached to bones to help you move – Cardiac: heart – Smooth: intestines, bladder, blood vessels, internal organs Nervous System Responds to stimuli to maintain homeostasis Central nervous is your brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system is all the nerves other than the CNS Brain Three main parts: – Cerebrum – Cerebellum – Brain stem You also have a left and right half Brain Your brain contains approximately 100 billion neurons Cerebrum: – Interprets input from senses – Controls movement – Responsible for learning and memory Brain Cerebellum – Responsible for coordinating your muscles and balance – Keeps you from falling down when you walk Brain Brain stem – Controls involuntary actions such as breathing and heartbeat Endocrine System Endocrine system produces chemicals that control many of the body’s daily activities as well as long term changes such as growth and development Endocrine Endocrine system is made up of glands Glands produce hormones Hormones are chemicals that turn off, turn on, speed up, and slow down the activities of organs and tissues Endocrine Each gland produces a different hormone responsible for a different task. – Adrenal glands produce adrenaline – Testes produce testosterone – Ovaries produce estrogen Immune System Body has several lines of defense: skin, breathing passages, mouth and stomach. Pathogens land on skin and most are destroyed by chemicals in oil and sweat. Immune Pathogens get through skin usually only when there is break in skin: a scab quickly forms to protect the pathway. Immune Breathing: pathogens enter but are trapped and destroyed by mucus layer. Cilia in nose move accumulated material out. Immune Pathogens found in food are destroyed first by saliva, and then by powerful acids in stomach. “T” Cells & “B”Cells T-cells identify pathogens by identifying a chemical marker on the pathogen called an antigen Some T-cells attack pathogens; others activate B-cells. Immune B-cells are called lymphocytes and produce proteins called antibodies. When antibodies bind to the antigens on a pathogen, they mark it for destruction by phagocytes.