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					                                                                                                                                                                                                          Suggested Activity (Bold type
                                                                                                                                                                                                          indicates lesson can be found at
Ohio Social Studies Indicators by Grade Level            Ohio Science Indicators by Grade Level                              Ohio Technology Indicators by Grade Level                                    www.technologyiselementary.com
Kindergarten                                             Kindergarten                                                        Kindergarten
Social Studies                                           Science                                                             Technology                                                                   Activity (bold indicates actual lesson)
                                                         Life Sciences                                                       1. Nature of Technology
                                                         1. Explore differences between living and non-living things .       A1. Identify objects created within the human-made world                     Natural or man-made?
                                                         (e.g., plant-rock)                                                  (e.g., books, chairs, houses, buses)
                                                         Science and Technology                                              and objects that occur in nature (e.g., trees, flowers, rocks and rivers).
                                                         1. Explore that objects can be sorted as "natural" or "man-made".

Geography                                                Life Sciences                                                       1. Nature of Technology
  6. Describe the immediate surroundings of home             5. Investigate observable features of plants and animals        A1: Identify objects created within the human-made world                     Natural or man-made?
   (e.g., streets, buildings, fields, woods or lakes).       that help them live in different kinds of places.               (e.g., books, chairs, houses, buses) and objects that occur in nature
                                                         6. Investigate the habitats of many different kinds of local         (e.g., trees, flowers, rocks and rivers).                                   Habitat mobile
                                                           plants and animals and some of the ways in which animals          C2. Recognize the connection between technology and other fields
                                                         depend on plants and each other in our community                    of study (e.g., technology can be used to make or create music
                                                                                                                             or musical instruments).
                                                                                                                             7. Designed World
                                                                                                                             A5. Describe different types of buildings (e.g., houses, apartments,
                                                                                                                             office buildings and schools).

                                                         Physcial Sciences                                                   6. Design
                                                         4. Explore that things can be made to move in many                  C1. Ask questions and make observations about how things work                Paper Engineering - things that slide
                                                         different ways such as straight, zigzag, up and down,               (e.g., take a mystery device and ask questions to determine what it does).
                                                         round and round, back and forth, or fast and slow.
                                                                                                                             2. Technology and Society Interaction
                                                         2. Explore that some materials can be used over and over            B1. Explain how waste results from making and using things, .                Toys from recycled materials
                                                         again (e.g., plastic or glass containers, cardboard boxes           and/or discarding them
                                                         and tubes).                                                         B2. Identify materials that can be reused and/or recycled

                                                         3. Explore that each kind of tool has an intended use,              1. Nature of Technology
                                                          which can be helpful or harmful (e.g., scissors can be used        A1. Describe how the use of tools and machines can be helpful or harmful.    Student generated tool guidelines
                                                         to cut paper but they can also hurt you).

                                                         Scientific Inquiry                                                  2. Technology and Society Interaction
                                                         7. Use appropriate tools and simple equipment/instruments           A1. Describe how the use of tools and machines can be helpful or harmful.    Identify and use tools to study things
                                                         to safely gather scientific data (e.g., magnifiers and
                                                         other appropriate tools).
Grade One                                                      Grade One                                                           Grade One                                                                     Grade One
                                                               Earth and Space Sciences                                            1. Nature of Technology
                                                               2. Explain that the supply of many resources is limited             B1. Explain how various materials can be reused or recycled.                  Recycled Materials
                                                               but the supply can be extended through careful use,                 B2. Describe the reasons for doing things or behaving in ways that .
                                                               decreased use, reusing and/or recycling.                            protect the environment

                                                               Life Sciences                                                       7. Designed World
                                                               2. Explain that food comes from sources other than                     C2. Explain how the use of technologies in agriculture makes it possible   Where does our food come from
                                                               grocery stores (e.g., farm crops, farm animals, oceans,             for food to be available year round.
                                                               lakes and forests).
History                                                                                                                            2. Technology and Society Interaction
   4. Raise questions about how families lived in the past                                                                         C1. Describe or list ways technology has changed the way people lived         Compare old and new technologies
      and use photographs, letters, artifacts and books                                                                            and worked throughout history (e.g., grandparents' era to today).
      to clarify what is known and what is unknown.
   5. Compare past and present, near and far,
      with emphasis on daily life including:
               a. The roles of men, women and children;        Earth and Space Sciences                                            2. Technology and Society Interaction
               b. The identification of basic human needs;     1. Identify that resources are things that we get from the living   A1. Describe the reasons for making products (e.g., to meet needs             How do we do that? Investigating the
         c. Various ways people meet human needs.              (e.g., forests) and nonliving (e.g., minerals, water)               and wants).                                                                   way things are made
                                                                 environment and that resources are necessary to meet              B2. Describe the reasons for doing things or behaving in ways that
                                                               the needs and wants of a population.                                protect the environment.
                                                               Life Sciences
                                                                   1. Explore that organisms, including people, have basic
People in Societies                                            needs which include air, water, food, living space and shelter.
   1. Describe similarities and differences in the ways
   different cultures meet common human needs including: Science and Technology
              a.    Food;                                          4. Explore ways people use energy to cook their food and
              b.     Clothing;                                 warm their homes (e.g., wood, coal, natural gas and electricity).
              c.    Shelter;
              d.     Language;
        e. Artistic expressions
                                                               Physical Sciences                                                   2. Technology and Society Interaction
Economics                                                      1. Classify objects according to the materials they are made of     B1. Explain how various materials can be reused or recycled                   Creating an invention from recycled
   1. Explain that wants are unlimited and resources           and their physical properties                                                                                                                     materials, then trade it for someone else's
      are scarce, thereby forcing individuals to make choices. 3. Explore and observe that things can be done to materials         6. Design                                                                     invention
                                                               to change their properties (e.g., heating, freezing, mixing,        A3. Identify and describe characteristics of different materials used to
   2. Describe the ways people produce, consume                cutting, wetting, dissolving, bending and exposing to light).       create technological products that provide solutions (e.g., wood, metal,
    and exchange goods and services in their community.                                                                            glass, plastic).
                                                               Science and Technology                                              B2. List the materials used in common items (e.g., house, car, toys).
                                                               1. Explore that some kinds of materials are better suited than      2. Technology and Society Interaction
                                                               others for making something new                                     B2. Describe the reasons for doing things or behaving in ways that protect
                                                               (e.g., the building materials used in the Three Little Pigs).            the environment.
Grade One                                                   Grade One                                                           Grade One                                                                  Grade One
People in Societies                                                                                                             Standard 1: Nature of Technology
   4. Describe life in other countries with emphasis on                                                                         A2. Cite examples of how people use tools and processes to perform tasks   How do people live in other countries?
daily life, including roles of men, women and children.                                                                                                                                                    (clothes, shelter, food)
                                                                                                                                2. Technology and Society Interaction
                                                                                                                                A1. Discuss how making products meets our wants and needs

                                                            Science and Technology                                              6. Design
                                                            2. Explain that when trying to build something or get               B3. Describe how things are built by thinking of an idea, trying out a     Design a simple solution to a problem
                                                            something to work better, it helps to follow directions and         design and sharing it with others.                                         and then teach someone how to do it.
                                                            ask someone who has done it before
                                                            7. Explore that several steps are usually needed to make things
                                                               (e.g., building with blocks).
                                                            Science and Technology
                                                            3. Identify some materials that can be saved for community          2. Technology and Society Interaction
                                                            recycling projects (e.g., newspapers, glass and aluminum).          B1. Explain how various materials can be reused or recycled                How does recycling help?

                                                            Science and Technology                                              7. Designed World
                                                            4. Explore ways people use energy to cook their food and            1. List the various forms of energy that are used in the community         How do we use energy in our
                                                            warm their homes (e.g., wood, coal, natural gas and electricity).      (e.g., electrical, mechanical, thermal).                                community

                                                            5. Identify how people can save energy by turning things off
                                                            when they are not using them (e.g., lights and motors).
                                                            Science and Technology                                              1. Nature of Technology
                                                            6. Investigate that tools are used to help make things and          2. Cite examples of how people use tools and processes to perform tasks.   Use tools to make an object
                                                            some things cannot be made without tools.

Geography                                                   Scientific Inquiry                                                  1. Nature of Technology
  5. Identify and describe the physical features                6. Use appropriate tools and simple equipment/instruments       2. Cite examples of how people use tools and processes to perform tasks.   Use scientific tools to
  (town, city, farm, lake, river, hill, mountain, forest)   to safely gather scientific data (e.g., magnifiers, timers and                                                                                 gather information
  and human features (park, playground, house,               simple balances and other appropriate tools).
  traffic signs/signals) of places in the community.                                                                            1. Nature of Technology
                                                                                                                                A1. Distinguish between the natural and human-made world                   Create a 3D community map with natural
                                                                                                                                    (e.g., a forest vs. a city skyline).                                   and man-made features.
Geography                                                                                                                       1. Nature of Technology
  7. Describe human adaptations to variations                                                                                   B2. Describe the reasons for doing things or behaving in ways that         Are we helping or harming our
     in the physical environment including:                                                                                     protect the environment.                                                   environment?
             a.    Food;
             b.    Clothing;
             c.    Shelter;
             d.    Transportation;
             e.    Recreation.
Grade Two                                                   Grade Two                                                         Grade Two                                                                    Grade Two
                                                            Earth and Space Science                                           1. Nature of Technology
                                                            5. Describe weather by measurable quantities such as                                                                                            problems
                                                                                                                              A2. Describe and give examples of how people use tools and processes to solveUse weather instruments to observe and
                                                               temperature and precipitation.                                    (e.g., using a knife to make a peanut butter sandwich,                    record weather information
                                                                                                                                 or using a measuring cup while following a recipe to make a cake).

                                                            Physical Sciences                                                 6. Design
                                                            1. Explore how things make sound (e.g., rubber bands,).           A2. Brainstorm multiple solutions to problems to be solved by the                Create a device that produces a sound
                                                             tuning fork and strings                                          design process (e.g., how to transport a piece of paper in order to turn in
                                                            2. Explore and describe sounds (e.g., high, low, soft and loud)   an assignment across the classroom).
                                                               produced by vibrating objects.                                 A3. Plan, construct and evaluate a model to test a problem's solution
                                                            3. Explore with flashlights and shadows that light travels in a       (e.g., to harness wind energy, build a model windmill).
                                                            straight line until it strikes an object.
History                                                                                                                       2. Technology and Society Interaction                                            Technology timeline
   4. Use historical artifacts, photographs, biographies,                                                                     C1. Demonstrate and give examples of how technology has changed the
   maps, diaries and folklore to answer questions about                                                                           way people lived and worked throughout history.
daily life in the past.
History
   5. Identify the work that people performed to make
   a living in the past and explain how jobs in the past
   are similar and/or different from those of today.
                                                            Science and Technology                                            2. Technology and Society Interaction                                         Presentation on the benefits and risks
                                                            1. Explain that developing and using technology involves          A1. Explain that developing and using technology involves benefits and risks. of one type of technology
                                                            benefits and risks.
                                                                                                                              D2. Describe how the use of a product or system might cause something
                                                            3. Predict how building or trying something new might affect      bad to happen (e.g., running a car causes pollution, cars get into accidents).
                                                            other people and the environment.

                                                            Science and Technology                                            1. Nature of Technology
                                                            2. Investigate why people make new products or invent new         B1. Identify and explain that systems have parts or components such as .         Invent something that has more than
                                                            ways to meet their individual wants and needs.                      processes and controls that work together to accomplish a goal                 one part. Include a sketch of the invention
                                                                                                                                (e.g., to heat food in a microwave oven, electricity is generated and
                                                            4. Communicate orally, pictorially, or in written form            transmitted, temperature and cook time is controlled)
                                                            the design process used to make something.

                                                                                                                              C1. Describe how problems lead to invention and innovation
                                                                                                                                 (e.g., the invention and development of earmuffs).
                                                                                                                              6. Design

                                                                                                                              B4. Describe why expressing ideas to others verbally and through
                                                                                                                               sketches and models is an important part of the design process
                                                                                                                              (e.g., provides opportunity to test ideas, better plan the work,
                                                                                                                              and organize needed tools and materials).

History
   6. Identify and describe examples of how science                                                                           7. Designed World
   and technology have changed the daily lives of people                                                                      A3. Understand that transportation vehicles need to be cared for to           Technology timeline on transportation
and compare:                                                                                                                  prolong their use (e.g., scheduled maintenance on cars).                      and communication
                                                                                                                              A4. List job titles that are in the technological system of transportation
a. Forms of communication from the past and present                                                                           technology (e.g., driver, pilot, captain, attendant, reservations agent).
b. Forms of transportation from the past and present.                                                                         B1. Understand that information is data that has been organized
                                                                                                                                  (e.g., make a table of data that has been collected).
                                                                                                                              B2. List job titles that are in the technological system of information and
                                                                                                                              communication technologies (e.g., reporter, camera person, printer, newscaster).

                                                                                                                              2. Technology and Society Interaction
                                                                                                                              C1. Demonstrate and give examples of how technology has changed
                                                                                                                              the way people lived and worked throughout history.
Grade Two                                                       Grade Two                                                        Grade Two                                                                Grade Two
History                                                                                                                          2. Technology and Society Interaction
    7. Recognize the importance of individual action and                                                                         C1. Demonstrate and give examples of how technology has changed          Character study of famous people
    character and explain how they have made a difference                                                                        the way people lived and worked throughout history.                      using multimedia productivity tools
     in others' lives with emphasis on the importance of:
a. Social and political leaders in the United States                                                                             6. Design
(e.g., George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Tecumseh,                                                                            C3. Identify famous inventors and products available today based .
Harriet Tubman, Abraham Lincoln, Sojourner Truth,                                                                                on their inventions
Susan B. Anthony and Martin Luther King Jr.);
b. Explorers, inventors and scientists
(e.g., George Washington Carver, Thomas Edison,
Charles Drew, Rachel Carson and Neil Armstrong).

People in Societies
    1. Describe the cultural practices and products of people
on different continents.
4. Describe the contributions of significant individuals,
including artisans, inventors, scientists, architects,
explorers and political leaders to the cultural heritage
of the United States.

People in Societies                                                                                                              2. Technology and Society Interaction
1. Describe the cultural practices and products of people                                                                        1. Discuss how making products meets our needs and wants.
   on different continents.

Geography                                                                                                                        2. Technology and Society Interaction
3. Name and locate the continents and oceans.                   Life Sciences                                                    C1. Demonstrate and give examples of how technology has changed the      Investigate how humans have
4. Describe and locate landforms (plateaus, islands, hills,         2. Identify that there are many distinct environments that   way people lived and worked throughout history.                          affected different environments
mountains, valleys) and bodies of water (creeks, ponds,         support different kinds of organisms                             D2. Determine if the human use of a product or system creates positive
lakes, oceans) in photographs, maps and 3-D models.             3. Explain why organisms can survive only in environments        or negative results (e.g., large parking lots for cars may cause water
6. Identify ways in which people have responded to                that meet their needs (e.g., organisms that once lived         run-off problems).
and modified the physical environment such as building          on Earth have disappeared for different reasons such as
roads and clearing land for urban development                   natural forces or human-caused effects).
                                                                7. Compare the habitats of many different kinds of Ohio plants
                                                                and animals and some of the ways animals depend on plants
                                                                and each other.
                                                                Science and Technology
                                                                    2. Investigate why people make new products or invent
                                                                new ways to meet their individual wants and needs.
                                                                3. Predict how building or trying something new might affect
                                                                other people and the environment.
Grade Two                                                     Grade Two   Grade Two                                                                  Grade Two
Economics                                                                 2. Technology and Society Interaction
  1. Explain how resources can be used in various ways                    B1. Explain ways communities can manage waste to keep people safe.         Investigate ways to extend
    (e.g., a bushel of corn could be fed to cows,                         B2. Classify and differentiate among materials that can be reused and/or   our resources
    used to make sweetener, or converted to fuel).                        recycled (e.g., paper can be recycled to make new products).

Government                                                                7. The Designed World
3. Explain the importance of landmarks in the United States               A7. Explain how the type of a structure determines how parts are put       Monuments
   and the ideals that they represent including:                          together (e.g., bricks, lumber, concrete).
a.     The Washington Monument;                                           A8. List job titles that are in the technological system of construction
b.     The Jefferson Memorial;                                            technology (e.g., carpenter, architect, building inspector, bulldozer
c.     The Lincoln Memorial.                                              operator, plumber).
Grade Three                                                 Grade Three                                                     Grade Three                                                                    Grade Three
History                                                                                                                     1. Nature of Technology
3. Describe changes in the community over time including:                                                                   A1. Describe how things found in nature differ from things that are            Investigate a change in one aspect of
changes in:                                                                                                                  human- made (e.g., compare animal structures, such as nests and dens,         the community. Present using
             a.   Businesses;                                                                                               and human-made structures used for shelter).                                   multimedia.
             b.    Architecture;
             c.   Physical features;                                                                                        2. Technology and Society Interaction
             d.    Employment;                                                                                              A2. Identify and discuss how products are developed and modified to
             e.   Education;                                                                                                meet changing individual needs and wants.
             f.    Transportation;
             g.    Technology;                                                                                              2. Technology and Society Interaction
             h.    Religion;                                                                                                C1. Illustrate ways that people have made tools to provide food, make
             i.    Recreation.                                                                                                  clothing and provide protection.
                                                                                                                            C2. Explain how technology and invention have changed economic
                                                                                                                                 and social development in our community.

                                                                                                                            7. Designed World
                                                                                                                            A1. Describe how life would be different if we did not have energy .
                                                                                                                            delivered to our homes
                                                                                                                            A2. Describe how transportation systems move people and goods from
                                                                                                                            place to place.
                                                                                                                            A3. Diagram a processing system that converts natural materials into
                                                                                                                            products (e.g., lumber harvested, transported to lumber mill, debarked,
                                                                                                                            sawn to dimension, dried, transported to lumberyard, purchased,
                                                                                                                             transported to site).
                                                                                                                            A4. List systems that are used in buildings (e.g., electrical, heating and
                                                                                                                            air conditioning, plumbing).

Geography
  7. Identify ways that physical characteristics of the     Life Sciences                                                   2. Technology and Society Interaction
  environment (i.e., landforms, bodies of water, climate    6. Describe how changes in an organism's habitat are            A1. Discuss how technology may have positive and/or negative                   Investigate the effects of farming on
  and vegetation) affect and have been modified by the      sometimes beneficial and sometimes harmful.                     consequences.                                                                  the environment (see farming impacts
  local community.                                          Science and Technology                                          B1. Describe how technology affects the environment in positive                worksheet) and develop a plan
                                                            2. Describe ways that using technology can have helpful         and/or negative ways.                                                          to help solve a farming problem
                                                            and/or harmful results.                                         6. Design
                                                            3. Investigate ways that the results of technology may affect   A3. Identify and collect information about everyday problems that can be
                                                            the individual, family and community.                           solved by technology (e.g., pollution, energy shortage, housing).
Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities                     Science and Technology                                          6. Design
   1. Describe how people help to make the community a      4. Use a simple design process to solve a problem               A1. Describe the purpose of the design process (e.g., a purposeful
   better place in which to live including:                    (e.g., identify a problem, identify possible solutions and   method of planning practical solutions to problems).
              a.    Working to preserve the environment;    design a solution).                                             A2. List the main elements of the design process—problem identification,
              b.    Helping the homeless;                   5. Describe possible solutions to a design problem (e.g., how   possible solutions, refinement, analysis, decision, implementation and
              c.    Restoring houses in low-income areas;   to hold down paper in the wind).                                feedback.
              d.    Supporting education;
                                                            Science and Technology                                          2. Technology and Society Interaction
                                                            1. Describe how technology can extend human abilities           A2. Identify and discuss how products are developed and modified to            Program LEGO robots to use
                                                            (e.g., to move things andto extend senses).                     meet changing individual needs and wants.                                      sensors, or design a robot to do

History                                                     Science and Technology                                          6. Design
    8. Identify systems of transportation used to move          1. Describe how technology can extend human abilities       A1. Describe the purpose of the design process (e.g., a purposeful             Invent a new way to communicate or
people and products and systems of communication            (e.g., to move things and to extend senses).                    method of planning practical solutions to problems).                           tranpsort people (new cell phone, new
used to move ideas from place to place.                     Science and Technology                                          A2. List the main elements of the design process—                              car, etc.)
Social Studies Skills and Methods                               4. Use a simple design process to solve a problem           problem identification, possible solutions, refinement, analysis, decision,
6. Use a problem-solving/decision-making process which      (e.g., identify a problem, identify possible solutions          implementation and feedback.
 includes:                                                        and design a solution).                                   A4. Make sketches to visualize possible solutions to a technological
a.Identifying a problem;                                        5. Describe possible solutions to a design problem          problem (e.g., sketch possible locations to more effectively place trash
b. Gathering information;                                       (e.g., how to hold down paper in the wind).                 bins in the cafeteria using a computer drawing program or hand drawings).
c. Listing and considering options;                                                                                         A5. List questions to use in evaluating solutions to a technical problem
d. Considering advantages and disadvantages of options;                                                                     and distinguish between practical and poor solutions (e.g., does the
e. Choosing and implementing a solution.                                                                                    solution really solve the problem? Is it too expensive? Is it too hard to do
Grade Four                                                       Grade Four                                                     Grade Four                                                                      Grade Four
History                                                          Science and Technology                                         1. Nature of Technology
    5. Explain how canals and railroads changed settlement       1. Explain how technology from different areas                                                                                                 Investigate
                                                                                                                                A3. Describe ways creative thinking, economic and cultural influences shape technologicalthe impact an invention, product,
    patterns in Ohio and Ohio's economic and political           (e.g., transportation, communication, nutrition, healthcare,        development (e.g., Wright Brothers, powered flight, air commerce).         or new technology had on the economic
status in the United States.                                     agriculture, entertainment and manufacturing)                                                                                                  or cultural development of an
                                                                                                                                A4. Recognize that creative thinking, economics and culture influence technological
6. Explain the importance of inventors such as the               has improved human lives.                                                                                                                      Ohio culture or geographic area
                                                                                                                                    development (e.g., a city may need to design a mass transit system for transportation
Wright Brothers, Charles Kettering, Garrett Morgan,              2. Investigate how technology and inventions change to meet        while a small town may use personal vehicles).
Granville Woods and Thomas Edison.                               peoples' needs and wants.                                      B3. Cite examples of how tools and machines extend human capabilities
People in Societies                                                                                                                  (e.g., automobiles are more efficient than walking great distances).
    1. Describe the cultural practices and products of various
    groups who have settled in Ohio over time:                                                                                  2. Technology and Society Interaction
a. The Paleo Indians, Archaic Indians, Woodland Indians                                                                         C1. Describe the advantages that resulted from people making and using
(Adena, Hopewell) and Late Prehistoric Indians                                                                                  tools (e.g., importance of the grist mill, saw mill, carding mill
(Fort Ancient);                                                                                                                 to early Ohio settlements).
b. Historic Indians of Ohio (Ottawa,Wyandot, Mingo,                                                                             C2. Explain the role of Ohio's inventors in the social and economic
Miami, Shawnee and Delaware);                                                                                                   development of society (e.g., Thomas Edison, the Wright Brothers,
c. European immigrants;                                                                                                         Charles F. Bush, Granville T. Woods, Elisha Gray, James W. Packard,
d. Amish and Appalachian populations;                                                                                           Alexander Winton, Frank A. Sieberling, Garrett Morgan,
e. African-Americans;                                                                                                           Charles Kettering).
f. Recent immigrants from Africa, Asia and Latin America.                                                                       6. Deisgn
3. Explain the reasons people came to Ohio including:                                                                           A6. Identify Ohio inventors and designers who contributed to the
a. Opportunities in agriculture, mining and manufacturing;                                                                       development of each of the technological systems:
b. Family ties;                                                                                                                        a. Energy and power
c. Freedom from political and religious oppression                                                                                     b. Transportation
Geography                                                                                                                              c. Manufacturing;
6. Identify manufacturing, agricultural, mining and                                                                                    d. Construction
forestry regions in Ohio                                                                                                               e. Information and communication
7. Explain how resources, transportation and location                                                                                  f. Medical
influenced the development of cities and industries                                                                                   g. Agricultural and related biotechnologies
in Ohio including major industries such as oil, steel,                                                                          7. Designed World
rubber and glass                                                                                                                A6. Identify types of manufacturing done in Ohio (e.g., pottery, steel, glass,
Economics                                                                                                                            automobiles and chemicals).
2. Explain how the availability of productive resources in                                                                      C3. Describe how and explain why food is processed.
Ohio promotes specialization in the production of goods                                                                         C4. List foods grown or produced in Ohio.
and services and leads to trade.                                                                                                C5. Identify machinery used in the production of Ohio agricultural products.

                                                                 Earth and Space Science                                        1. Nature of Technology
                                                                 4. Describe weather by measurable quantities such as               A2. Demonstrate how tools, materials and skills are used to perform tasks Design, build and use weather
                                                                 temperature, wind direction, wind speed, precipitation         (e.g., computers and cell phones are used to communicate; pencil              instruments
                                                                 and barometric pressure.                                       sharpeners).
Grade Four                                                     Grade Four                                                          Grade Four                                                                    Grade Four
                                                               Physical Sciences                                                   1. Nature of Technology
                                                               3. Describe objects by the properties of the materials from which   B1. Classify materials by property.                                           Create a spreadsheet or database
                                                               they are made and that these properties can be used                                                                                               useful in identifying and sorting
                                                               to separate or sort a group of objects (e.g., paper, glass,                                                                                       materials by property
                                                               plastic and metal).
Geography                                                      Earth and Space Science                                             2. Technology and Society Interaction
                                                                   10. Describe evidence of changes on Earth's surface in terms
8. Identify how environmental processes (i.e., glaciation and weathering)                                                          B1. Describe how appropriate management of resources and waste can            Compare one natural impact and one
                                                               of slow
  and characteristics (landforms, bodies of water, climate, vegetation) processes (e.g., erosion, weathering, mountain             prevent harm to the environment.                                              human impact on the environment
  influence human settlement and activity in Ohio              building and deposition) and rapid processes (e.g. volcanic
    9. Identify ways that people have affected                 eruptions, earthquakes and landslides).                             7. Designed World
       the physical environment of Ohio including:                                                                                 C2. Identify agricultural waste and ways that it can be recycled or safely
                                                                                                                                   processed.
                                                               Science and Technology                                              7. Designed World
                                                               1. Explain how technology from different areas                      Benchmark A: Develop an understanding of how physical technologies            Explore how one type of technology has
                                                               (e.g., transportation, communication, nutrition, healthcare,        enhance our lives.                                                            impacted and improved people's lives
                                                               agriculture, entertainment and manufacturing) has improved          B1. Describe how information can be acquired and sent through a variety
                                                                human lives.                                                       of technological sources, including print and electronic media.
                                                               2. Investigate how technology and inventions change to meet         Benchmark C: Develop an understanding of how bio-related technologies
                                                                  peoples' needs and wants                                         improve our lives.
Social Studies Skills and Methods                              Science and Technology                                              6. Design
                                                               3. Describe, illustrate and evaluate the design process used
10. Use a problem-solving/decision-making process which includes:                                                                  A1. Apply the design process to purposefully solve a problem                  Create a device or product that would
                a.     Identifying a problem;                  to solve a problem.                                                 (e.g., how to improve recycling at school and home).                          be helpful to an elderly or handicapped
                b.     Gathering information;                                                                                      A2. Generate solutions for solving a problem using the design process         person
                c.     Listing and considering options;                                                                            with information collected about everyday technological problems.
                d.     Considering advantages and disadvantages of options;                                                        C2. Describe how scientific principles can be used in solving
                e.     Choosing and implementing a solution;                                                                       technological problems (e.g., will a stain look the same on different types
         f.    Developing criteria for judging its effectiveness.                                                                  of wood?).
Grade Five                                                     Grade Five                                                     Grade Five                                                                  Grade Five
History                                                                                                                       2. Technology and Society Interaction
2. Explain how American Indians settled the continent                                                                         C1. Discuss and create alternative solutions to the ways that people have   Study a culture that existed during the
 and why different nationsof Indians interacted with their                                                                    made tools to provide food, make clothing and provide protection.           days of colonial America
environment in different ways.                                                                                                C2. Explain how technology and invention have changed economic and          (Native Americans, British, French,
4. Describe the lasting effects of Spanish, French and                                                                             social development.                                                    Spanish) to learn about the impact
English colonization in North America including cultural                                                                      E2. Investigate and assess the influence of a specific technology           that culture had on technology in
patterns evident today such as language, food, traditions                                                                     on the environment.                                                         colonial America e.g., housing, food,
and architecture.                                                                                                             6. Design                                                                    tools, clothing, transportation,
6. Explain the impact of settlement, industrialization and .                                                                  A6. Identify American inventors and designers who contributed to the         weapons, etc)
transportation on the expansion of the United States                                                                          development of each technological system.
People in Societies                                                                                                           2. Technology and Society Interaction
    1. Compare the cultural practices and products of diverse groups                                                          C1. Discuss and create alternative solutions to the ways that people
      in North America including:                                                                                             have made tools to provide food, make clothing and provide protection.
                  a.    Artistic expressions;                                                                                 7. Designed World
                  b.    Religion;                                                                                             C3. List processes used in agriculture that require different procedures,
                  c.    Language;                                                                                             products or systems.
                  d.    Food;
                  e.    Clothing;
                  f.    Shelter.

Geography                                                    Earth and Space Sciences                                         2. Technology and Society Interaction
    6. Use distribution maps to describe the patterns of          5. Explain how the supply of many non-renewable resources   1. Investigate alternative methods for the protection of the environment.   Map the location of renewable, non-
       renewable, nonrenewable and flow resources in          is limited and can be extended through reducing, reusing and                                                                                renewable, and flow resources in the
North America including:                                     recycling but cannot be extended indefinitely.                   2. Technology and Society Interaction                                       U.S.and tell how they can be
              a.     Forests;                                     6. Investigate ways Earth's renewable resources             E2. Investigate and assess the influence of a specific technology on the    maintained or extended
              b.     Fertile soil;                           (e.g., fresh water, air,wildlife and trees) can be maintained.   environment.
              c.     Oil;
              d.     Coal;
              e.     Running water.
8. Explain how the characteristics of different physical
environments affect human activities in North America.
Grade Five                                                Grade Five                                                      Grade Five                                                                   Grade Five
Geography                                                 Life Sciences                                                   1. Nature of Technology
9. Analyze the positive and negative consequences of         6. Analyze how all organisms, including humans, cause        3. Demonstrate the use of technology in daily life, noting the advantages       Investigate positive and negative
human changes to the physical environment including:      changes in their ecosystems and how these changes can be        and disadvantages those uses provide.                                        impacts of human activity and
                a.     Great Lakes navigation;            beneficial, neutral or detrimental (e.g., beaver ponds,                                                                                      technology on the environment.
                b.     Highway systems;                   earthworm burrows, grasshoppers eating plants,                  2. Technology and Society Interaction
                c.     Irrigation;                        people planting and cutting trees and people introducing        B1. Investigate alternative methods for the protection of the environment.
                d.     Mining;                            a new species).                                                 E2. Investigate and assess the influence of a specific technology
                e.     Introduction of new species.                                                                       on the environment.

Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities                   Science and Technology                                          6. Design
9. Use a problem-solving/decision-making process which    2. Revise an existing design used to solve a problem based on   A1. Arrive at a solution to a technological problem and fabricate a          Invent a new toy or game for younger
includes:                                                 peer review.                                                     prototype model for the solution.                                           children. Have it tested by that age
a.Identifying a problem;                                  3. Explain how the solution to one problem may create           A2. Use data to test and evaluate the prototype solution.                    group and redesign the product.
b. Gathering information;                                 other problems.                                                 A3. Make sketches with a list of parts required for a solution to a
c. Listing and considering options;                                                                                       technological problem.
d. Considering advantages and disadvantages of options;                                                                   A4. Analyze the requirements for a design including such factors as the
e. Choosing and implementing a solution;                                                                                  desired elements and features of a product or system and limits that
f. Developing criteria for judging its effectiveness;                                                                     are placed on the design (e.g., if the class were to prepare and deliver
g. Evaluating the effectiveness of the solution.                                                                          food to the homeless or a nursing home, what are the desired features and
                                                                                                                          what limits are there to what can be done?).
                                                                                                                          A5. Improve the designed prototype solution when tests indicate need.
                                                                                                                          B1. Demonstrate steps used in the engineering design process including
                                                                                                                          defining the problem, generating ideas, selecting a solution, testing the
                                                                                                                          solution(s), making the item, evaluating the solution, and presenting the
                                                                                                                          results (e.g., engineer a design to solve a storage problem at the
                                                                                                                           school).
                                                                                                                          B2. Evaluate a model used to communicate and test design ideas and
                                                                                                                          processes (e.g., toy prototype, car models, building models).
                                                                                                                          B3. Build models which can be used to communicate and test design
                                                                                                                          ideas and processes (e.g., tornado shelters).
Grade Six                                                     Grade Six                                                         Grade Six                                                                    Grade Six
                                                              Physical Sciences                                                 2. Technology and Society Interaction
                                                                                                                                A1. fossil fuels
                                                                  5. Explain that the energy found in nonrenewable resources such as Discuss how new technologies have resulted from the demands,            Build Wind Turbines
                                                              (e.g., oil, coal and natural gas) originally came from the sun    values and interests of individuals, businesses, industries and societies.
                                                              and may renew slowly over millions of years.                      A2. Describe how the use of technology affects humans in various ways
                                                              6. Explain that energy derived from renewable resources such       including their safety, comfort, choices and attitudes about technology's
                                                              as wind and water is assumed to be available indefinitely.        development and use.
                                                              8. Describe how renewable and nonrenewable energy                 B1. Describe and give examples of why and how the management of waste
                                                              resources can be managed (e.g., fossil fuels, trees and water).        produced by technological systems is an important societal issue.

                                                              Science and Technology                                           2. Technology and Society Interaction
                                                              1. Explain how technology influences the quality of life.        A2. Describe how the use of technology affects humans in various ways         Examine how one invention
                                                              2. Explain how decisions about the use of products and           including their safety, comfort, choices and attitudes about technology's     or device has impacted your life,
                                                              systems can result in desirable or undesirable consequences      development and use.                                                          including how it has positive and
                                                              (e.g., social and environmental).                                B1. Describe and give examples of why and how the management of waste         negative impacts on society and
                                                                                                                                   produced by technological systems is an important societal issue.         the environment (e.g., automobile
                                                                                                                                                                                                             or cell phone)




History                                                         Science and Technology                                         1. Nature of Technology
   3. Describe the early cultural development of humankind 1. Explain how technology influences the quality of life.           A4. Cite examples of how characteristics of technology are evident in daily life:
   from the Paleolithic Era to the revolution of agriculture including:                                                             a. Technology is based on human knowledge;                                  6th grade Technology and Cultures
a.    Hunting and gathering;                                                                                                        b. Technology involves tools, materials and systems                         of theWorld
b.    Tool making;                                                                                                                 c. Application of technology results in artifacts (things or items);
c.    Use of fire;                                                                                                                d. Technology is developed by people to control natural and
d.    Domestication of plants and animals;                                                                                     human-made environments
e.    Organizing societies;
f.     Governance.                                                                                                             2. Technology and Society Interaction
   4. Compare the geographic, political, economic and                                                                          A1. Discuss how new technologies have resulted from the demands,
   social characteristics of the river civilizations in the                                                                    values and interests of individuals, businesses, industries and societies.
    Tigris and Euphrates (Mesopotamia), Nile (Egypt),                                                                          A2. Describe how the use of technology affects humans in various ways
   Huang Ho and Indus valleys before 1000 B.C. including:                                                                      including their safety,comfort, choices and attitudes about technology's
a.    Location;                                                                                                                development and use.
b.    Government;                                                                                                              C1. Describe how some inventions have evolved by using a deliberate and
c.    Religion;                                                                                                                methodical process of tests and refinements.
d.    Agriculture;                                                                                                             C2. Describe how in the past an invention or innovation was not always
e.   Cultural and scientific contributions.                                                                                    developed with the knowledge of science.
   5. Describe the characteristics of Maya, Inca, Aztec
      and Mississippian civilizations including:                                                                               7. Designed World
a.    Location;                                                                                                                A4. Identify and compare examples of transportation systems and devices
b.    Government;                                                                                                                  that operate on each of the following: land, air, water and space.
c.    Religion;
d.    Agriculture;                                                                                                             B1. Describe how information and communication systems allow
e.    Cultural and scientific contributions.                                                                                   information to be transferred from human to human, human to machine,
                                                                                                                               machine to human, and machine to machine.
Geography                                                     Science and Technology                                           B2. Demonstrate the importance of a common language to express ideas
  3. Explain the distribution patterns of economic activities 1. Explain how technology influences the quality of life.         through the use of symbols, measurements and drawings.
   and how changes in technology, transportation,                                                                              C1. List advances and innovations in medical technologies that are used
  communication and resources affect those patterns                                                                                 to improve health care (e.g., prevention, diagnosis, treatment,
  including:                                                                                                                   rehabilitation).
            a.     Agriculture;                                                                                                C4. Describe how advances in a variety of technological systems
            b.     Mining;                                                                                                     influence the development of medical devices.
            c.     Fishing;                                                                                                    C5. Describe how technological advances in agriculture directly affect the
            d.     Manufacturing.                                                                                               time and number of people required to produce food for a large
                                                                                                                               population.
Grade Six                                                  Grade Six                Grade Six                                                               Grade Six
Geography                                                  Science and Technology
   5. Describe ways human settlements and activities are                            No direct connection to technology standards, but discussion could      How has human development affected
   influenced by environmental factors and processes                                include concepts under Standard 2: Technology and Society Interaction   the environment in both positive and
   in different places and regions including:                                       such as how human development affects the environment in both            negative ways
a.    Bodies of water;                                                              positive and negative ways (dams, pollution of soils and water,
b.    Landforms;                                                                    strip mining)
c.    Climates;
d.    Vegetation;
e.    Weathering;
f.     Seismic activity.
                                                                                    1. Nature of Technology
    6. Describe ways in which human migration has an                                A4. Cite examples of how characteristics of technology are evident
    impact on the physical and human characteristics                                in daily life:
of places including:                                                                   d. Technology is developed by people to control natural and
a.     Urbanization;                                                                human-made environments
b.     Desertification;                                                             C2. Understand that products, systems and environments that have been
c.     Deforestation.                                                               developed for one setting may be applied to another setting.
                                                                                    2. Technology and Society Interaction
   7. Describe ways humans depend on and modify the                                 B2. Explain how technologies can be used to repair damage caused by
   environment and the positive and negative                                        natural disasters.
consequences of the modifications including:
a.    Dam building;
b.     Energy production/usage;
c.    Agriculture;
d.     Urban growth.
   9. Identify and explain primary geographic causes for                            No direct link, but concepts under Standard 1: Nature of Technology,    Where do natural materials come
world trade including the uneven distribution of natural                            such as creating products from natural resources and conservation       from in the world and what are they
resources.                                                                          of materials can be discussed.                                          used for?
Grade Seven                                                      Grade Seven                                                      Grade Seven                                                                  Grade Seven
History                                                          Science and Technology                                           1. Nature of Technology
    2. Describe the enduring impact of early civilizations in        1. Explain how needs, attitudes and values influence the     A1. Classify how new technologies have resulted from the demands,            7th grade Technology and Cultures
    India, China, Egypt, Greece and Rome after 1000 B.C.         direction of technological development in various cultures.      values and interests of individuals, businesses, industries and societies.   of the World
 including:                                                                                                                       A2. Relate ways that the uses of inventions and innovations have led to
                a.    The development of concepts of government                                                                   changes in society and the creation of new needs and wants.
               and citizenship;                                                                                                   A3. Identify how societal expectations drive the acceptance and use
                b.    Scientific and cultural advancements;                                                                       of products and systems (e.g., impact of the automobile in Ohio 1891
                c.    The spread of religions;                                                                                    to the present).
                d.    Slavery and systems of labor.                                                                               2. Technology and Society Interaction
    5. Describe the impact of new ideas and institutions                                                                          A1. Explain how economic, political and cultural issues are influenced by
       on European life including:                                                                                                      the development and use of technology.
a.     The significance of printing with movable type;                                                                            A2. Describe how societal expectations drive the acceptance and use of.
b.     Major achievements in art, architecture and                                                                                 products and systems
        literature during the Renaissance;                                                                                        C2. Analyze a design or invention and explain its historical importance
c.     The Reformation.                                                                                                              (e.g., 1735 invention of a timepiece that English ships used to
    6. Describe the importance of the West African empires                                                                           accurately navigate longitude position around the world).
    of Ghana, Mali and Songhay including:
                a.    Trade routes;
                b.    Products;
                c.    The spread of the Arabic language;
                d.    The spread of Islam.
People in Societies
    1. Analyze the relationships among cultural practices,
    products and perspectives of early civilizations.
    2. Explain how the Silk Road trade and the Crusades
    affected the cultures of the people involved.
    3. Give examples of contacts among different cultures
    that led to the changes in belief systems, art, science,
     technology, language or systems of government.
    4. Describe the cultural and scientific legacies of African,
Greek, Roman, Chinese, Arab and European civilizations.

                                                               Earth and Space Sciences                                           2. Technology and Society Interaction
                                                               2. Explain that Earth's capacity to absorb and recycle materials   B1. Explain how the development and use of technologies often put            Impacts on the Environment
                                                               naturally (e.g., smoke, smog and sewage) can change the            environmental and economic concerns in direct competition with
                                                               environmental quality depending on the length of time              one another.
                                                               involved (e.g. global warming).
                                                               Life Sciences                                                      2. Technology and Society Interaction
                                                               6. Summarize the ways that natural occurrences and human           B1. Explain how the development and use of technologies often put            Impacts on the Environment
                                                               activity affect the transfer of energy in Earth's ecosystems       environmental and economic concerns in direct competition with
                                                                   (e.g., fire, hurricanes, roads and oil spills).                one another.

                                                               Science and Technology
                                                               2. Describe how decisions to develop and use technologies
                                                               often put environmental and economic concerns in direct
                                                               competition with each other.
                                                               Physical Sciences                                                  6. Design
                                                               2. Students will explain what energy is. Distinguish between       Benchmark A: Evaluate the aesthetic and functional components of             Here Comes the Sun
                                                               kinetic and potential energy, identify the various forms of        a design and identify creative influences.                                   (cooker, heater, greenhouse, vehicle)
                                                               energy, apply the law of conservation of energy to energy
                                                               transformations, identify how energy changes form,
                                                               describes how electric power plants produce energy, explain
                                                               what renewable, nonrenewable, and alternative resources are,
                                                               develop an awareness that the use of any energy source has
                                                               positive and negative consequences.
                                                               4. Design and build a product or create a solution to a problem
                                                               given two constraints (e.g., limits of cost and time for design
                                                               and production or supply of materials and environmental
                                                               effects).
Grade Seven                                                  Grade Seven                                                      Grade Seven                                                                     Grade Seven
                                                             Physical Sciences                                                7. The Designed World
                                                             3. Identify different forms of energy (e.g., electrical,         A1. Understand that energy can be used to do work using many processes.         Energy Engineers
                                                             mechanical, chemical, thermal, nuclear, radiant and acoustic).

                                                             Science and Technology                                           2. Technology and Society Interaction
                                                             1. Explain how needs, attitudes and values influence the         A1. Classify how new technologies have resulted from the demands,               Technology and Cultures of the World
                                                                direction of technological development in various cultures    values and interestsof individuals, businesses, industries and societies.
                                                                                                                              A2. Relate ways that the uses of inventions and innovations have led to
                                                                                                                              changes in society and the creation of new needs and wants.

                                                                                                                              6. Design
                                                             3. Recognize that science can only answer some questions         B2. Describe the relationship between engineering, science and                  Discuss the difference between
                                                             and technology canonly solve some human problems.                mathematics.                                                                    science,technology, engineering and
                                                                                                                              C5. Distinguish between problems that do and do not have a                      math. Point out their interdependence
                                                                                                                              technological solution (e.g., a recycling system and processes can be           and their unique qualities.
                                                                                                                              designed, but voluntary participation is a public attitude issue).

Geography                                                                                                                     2. Technology and Society Interaction
   3. Describe changes in the physical and human                                                                              A2. Relate ways that the uses of inventions and innovations have led to         Impact of an area of technology
   characteristics of regions that occur over time and                                                                        changes in society                                                              upon society and the economy
identify the consequences of such changes.                                                                                    A3. Identify how societal expectations drive the acceptance and use of
   5. Describe the geographic factors and processes that                                                                      products and systems (e.g., impact of the automobile in Ohio 1891 to the
   contribute to and impede the diffusion of people,                                                                          present).
   products and ideas from place to place including:                                                                          B1. Explain how the development and use of technologies often put
a.     Physical features;                                                                                                      environmental and economic concerns in direct competition with
b.     Culture;                                                                                                               one another
c.     War;
d.     Trade;
e.     Technological innovations.

Economics                                                                                                                     2. Technology and Society Interaction
    2. Describe the growth of cities and the establishment                                                                    C2. Analyze a design or invention and explain its historical importance         Historical impact of a technologicial
of trade routes in Asia, Africa and Europe;                                                                                      (e.g., 1735 invention of a timepiece that English ships used to accurately   innovation or invention
 the products and inventions that traveled along these                                                                        navigate longitudeposition around the world).
routes (e.g., spices, textiles, paper, precious metals and
new crops); and the role of merchants.
Grade Eight   Grade Eight                                                         Grade Eight                                                                 Grade Eight
              Earth and Space Sciences                                            2. Technology and Society Interaction
              1. Describe how objects in the Solar System are in regular and                                                                                  Investigating patterns in movement in
              predictable motions that explain such phenomena as days,                                                                                        the solar system
              years, seasons, eclipses, tides and moon cycles

              Scientific Inquiry
              1. Choose the appropriate tools or instruments and use
              relevantsafety procedures to complete scientific investigations.

              3. Read, construct and interpret data in various forms
                 produced by self and others in both written and oral form
                (e.g., tables, charts, maps, graphs, diagrams, symbols).

              4. Apply appropriate math skills to interpret quantitative data
                 (e.g., mean, median, mode).
              Scientific Ways of Knowing
              1. Identify the difference between description (e.g.,
              observation and summary) and explanation (e.g., inference,
              prediction, significance, importance).
              2. Explain why it is important to examine data objectively and
                 not let bias affect observations.

              8. Name and describe tools used to study the universe                                                                                           How has exploring space impacted
                 (e.g., telescopes, probes, satellites and spacecraft).                                                                                       our lives (new understandings on space, Earth and the human body in space;

              Earth and Space Sciences                                            2. Technology and Society Interaction
              8. Name and describe tools used to study the universe (e.g.,        C1. Describe how the specialization of function has been at the heart of
              telescopes, probes, satellites and spacecraft).                      many technological improvements (e.g., welding: many different processes
                                                                                  have been developed to join materials).
                                                                                  C2. Examine and compare eras of design in architecture, aviation,
                                                                                  transportation, medical instruments and astronomy.

              9. Describe the interior structure of Earth and Earths crust as                                                                                 Charting the earth's movement
              divided into tectonic plates riding on top of the slow moving                                                                                   Create a website on plate tectonics
              currents of magma in the mantle.                                                                                                                - location, tendencies, frequencies
              10. Explain that most major geological events (e.g., earthquakes,
              volcanic eruptions, hot spots and mountain building) result
              from plate motion.
              11. Use models to analyze the size and shape of Earth, its
              surface and its interior (e.g., globes, topographic maps,
              satellite images).
Grade Eight   Grade Eight                                                      Grade Eight                                                                 Grade Eight
              Life Sciences
              4. Explain that diversity of species is developed through                                                                                    Design an organism with fossil remains
              gradual processesover many generations (e.g., fossil record).                                                                                that shows adaptation to a particular
              5. Investigate how an organism adapted to a particular                                                                                       habitat
              environment may become extinct if the environment, as shown
              by the fossil record, changes.
              Physical Science
              1. Describe how the change in the position (motion) of an                                                                                    Design an amusement park out of
              object is always judged and described in comparison to a                                                                                     K-nex
              reference point.
              2. Explain that motion describes the change in the position of                                                                               Design mousetrap cars
              an object (characterized by a speed and direction) as time
              changes.
              3. Explain that an unbalanced force acting on an object                                                                                      Design a catapult
              changes that object's speed and/or direction
                                                                                                                                                           Vibrations and waves
              4. Demonstrate that waves transfer energy.

              5. Demonstrate that vibrations in materials may produce
              waves that spread away from the source in all directions
              (e.g., earthquake waves, sound waves).
              Science and Technology                                           2. Technology and Society Interaction
              1. Examine how science and technology have advanced              A1. Explain how economic, political and cultural issues are influenced by   Technology and Cultures of the World
              through the contributions of many different people, cultures     the development and use of technology.
              and times in history.                                            A2. Describe how societal expectations drive the acceptance and use of
                                                                                products and systems.
                                                                               C2. Examine and compare eras of design in architecture, aviation,
                                                                               transportation, medical instruments and astronomy.
Grade Eight                                                     Grade Eight                                                       Grade Eight                                                                       Grade Eight
                                                                Science and Technology                                            6. Design
                                                                2. Examine how choices regarding the use of technology are        A3. Categorize the requirements for a design as either criteria or constraints.   Design problem
                                                                influenced by constraints caused by various unavoidable           B1. Explain how design involves a set of steps that can be performed in
                                                                 factors (e.g., geographic location, limited resources, social,       different sequences and repeated as needed (e.g., plan - do - study -
                                                                political and economic considerations).                           act; problem analysis - design - coding and debugging - integration -
                                                                3. Design and build a product or create a solution to a problem   testing and validation; define problem - identify options - identify best
                                                                given more than two constraints (e.g., limits of cost and time    solution - plan how to achieve best solution - evaluate results).
                                                                for design and production, supply of materials and                B2. Identify how modeling, testing, evaluating and modifying are used to
                                                                environmental effects).                                           transform ideas into practical solutions.
                                                                4. Evaluate the overall effectiveness of a product design or
                                                                solution
History                                                                                                                           2. Technology and Society Interaction
    2. Describe the political, religious and economic aspects                                                                     A1. Explain how economic, political and cultural issues are influenced by         How did political, religious and
     of North American colonization including:                                                                                    the development and use of technology.                                            economic factors affect the formation
a.     Reasons for colonization, including religion, desire                                                                       A2. Describe how societal expectations drive the acceptance and use of            of the American colonies
 for landand economic opportunity;                                                                                                products and systems.
b.     Key differences among the Spanish, French and                                                                              C2. Examine and compare eras of design in architecture, aviation,
British colonies;                                                                                                                 transportation, medical instruments and astronomy.
c.     Interactions between American Indians and
 European settlers, including the agricultural and cultural
exchanges, alliances and conflicts;
d.     Indentured servitude and the introduction and
       institutionalization of slavery;
e. Early representative governments and democratic
 practices that emerged, including town meetings and
colonial assemblies;
f. Conflicts among colonial powers for control of .
North America

Geography
1. Compare places and regions in the United States as                                                                                                                                                                  3. Explain how colonization,
 they existed prior to 1877 with the same places and                                                                                                                                                                westward expansion, immigration and
regions today to analyze changes in land use and                                                                                                                                                                    advances in transportation and
population, political, social and economic characteristics.                                                                                                                                                          communication changed geographic
2. Analyze how physical characteristics of the                                                                                                                                                                      patterns in the United States.
   environment influenced population distribution,
  settlement patterns and economic activities in the
United States during the 18th and 19th centuries.
    3. Explain how colonization, westward expansion,
immigration and advances in transportation and
communication changed geographic patterns in the
 United States.


Economics                                                                                                                         2. Technology and Society Interaction
    1. Explain how the uneven distribution of productive                                                                          No direct standards can be linked to                                              No direct standards can be linked to
resources influenced historic events such                                                                                         this concept, but discussion could                                                this concept, but discussion could
 as the Civil War.                                                                                                                include how technological differences                                             include how technological differences
                                                                                                                                  between the North and South such as                                               between the North and South such as
                                                                                                                                  availiability of materials, number of                                             availiability of materials, number of
                                                                                                                                   factories, and a trained workforce                                                factories, and a trained workforce
                                                                                                                                  affected the outcome of the Civil War                                             affected the outcome of the Civil War

				
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