Macular Degeneration by wanghonghx


Amanda Thompson
Mrs. Jensen Block 3
      Macular Degeneration

 Eye disorder making it difficult to see

 Affects the macula, part of retina for central vision
 Caused by damage to the

 2 types: dry and wet AMD

 Because it does not affect
  peripheral vision, you will
  never lose sight
       Central Nervous System
 Sensory reception

 Sight, smell, taste, balance, hearing

 CNS connects to PNS through nerves

 Detects, interprets, and responds to
  changes in internal and external
Healthy Macula vs. AMD Macula
          Wet AMD
✱More rare, also more
✱Abnormal blood vessels
grow beneath macula
and retina, AKA choroidal
✱May leak blood or fluid,
damaging macula
    Dry AMD
✱Much more common
✱Occurs when retina
gets thin and dried out
✱Small yellow deposits,
drusen, form beneath
✱As drusen become
more prominent, sight
is lost
             Population Affected
 Nearly 8.5 million people are affected by macular
    degeneration in the U.S. alone (1.75 million are in
    the advanced stages)

 Only about 10% have wet, 90% dry
   Who will get it?


             -People over age 65 have much higher risk

             -Obese or inactive persons


             -Light Pigmented Eyes

             -People with a family history of AMD
          Dry AMD                           Wet AMD
 No FDA approved                 Lucentis-monthly eye injections
                                    inhibiting the proteins that
   treatments are available
                                    stimulate new blood vessel
   for this type of AMD             growth

 A few are in clinical trials    Macugen-eye injections of
                                    therapeutic molecule attacking
 Strong evidence has               new blood vessel growth proteins
                                    inside the eye every six weeks
   shown that supplements of
   vitamins A, C, and E can       Photodynamic Therapy-injection
   slow the progression of the      of Visudyne in the arm which is
   sight loss                       activated in retinal blood vessels
                                    by laser shining into the eye,
                                    producing chemical reaction
 Recommended to wear
                                    that kills new blood vessels
   UV protection over eyes
                          Trial #1
   A Study of an Encapsulated Cell Technology (ECT) Implant
        for Patients With Atrophic Macular Degeneration
 Purpose:
   This trial is aimed towards dry AMD. The implant is a small
     capsule that contains human retinal pigment epithelium cells.
     These cells have been given the ability to make CNTF and
     release it through the capsule membrane into the surrounding
     fluid. In this study, two different CNTF dose levels will be used: a
     high dose and a low dose, as well as a sham surgery (or
     placebo) group.
   CNTF is Ciliary Neutrophic Factor
   Neurotrophic factors are agents with a promising ability to
     retard progression of neurodegenerative diseases and are
     effective in slowing photoreceptor degeneration in animal
     models of retinitis pigmentosa.
                       Trial #2
          Development of iPS From Donated Somatic
          Cells of Patients With Neurological Diseases
 Purpose:
   Human fibroblasts and possibly other human somatic
     cells may be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent
     stem (iPS) cells by the forced expression of transcription
     factors (1-5). The iPS cells seem to share many properties
     with human embryonic stem cells.Induced pluripotent
     stem cells potentially may be useful in the future as an
     unlimited source of cells for transplantation.The major
     goal of the project is to develop human iPS cells from
     cell cultures from skin biopsies or the patient's hair. The
     iPS cells will be developed primarily for modeling
     diseases and drug discovery as well as basic research,
     and for developing the technology that may eventually
     allow the use of iPS cells for future transplantation
     therapy. The iPS cells developed in the course of this
     application are not intended for use in transplantation
     therapy. Future development of iPS cells for clinical
     transplantation therapies will be subjected to the
     appropriate authorization by ethical and regulatory
                       Trial #3
       VEGF-Antagonism and Endothelial Function in Age-
            Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
    Purpose:
     The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects
      of 2 intravitreal injections with Ranibizumab or
      Avastin on endothelial function in subjects with
      neovascular macular degeneration compared to
      patients with dry AMD.
✱ Age-related macular degeneration . (2009, December 11). Retrieved
    December 12, 2009, from RNIB:

   Age-Related Macular Degeneration . (2009, October). Retrieved
    December 12, 2009, from National Eye Institute:

   Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) for human retinal degeneration:
    Phase I trial of CNTF delivered by encapsulated cell intraocular implants
    . (2006, February 27). Retrieved December 13, 2009, from Pub Med

   Haddrill, M. (2009, September). Macular Degeneration Treatment .
    Retrieved December 12, 2009, from All About Vision:

   Roberts, D. (n.d.). Numbers of People with Macular Degeneration and
    Other Retinal Diseases. Retrieved December 12, 2009, from MD Support:

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