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					      Emergency Education Assessment
          Crisis Affected Areas of Kenya


Trans-Nzoia, Uasin Gishu, Nakuru, Molo and Naivasha
                      Districts

           February 28th – March 12th 2008


            Education Cluster




      UNICEF/Save the Children – Education Cluster Co-Leads
          Kenya Post Crisis Education Emergency Response
                            March 2008
ASK      Agricultural Showground
ECD      Early Childhood Development
DEO      District Education Officer
FPE      Free Primary Education
FSE      Free Secondary Education
IDP      Internally Displaced Persons
KCSE     Kenyan Certificate of Education
MOE      Ministry of Education
PS       Permanent Secretary
INEE  Inter Agency For Education in Emergencies
MSEE  Minimum Standards Education in Emergencies
MOEST Ministry of Education of Science and Technology



This assessment was undertaken by the Education Cluster with the support of the
Ministry of Education. Guidance and assistance was provided by District Education
Officials, with direct support from DEOs in the affected areas with the exception of
Molo District which was not possible given that a Molo was visited out office hours
when schools and offices were closed. Alternatively, camp consultations were held
there.

Recommendations should be read in consideration that it was not possible to visit all
schools in the affected areas and that neither was it possible to visit all districts
responding to emergency education. None-the-less, detail was gathered in a good
proportion of schools and camps in most of the affected districts and, moreover,
methods of data collection were rigorous such that findings are likely to apply to the
majority of other areas and thus inform the sector response.




                                                                                         2
         Kenya Pre-Crisis, 2007
         Age Structure:                      0-14 years: 42.1%
                                             15-64 years: 55.2%,
                                             65 years & over: 2.6%
         Population:                         36,913,721 (2007 est)
         ECD:                                1.67 million
                                                                                                1
         Primary school:                     7.9 million (GER 104.3, NER 83.4) (19,000 schools)
         Secondary:                          1,030,080 (34.4%) (4,500 schools)
         University:                         112,229 (7 Public &18 Private)
         Adult illiteracy:                   7.8 million over 15 years (Literacy rate: 61.4%
         MOE                                 Salaries & wages (84.5% of recurrent MOE budget)
         GDP:                                6.9% (on education)
         HIV/AIDS adult prevalence           5.9% (2007)
         People living with HIV/AIDS         1.8 million (2007 est.)
         Orphans:                            2.3 million


Executive Summary
This education assessment took place in the districts of Trans-nzoia, Uasin Guishu, Molo, Naivasha
and Nakuru two months after the onset of the post-election violence. The aim was to assess the
education situation for children within these areas [particularly children of the displaced populations]
and the capacity of schools and education stakeholders to provide immediate, quality basic
education for all children affected and thus to highlight the priority needs and priority areas of
response.
A key factor that has facilitated an approximate 62,000 children in the areas assessed in gaining
access to education has been the application of the principle of integration – it can be estimated that
a near 90,000 -100,000 children, across all affected areas, now have access to schooling.
Encouraged and supported by the Ministry of Education and each of its District Education Offices
(themselves also affected) host schools adjusted their systems to increase their capacity to absorb
more children. Capacity was increased as temporary school shelter/tents were provided and basic
teaching and learning materials (Education, Recreation and School Kits and other basic emergency
materials) helped kick start the momentum of school activity. This includes schools that now operate
in camps (although the majority of IDP children are enrolled in host schools).

While teaching capacity decreased in some schools (with more than 1,000 teachers themselves
being displaced) resource was boosted in schools they moved to - many of the teachers found new
                                                         2
placements in the areas they now stay. The DEOs and each school’s administration helped
strengthen the capacity of host schools through effectively facilitating the placement of displaced
teachers. The efforts of volunteer teachers assigned to many schools (particularly in Uasin Gishu)
also increased schools capacity to operate, particularly in those within the camps. Where
integration of children into host schools has not been possible, camp schools have been created,
the largest being the ASK Showground Camp school [ECD, Primary and Secondary] in Uasin Gishu
with total number of children on roll reaching almost 3,000.

While integration of IDP children has been largely successful [in terms of enrolment], a number of
children remain unable to access school (particularly IDPs in camps), - these children have not
enrolled this year and while assessment has facilitated identification of particular groups in certain
camps [Nakuru Showground, Sawmill, Baraka, Noygum Camps], there is still uncertainty of the total
number of primary children out of school in some areas. In Nakuru, Molo and Naivasha combined,
over 1,400 primary school children in camps have not enrolled in school and the number is far
higher and of major concern for secondary school children in all geographical areas. It should be
noted that this figure applies only to children within camps that are not in school and it is possible
[although difficult to substantiate] the number of IDP children not enrolled who reside outside the
camps within host communities.

1
    Kenya Education Sector Report Programme
2
    District Education Officers, Ministry of Education

                                                                                                      3
Progress with regards to access in this emergency response applies largely to primary and pre-
primary school children. Enrolment of secondary school children remains considerably low and
should be of serious concern to all stakeholders of Education in Kenya. It is difficult to substantiate
whether secondary enrolment rates for 2008 are lower than in January 2007 given the continued
movement of IDPs and also the challenges of collating and analysing data from district education
officers that reflect constant change and also when it has been gathered is in various formats and
presenting data in various formulas (ie some report by percentage of teachers displaced, while
others report by number of teachers reporting to school. However, consultations with stakeholders,
including children, parents and teachers suggest that secondary school enrolment figures in the
affected areas is significantly less than figures of the same time last year despite the recent launch
        3
of FSE policy, January 2008.
Many factors could be affecting low enrolment of secondary school children although those
consulted reported that financing secondary education remains the most significant barrier for
children accessing secondary school. In 2006 the Gross Enrolment Rate was 32%. According to
Save the children operating in the affected areas, only 20% of secondary school age children
staying in camps are enrolled in school. This should be viewed in light of the usual costs of
schooling for children: secondary education costs consume 49% of the average Kenyan household
spending. Those severely affected by the crisis are unlikely to be able to afford such costs now.
The economic security of the displaced has been significantly impacted by the recent violence and
its consequences are likely to further impact upon the ability of those affected to pay for the
associated costs of secondary education.

Again, although there has been progress with regards to access to education, the quality of
education – particularly education for IDP children in both camps and also within the host schools,
calls for urgent attention. Class sizes are high, with an average (across the schools assessed) of
between 90 - 110 children per class. Already the quality of education is a concern across Kenya on
a national level. The country sits within the bracket of low income countries at serious risk of not
                                             4
achieving universal adult literacy [UAL, EFA ] by 2015, regardless of the great strides the country
has made in recent years moving towards U[PE.

In the present emergency context the quality of education could and should be boosted
exponentially by providing immediate support with teaching methodology and general guidance for
teachers in how to manage classes in an emergency environment. This is especially urgent for the
for volunteers that have stepped in to teach and such large numbers of children in difficult
conditions. The majority of volunteer teachers [there are 97 in Uasin Gishu alone] are recent school
or college leavers and this does not include the ECD teachers all of whom are also volunteers. New
to the profession, the volunteer teachers require further guidance and support with methodology –
especially where resources are few, numbers of children are high and the children they teach have
directly experienced brutal violence, displacement and generally live in extremely difficult
emergency conditions. A minimum but monetary standard incentive for volunteers is suggested in
order to help boost their morale and motivation, and also help meet basic transportation and meal
costs and thus potentially improve quality of teaching and children’s learning experience. This is
also likely to encourage teachers to remain in their posts for the entire emergency period rather than
consider alternatives to make ends meet. Many of them are IDPs themselves.
Lack of learning space is also affecting quality even where shift systems have been adopted. Even
though the majority of schools have received urgently needed basic supplies [mostly from UNICEF
and some from Save the Children and other well wishers], the quantities of such materials are still
inadequate. More are needed – some locations are desperate for basic supplies. IDP classes
continue without text books, a key resource for teachers and children. Teachers, children and
parents are concerned about the decline in children’s achievement and the possibility of a drop in
results due to lack of access to essential learning materials. One pertinent remark came from a
Standard 8 child concerned about her own performance in school ‘When I go to sleep in the tent, I


3
    Free Secondary Education Policy, Ministry of Education, [January 2008]
4
    Education For All, Global Monitoring Report, p 180, [2008]

                                                                                                     4
am trying hard not to forget all the things I learned last year before the clashes. I’m going to school
this year but I’m not learning because I don’t have my books – we left them behind in the house.’

The majority of classes operate without basic furniture including desks and chairs. Some classes
were observed without basic floor covering while children sit on the earth within tents. More are
needed. While UNICEF produced an initial supply of much needed and appreciate desks, most
were allocated to and consumed by children of Standard 8 and Form 4 who prepare for national
exams. Children reported that desks improve their learning environment the most and help them to
feel like they are back in school. A minimum of 6,000 desks are needed for children in districts
                                                              5
assessed who continue classes seated on the ground in tents.

Teachers in Eldoret believe that poor facilities in the schools [and lack of desks] are affecting
enrolment and attendance of secondary children. The quality of school experience for many in ECD
classes is also of great concern where children sitting on the earth floor with no mats or tables to sit
at. Although the tents have facilitated access, lack of such simple items is clearly impeding teachers’
ability to teach, children’s enjoyment of school and is clearly compromising their continued learning
and development.
The present emergency environment also brings increased risk to disease (especially within the
                                            6
camps – HIV, malaria, diarrhoea included ) and schools require guidance and support in reducing
such risks. The capacity and planned initiatives of the health, protection, water and sanitation
sectors must be harnessed and drawn upon to address issues and reduce risks. It would be
beneficial for the Education Cluster members, including the Cluster Leads, to connect more closely
with the other sectors planning to support children in schools – particularly health and protection and
particularly given the change in climate and potential health risks reported. Girls (especially those in
camps and especially those out of school) are particularly vulnerable to sexual exploitation and
abuse. The SGBV cluster has initiated an awareness raising campaign and capacity building to
address issues of gender based violence and the exploitation of girls both inside and outside the
camps.
The mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of many children is also an issue that teachers,
parents, head teachers felt requires greater and more immediate support. In all of the locations
assessed, children’s social and emotional wellbeing was of gave concern and the factor that many
felt has been neglected and overlooked. It is normally expected that teachers receive training and
material support as soon as possible after a crisis has occurred in order to mitigate impacts of their
experiences. As soon as possible, teachers should understand their role in aiding children’s
recovery and be equipped with materials, resources and skills [all simultaneously] so that they can
effectively and confidently support those who are in need. Head Teachers reported that KRC have
provided some counselling and debriefing sessions for children. UNICEF Protection specialists are
working with the Ministry of Education to train master teachers in counselling skills who will further
build the capacity of teachers provide counselling in schools. It is suggested however, that teachers
should be trained to provide psychosocial support in an integrated, holistic way, with an emphasis
on (but not exclusive focus on) recreation, arts, games and teaching methods specifically designed
to help aid recovery from traumatic experiences. Consultations across all locations indicated this is
somewhat delayed and now an urgent need.
A further issue of family separation has arisen for children in private residential academy schools.
Many parents of children in the academies were displaced during the violence and their present
locations are unknown. Additionally, many parents took their children to the academies during the
period of violence, believing they were a place of safety and opportunity for education. Presently
many academies are running out of basic resources and believe that children should be returned to
their families or placed in institutional care. While parents however remain in IDP camps, many



5
  Calculated on the basis that 3 children at seated at 1 desk; UNICEF have made further procurements and
plan distribution, 900 – 1000 desks provided for Nakuru [Funded by KCB]; schools furniture project
underway Turbo [Save the Children]
6
  KRC Public Health Officer, Nakuru,

                                                                                                           5
believe that their children are safer in and should remain within the academies. There are also
many who are missing and their whereabouts unknown.
An interagency team comprised of Save the Children, UNICEF, Department of Children Services
and the Child Welfare Society of Kenya have begun to address this issue, starting with the rapid
registration of separated children in the academies of Kiambu. The working group believes this may
be an issue that is not limited to Kiambu but is rather is happening in all affected areas.

For the better protection of girls, two schools visited have prevented girls from going out of school at
lunchtime and both reported that this is because of issues that are not limited to these particular
schools. Girls had reportedly been leaving the school for lunch which could be bought only through
exploitive sexual activities. Head Teachers and teachers believe that the economic situation is so
difficult for families that girls were engaging in sexual activity for as little as two mangos. The same
was reported in a camp in Nakurru.
In addition to health, protection of children, particularly those in camps, is of concern – particularly
those that have been unable to access school [and particularly the wellbeing and protection of girls
in the camps]. The affects on family income, depletion of assets and general disruption to family
routine combined with the basic needs in camp conditions is likely to have placed greater demand
on children to contribute to family wellbeing and financial upkeep.
While some progress has been made to expanding and modifying schools infrastructure (through
provision of tents and increased water and sanitation facilities), the minimum standards for all
indicators are yet to be achieved. While ACF, Goal and UNICEF have installed latrines and in a
number schools where there has been significant increased enrolment, in order to meet the
minimum standards, a minimum of and estimated 800 latrines are needed in the schools that have
absorbed children in recent months [both camp and host schools]. Even before the crisis the
majority of schools that now host IDPs fell short of the minimum standards for water and sanitation.
Now, given the influx of IDP children, the resources are dangerously stretched.
A concern frequently reported in all schools was the registration of Standard 8 and Form IDP
children for the national exams – an issue that is contributing to stress and anxiety for many
children. The cost of registration, the deadline and place in which they will take their exam are all
concerns expressed.

In summary, this assessment revealed that quality of teaching and learning and many other aspects
of quality education is falling far below the minimum standards. Pre primary schooling is particularly
poor at present with the lack of basic materials. Teachers of primary classes are challenged with
huge classes and scarcity of basic supplies such as text books. All other cross-sectoral efforts will
help to enhance quality – such as water and sanitation and health but education practitioners must
be proactive in advocating for projects to be funded.

Two months into the new school year and three months into the response, there needs to
be a significant step change in order to provide quality basic education for those that have
gained access and also to successfully facilitate access for those that have not. Without
considerable expansion of existing efforts and capacity across the sector in the coming
weeks and months, there is the danger that: 1/ children in school will not receive the
support that has urgently been needed to aid psychosocial well being and recovery 2/
children’s achievement in school may decline [further contributing to children’s
psychosocial stress 3/ increase of attrition 4/ prolonged pressure and strain on teachers.
The peace accord of the 28th February prompted the UNHCR in Eldoret to gauge the
reactions of IDPs in the Eldoret ASK Showground, Burnt Forest (in Uasin Gishu District)
and Noigam (in Trans Nzoia District). Generally, IDPs expressed reluctance to return to
their home areas until a solid government assurances were received regarding security;
Secondly, they wait for a comprehensive system to be in place to compensate for or
restore their lost properties; and resolution of the land issue and land property rights.

                                                                                                      6
Recommendations of this assessment are presented therefore with the assumption that
the displacement will characterise the emergency context over the coming six months,
April to September 2008.




                                                                                  7
Recommendations
Increased momentum for achieving quality education: The main thrust of the response for the
next six months should be on raising the quality of education in all affected schools but with
emphasis on those prioritised. Serious efforts must be made by all stakeholders so that children in
schools affected can now enjoy the benefits of schooling. Enabling access for those that have been
unable to enrol should also be a prioritised activity, especially children in areas/camps already
identified and documented.
Standardised data collection formats should be introduced and used across all affected areas to
assist communicating the needs with clarity and thus responding to them effectively. Several
formats have been produced by District Officials at various stages since the onset of violence many
of which while appropriate and useful for district offices and at district level, data collection,
interpretation and analysis across districts becomes a challenge. A format that could be developed
further is included in the annex of this document, but District Officials and supporting NGOs should
now agree on an agreed set of tools to be used within the sector. This will also help in emergency
preparedness – and will help communicate effectively to donors the future needs of the sector with
accuracy and greater credibilty. [Who: Education Cluster, its members, MoE/DEOs, Responsibility
of Education Cluster Leads and MoE]

Building capacity of DEOs, Minimum Standards and emergency information management:
Organise a series of short [possibly one-day] meetings for all DEOs in a central location/s which
could be Nakuru, in order to kick start more coordinated shared planning and response and a
provide the forum for developing standardised tools for moving forward with greater synergy and
momentum across the affected areas. If supported by the international community and the MOE,
this could also be an opportunity to introduce the Minimum Standards of Education, create
standardised tools, and agree upon details of the prioritised areas for response for the next six
months and define strategies in working towards them. [Who: DEOs, Programme Managers/cluster
members, Responsible: Moe – funded by NGOs?]
Tracking needs: A clear mapping or database is needed to record and track all materials received
and highlighting existing gaps and also future needs. An example is provided in conjunction with this
report [Excel spreadsheet] This should be adapted/modified by those in the filed inputting into it to
best suit the needs, and the cluster leads who should update this centrally and disseminate
regularly for further input and field updates.

Increasing capacity to respond: Lobby for the participation of greater number of agencies
specialised in emergency education and related sectors [included water and sanitation, protection
and health] to respond to the needs. Given the wide geographical area and breadth of emergency
needs, relatively few agencies are presently responding and are thus stretched to provide the
support that is required with the momentum that is necessary. Increase the capacity of NGOs that
are already implementing – potentially expanding their coverage without compromising quality of
programming. [Who: Cluster Leads, Cluster Members and other stakeholders, Responsibility of
Education Cluster]

Timely response to urgent needs:. Develop a strategy for increasing programme coverage for the
urgent and prioritised issues that contribute to provision of quality basic education: i/ water and
sanitation – 800 needed latrines in schools. The response calls for the immediate funding of wat-
san projects entered into the flash appeal. Organisations already implementing in schools [including
UNICEF, ACF and Goal] are providing quality support with clear implementation plans but coverage
needs to be significantly expanded and more wat-san projects funded. 800 latrines are needed in
the priority schools. iii/ Timely provision of psychosocial support. iii/ Provision of text books,
both primary and secondary in all schools hosting IDPs and other basic pedagogical materials.
[Who: Cluster Leads, Cluster Members, MOE/DEOs. Responsibility of Education Cluster]




                                                                                                   8
                                                              7
Adherence to Minimum Standards of Education : All cluster members, DEOs and others
supporting should push for greater adherence to minimum standards of emergency education
[MSEE]. This could start with, but should not be limited to a rapid training for DEOs on broad
aspects and categories but also specific standards should enable officers to define and demand the
needs on the ground to those that can provide support. This should happen as organisations
increase capacity to respond to needs. Minimum Standards for teachers/pupil ratio, latrine/pupil
ratio, textbooks/students ratio as well as standards for implementation processes – [participation
and analysis should all be familiar and common aims. [Who: All stakeholders, particularly children,
teachers, Head Teachers, DEOs. Organised and promoted by Cluster Members. DEOs
Responsibility of MOE and other Cluster Leads]

Memorandums of Understanding: To ensure adherence to minimum standards, avoid duplication
of activities and also ensure that humanitarian principles are followed, the Education Cluster should
support the MoE in ensuring that all implementing organisations supporting the education response
develop and sign an MoU with the Ministry. [Who: all implementing organisations. Organisations
should be responsible for developing MoUs. Cluster Leads responsible for informing organisations
of process, MoE responsible for engaging with organisations and signing of M.oUs]]

Primary Children not enrolled in school: Cluster Chair persons in each district to confirm number
of children out of school within and around camps, estimated to be a minimum of 1,400 children
[Nakuru Showground, Saw Mill, Burnt Forest and Noygum. Cluster members to work with DEOs,
camp managers and surrounding schools for appropriate solutions. [Nakuru Showground underway
to place approximate 900 children] [Who: Programme Coordinators, Programme Manager:
Responsibility of all stakeholders, supported by Programme Manager].

Incentives for volunteer teachers: At the soonest, the Ministry of Education and the Education
Cluster should look to agree upon a set, time-bound, standardised incentive for existing volunteer
teachers across all affected areas. This should be comparable to incentives provided for volunteers
in other government sectors and volunteer teachers in other emergencies that may be occurring
within the country. The most recent UNHCR incentive could provide an appropriate benchmark.

Financing of Secondary Education and increasing access: Greater attention is urgently needed
on the issue of access and financing of emergency education for secondary school age children.
The issue of registration of IDP Standard 8, 2007 completers [new Form 1 students] are of particular
concern. Special efforts should be made to ensure that this group have enrolled and are being
supported. Cluster should raise and prioritise the issue of the vast discrepancy of IDP primary
school children in school in camp schools, compared to the small minority of secondary school
children enrolled. Use ASK showground to raise and further investigate the issue of barrier to
secondary school education [Primary - 2,604 compared to secondary 336]. [Who: MEO and other
Cluster Members including Daraja, Responsibility [of MoE]

Curriculum and relevance to needs in emergency period: As schools continue to operate the
same curriculum, with a timetable and pattern of the school day comparable to that prior to the
crisis, there should be consideration to the modification of the curriculum that incorporates more
                                                                                                       8
time for activities that specifically foster psychosocial recovery and also improved social integration .
Children in schools would significantly benefit from more play, recreation and activities that
encourage psychosocial recovery. Provision of recreation materials will be of maximum benefit
when teachers have had training in understanding their role and learned specific techniques that
help children’s psychosocial wellbeing. Materials and training should be provided together. In an
emergency of this magnitude and of the impact experienced, it would be prudent to ensure that at
least six teachers in each school were resourced with the skill base and resources to provide such
support.
1. Expedite and expand plans for training teachers in key, emergency education themes: teaching
     large classes and multi-grade classes; understanding and supporting psychosocial recovery for


7
    Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, INEE [2004]
8
    ‘Social integration’ as opposed to integration by enrolment/placement into schools

                                                                                                       9
    children affected by violence and displacement. With cascade training strategy [lead by a group
    of master trainers], it is possible to train 500 teachers, targeting those that are volunteers or are
    identified as individuals requiring boost in their skill base in the present environment.
2. Teachers should be given the forum [the time, the support and the resources] to develop a
   scheme of lessons [perhaps even modifying the curriculum, even if for a temporary period], so
   that teaching and learning is relevant to the present situation and needs. They should be given
   the autonomy to then implement the plans they have made that are relevant to the present
   context in Kenya.
[Who: MoE and other Cluster Members, working with DeOs and schools; Responsibility of MoE]
Coordination of cross cutting issues: Ensure there is close and regular communication with
responders to health issues and that health issues on the ground are clearly and immediately
reported [both from the communities/schools to the DEO and Education Cluster – AND, from the
Clusters to the field. At least one person attending the Education Coordination/Cluster meetings in
Eldoret, Nakuru and Nairobi should be participating in other clusters or finding the best ways to
communicate with and learn from key cross cutting activities and issues arising. This is especially
important given the onset of rain and the increased vulnerability of spread of disease [particularly
although not exclusively water-borne disease]. Programme coordinators should be participating in
cluster meetings. This may be happening and if so, links should be strengthened. Likewise, this
should happen at central level, and key issues emerging should be communicated to key people in
the field. [Who: Field Coordinators, Cluster members at field and central levels]. Responsibility of
Programme Coordinators / Managers, Cluster Leads].

Under Fives – care:. An assessment should be undertaken looking at the present needs in the
emergency context of young infant IDP children of the age groups 0 - 3 and 3 – 5 years. This
should start but should not be limited to the camps and should look how mother and child care
practice has been affected by displacement and the consequences of it. It should explore how
health, nutrition and other care needs are being met or compromised as result of the emergency
conditions. [Who: early childhood practitioner with experience of care and provision of young in
emergency environments; Health, Protection, Nutrition, Cluster representatives, KRC; Responsible:
either Education Cluster Member or other in collaboration with KRC]

Standard 8 and Form 4 examination: Immediate solution should be found and communicated
publicly to the issue of examination registration of Standard 8 and Form 4 IDP children who are
challenged to pay the fees for examination registration and many of whom are also gravely
concerned about where [in which examination centre] they are to register within. The MoE has
been working to find a viable solution for some weeks. It may be suggested that examination fees
for this group should be waived. The final decision should be formally, publicly and nationally
announced at the soonest. Children are also concerned about where they should register.
[Education Cluster /Responsible - decision of the |MoE]

Psychosocial support: A clear and comprehensive implementation strategy is urgently needed for
the training of master trainers [for each affected district] with the aim of providing psychosocial
support in schools. While the protection cluster presently provides training for carers of teachers,
this does not include the training of teachers in teaching methods that aid psychosocial recovery
through holistic approaches. This is particularly urgent for schools that are known to accommodate
high numbers of displaced children and those that are from specific geographical locations that
underwent widespread and intense violence. The training for teachers should be implemented in
combination with provision play, recreation/arts materials and other pedagogical resources that
have been shown to aid recovery for children in emergency contexts. The strategy and the content
for psychosocial support should be compatible with initiatives underway in other sectors [such as
that of the working group lead by the Ministry of Health and also the plans of the Ministry of
Education to train appointed teachers as counsellors etc]. While the support provided thus far [by
KRC and other agencies] has been welcomed and beneficial to some, it has not had the impact to
the level and breadth that is needed across all affected schools. [Who: Cluster Members,
collaborating with KRC, UNICEF. Responsibility of: Cluster Leads, Cluster Members].


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Community/camp-based projects for school support: Existing capacity and skill within and
around camps should be utilised for the education response - particularly from within the IDP
population. Some initiatives are already underway – such as the production of school furniture by
IDP carpenters. Some camps have tailors and other crafts persons that already have basic tools for
project start-up – such as sewing machines for the production of school uniforms and school bags.
Such positive initiatives should be supported bringing obvious benefits to children, the schools and
the participating community. [Who: Cluster Members/implementing organisations, camp managers
and camp community, Schools hosting children from the camp. Responsibility of: cluster
members/programme managers and coordinators]
Water and sanitation: Advocate for the immediate funding of NGOS planning to respond to water
and sanitation needs and coordinate with the WASH cluster for attention to schools prioritised by the
district education officers. The education cluster should again vocalise and highlight the urgent wat-
san needs amongst donors. [at least 800 latrines are needed]. The WASH Cluster have appealed
for funding of various projects in priority areas but the Education Cluster should be proactive in
advocating for these to be funded. Sharing findings of this and other assessments and also
highlighting the present shortfall of wat-san in schools [with specific examples] in regards to the
minimum standards, presenting the benefits of successful projects underway or completed [ACF,
Nakuru] may help. [Who: Wat-San focused agencies, MoE and other Education Cluster members
and Leads. Responsibility of: MoE and Cluster Leads]

Drainage around tents: An issue more recently reported was the condition inside and around the
tents now that rain has arrived. Tents are muddy as the water saturates the areas around them and
paths leading to them. Trenches should have been dug around each tent to prevent water entering
inside and weakening the pitch. Also, gravel paths should be laid where children are regularly
walking. [Responsible: School Management Committees]

Temporary school shelter: Increase capacity [with consideration to schools that have been
prioritised] in terms of physical learning space. More school tents could be provided where
appropriate, but plans should be in place for installation of more durable temporary structures over
the next six months. Local materials should be procured and familiar materials and models used.
District education officials and other stakeholders, including teachers, should be consulted for the
design, positioning and process of installation. The many lessons learned from other emergencies
should be considered, for example, any structures installed should not create great disparity or
inequality between schools or between classes within schools. Also, with consideration of quality,
durability and life-span of both tents and temporary structures, schools should benefit not only from
participation in the processes of design and installation, but also greater support and guidance from
                                                                                             9
implementing organisations with regards to the care and maintenance of the structures. There
must be an agreement amongst cluster members on the specification of temporary shelters and this
should be approved by the Ministry of Education. [Who: Programme Managers, Programme
Coordinators, working with DEOs and school communities. Responsible for implementation:
Programme Managers and Coordinators. Responsible for relevant designs in line with minimum
standards and the government strategy for recovery: Cluster Chairpersons at field level and Cluster
Leads and MoE].

Emergency school supplies: While schools have received a good range of what have been
teaching and learning materials at a critical time [Education and Recreation Kits from UNICEF,
school bags, school kits [Save the Children – amongst many other supplies], the quantity has not
been sufficient to achieve significant impact on the quality of teaching and learning happening in all
affected schools. Additional materials are urgently needed and are called for in almost all of the
schools assessed. [Who: Programme Managers, Cluster Leads and MoE]

Quality/relevance of school supplies: Some schools commented on the quality and variety of
school supplies and offered recommendations for the review of kits to include more relevant
materials suitable for the teaching and learning context. A formal review of materials should be

9
 Refer to INEE Minimum Standards of Education in Emergencies, Categories of Participation and also
Resources

                                                                                                     11
planned, gathering views of children and teachers that used them. The life-span of materials should
also be looked into – especially how long, on average exercise books last. This should be
documented and communicated to cluster leads with outcomes of this fed back schools. [Who:
school communities, including teachers, children, DEOs, Cluster Members: Responsible: Cluster
members and Cluster Leads].

Text books: All schools urgently need text books [both primary and secondary, all grades and all
subjects. The system for distribution of text books should be reviewed and any blockages prohibiting
swift delivery removed. [Who: MoE, Responsible: MoE].
Promoting integration: The sector should aim for full integration where possible, involving
improved relationships and integration of a positive, social interaction and understanding between
children and teachers of different groups. While enrolment and placement of IDP children into a
host school can be defined as integration, the sector should endeavour to achieve social integration
and this should be considered in all other response activities. For example, children’s interaction
through play should be planned and promoted; the kind of play and recreation materials provided
should support and encourage cooperative play as opposed to competitive play; facilities such as
emergency latrines should be accessed by both IDP and host school alike rather than allocated
exclusively for one group; school feeding time-tables should promote sharing and interaction –
rather than separate serving times for each group (as has been observed in a number of schools];
children’s representatives of school committees should include both IDP and host children. Where
possible, ideally classes should be comprised of host and IDP children and teachers should be
confident and willing to actively promote and support positive relationships and interaction between
the groups through various teaching/learning methodology. [Who: all stakeholders, concept
promoted by Programme Coordinators, MoE, DEOs and all Cluster Members]
Health and hygiene: Schools and organisations supporting them should make the relevant links
with the Health Cluster/MOH for implementation of emergency school hygiene activities especially
for camp schools and also for the schools with large numbers of children on roll [particularly those
highlighted as in urgent need of more latrines and hand-washing facilities. Members of the Health
                           10
Cluster have included IEC projects in recent funding appeals. As with the Water and Sanitation,
the Education Cluster should be proactive in advocating [in collaboration with Health] for the funding
of these projects. There should be clear strategy for health and hygiene education programme to be
implemented and effective - with focus on hand-washing, personal hygiene, relevant health
education programmes for potential diseases including cholera, malaria, typhoid, diarrhoea and
other diseases which result from a contaminated environment. Key persons within the Health
Cluster should be aware of the schools prioritised for support. Child to child methodology should be
promoted, especially in the camps. Special attention should be paid to monitoring health in camps
such as ASK, Nakuru Showground, Afraha, Burnt Forest… [Who: Programme Coordinators,
Programme Managers; supported by Cluster Leads and MoE]
Sanitation supplies: continued provision of sanitation supplies for girls in all locations. The
protection and education cluster should work together to assess and address the needs and the
concerns of young girls, especially those within the camps. [Implementing organisations].
Protection of children: Ensure that protection constitutes a strong element of training for teachers.
The Education cluster and cluster members must link closely with the SGBV cluster, ensuring that
issues arising in schools and camps are appropriately addressed. Education Trainings/workshops
could draw upon the resources [where appropriate] as developed by the SGBV cluster.
The Women’s group in Eldoret are working with younger girls for their better protection. Education
programmes should seek opportunities to support this group through linking them with other, relevant and
active programmes/groups. World Vision plan children’s health clubs. Education Cluster should investigate
how the clubs may promote the better protection of children, particularly girls.

Protection and classroom management/discipline: Teachers urgently need training that introduces
them to positive methods of discipline in schools and effective classroom management – particularly
management of large classes.

10
     Information, Education and Communication

                                                                                                      12
Gender mainstreaming: More attention should be paid to desegregation of data by gender and
age in order to inform programme design and target needs of different groups, especially boys and
girls, and also male and female teachers to ensure gender is mainstreamed throughout the
respsone. Programme Coordinators should ensure that sufficient data is gathered [recording how
many male and female teachers for example] so there is greater understanding of needs and
capacity to respond to them in the coming months. The Cluster Leads should provide guidance and
specific guidelines for all cross cutting issues. These should also be introduced to DEOs through
meetings, trainings or workshops. [Who: Programme Coordinators, DEOs, and other Cluster
Members: Responsibility of Cluster Leads].

Voucher system: Consideration of a voucher system to facilitate access to school whereby
children are given vouchers to purchase basic necessary school items provided by local business
persons. This may be more appropriate in a later in the response but could be considered in the
strategy to address financing of education. The cluster would work with the MoE to agree a set on
value of vouchers, timeframes for spending agreed items available for purchase, and particular
businesses to be supported. Other emergency education programmes within the region have piloted
this activity.

Furniture and play supplies for ECD classes: basic floor covering, low tables and play materials
would significantly improve the quality of learning experience and enjoyment of school for young
children. Expedite process for getting materials to them. Afraha Camp, ASK Showground, Saw Mill
amongst others are all in dire need.




                                                                                              13
The following schools were prioritised by District Officials, Head Teachers and NGO
Representatives in March, as in most need of urgent support. More schools may be added.
Priority schools Trans-nzoia                             Priority Schools Uasin Gishu
Endebes Primary                                          ASK Show Ground *
Noigum, Cherangany                                       Burnt Forest / ArnessansPrimary
Kesogan Primary                                          Arnessans Secondary
Milimane Primary                                         Koiluget Primary, Timboroa
Umunga                                                   Wareng [close to Showground]
Massaba Primary
Kiminini Primary
Shibanga Primary
Makutano
Mumbunngale
Wduhini Primary
Limima
Cheparus
Nai Primary
Fea Primary

Priority schools Nakuru District                         Priority Schools Molo District
Nakuru Showground [ECD] *                                Saw Mill Camp [and other camps?]
Afraha Stadium [ECD] *                                   Kambala
Moi Primary                                              St Marys
Lenana                                                   Mono
Prisons Primary                                          Turi Surugwita
Muslims Primary                                          Tayari
Madarakah                                                PCEA Elburgon
Lion Hill                                                St Bredlans
Mburu Gichua                                             St Peters Boarding
Kiamaina [Nakurua North]                                 New Creation
Kagota                                                   St James
Maruku Kariuki                                           Sokoro
Lanet Umoja                                              Orthodox
St Johns                                                 Machinda Boys
Hyrax                                                    Mianzini
Millimane                                                Elburgon DEB
Pangani
Maruki Kariuki
Kenyatta
Manmangina
Maburu Gichua
Menengai
Nairobi Road
Priority Schools [listed by DEO Nakuru North]            Priority Schools Naivasha District
Kajamana                                                 Mirera Primary School
Kagboto                                                  Gil Gil Towship Primary l
Lanet Limojo                                             Prisons Primary
Eldono                                                   Kiunguguria
St Lawanga                                               Echariria
Ndungiri                                                 Kariandusi
Olbonata                                                 Gil Gil DEB Primary School
Dundori                                                  Ngeya
Rigogogo                                                 Kedong Camp School *
St Johns Bahati                                          Mirera Primary School
Subuki                                                   Gil Gil Towship Primary l
Kinari                                                   Mirindu
Mikue                                                    Naivasha Highway
Rurii                                                    Kedong Camp
Our Lady of Mercy                                        St Patricks
Muriundu                                                 Kiambogo
Engoshjura                                               Longongot DEB
Kabazi                                                   Oserian
Kieni                                                    Sher Moi
Macmbi                                                                                        *   = CAMP SCHOOL
The above lists are comprised of schools noted by District Officials as those prioritised for support. They
were verified as priority schools by teachers and NGOs representatives at the time of assessment. It should
be noted there are additional schools receiving support that are not included above. It should also be noted
that not all districts were assessed, and therefore there are other schools, within other districts that are not
highlighted here. This list and other more detailed information should be shared with other clusters.




                                                                                                                  14
Purpose of Assessment
This assessment aimed to assess how needs of children in affected districts of Trans-nzoia, Uasin
Gishu, Molo, Nakuru and Naivasha are being met through education provision in the present
emergency context. Visits were made to schools in camps and also those that have absorbed IPD
                                                                                  11
children into them., the assessment aimed to identify barriers that pre-primary , primary and
secondary school children [of both IDP and children of host communities] face in accessing
school. To assess the quality of education, the assessment looked at the teacher/pupil ratio,
teaching capacity and time, teaching methods and materials such as access to text books. The
assessment also looked at how healthy and adequately supplied schools are to ensure children’s
social and emotional wellbeing and security. Methods, experiences and extent of integration of IDP
children into host schools was also assessed.
The assessment was undertaken two months after the onset of violence by which time a number of
the camps had established schools. With guidance from the Ministry of Education, Government
schools had also absorbed a proportion of displaced children from both IDP camps also those
residing within host communities. A degree of stability and routine had achieved within most of the
areas/schools assessed. It is within this context that the assessment began. Some secondary data
is drawn upon for contextual purposes, such as the Protection Assessments, conducted in January
and February and also Situation Reports produced by OCHA.
Recommendations are made on two levels – broader proposals for key bodies supporting the
response and secondly, more specific issues flagged up for immediate response in order quickly to
increase access and improve quality of education for each of the age-groups in prioritised
schools/camps. A further planned outcome was mapping of implementing organisations supporting
locations/schools, in order to facilitate future coordination and also to assist in filling identified gaps.

Assessment objectives
      Produce clear set of recommendations in order to inform stakeholders in efforts to respond to
       urgent needs.
      Identify the schools/areas for prioritized attention and emergency support.
      Identify a/ number of children registered and attending school; b/ number of children
       unable to access school in the areas assessed c/ specific issues affecting access
      Identify and flag up urgent issues requiring immediate action, especially those affecting
       access to and quality of education and follow-up by education stakeholders, including the
       Education Cluster, or issues that can be appropriately addressed by other sectors [i.e. Water
       and Sanitation]
      Document issues concerning children, teachers/volunteers, head teachers, parents and
       other education stakeholders. [documented within this document and also ‘Views of Children
       and other Stakeholders on Education in Post-election Crisis, Kenya’]
      Capture lessons learned for the education emergency response and future emergency
       preparedness and programming [separate document].
      Capture progress and achievements in ensuring education for children affected by the crisis
      Produce a mapping tool to assist MoE District Officials, Education Cluster and its members in
       coordination and tracking implementation of activities.




11
     Pre-primary - also referred to as ECD in the Kenyan education system.

                                                                                                         15
Assessment Methodology
                                            th                th
The assessment took place between the 28 February and 10 March 2008. It was planned and
conducted by the Education Cluster, in collaboration with and support from the Ministry of
Education. Visits were made to districts across the Rift Valley where high concentration of IDPS
were reported – including the districts of Uasin Gishu, Trans-nzoia, Nakuru, Molo and Naivasha.
Key informants included District Education Officials, UNICEF field staff and other NGO
representatives, Head Teachers, volunteer and trained TSC teachers, parents/carers of children of
displaced and host communities. NGOs operating in the affected areas were also consulted. Data
collection occurred through focus group discussions, meetings, informal interviews, observations
within schools and camps and also the gathering of some secondary data to corroborate findings .
                                       th              th
District     Assessment activities 28 February – 11 March 2008
Uasin         Meeting with District Education Officials including consultation with DEO, Deputy DEO
Gishu           District Quality and Assurance and Standards Officer, District Education Statistics
                Officer, ECD Officer
              Meeting with ASK Showground School Head, Deputy Head, Education Officers of KRC
                and Child Welfare Committee
              ASK Show-Ground: Children’s meetings (x 3) x 7 children, Household/tent consultations,
                discussion with Secretary of Camp Committee, Informal interviews x 6 students,
                classroom observations ECD, primary and secondary
              Primary School visits and consultations with Head Teachers, children and teachers [7
                schools], accompanied by District Education Officials.
              Observation of schools destroyed or damaged through clashes or occupancy of IDP [2
                schools]
              Secondary School students meetings [x 2]
Trans -       Meeting with District Education Officials
nzoia         Government school visits accompanied by education official, consultation with Head and
                Deputy Teachers
              Camp visit – Noygum Camp
              Meeting with camp volunteer teacher
              Noygum Camp classroom observations
              Meeting Head Teacher Endebes
Nakuru        Meeting with District Education Officer
              Meeting with Head Teachers x 2 within Education Office
              Nakuru Showground Camp: meeting with Head Teacher of ECD, Children’s group
                discussion x 6 children, Household/tent consultations x 32 tents, classroom observation.
              Afraha Camp visit: meetings with education coordinator, volunteer teacher of ECD x 2,
                classroom/children observations.
              School visits x 3 schools: meeting with Head Teachers, classroom observation,
                children’s consultation, girls’ discussion.
              Tent/household consultations
              Informal interviews in camp x 3 students
              Meeting at KRC Main Office – Head of Water and Sanitation for Camps, Head of Health,
                Public Health Officer
              Consultation//meeting with 5 KRC providers of psychosocial support and counselling
              School facilities observation – with Water and Sanitation Officer ACF
Molo          Sawmill Camp visit– women’s group meeting, children’s discussion, camp orientation
Naivasha      Meeting with District Education Officer and Deputy DEO
              Camp visit accompanied by Naivasha District Education Officer, Education Official Gilgil
              School visits – 6 schools – classroom/school observations, discussions with Head and
                Deputy Head Teachers




                                                                                               16
 Context
The recent crisis in Kenya saw the displacement of an estimated 300,000 people who fled from
their homes amidst what has been described as deep-rooted ethno-political violence triggered by
results of recent elections at the close of 2007. The violence was widespread and swift, occurring
predominantly throughout the Rift Valley, Central and Nairobi Provinces. Homes were burned,
businesses and learning institutions looted, farmland was abandoned while vital agricultural
machinery – the livelihoods of many was destroyed. More than a thousand people lost their lives,
while others were seriously injured at the hands of the perpetrating tribal groups. All of this was
witnessed and experienced by the children and youth of Kenya. Twenty schools underwent severe
damage as result of burning or vandalism. More schools were damaged after being occupied by
                                                                   th
the displaced. The Kenyan Union of Teachers reported on the 29 January that 10,000 teachers
were not able to teach given the ongoing violence. The Ministry of Education estimates that
100,000 students were displaced. Since the beginning of the response, UNICEF and Save the
Children have maintained a field presence and have worked in close collaboration with the Ministry
of Education.

Discussion and Key Findings
Displacement has been a factor that has exerted most impact on children, their education and
overall, their wellbeing and protection. Displacement has also been the factor that has exerted
most impact on the education sector and its capacity to meet the needs of those affected.
In many of the affected districts, the schools and other elements of the education sector were a
target of the perpetrators whose aim was to permanently drive out entire communities that would
be challenged to return. In some areas, private schools, which had previously been well resourced,
were destroyed to the level that barely the walls remained – now desolate symbols of the brief but
barbaric violence. As the crisis occurred while schools were closed for the end of year holidays,
thousands of displaced took advantage of this convenience and sought refuge within them - as
they did with churches, police stations and other public buildings. Through fear of being at the
hands of those yielding axes and pangas, the displaced occupying the schools used wooden
desks, doors, text-books and paper to fuel fires needed for cooking and heating – a means of basic
survival. After days and in some cases week of occupation of schools, many were left with serious
damage to basic infrastructure.
The majority of schools however were able to galvanise and orchestrate a task force for cleaning
up and preparation for opening and most that had been occupied were operational by the end of
January. With support from the School Committee, parents and children, including the displaced,
Noygum Primary in Trans-nzoia is one such school which reopened days after thousands of
families were registered and transferred into official Noygum Camp.
In terms of impact infrastructure across the sector, the greatest challenge occurred in responding to
the massive number of displaced children, many of whom reside in the camps, or within host
communities in surrounding areas. As children and teachers left more arrived; the situation was
very fluid throughout January and the beginning of February. With support from the district
education offices, schools across all affected areas have worked to integrate the displaced utilising
their existing resources and adjusting existing systems throughout. With support from the Ministry
of Education, UNICEF, NGO’s, members of civil society and church groups, the majority of
displaced have been able to continue with their schooling.

Access: Schools both gained and lost children and teachers, thus while numbers were
counterbalanced in many schools, the composition with regards to ethnic groups dramatically
changed. Some schools reported that while the number of children had not significantly changed,
those now on roll were almost an entirely different group of children to those in 2007. In other
schools, the number of children on roll almost doubled. With integration a key component of the
response strategy, the enrolment of the displaced was encouraged in all schools, and as result,
more than 600 schools [in areas assessed] now have an ‘integrated population’ of host and IDP
children on roll. While integration of IDP children was encouraged, in some cases, lack of capacity
within surrounding schools called for the establishment of a school within the camp - such as Turbo

                                                                                                   17
and the ASK Showground Camp in Uasin Gishu that now facilitate access for ECD, primary and
secondary school children.
Access for pre-primary and primary school children: While the majority of primary school
children have gained access to school, a number of children remain unable to access school
(particularly IDPs in camps).               More than 1400 children in camps throughout
Nakuru/Molo/Naivasha/Nyanza have not enrolled this year and while assessment has facilitated
identification of particular groups in certain camps the total number out of school is still uncertain If
including the number of children outside the camps not enrolled in school, this figure will be far
higher. The number of secondary school children unable to access school is also extremely high in
all locations in all geographical areas.

Secondary school children out of school: The emergency situation, especially in camps, has
provided a clear snap shot of the disparity between primary school children and secondary school
children in accessing school. Primary enrolment in the ASK camp stands at 1,206 compared to
                                                                                             12
total enrolment for secondary of 336. The national transition rate of Form 1 is currently 40% and
it was anticipated that with the initial implementation phase of subsidised FSE, there may have
been a surge of Form 1 students. Despite the government subsidy, rates of transition remain low
in the camps and reflective of low enrolment in previous years.

This is arguably a pre-existing issue calling for durable, longer term solutions. However, the issue
of schooling for young people should also be viewed in light of the emergency and the context in
which young people find themselves. With higher rates of unemployment, loss of family assets and
income, the young are more vulnerable to exploitation and abuse than before. Also of particular
concern are those who may have been unable to re-enrol and are hence missing a year as result of
the crisis. Efforts should be made to identify these individuals and support their placements into
schools. Afraha Camp administrators have been particularly successful in ensuring that the
majority of secondary school students have been enrolled into schools – supplying uniforms and
seeking support from donors and well wishers for all other educational supplies.

Access and integration: As mentioned, integration of children into existing, host schools has been
a key principle that has facilitated access to school for IDP children. It has however been
approached differently by each school. A few schools have integrated IDP children who now work
closely alongside children from the host school. Most schools however, have accommodated IDP
children in the tents provided by UNIICEF and have in effect created a system somewhat adjacent
or separate to the other classes. The approach has seemed to depend upon a number of factors,:
1/ understanding of the social and emotional needs of displaced children and the long and short
term benefits of social integration, 2/ apparent physical capacity to accommodate children/classes 3/
‘will’ to adjust, 4/ the ethnic composition within the schools including teacher/child ethnicity 5/ host
community (including parents) view of integration 6/ the ethnic group/s of the displaced/host children
and communities 7/ finally, views on the duration of the emergency context [ie – IDPs may soon
return home and thus it is wise not to disrupt or change existing structures.
Some schools are working in earnest to achieve social integration through a number of planned and
defined processes and activities. This sentiment is quite different from that of a teacher who
believed that separate systems are better because IDP children need to be with one another as they
feel inferior when with the host children. Training for teachers is the shorter and longer term
benefits of integration and practical steps that can be taken to achieve integration have begun in
Nakuru and this training should be expanded and supported in order to build a platform for peace
education while also contributing to children’s social and emotional recovery as well as positive
social environment of the school. At present, integration can therefore be considered as occurring
on three levels as described above.
The sector should endeavour to achieve social integration and this should be considered in all other
response activities. For example, children’s interaction through play should be planned and
promoted; the kind of play and recreation materials provided should support and encourage


12
     Malenya F., Kenyatta Universtity, The Free Secondary Agenda, page 5, [2008]

                                                                                                      18
cooperative play as opposed to competitive play; facilities such as emergency latrines should be
accessed by both IDP and host school alike rather than allocated exclusively for one group; school
school feeding time-tables should promote sharing and interaction – rather than separate serving
times for each group (as has been observed in a number of schools]; children’s representatives of
school committees should include both IDP and host children.

Increasing access though provision of school tents [UNICEF]: While tents have facilitated
access for thousands of children, the quantity remains insufficient and distribution of more tents
therefore continues. The large numbers of children but limited number of tents, has in some schools
resulted in large class sizes [averaging between 90 and 110] which in turn is impinging upon the
quality of teaching and learning. In some cases (but not all) the increased number of children per
tent has increased the teacher-pupil ratio – meaning greater burden on teachers that are already
teaching in difficult conditions. Some schools have received so few tents that every class in the
school exceeds one hundred children. A list of priority schools (mostly those with excessive
numbers on roll), have given by DEOs in the assessed areas and those within this group should
received prior attention. A large number of smaller schools however, with far fewer numbers of
children on roll, still need to increase their capacity.

During the coming months, where it is possible, more durable structures should be erected and
these should be of an emergency, temporary design that can be installed quickly and used
immediately. Such designs should meet the minimum standards in terms of analysis of need, the
design process the specification and processes for installation. Two District Officials believe that
structures made from tin sheeting would meet all standards although this would need to be tested.
The views of teachers and children should be sought. Again, the principle of integration and non
discrimination should be applied and stressed – so that one group is not allocated to the temporary
structures.

Volunteer teachers: The appointment of volunteer teachers into the schools system significantly
boosted capacity of the teaching force at a critical time [particularly but not exclusively in Uasin
Guishu]. Collective volunteer efforts enabled schools to open without much delay and some schools
are operating almost entirely on the strength of volunteers. Again, while this effort has increased
capacity in terms of human resource, the quality of teaching and learning in the majority of classes
with volunteers, is hampered by the skill level of the volunteers.

Volunteers reported four main factors that hinders their ability to provide quality basic education: 1/
teaching without relevant pedagogical materials and classroom equipments [including text books,
exercise books, desks] 2/ managing large classes 3/ low motivation as result of teaching without
incentive [sometimes described as basic provision to support living needs’] 4/ teaching classes
comprised of disparate groups of children of varied abilities and backgrounds. Fifty volunteer
teachers in Uasin Gishu participated in a four day workshop planned and conducted by the District
Education Office and funded by Save the Children. The focus was largely on school systems and
procedures although also included sessions on communicating with children, psychosocial support
and guidance and well as teaching methods. Volunteer evaluations of the workshop were extremely
positive. However, given the range of topics covered, key issues for the emergency context were
]not covered in great depth considering the time allowed and the need for building essential skills in
a difficult environment. More training is urgently needed in the topics outlined in the
recommendations in the report herein.

Volunteers urgently need incentives for their efforts. Dissatisfied with the present situation many
have begun to protest to the extent of calling strikes. A solution to the situation should be found at
the soonest before teachers leave and children cannot be taught or supervised.
Incentives for volunteer teachers should: a/ improve volunteer motivation and morale and thus
impact positively upon quality of teaching b/ if implemented and monitored appropriately,
concurrently with other response activities [such as provision of text books and further training],
increase quality of learning experience for children. Without incentives, there is the likelihood that
the number of volunteers will decline further impacting upon quality and issues of access.


                                                                                                    19
Quality of teaching and learning: The quality of education – particularly education for IDP children
in both camps and also within the host schools, calls for urgent attention. Class sizes are high, with
an average (across the schools assessed) of between 90 - 110 children per class. Lack of learning
space is also affecting quality even where shift systems have been adopted. Even though the
majority of schools have received urgently needed basic supplies [mostly from UNICEF and some
from Save the Children and other well wishers], the quantities of such materials are still inadequate.
More are needed – some locations are desperate for basic supplies. [See ANNEX for a list of
supplies distributed to Nakuru schools by Save the Children]. IDP classes continue without text
books, a key resource for teachers and children. Teachers, children and parents are concerned
about the decline in children’s achievement and the possibility of a drop in results due to lack of
access to essential learning materials. One pertinent remark came from a Standard 8 child
concerned about her own performance in school ‘When I go to sleep in the tent, I am trying hard not
to forget all the things I learned last year before the clashes. I’m going to school this year but I’m not
learning because I don’t have my books – we left them behind in the house.’

The majority of classes accommodating IDPs are without basic furniture including desks and chairs.
Some classes were observed without basic floor covering while children sit on the earth within tents.
More are needed. While UNICEF produced an initial supply of much needed and appreciate desks,
most were allocated to and consumed by children of Standard 8 and Form 4 who prepare for
national exams. Children reported that desks improve their learning environment the most and help
them to feel like they are back in school. A minimum of 6,000 desks are needed for children in
                                                                              13
districts assessed who continue classes seated on the ground in tents.            The quality of school
experience for many in ECD classes is also of great concern where children sitting on the earth floor
with no mats or tables to sit at. Although the tents have facilitated access, lack of such simple items
is clearly impeding teachers’ ability to teach, children’s enjoyment of school and is clearly
compromising their continued learning and development.

Water and Sanitation: Although access has been increased by the provision of tents, not all
schools have adequately increased capacity to meet the consequential needs for water and
sanitation and as such there is need for urgent attention to the water and sanitation situation of
many schools. The majority of schools are still below the minimum standard - even though extra
latrines have been installed. ACF, Goal and UNICEF are working to install more emergency latrines
in priority schools [8 in Nakuru – ACF, 8 in Uasin Gishu], as the high majority of schools still fall well
below the minimum standard.

An issue more recently reported was the condition inside and around the tents now that rain has
arrived. Tents are muddy as the water saturates the areas around them and paths leading to them.
Trenches should have been dug around each tent to prevent water entering inside and weakening
the pitch. Also, gravel paths should be laid where children are regularly walking.

A rapid assessment of water and sanitation needs should be undertaken that includes access to
latrines by gender and access to water points [or tanks] in each school and this should be facilitated
by the water and sanitation cluster. Some districts have begun to address needs and so far this
reveals that needs extend beyond the present capacity of agencies presently working to address
them.



Contin…




13
  Calculated on the basis that 3 children at seated at 1 desk; UNICEF have made further procurements and
plan distribution, 900 – 1000 desks provided for Nakuru [Funded by KCB]; schools furniture project
underway Turbo [Save the Children]

                                                                                                           20
The following organisations have contributed to funding appeals for Wat-San projects in schools:

Organisation          Locations                   Project outline
Action Against        Nakuru                      Targetting 5,000 students
Hunger [ACF           [Planned sanitation
                                                  Rehabilitation or construction of durable latrines in
USA]                  provision for Lenana,       schools
                      marugi Kariuki,             Installation of water storage facilitaties in schools
                      madarakah, St Francis,      Training of teachers for health education and
                      Naruku teachers, Lion       strengthening of student based hygiene clubs
                      Hill, Hyrax, Moi schools]
Cordaid               Slum Dwellers               Installation of rainwater harvesting in schools
                      Area to be confirmed
Health and Water      Nyanza,           West      Targetting 25,000 children, 80 primary schools
                                                                                                        14
Foundation            Province                    Training for school children and teachers on WASH
                                                  Construction of ventilated pit latrines [VIP in the ratio
                                                  of 1:25 boys and 1:30 girls
                                                  Provision of washrooms and hand-washing facilities
World Vision          Kisumu, Migari              Installation of water storage tanks in schools and
                                                  hand-washing equipments n schools
                                                  Construction of VIP latrines in targeted schools
                                                  Distribution of IEC materials to school clubs,
                                                  community facilitators
UNICEF                Clash affected areas        Water and sanitation in schools hosting IDP children
New            Life   Nyanza, Western S/N         Targeting 60 schools
International,        Rift Valley                 Hygiene education and resource mobilisation
Kenya                                             Providing portable water systems [plants] and
                                                  sanitation facilities to schools
Action Aid Kenya      --                          Construction of Pit Latrines
                                                  Construction of hygiene/wash facilities
                                                  Rehabilitation of water systems in schools
                                                  Expansion of water storage facilities in schools
                                                  Expansion of water storage facilitates
                                                  Hygiene promotion and education
CRS                   Uasin Gishu                 Hygiene promotion in schools
                                                  Training of teachers
                                                  Training of PTA members, construction of latrines

Hygiene education must be promoted and supported. Many IDP children who find themselves
attending town schools, have needed to change their own personal hygiene practice and care. Girls
from rural areas previously accustomed to using contemporary sanitary supplies are now using the
supplies along with their peers. Many children were not accustomed to using contemporary
bathrooms and have needed to change habits to fit in with usual practice in schools of using the
latrines. Health and hygiene education is needed in all schools that have absorbed IDP children.

With onset of rains and given the emergency education context [greater numbers of children, strain
on resources, resources of an emergency nature/style as opposed to those with permanent, longer
term durability etc] health and hygiene education must be a significant component of teaching
in learning. Hygiene Educators have been appointed by the KRC in the camps so schools and
should be harnessing their capacity and further emphasising the key messages – the education
cluster should promote and monitor this.

Protection and health: The present emergency environment and the consequential living
conditions also brings increased risk to disease (especially within the camps – HIV, malaria,
                   15
diarrhoea included ) and schools require guidance and support in reducing such risks. The

14
     WASH: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
15
     KRC Public Health Officer, Nakuru,

                                                                                                        21
capacity and planned initiatives of the health, protection, water and sanitation sectors must be
harnessed and drawn upon to address issues and reduce risks. It would be beneficial for the
Education Cluster members, including the Cluster Leads, to connect more closely with the other
sectors planning to support children in schools – particularly health and protection and particularly
given the change in climate and potential health risks reported. Girls (especially those in camps and
especially those out of school) are particularly vulnerable to sexual exploitation and abuse. The
SGBV cluster has initiated an awareness raising campaign and capacity building to address issues
of gender based violence and the exploitation of girls both inside and outside the camps.

In many of the schools assessed teachers were under strain to effectively manage large classes.
Sometimes, inappropriate methods of discipline were observed that seriously compromised the
wellbeing of young children. There is urgent need to introduce teachers to more child-friendly
methods of discipline and positive methods of classroom management and reintroduce to the
Teachers Code of Conduct.

The mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of many children is also an issue that teachers,
parents, head teachers felt requires greater and more immediate support. In all of the locations
assessed, children’s social and emotional wellbeing was of gave concern and the factor that many
felt has been neglected and overlooked. It is normally expected that teachers receive training and
material support as soon as possible after a crisis has occurred in order to mitigate impacts of their
experiences. As soon as possible, teachers should understand their role in aiding children’s
recovery and be equipped with materials, resources and skills [all simultaneously] so that they can
effectively and confidently support those who are in need. Head Teachers reported that KRC have
provided some counselling and debriefing sessions for children. Also, plans are underway to train
appointed teachers in counselling skills. It is suggested however, that teachers should be trained to
provide psychosocial support in an integrated, holistic way, with an emphasis on (but not exclusive
focus on) recreation, arts, games and teaching methods specifically designed to help aid recovery
from traumatic experiences. Consultations across all locations indicated this is somewhat delayed
and now an urgent need

A further issue of family separation has arisen for children in private residential academy schools.
Many parents of children in the academies were displaced during the violence and their present
locations are unknown. Additionally, many parents took their children to the academies during the
period of violence, believing they were a place of safety and opportunity for education. Presently
many academies are running out of basic resources and believe that children should be returned to
their families or placed in institutional care. While parents however remain in IDP camps, many
believe that their children are safer in and should remain within the academies. There are also
many who are missing and their whereabouts unknown.

An interagency team comprised of Save the Children, UNICEF, Department of Children Services
and the Child Welfare Society of Kenya have begun to address this issue, starting with the rapid
registration of separated children in the academies of Kiambu. The working group believes this may
be an issue that is not limited to Kiambu but is rather is happening in all affected areas.

For the better protection of girls, two schools visited have prevented girls from going out of school at
lunchtime and both reported that this is because of issues that are not limited to these particular
schools. Girls had reportedly been leaving the school for lunch which could be bought only through
exploitive sexual activities. Head Teachers and teachers believe that the economic situation is so
difficult for families that girls were engaging in sexual activity for as little as two mangos. The same
was reported in a camp in Nakurru.

In addition to health, protection of children, particularly those in camps, is of concern – particularly
those that have been unable to access school [and particularly the wellbeing and protection of girls
in the camps]. The affects on family income, depletion of assets and general disruption to family
routine combined with the basic needs in camp conditions is likely to have placed greater demand
on children to contribute to family wellbeing and financial upkeep.


                                                                                                     22
A concern frequently reported in all schools was the registration of Standard 8 and Form IDP
children for the national exams – an issue that is contributing to stress and anxiety for many
children. The cost of registration, the deadline and place in which they will take their exam are all
concerns expressed.

District Education Officials facilitated this assessment in each of the districts with the exception of
Molo. It should be noted that the each of the education offices have made extensive efforts and
progress in data collection in order to respond to the needs. Some offices have been directly
impacted by the violence for example, the District Education Officer of Naivasha was forced, as a
consequence of the violence, to leave and was subsequently replaced by another officer. Mobility
of ficers was hampered at a critical time as the the office vehicle was burned and destroyed. The
telephone system was also destroyed and is now not functioning. While such events reduced their
capacity, the Naivasha office exerted great efforts in assisting with the assessment by sharing all
data collected thus far and by the DEO and other officers accompanying the assessment team to
the camps and schools. All district officers continue to communicate the needs of schools to
facilitate response. Demands may be greater if key persons within education offices were more
actively involved in developing emergency contingency and preparedness plans and also if they
were more familiar with the Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies.
All officials consulted felt that there could be greater participation of the districts in developing the
response plans and called for greater involvement in the education cluster.

Of great concern in this assessment was the quality of care and provision of under-fives, including
those within the ECD schools – both in and outside camps. Greater impetus is needed to improve
and ensure the quality care of young children. All ECD classes are operating without basic materials
that ensure quality care and infant development. Although not documented in the report herein,
concern is expressed for the age-group 0-3. Support may be needed for infants and their mothers in
a way that is compatible with and complementary to existing positive child care practices -
particularly in camps. The Education Cluster should draw upon findings from health and also the
recent inter-agency assessment of nutrition for the under-fives for initial exploration of the care of
the young. It should not be assumed that Child Friendly Spaces are in all cases adequate nor
appropriate provision for this age-group. In some camps, CFS are being used as drop off centres
for the young. This report calls for greater seriousness and attention in responding to the needs of
this age-group.

Unusually, there are few organisations supporting the emergency education response on a broader
scale. While the Ministry of Education, civil society and the Kenyan Red Cross are all actively
supporting the response, there are few international organisations, specialising in emergency
education, to work with them and ensure coverage of education in the affected areas. This is of
concern given that support is needed to bolster the quality of children’s education, ensuring
children’s wellbeing, protection, health and continued development in the recovery period and whilst
the displaced continue to live in difficult emergency conditions.

Issues Prioritised by each District Education Officer

Priority issues for Education Officials in Uasin Gishu
    1. Ttents/temporary shelter to increase space / capacity for learners
    2. Water and sanitation systems in schools
    3. Support training of teachers, especially volunteer teachers
    4. Well being of children – psychosocial
    5. Teachers – administrative demands of displacement
Priority Issues for District education officials Trans-nzoia
     Tents to increase teaching and learning capacity
     Text books and other teaching and learning materials
     Latrines/water and sanitation
Priority issues highlighted by education officials Nakuru
     Over stretched basic resources including desks, text books and basic stationary

                                                                                                      23
       Water and sanitation - insufficient number of latrines
       Capacity of some schools to absorb large number of children [teaching space, desks, other
        materials].
     IDP students cannot pay national examination fee [Standard 8 and Form 1]
     Administrative demands on placing children and teachers in new schools
Priority issues highlighted by the education officials Naivasha
     Water and sanitation - insufficient number of latrines
     Students cannot pay national examination fee [mandatory fee of 3,200 KSH – Secondary,
        3,000 KSH Primary]
     Over stretched basic resources including desks, text books and basic stationary




                                                                                              24
25
UASIN GISHU DISTRICT
Schools / camps prioritised for emergency education support
Priority Schools/camps: Uasin Gishu          IDP
District                                     children
                                             enrolled
ASK Showground Primary                       2,604
ASK Showground Secondary                     336
Burnt Forrest Primary/ECD                    1,127
Arnessans                                    105
Turbo Camp – Primary
[Officially Lugari District]                 712
Turbo Camp - Secondary                       112
Chir Chir                                    220
Koiluget Primary Timboroa                    unconfirmed
Wareng [close to Showground]                 unconfirmed
Eldoret and the surrounding zones were amongst the hardest hit areas in the Rift Valley. The ASK
Showground is on the periphery of Eldoret town hosting one of the largest IDP camps with a
population of over 13,000 [which has reduced from 21,000 the population in late January. The
Showground ECD., primary and secondary school has been reported as the most stable out of all
camp schools. Children staying in Burnt Forest Camp attend Arnessans Primary [sometimes
referred to as Burnt Forest Primary. Turbo Camp is situated further out along the same road as
Burnt Forest.
As part of the assessment and under the guidance of the District Officials, visits were made to
schools outside the town. However, these were mostly to schools that had been destroyed –
completely burned, looted and vandalised. While this was valuable exposure to the situation, the
areas visited were mostly deserted as communities had left for other districts as far a-field as
Naivasha while others had moved into the ASK Showground.
Visits to the burned schools did however put into context some of the testimonies offered by
children, teachers and parents in the camps.
The following issues were prioritised by Education Officials in Uasin Gishu:
     6. Provision of tents/temporary shelter to increase capacity
     7. Provide water and sanitation systems in schools
     8. Support training of teachers, especially volunteer teachers




                                                                                             26
 School in Sugoi, Uasin Gishu




Musingen, PCEA Church School




School in Kimbaa, Uasin Gishu




                                27
 ASK Showground Camp School
                                                             16
ASK Showground Camp has a population of 13, 782 [IOM]. Situated in the old agricultural
showground, it is congested with this present population. The population is predominantly mostly
Kikuyu. One of the largest camps in the Rift Valley it is situated on the periphery of Eldoret Town.
Children constitute 30% of the population here at 4,608. Despite the limited living space, sufficient
ground was allocated for education purposes. Schooling began spontaneously in the camp with
volunteers running recreation activities informally with some more formal lessons for children
preparing for examinations. This activity was soon formalised when more children came and
UNICEF delivered ten school tents which facilitated the set up of a two-shift system and classes of
two streams. The teaching force is largely voluntary, with 16 trained teachers out of the total 64, the
remainder who are volunteers. The basic infrastructure is in place for the school to facilitate access
for children for more than three thousand IDP; however the school lacks basic items to ensure
quality learning experiences for all of the children for all primary, secondary classes ECD/pre-
primary classes.
Meetings were held across two days with teachers, the Head Teacher, Red Cross Education
Officers and groups of children and parents. Observations of classroom activity were undertaken.
Discussions were held with parents and carers within the camp as well as members from the camp
management committee. At the time of assessment, the School Management Committee was yet
to form.
Access to school ASK Showground
Primary School Enrolment ASK 17/03/08                   Secondary School Enrolment ASK 17/03/08

2008             Girls      Boys      Total
                                                                  Class    Girls   Boys       Total
ECD              272        334       606
                                                                  Form 1   68      92         160
Std 1            120        164       284
                                                                  Form 2   31      43         74
Std 2            127        168       295                         Form 3   34      38         72
Std 3            140        138       278                         Form 4   14      16         30
Std 4            155        120       275                         Total    147     189        336
Std 5            120        132       252
Std 6            146        105       251
Std 7            90         85        175
Std 8            100        88        188
Total            1270       1334      2,604

                                         st
School opened in the camp on the 21 January after informal play and recreation was organised by
volunteers in the camp which lead to more formalised activiey and preparation for school for
children. The opening of the school was coordinated by SNV, KESSPSA, KRC and the Ministry of
Education. The majority of primary school children are enrolled and regularly attending the IDP
Camp school although the numbers of secondary students is significantly low.

Access for Secondary: Teachers believe this is because the facilitates are inadequate, such as
seating, given that the chairs [brought by UNICEF] have been given to Form 4 and Standards 8 who
currently prepare for the national exams. According to the school administration and also some
students, the majority of IDP students are concerned about the mandatory Form Four 300 KSH
exam registration fee which some cannot afford to pay. This was flagged up as a major concern to
many students who are worried they will not be registered in time.




16
     IOM, Response Activities in Post Election Emergency, March 2008

                                                                                                    28
Access and Tents/shelter: 25 school tents have been provided by UNICEF which facilitated
immediate access when the school term began here. Nineteen are for primary [including 2 for ECD]
and 6 are for Secondary, and 1 tent is allocated for the Special Needs Class. While the tents have
provided good space for teaching and learning, the teachers and children felt there was question
over their durability and also suitability in hot weather and in the dusty environment. The tents do
have ventilation windows, and the sides can be hoisted up/sides pulled open, but most tent classes
visited across all assessed sites have not practices opening the sides for better ventilation. Some of
the tents have collapsed while the sides of others are falling away. These are being re-installed and
pitched again. This is urgent as the children feel upset when their school has collapsed. The Head
Teacher felt that more attention is needed when pitching the tents and instructions (as well as
appointed persons) for maintaining them, which should be at the time of distribution.




                          Form 4 Students finishing school, ASK Showground

ECD activity: The ECD classes started in tandem with the primary school classes and are run by
29 volunteer teachers. Teachers report that with lack of basic teaching and learning materials,
engaging the 600 children in meaningful activities is a challenge. The tents for ECD children
seemed particularly unkempt with the ground sheets dishevelled and dusty. The teachers seem to
need more support in structuring the day and managing such large groups of young children without
the basic resources.
Seating: As mentioned, only four classes have seating, brought by UNICEF. Children from these
classes had much more positive views of the school that those of other classes. Some teachers
said that lack of tables deters older students from attending as they feel demoralised to sit on the
floor all day.
Fixed desks are needed for the children of all other classes who continue to sit on the floor. During
the assessment, the ground in the classes was dusty. At the time of writing, rains have begun, and
they are now reportedly very muddy inside.
Low tables as well as plastic mats and plastic covered cushions have been urgently requested for
the large ECD class which presently have no furniture at all. Some volunteer teachers have brought
straw mats but these are insufficient in number.
Quality - ASK Showground
Teaching and learning: Quality of teaching varied between the classes and was evident in the
children’s response to the teacher and also the general upkeep of the class and children’s work.
Generally, teachers teaching children without desks and books seemed to be struggling to engage
and stimulate them. Most had written content/exercises on the board which children were copying
and working through. Provision of basic learning materials would provide scope to vary teaching
methods potentially more stimulating lessons for pupils. The four day training recently provided by
the District Education Office for volunteer teachers may help with introducing some basic

                                                                                                   29
methodological techniques, although more training should be provided to help teachers apply more
interactive, methods with a special focus on teaching large class sizes.
Teachers/teaching personnel: 16 of the 64 teachers are volunteers. School administration advise
that 33 more trained teachers are needed here. Teachers and the school administration felt that the
issue of incentives for teachers should be prioritised and a small honorarium would help not only
raise moral and prevent teachers from leaving but also contribute to improved quality of teaching.
Presently, they pay for their own transport. KRC provides maize for lunch but not other ingredients
needed to make a meal. Teachers said they need ‘salt and other basic food stuff’.
Tents: [see section on Access]
Desks: UNICEF provided desks for which were allocated to two classes in Standard 8 and a further
two Form 4 classes. These were well received and more are requested although there was
question over their quality as the front panels and in some cases the desk top has come away. The
panels are attached by staples and so teachers and children mentioned that more a more durable
model would be better if they are to withstand wear and tear throughout the next school term. The
remaining secondary classes and the remaining primary classes all required desks and given the
present enrolment, based on 3-children per desk, a further 320 fixed desks are needed. Volunteer
teachers of the three ECD tents requested low tables for children that would facilitated group work,
with mats and cushions that are easy to pack away when making space for group play and other
activities.

Teaching supplies: At first, the ony text books supplied were those donoated by neighbouring
schools and a few brought by students who managed to bring them from home. As in other schools
assessed, teachers felt one of the greatest challenges is supporting children’s learning with no text
books or other learning supplies. Since the assessment visit, Celtel has distributed text books, for
all the primary classes, accept Standard 3. Additional primary text books are needed as the current
ratio stands at about 1:10 students. Secondary classes are also yet to receive text books. Teachers
felt that although text books do not entirely determine the quality of teaching and learning, they help
children to focus on learning processes and content. Additionally, teachers said basic materials like
text books help raise moral amongst teachers and children and help with general classroom
organisation and management. Four teachers said that if text books were supplied, learning would
improve significantly as would classroom management.
Teaching and Learning materials provided thus far: Exercise books for all children [Save the
Children and UNICEF], Education Kits for primary classes x 20 [Save the Children], School bags –
allocated by the school to Standard 6 – 8, but not 1 – 5 [Save the Children], Text books for primary
classes, except Standard 3 [CELTEL], play kits for ECD [not delivered as yet], Recreation Kits x 70
[UNICEF], Education kits x 500 [UNICEF]

Psychosocial needs and support: Play materials: School administration reported that UNICEF
ECD play materials were delivered to Eldoret some weeks ago but as yet had not been distributed
to the ECD classes which was making management of these large classes very difficult for the
teachers and to some degree, disappointing for the children. It is unclear where these materials
are.
For assessment purposes, consultations and small group activities were held with children. Their
drawings showed that thoughts of the hostilities are still very much fresh in their minds. Some
spoke freely and openly about their experiences of fleeing from their homes while others were upset
when others spoke. All children, from two groups, participated in drawing and some of these
graphically depicted signs of violence and the burning of their homes.

When a group of nine children Standard 8 children were asked about their main concerns and
worries, the following issues were common between all: how they will compete in exams now that
they are at a disadvantage to others across the country given lack of access to materials; how to
register for the exams; and regression/forgetting passed learning.




                                                                                                    30
                                                        st
Children of ASK experiences’ ‘It was night on the 31 December. I ran into the bushes and stayed
down, under the hill. I watched the house burn. I saw them kill people all around and burn more
                                                               th
houses on the other side.’ ‘I was in Chepkala. It was the 30 . They wer coming and I fet afraid.
They were killing people and running, all of those Ananadies. They put black, like paint on their
faces to hide like warriors going to war.’ ‘We ran fast from that place up to another church to be
safe but they came there to find us.’ ‘We came here because our house was burnt. We saw the
fire in the night. Some were running away so we also left. We left behind the furniture and came just
in these clothes.’

In consultations with an officer from the Child Welfare Society, one child [not of Standard 8] said he
sometimes feels like killing someone and that he should be allowed to fight back.
Children play freely around the area of the school although more recreational materials for the
primary age group and ECD classes are urgently needed.
Parental involvement: Discussions were held with twenty carers/parents
Water and Sanitation: Latrines were installed at the same time as the tents. Children consulted
felt the structures are good. Water points are also provided. However, more are still needed –
presently teachers share the Primary latrines, as do the Secondary students.
As of 14/3/08, an additional 5 additional more latrines are needed for teachers, and an additional 10
more for the 320 Secondary children.
With onset of rain, trenches need to be dug around the tents to minimise water entering tents and
also weakening the pitch.
Special needs and inclusion: one tent is used for teaching children with special educational
needs. There are presently twenty students with a diverse range of learning needs. Children’s
attendance in this class is good. The class is managed by one teacher who is TSC trained in special
needs teaching.
Protection/Security - ASK
As reported in the Protection Cluster, there are concerns for the wellbeing and protection of
children, especially young girls, who have been leaving the showground and engaging in sexual
activities, which is believed to be a reflection of the challenging livelihoods situation for many
families, exploitative trends and the lack of adequate security measures in the camp. At the time of
assessment, there were reports of girl exploitation within the showground which the Protection
Cluster to follow up on in collaboration with the camp management and also the police.
At the time of assessment, the area around the school was not fenced off. The school administration
requested support to agencies to fix this in order to increase children’s security and also help with
school maintenance and security of school items.
The lack of latrines for different age groups and the lack of latrines specifically for teachers needs to
be address.
Coordination - ASK
The school administration and teachers felt that coordination could be improved if the head
administrators and education officers from the KRC were more involved with, and represented in the
field level Education Cluster and inter-cluster meetings. It was felt that there needs to be stronger
representation of the school with its needs vocalised much more strongly. Several issues had been
reported, such as lack of text books and desks, but there is little feedback on progress of such
issues. A School Management Committee has recently been formed [March 2008] and also a Board
of Governors to support the management and development of the Secondary School.

Immediate Needs, ASK Showground March 2008
       Latrines needed: X 10 latrines for 320 secondary students and minimum X 5 latrines for the
        64 teachers. [reported 18/03/2008]
       Improved drainage surrounding the school tents. Trenches to be dug.
       Urgent provision of age-appropriate recreational materials, especially for younger
        children/ECD [606 children].
       Provision of relevant text books for all 336 Secondary students, all subjects.

                                                                                                      31
   Address issue of incentive for all volunteer teachers. Standardised agreement amongst
    Cluster Members and agreement of date from which to action.
   Provision of school bags for primary [except those that have received] – important to supply
    all children so as to avoid inequity now that some have received.
   Seating for all classes [except those provided [Form 4 and Standard 8].
   Attention and support to exam registration issue [Form 4, Standard 8]
   Training and support for ECD teachers especially for managing large classes.
   Emphasis on urgent provision time and resources for psychosocial support for all children.




                                                                                             32
Burnt Forest Camp – Arnessans Primary and Secondary Schools
Arnessans Burnt Forest ECD and Primary School Enrolment for 2007 [pre-crisis]
and 2008 [post-crisis]
                                                           17
Burnt Forest Camp has a population of around 5,578 with 310 plots and high mobility/unstable
numbers. [check]]].      The camp was initially located within the grounds of the Catholic
Church,adjacent to Burnt Forest Secondary School. This has recently located to grounds along the
highway, on the same side as Arnesans/Burnt Forest Primary School. The children from this camp
attend Arnesan’s Primary [which is being recorded by some as ‘Burnt Forest Primary].
Within the camp an Education Committee has formed which meets three times a week which in
addition to education discusses security, health and camp organisation.

Access - Arnessan’s Primary School [hosting children from Burnt Forest IDP Camp]

                 Girls      Boys      Total             2008         Girls   Boys        Total
2007
ECD              98         77        175               ECD          119     129         248
Std 1            70         70        140               Std 1        54      75          129
Std 2            52         69        125               Std 2        38      84          122
Std 3            63         46        109               Std 3        51      49          100
Std 4            63         54        117               Std 4        59      58          117
Std 5            69         54        123               Std 5        45      48          93
Std 6            52         51        103               Std 6        65      50          115
Std 7            42         43        85                Std 7        54      46          100
Std 8            63         44        107               Std 8        49      54          103
Total            576        508       1087              Total        534     593         1127

The primary school has absorbed large numbers of IDP Kikuyu children whose homes have been
burned and who now reside in Burnt Forest Camp. Although the school has received a high number
of IDPs, a large [but unconfirmed] number from 2007 roll have not returned to school this year.

The camp has recently been moved from the grounds of Arnesans Secondary, where approximately
100 families remain, to a new site on the same side of the highway as Arnesans Primary.
Enrolment has increased although the total figures do not reflect the change in school population as
some children have also moved to other districts.

Access to ECD: ECD enrolment is particularly high and class-sizes large as there are only five
teachers for 248 children [ECD numbers increased by a further 34 children from time of assessment
to the time of writing two weeks later].

Access Secondary: Enrolment at Arnessans secondary school is increasing but remains low. Before
the crisis enrolment figure was 580 while presently only 110 students have reported back and
enrolled. The majority of students have been dispersed within schools in Eldoret town since the
secondary building was occupied by IDPs. Now the school is operational, some are starting to
return although it is expected that some may have transferred for the year. It was difficult to
ascertain how many Secondary School age students are living at the camp and therefore numbers
of children not in school.

The leaders within the new camp could not provide break down of age groups at the time of
assessment although the school gave numbers enrolled. Noted however, was the large number of
very young children [under age 3 / 4].



17
     IOM Response Activities in the Post Election Emergency, March 2008

                                                                                                 33
A very small number of secondary students attend classes for IDP children, within the St Patriicks
Catholic School, which is adjacent to the Secondary.

Parents in the camp expressed concern for the education of secondary school age children and
estimated that there were between 70 – 100 children in the camp who were not at school.

In consulting adults in the camp, assessors met with tailors who have started to make school bags
for a small number of children using the tailoring machinery that have brought with them.

Quality – Burnt Forest Primary/ [Arnessans Primary]
Teaching and learning: Out of fifty teachers, 41 are volunteers, while the remaining 9 are TSC
trained. Out of the five teachers consulted four classrooms lacked the essential text books and this
was raised as the main factor that seriously hampers their ability to teach well. All felt that large
class sizes was not such an issue, but rather lack of teaching and learning tools determines the
impact they have. In five classes observed, there were no text books amongst the children. All
children had exercise books. Teachers said that the only option is to write everything from the books
on the board which is time consuming and also reduces children’s interaction and enthusiasm for
learning.
Most teachers here are untrained volunteers who have either no or little training in teaching/learning
methodology. Some of the volunteers are recent graduates from Form 4. Volunteers teaching the
higher grades feel that discipline is made more difficult when there aren’t the basic materials and
tools to teach and that they lose credibility as teachers.
They also felt strongly they should be receiving an incentive for their efforts and this would motivate
them to teach in more stimulating and creative ways. Two teachers suggested that volunteers
should receive half the pay of the lowest level trained teacher [P1], which is 20,000 KSH. per month
[ie. Suggestion is that the volunteer should receive 10,000 KSH One [ECD volunteer] teacher
recently left and the Head Teacher believes others will follow.
Desks are in short supply and mean that in some classes, six children are sharing a bench designed
for three. The ECD class has few tables for young children but these are vastly insufficient for the
248 children enrolled.

Materials provided: UNICEF has provided exercise books which are being issues to all children,
[Also, refer to’ psychosocial support’ and also ‘teaching and learning’]
Health issues: No major health issues were reported although the psychosocial wellbeing of many
of the children is a major concern. The teachers reported an increase in colds amongst the IDP
children and the Head Teacher suspects that some people in the camp have [unconfirmed]
pneumonia all possibly attributed to the exposed position of the new camp which is on the upper
side of a hill which catches the wind.
Children’s hygiene calls for special attention. Many children own just one set of clothes which are
clearly worn and tattered. Some children wore garments that exposed their back and shoulders
where the thread had almost entirely worn away. When ninety two from three classes were asked
to comment on the experiences at school, more than half mentioned that clothing was an issue for
them and that they needed basic items such as shoes. Some children of the host community have
given a set of clothes to their IDO peers.
Girls and teachers said that sanitary towels were urgently needed if girl enrolment was to be
sustained.

Water and Sanitation: There are 36 latrines for the 1,127 children although 10 of these are not
functional. UNICEF have been called to manage the repair of these. There are two pit latrines for
the fifty teachers and so more toilets are urgently needed for both children and the teachers. A
further, more detailed assessment of the water and sanitation situation is needed with consideration
to access and suitability for the younger children.
The primary school has piped water but this is also not working. There is also a water tank but this
is exclusively for the security guards and not for children who are asked to bring water from the
camp or from home.

                                                                                                    34
The pit latrines of the secondary school were full at the time of assessment – SCUK as raised the
issue at inter-agency meetings and is lobbying for support from local council/municipality had been
called to drain/empty them, with SC could help facilitate.

Integration: The Head Teacher of Burnt Forest Primary commended the Child Welfare Society
[CWS] for the strong support provided especially with regards to supporting children’s security and
also promoting peace and integration. At the beginning of the new school year, CWS mobilised the
community to help with registration, starting classes despite the fact that the school classrooms
were occupied by the displaced and therefore classes would take place under trees and in the
school field. Despite great insecurity, CWS managed to oversee the continuation of double shift
classes, outside for three weeks with the Head Teacher taking 200 Standard Eight children at a
time. During this time, the Kalligen attackers would frequently surround the compound, taking
positions at the corners with their weapons. On a few occasions, they outnumbered the police who
were appointed to keep the security. The Head Teacher explained how on some occasions, the
atmosphere was so tense as they were surrounded that she instructed children to run home for fear
of attack.
Before the crisis, children from a number of different tribes were enrolled and inter-tribal relations
were reportedly good. However, Kalligen children did not immediately return to school for enrolment
in the new school year as result of perceived insecurity within the school now that Kikuyu children
had arrived from other places. In early February a few enrolled but, as the numbers of Kalligen
increased, Kikuyu children started to withdraw.
The school facilitated community discussions with a focus on the importance of integration, peace
and relationships between teachers and children. According to the Head Teacher, these discussions
made a profound impact on the social environment of the school. Now, 100 Kalligens are attending
regularly and interaction seems, according to the Head Teachers, as normal. In early March, the
Kalligen teachers also started to return, and are also teaching as normal [Head Teacher]. It was
difficult to determine the sentiments of the teachers on this issue. According to the Head Teacher
and a group of children enrolled at Burnt Forrest, neighbouring schools are not admitting all tribes,
but rather favour the Lua and Kalligens, not the Kikuyus and the Kiissiis. Some Kalligen children
from other schools have transferred to Burnt Forrest and now there is also approximately 150 more
Kikuyu than last year given the intake of pupils that come from schools which have been destroyed.
A meeting was held for teachers in early March with the focus on non-discrimination and all tribes
co-existing peacefully together. The teachers had reportedly felt bitter and unwilling to teach Kikuyu
children and vice versa. This meeting provided a positive start and as the Head Teacher
commented, the teachers now know that all children have the right to be supported and accepted in
school, regardless of their tribal origin.
Teachers raised the issues of lack of school uniforms and how this can limits integration to an
extent. Many of the IDP children in this school appear to own one set of clothes most of which are
worn out. Two teachers teacher said that ideally uniforms would be worn but that relationships
between the children were much more important than the colour of the clothes. In consulting adults
in the camp, assessors met with tailors who have started to make school bags for a small number of
children using the tailoring machinery that have brought with them. There are reportedly four / five
tailors in the camp who are able to make school uniforms or bags for children.

Psychosocial support: A large number of children at the school witnessed violence and hostility to
a degree that according to the CWS Officer, the Head Teacher (and also observed by assessors),
some are likely to need individual support on a personal basis. Children and teachers at this school
shared experiences openly. Assessors sensed however that the intensity of experiences were such
that this school should be amongst those prioritised for immediate psychosocial support and special,
personal counselling for some children.

When children were asked about activities at their school, and things they liked to do, some spoke
openly and readily about the experiences of the violence and displacement.




                                                                                                   35
The Head Teacher recounted the following:
‘One of our school boys from Ruguri and another from Kamoyo were killed. That one would
have been in my class this term. The one from Ruguri was just 12, a very tiny boy. That
made everyone here cry. The neck was cut from the head completely. You don’t look at
the killing side, but the way he was killed. It was at his home, taking care of his
grandfather of 90 years who refused to move. The rest of the family had ran away to safety
in Burnt Forest but the boy was left to take care of the grandfather as everyone thought no
one would kill him because he was tiny. We have overcome all that but sometimes we
cry.’

The Amani Centre of Nairobi provided de-briefing services, but according to the Head and other
teachers, support of greater depth and regularity is urgently needed – on a one-to-one and also
group basis. ‘While whole class psychosocial support methods will be beneficial for the school, but
this alone will not be enough to sufficiently mitigate the impacts of the profound and horrifying
experiences these children have had. I would say that some of these children have ‘gone’ mentally
and emotionally.’ Head Teacher, Burnt Forest.

Some play kits were provided [UNICEF] but more are urgently needed. Many children were
observed making and using their own play items from waste and natural materials. This is most
likely the most sustainable and perhaps usual practice, although children’s play should be assisted
and supported much more in this school at this time and provision of play items such as skipping
ropes, footballs and also arts materials would greatly facilitate psychosocial recovery for some
children.

IPD children of Standard 8 said that the uncertainty of not knowing their future, particularly with
regards to exam registration, was worrisome. Five students appealed asked if they could appeal
directly to the Ministry of Education or UNICEF to find a solution to the situation for all IDP students.
Security/Protection: Security for the school improved dramatically over the month and according
to teachers this is reflected in the general atmosphere within and around the school, children’s
wellbeing, school enrolment and attendance.
Children walk to and from school in groups and for safety reasons and the younger children are
reportedly accompanied by two teachers. However, on the day of assessment, an unaccompanied
group of eight children from the ECD class were seen running across the busy main road from the
primary to the secondary school. The CWS Officer commented that the ECD class may be moved
partly because of the road issue but also because of the overcrowding of ECD classes.

Teachers reported that while the school is ‘on safe ground now’, the surrounding areas, particularly
the communities from which they came, are not yet secure. One teacher commented ‘If you want to
go back that side, you must be accompanied by police but even then your safety cannot be
guaranteed for they [the police] could be outnumbered. We have had cases like this in the past few
days. Security will take time – maybe a whole year.’ A security incident occurred one day prior to
the assessment visit which was witnessed by one of the school children that has also been
identified as in urgent need of special emotional support given that her father was attacked and
killed during the crisis.

There is concern for the general wellbeing of the younger children within the camp, especially those
not in school (including the under 5’s). Although generally speaking they are supervised by adults,
carers are strained to provide the quality care and support that young children in such
circumstances need.

Early Childhood Development / Pre-primary: While the ECD classes are providing a much
needed and valuable service, the school is severely overstretched to ensure the wellbeing of the


                                                                                                      36
282 children presently enrolled. The 282 children are split between three classes and supervised by
five teachers all of whom are trained but work as volunteers. There are limited resources for
teaching and learning. There are no play materials. Teachers frequently use the outside space for
group play but there is virtually no shade – outdoor play for long periods is difficult under the sun.
The Head Teacher and voluntary staff have proposed that an ECD centre is opened at the Burnt
Forrest Camp where other younger children and mothers could also benefit. While this would not
promote integration, it could be the better solution in the best interests of the younger children
whose safety is also compromised given the journey to school along the high road.
Play kits should be provided for the ECD classes at the soonest.
Arnessan’s Secondary School: Assessment here was not conclusive as staff were not available.
The school was initially reported as destroyed through the occupancy of a large number of IDPs.
Assessments later showed that while there is some damage, most assets remain intact. The latrines
are full and need to be emptied and this requires urgent attention.
As mentioned under the section of Access, a large proportion of children have enrolled in schools
within Eldoret town.
Burnt Forest Primary are also accommodating secondary school students although there is concern
that a large number of secondary students [an estimated 70 – 100 children] are out of school in and
around Burnt Forest Camp.
A discussion was held with 6 IDP Form 4 students studying within the St Patrick’s Catholic Church
beside Arnessans Secondary. This group felt that learning was difficult primarily because there are
no text books. They listed the text books needed: Maths, English, Kiswahili, Chemistry, Biology,
Physics, CRE, Business Studies, Agriculture, Geography and History [for all grades, Form 1 -4].
The students were also concerned about registration for the national examination and the
requirement for a minimum of 20 candidtes for each class in order for a centre to be registered for
K.S.C.E. Head Teachers of Arnessan’s and St Patricks negotiating how to integrate these students
into Arnessan’s Secondary.

Immediate Needs, Burnt Forest Primary and Secondary, 2008
       Support in the process of integrating IDP students at St Patrick’s Secondary into Arnessans
        Secondary School.
       Increase water-sanitation capacity in Arnessan’s Secondary [clearance of existing latrines
        and provision of additional latrines to meet minimum standard].
       ECD kits / play materials for 248 children
       Installation of latrines of appropriate specification for infants.
       Technical support for teachers in providing psychosocial care for all students and in
        addressing specific needs of special cases
       Technical advice and support for teachers for improved integration
       Text books for all secondary classes
       Text books for all primary classes
       Coordination with Health Cluster and technical working group strategising for psychosocial
        care.
       Health/hygiene education with focus on avoidance of communicable disease and water
        borne disease.




                                                                                                   37
Turbo IDP Camp School
                                                         18
Turbo Camp accommodates approximately 6,500 IDPS and is situated beyond Burnt Forest. The
camp was not visited on this assessment although information has been provided by the District
Education Officer in Uasin Gishu and also Education Advisors from Save the Children. It was
reported in the Inter Cluster meeting that Turbo Camp officially falls under the Lugari District.
Access
Enrolment at Turbo Primary Camp School            Enrolment at Turbo Secondary Camp School,
        Class     Girls       Boys       Total       Class 2008        No Students
        ECD       89          97         186         Form 1            -
        Std 1     37          30         67          Form 2            24
        Std 2     49          40         89          Form 3            18
        Std 3     33          32         65          Form 4            70
        Std 4     49          29         78          Total             112
        Std 5     51          35         86
        Std 6     47          33         80
        Std 7     44          27         71
        Std 8     34          38         72
        Total     433         361        794

School activities were started spontaneously here by the IDP community who designed and erected
classrooms/school structures themselves. Seven classrooms were constructed by IDP carpenters
and masons residing within the camp. The classrooms are reportedly well ventilated, made of timber
and iron sheeting.
The floor is earth and plastic sheeting is needed as children are presently sitting on pieces of paper.

Unlike the other camps in Uasin Gishu, there are 21 TSC trained teachers currently teaching at this
school so there is presently no need for additional volunteer teachers.

Resources distributed: Tents x 5 [UNICEF] Education Kits [UNICEF] Education Kits [Save the
Children], School bags [Save the Children]

Seating: Save the Children are working with carpenters of Turbo Camp for the production of fixed
seating.

Psychosocial support: KRCS are providing psychosocial support at Turbo although further
support is needed to meet needs.
Some stability in the area to extent that some would return if there was a place to live in.

Resources supplied so far: Education Kits x 12 [unconfirmed], Tents x 5 [UNICEF], Recreation
Kits x 4 [unconfirmed. [UNICEF], Blackboards x 8 [UNICEF] – in process of distribution; Tent x 1
[UNICEF] – in process of distribution.
Immediate needs at Turbo Camp School:
    Desks [planned by Save the Children]
    Training for teachers
      [assessment of further needs required]




18
     Inter-Cluster Progress Report 05-03/08

                                                                                                    38
DISTRICT OF TRANS NZOIA
Priority Schools/camps as advised by District Education Officer Trans-nzoia
The following Issues were prioritised by district education officials:
      Tents to increase teaching and learning capacity
      Text books and other teaching and learning materials
      Latrines/water and sanitation

                    Issues/emergency context                             Dec         March
  Names of                                                                           2008
                                                                                                 Needs March
                                                                         2007                    18 / 0 3 /2008
  Schools                                                                enrolment
                                                                                     enrolment
                    [Figures fluctuating]
  Endebes           There are 8,000 IDPS within Endebes Camp.            679         12453
  Primary           The school hosts children from the Endebes                                   Tents x 6
                    camp. Before the clashes, this school had 668                                Latrines x 8
                    enrolled, which has now increased to 1,679                                   Text books
                    [increase of 871 children]. All classes are of 150                           T-L materials
                    children and above.
                    Enrolment in 20007: 679: F: 351 M: 328
  Noigum,           Enrolment in March was 1805, including 1049          801         1805        Water tank x 1
  Cherangany        IDPs. This number is dropping with unconfirmed                               Text books
                    reports this may be 319 IDPS now [end March].                                EDC supplies
                    School has separate classes for IDP and host
                    children.
  Kesogan           School absorbed IDPs previously residing in the      1200`       1,600       Tents 4
  Primary           church. Families began staying in the school                                 Latrines x 6
                    compound.                                                                    Desks x 100
                                                                                                 T-L materials
  Milimane          School in town, hosting children from the            500         1,000       Latrines x 6
  Primary           Showground IDP camp.                                                         T – L materials
  Umunga            On roll 2007: 652. IDPs 210                          652         862         Tents x 2
                                                                                                 Desks x 20
                                                                                                 Latrines x 3
                                                                                                 Water Tank 1
                                                                                                 Text Books St 1 – 8
                                                                                                 t- L materials
  Massaba           Hosting displaced children.                          ?           ?
  Primary
  Kiminini          Hosting children staying in centre, churches and     1157        1458        Text books
  Primary           camp.                                                                        Latrines x 8
                                                                                                 T- L materials
  Shibanga          Children arrived from Noigum. Families renting in    837         1071        Tents x 4
  Primary           town.                                                                        Desks x 40
                    School has no access to water.                                               Text books
                                                                                                 Water tank 1
                                                                                                 T- L materials

  Makutano          On roll 2007 1044, IDPs enrolled 350                 1044        1394        Tents x 2
                                                                                                 Latrine x 8
                                                                                                 Desks x 40
                                                                                                 Text books
                                                                                                 T-L materials
  Mumbunngale       On roll 2007: 1215, IDPs enrolled 261                1215        1476        Tent x 5
                    School has no access to water.                                               Latrines x 8
                                                                                                 Desks 50
                                                                                                 Water tank
  Wduhini                                                                300         500         ?
  Primary
  Limima            Hosting IPS                                          820         940         Text books 1 – 4
                    Limited resources                                                            Tents x 2
                    Water supply very far from school                                            Pit latrines x 4
                                                                                                 Water tank
                                                                                                 T-L materials
  Cheparus          Displaced 73, Total - 966                            996         1039        Text books
                                                                                                 Latrines x 5

                                                                                                                  39
                                                                                              Water tank x 1
                                                                                              Desks x 25
      Nai Primary       Shortage of teachers who left for indigenous        900       900
                        homeland.
      Fea Primary       Hosting 138 displaced                               790       918     Water tank
                                                                                              Latrines x 6
                                                                                              Text books
                                                                                              2 tents
                                                                                              T-L materials



Noygum Primary School
Before the post-election crisis, this area was reportedly a ‘convergence zone’ – a zone of peace.
The Noygum community considered this a safe haven for those troubled by skirmishes or unrest –
often the Kiisii, Marowqkwet, Kikuyu and Luhya would be welcomed when coming from areas such
                                                                        19         st
as Kerio Valley, Centre Kurranza and Mount Elgon and West Pokot. . On 31 December, an
approximate 20,000 IDPs arrived at Noygum school and occupyied all classrooms and other school
facilities. The population soon dropped to 14,000 as some left for other districts as far as Nakuru
and Naivasha and by mid March the population was reported by the camp manager to have
decreased to 3.664. The Noygum IDP Camp was formally erected beside the school and remains at
the present time with a fluctuating and unconfirmed population [currently under assessment by
IOM].
                                                                       th
The primary school opened for the new term on the 24 January. At the time of assessment
Noygum Primary hosted 1,049 children, which included 930 primary school age and 199 ECD/pre-
school children who occupied 5 UNICEF tents and 2 smaller tents donated by JRS. By mid March,
the Camp Manager at Noygum reported that 876 children living in the camp go to school.
Access – Noygum Primary
At the time of assessment, the school hosted the following IDPs. These figures do not include
previously enrolled [host] children of Noygum. The school organised separate classrooms for the
IDP children. Total of host children combined with IDP children is 1,805 although there are reports
that the number of IDPs have significantly dropped, and have returned [or relocated] to Geta Farm,
and that now the number of IDP children at Noygum may be around 370 [mid March]. Despite the
reported drop in numbers, people are still arriving and so enrolment is fluctuating.

IDP children enrolled in Noygum Primary School, 3/03/2008                     b 30 g 19 IDP

         IDP children        Girls        Boys       Total
         March
         03/03/08
         St 1                55           77         132
         St 2                68           81         149
         St 3                54           55         109
         St 4                49           52         101
         St 5                52           52         104
         St 6                49           38         87
          3St 7              55           46         101
         St 8                85           62         147
         Total               467          463        930




19
     Teacher, Noygum Primary School

                                                                                                              40
                                                                   ECD         Girls       Boys
                                                                   Class 1     53          54
                                                                   Class 1     23          24
                                                                   Total       76          78

                                                                   This includes 30 IDP boys and
                                                                   19 IDP girls [total 49 IDP
Secondary school children from the camp attend Kip Kei Kie         children]
Secondary School although enrolment of IDPs is comparatively
low. An estimate of 50 – 60 primary school children within the
camp have not enrolled. The camp manager reported 333 children under 5 years who are not
enrolled in preschool or other care facilities.
Attendance of children enrolled is good with numbers in the afternoon remaining high.
Learning space: at the time of assessment, the classrooms were overcrowded; two particularly
large classes accommodated 136 Standard 7 and 8 IDP students.

Quality – Noygum Primary
The school has been open and willing to enrol all children regardless of its capacity and also
children’s origin or tribe – which according to the teachers is not the case with all schools. The
PTA/School Committee was very instrumental in supporting school enrolment and emphasising
inclusion. This may have been why enrolment was particularly high throughout February.

The Head Teacher commented how the school has emphasised the importance of inclusion
throughout the response (although the school has organised separate classes for IDP children).
Teachers said the one of the biggest challenges now is that children are from disparate
backgrounds and of varying levels of age and ability - some classes are organised by mulit-grade.
Also, some of the children are from very remote places and so bring very different learning
experiences with them. Moreover, children that have missed some weeks of schooling are finding it
difficult to catch up given the stress they have been under and generally the lack of materials.

Children of the lower primary IDP classes appeared keen and happy to be in class despite the
scarcity of learning materials and also the activity they were engaged in which was not interactive.
Children were seated on the dusty groundsheet and although the tent [donated by JRS] was hot and
poorly ventilated, children appeared highly engaged in their individual writing tasks.

    Standard 1 IDP class. Children seated on the floor for a maths lesson in the JRS tent
                    [through Catholic Dioces], Noygum Primary School




Teachers: ‘We had 54 teachers, then 34, then 34 but now we have 19 for the IDP students. As a
consequence, some of the classes are too big’. Some have more than 130 students. It is also
because of lack of space – with more classrooms, we could split the children’.
Water and Sanitation: The school has 32 latrines – 16 each for boys and girls. A further two blocks
under construction by IRC [girls latrine x 4 + boys latrine x 4]. There is one water tank but an
additional two are needed. When the school eventually re-opened for the new school year, many
classrooms and also the latrines were in a poor condition, soiled with defecation after the IDP
occupancy. The School Management Committee and also children helped clean up what the Head
Teacher described as a very polluted environment.


                                                                                                  41
Special needs: Children with special needs are integrated into classes. There are diverse needs.
The Head Teacher reported that there are more visually impaired children that children with other
special needs. There are 12 children within the camp with special needs who are not enrolled or
participating in other formal or non formal schooling.




                                                                                              42
Teaching and learning materials:
The school has received Education Kits from UNICEF but a further 20 more were requested by the
Head Teacher it was pointed out that many of the materials are consumables and the stock is
depleting. Text books are needed as the children from the host school have shared their supply
with the IDP children however the ratio for some classes is 1:10.
Items received: 7 tents [first installation of 5, then 2 additional mid March - UNICEF]; 20 Education
Kits [UNICEF], 5 x recreational kits [UNICEF] + 2 x additional recreational Kits; exercise books and
chalk [UNICEF], desks supplying one class [UNCEF], Sanitary pads [UNICEF], x 2 tents – smaller
size of 12’/12’ [JRS].
At the time of assessment, only basic writing materials [pencils and exercise books] were being
used.
Desks: Desks from a number of [unconfirmed] classrooms were used by IDPs who occupied it for
firewood along with two classroom doors and wooden shutters. To date the school has not received
desks to accommodate IDP children. Desks were taken from the school and given to the older IDP
students. A minimum of 100 desks/fixed benches were requested to seat the 300+ more IDP
children. Most children are seated on the floor which while covered with ground sheets, was not
conducive for writing.
Integration: hen the school opened the school administration decided to separate teaching and
learning for IDP and host children. The head teacher reported that the school is therefore in ‘two
units’ – one for IDP children who are accommodated mostly within the tents, and regular children of
this community accommodated in the school building. It was thought that the situation was very
temporary and given that displacement was perceived to be short-lived, minimising disruption to
usual classes was the best method when absorbing the large number.
Although classes are held separately, children of different groups play together at break times, and
relationships between them is reportedly good.
According to the Head Teacher, some parents of the host community were not in favour of the
school receiving the IDPs but sentiments with regards to this issue have apparently since changed.
Psychosocial needs and support: Children’s discussions or consultations were brief. Views were
offered by the Head Teacher and two teachers who said that children’s emotional and social
wellbeing was stable now that some time has passed and children are back at school. Two
teachers said that the living conditions in the camp are difficult and that this may lead to or prolong
any stress that children feel.

A small discussion was held with one Standard 8 class [which was very overcrowded]. Children
commented that they were very thankful to UNICEF for the tent in which they sat although it was
uncomfortable to sit in the heat and also with four or five to a bench that was designed for three.
Moreover it was stressful not knowing if they will fair are well in the national exams. Overall, the
children of Standard 8 did not appear happy to be in school. They commended their teacher for
supporting them.

Protection – Noygum Primary
Both boys and girls reported that they need lighting in the camp for the evenings which would
facilitate study and also help themselves and others feel safer.
The Head Teacher and others reported that the conditions within the camp were ‘uncomfortable for
children’ and that school brings some relief for them given the difficult living conditions. Teachers
also said that girls are in need of more sanitary pads even though some had already been provided
by UNICEF.
Early Years – Noygurm Primary
The camp manager reported in March that 333 under fives do not access formal or informal
schooling or day care facilities. However, 49 are accessing the ECD class in Noygum School which
integrates host and IDP children. As the assessment team were able to visit the school only, the


                                                                                                    43
situation in the camp was not assessed to either corroborate the numbers or investigate the
situation for children within the camp.

Immediate needs in Noygum:

      Additional water tank x 1 [for children’s access]
      Access for all secondary school children within and around Noygum Camp presently unable
       to access school
      Provide text books [minimum of core subjects] for all classes
      Effective psychosocial support for classes and also one-to-one support for children with
       special psychosocial needs
      Provide play materials/kit for ECD classes
      Provide teacher training and follow-up support for integration processes
      Provide training for teachers with focus on managing large classes and classes of mixed
       ability
      Provide clarity for IDP children on the deadline for registering for the national examination
       the minimum fees required




                                                                                                 44
NAKURU DISTRICTS AND MUNICIPIALITY
There are five jurisdictions in Nakuru, all with equal weight and each with a head [DEO] in charge of
education within the area. The five jurisdictions are: Molo, Nakuru North, Nakuru Minicipiality and
Naivasha. Each of them presently host IDPs, some that have come from Eldoret or further west,
while others have been displaced from within Nakuru itself. Within the emergency response, there
has been a strong emphasis on integration of students into government schools which has been
supported and encouraged by education officials.

Twelve Ministry of Education trainers from across the districts participated in a four-day workshop
which focuses on child protection, integration and emergency preparedness. They will be delivering
the course to head teachers and senior teachers from schools which have taken on significant
numbers of displaced children. Assessment was undertaken in Nakuru District, Molo and Naivaish.
Data for Nakuru North was collected from the District Education Office and is presented in the
following table.

Key challenges schools in terms of infrastructure and materials provision are lack of furniture, lack
of school uniforms, inadequate water and sanitation facilities, lack of feeding programme and short
supply of teaching and learning materials.

 Nakuru North District
The District Education Officer of Nakuru North reported on the 25-02-2008 that 11,348 children
[5,608 boys and 5,740 girls] were displaced and that these pupils are distributed in all of the 64
primary schools within the district. In total, 193 teachers were placed [105 male and 88 female]
across 48 primary schools. In addition, there are 801 students [395 add 406 girls] currently within
secondary schools. The following needs were reported some of which may have subsequently
been met.
Priority issues highlighted by education officials:
     Over stretched basic resources including desks, text books and basic stationary
     Water and sanitation - insufficient number of latrines
     Capacity of some schools to absorb large number of children [teaching space, desks, other
          materials].
     IDP students cannot pay national examination fee [Standard 8 and Form 1]
     Admistrative demands on placing children and teachers in new schools

          Name of School [listed by Boys                Girls       Total    Tents  Latrines
          DEO Nakuru North]                                                  needed needed
    1.    Kajamana                             431      416        847       4           22
    2.    Kagboto                              309      341        650       4           19
    3.    Lanet Limojo                         267      260        627       3           18
    4.    Eldono                               228      260        486       3           17
    5.    St Lawanga                           319      314        633       3           15
    6.    Ndungiri                             234      195        429       3           15
    7.    Olbonata                             204      209        418       3           14
    8.    Dundori                              170      184        356       2           14
    9.    Rigogogo                             150      146        296       2           12
    10.   St Johns Bahati                      122      158        280       2           10
    11.   Subuki                               150      128        278       2           10
    12.   Kinari                               126      144        270       1           8
    13.   Mikue                                128      134        262       1           6
    14.   Rurii                                131      118        249                   6
    15.   Our Lady of Mercy                    120      128        248                   6
    16.   Muriundu                             124      122        246                   6

                                                                                                  45
   17.   Engoshjura                                  96         116          212
   18.   Kabazi                                      118        94           210
   19.   Kieni                                       100        107          207
   20.   Macmbi                                      97         102          199
                                                                                       36       200
The report stated that there are 801 displaced secondary school students, many with no
exercise books, mathematical sets, desks or school shelter and that the needs were
therefore: 10,413 exercise books, (13 per student), 801 maths sets, 801 desks (or fixed
seating - 3 students per bench), and 36 tents. The five secondary schools that had closed
in Solai Zone had reopened by the time of the report.


Nakuru District


Priority schools                                                       Dec 2007    March 2008   Needs March
                                                                       Enrolment   Enrolment    2008
Nakuru District
                      Largest of IDP camps with population of          -           425 ECD      [For ECD only]
Nakuru                                                                                          Additional tent x
                      14,785.
Showground            ECD school within for 425 children 3- 6 years.                            2 [requested]
                                                                                                Play materials
                      Primary children going to schools outside but                             Low tables
                      large number still unable to access school.
                      Children placed in surrounding schools but       -           350 ECD      ECD tables
Afraha Stadium                                                                                  Mats
                      large number of secondary unable to access
                      school.                                                                   Play materials
                      ECD school within camp.
                      Large school beside Showground which                                      Desks
Moi Primary                                                                                     Uniforms
                      absorbed 627 IDP children.
                                                                                                Wat-san
                                                                                                T-L materials
                                                                                                Teacher training
                                                                                                and support
Lenana                1026 IDPs and 427 non IDPs.                      514         1453         Desks
                                                                                                Uniforms
                                                                                                Wat-san
                                                                                                T-L materials
                                                                                                Teacher training
                                                                                                and support
                      380 IDP children                                                          Desks
Prisons Primary                                                                                 Uniforms
                      A tent has been erected at Prisons school                                 Wat-san
                      and support has been given to support                                     T-L materials
                      the displaced children in terms of learning                               Teacher training
                      materials and sanitary materials. [15/03]                                 and support
                      253 IDP children                                                          Desks
Muslims Primary                                                                                 Uniforms
                                                                                                Wat-san
                                                                                                T-L materials
                                                                                                Teacher training
                                                                                                and support
                      465 IDP children                                                          Desks
Madarakah                                                                                       Uniforms
                                                                                                Wat-san
                                                                                                T-L material
                      425 IDP children                                                          Desks
Lion Hill                                                                                       Uniforms
                                                                                                Wat-san
                                                                                                T-L materials
                      186 IDP children                                                          Desks
Mburu Gichua                                                                                    Uniforms
                                                                                                Wat-san
                                                                                                T-L materials
                                                                                                Teacher training
                                                                                                and support
                      647 IDP children                                                          Desks
Kiamaina                                                                                        Uniforms
[Nakurua North]                                                                                 Wat-san
                                                                                                T-L materials
                                                                                                Teacher training


                                                                                                              46
                                    and support
                 567 IDP children   Desks
Kagota                              Uniforms
                                    Wat-san
                                    T-L materials
                 314 IDP children   Desks
Maruku Kariuki                      Uniforms
                                    Wat-san
                                    T-L materials
                 527 IDP children   Desks
Lanet Umoja                         Uniforms
                                    Wat-san
                                    T-L materials
                 344 IDP children   Desks
St Johns                            Uniforms
                                    Wat-san
                                    t-L materials
                 298 IDP children   Desks
Hyrax                               Uniforms
                                    Wat-san
                                    T-L materials




                                                    47
Nakuru Showground, Nakuru
                                                                                               20
In early March, the IDP population of the Nakuru Showground was estimated to be 14,772 ; it is
comprised mostly of Kikuyus, unlike the Afraha Stadium, which is a mixture of tribes [except
Kikuyu]. The Showground is one of the largest of 122 camps in the South Rift Region, and
specifically the largest amongst the districts of Narok North, Narok South, Molo, Kipkelion and
Naivasha, all of which presently host IDPs in camps of significantly smaller populations than the
Showground. According to KRC Nakuru Office, the child population of the Nakuru Showground on
         th
Mardh 8 2008 was 6,921 although there is some discrepancy between this statistic and another
obtained at the camp, which details as follows [note that the adult population is included]:

Population Nakuru Showground by age category
     Age Category             Total IDPS
     Camp
        0 - 7 years           2,809
      8 – 14 years            3,105
     15 – 18 years            2,661
     Adult male               2,809
     Adult female             3,401
                              14,785

Access
This above statistics imply there are approximately 1,800 children under five and approximately
4,000 children of the ages 4 – 14 in the Showground. In the past months, an estimated 2,000
children of primary school age have been placed in the local, surrounding primary schools. Moi
School is situated beside the Showground so a large proportion of primary school children are there.
They have also gone to Prisons and Lenana and others.

Given the number of those placed in surrounding schools [approximately 2,400], those enrolled in
ECD within the camp, and the small number that are attending secondary, an [approximate]
estimate of 3,000 children within the camp are unable to access school. Save the Children
reported that an estimated 900 primary school children within the camp are not accessing school.
[25/03/08].

This estimate was upheld by the consultations with 40 tents/households participated in discussions
concerning children’s education. In twenty-six out of forty [26/40] of these, households reported that
their children of school age were not accessing school. Fifteen referred to children not accessing
secondary school, while the remaining 11 out the 26 referred to children of primary school
age. While this is not a significantly large sample number from which to draw accurate conclusions,
it infers that a good proportion of secondary school age and primary school age children are unable
to access school. All but 8 of those consulted who had 3-5 year olds in the household said young
children are enrolled within pre-school/ECD within the camp and attend most [but not all] days while
some said that they knew about the ECD school they were about to enrol their children.
Location of schools and access: The distance to schools that have the capacity to place children
was raised by parents as one of the factors preventing their child going. Some fear for their safety
when going out of the camp. Also, according to SC Protection Advisor, there were cases of children
from very rural areas being attracted and fascinated by facilities in the town that they are not
accustomed to in the rural areas. In January and early February, there were intentions to open
Standard 1, 2 and 3 in the camp. This plan changed when the large number of ECD children
needed immediate access and it was decided that while all ECD children would access the camp
school, all primary would go to Moi and other schools. This plan is being reconsidered now that the
large number of primary out of school [which includes Standard 1, 2, and 3] also need access. Save
the Children is working with the MoE and the camp management on a solution to this issue and plan


20
  , South Rift Region IDP Camp Statistics [08/03/2008] – Kenyan Red Cross Nakuru Branch

                                                                                                    48
to increase capacity of three schools around the camp – Lenana, Prisons and Millemane to address
this issue.
Secondary School cost and access: Of children and adults consulted, associated costs of
secondary schooling was the most frequent factor mentioned as preventing secondary school age
children going to school and thus the main barrier seems to be economic. Some children were going
to school before displacement but had not enrolled for the new school term.

Children enrolled at school are concerned for other IDPS not in school. Children at one primary
said: Some girls who refuse to go to school stay in the camp and do nothing – there are many; they
don’t want to study and they don’t want to work but just bath and walk with the boys during day and
night.’

Access ECD Showground School:
There are 4 tents for the ECD Rotary School which is accessed by children, divided into four
classes. In addition to the children from the camp, for integration purposes [and also to increase
access space for primary school at Moi Primary]. According to the Head Teacher, the numbers of
IDP children increase by the day.
Time-table: The school day runs from 8:00 to 12:00.

      ECD Class                         Girls      Boys         Total
      Baby Class 1   [age 2.5 – 3]      92         102          194
      Baby Class 2   [age 4 – 5]        63         66           129
      Middle Class   [age 4 – 4]        36         30           66
      Top Class      [age 5 – 6]        23         23           46
      Total                             221        214          435

The significant large number of children 0-7 [Table of Camp Population] should be noted. Although
no accurate statistical data was gathered on 0 – 3’s, informal observations indicated that this age
group is particularly large and that there should be further exploration into the well-being and care of
the young in the camp setting. As well as mothers and older siblings, many young children take
care of infants, often carrying them on their backs as they go about their tasks in the camp. While
may be a good mechanism to ensure safety, care and security for infants, responsibility for siblings
may also be a barrier to schooling.

Quality [within Nakuru Showground ECD School]
Teaching and learning in the ECD School: ECD activity first started when the person, who now
heads the school and her colleague who coordinates activities [both IDPs] began running informal
play activities open to all children within the camp. Later, the Rotary Club delivered four boxes of
play items and the group developed more organised activity which eventually became the pre-
school/ECD. UNICEF delivered 4 tents and then more materials, including exercise books. The
school is popular with young children and attendance is good most days. This however, means that
the four tents are often crowded – one tent accommodates 194 children. Parents in the camp gave
very positive views of the ECD facility – mothers in particular said they feel happy and able to
concentrate on other tasks when the children are at the school.

Teaching resource: There are 17 teachers, 12 of whom came from Moi Primary and an additional
5 who are from the camp and started the ECD school along with the Head Teacher. All are
volunteers. The head teacher is TSC trained and has the P1 certificate. Like many teachers, she
was concerned that she has lost all certificates including her KCSE and P1 certificates along with
her identity card – a concern reported by many.

Teaching methods/play activity: The teaching experience and expertise amongst the volunteers
is varied and while child friendly play activities are organised, teachers seemed to need help with
structuring the day so that children are meaningfully engaged, developing and learning in a more
child-centred way. None-the-less, the school is a very active and social place for young children.
Group games and singing activities were ongoing. Some support with developing the basic

                                                                                                     49
infrastructure of the school/centre would help. The teachers are dedicated and work hard to attend
to children’s needs. Provided with some guidance planning of the timetable and more effective the
use of existing resources, would be beneficial for both the children and the teachers.
Tents: Teachers viewed the tents as overcrowded for the number of children regularly attending
and this was confirmed by observation of children’s activity in them. An additional tent would
facilitate smaller groups and also enable teachers to organise rotational activities so there was
movement between the tents [or at least within them]. Not all tents had ground sheeting and it
wasn’t clear whether the school had any. There is need for plastic mats for floor cover inside the
tents.
Play and other learning resources: Rotary Club donated four kits which include sports and also
basic arts materials. Tennis balls, skipping ropes, building blocks, footballs [too big], and drawing
materials [felt pens and pencils, paper]. UNICEF ECD kits were delivered to Moi Primary in early
February and these were transferred to the camp school but more are needed as many materials
have depleted and more children have enrolled.
Needs: blocks, plastic mats for children to sit on, large-piece age-appropriate puzzles, dolls,
skipping ropes [small], balls [small not large]; drawing paper, thick crayons and pencils; picture
books; basic alphabet and number books/posters.

Water and Sanitation: Presently have 2 toilets although Action Against Hunger are construction 10
new latrines [with water point access] especially designed for young children. Volunteers from ACF
are also helping with washing of young children although the Head Teacher would like involve
parents more in this activity which the school is doing daily given that the hygiene of many of the
IDP children is poor.

Protection – Nakuru Stadium
Children out of school: During the assessment, it was observed that many children, including
those of primary and secondary school age and even on school days, were engaged in tasks such
as collecting firewood, caring for younger siblings or assisting with cooking. The Protection Cluster
reported that some children of school age are working and while this may have been an issue
before the post-election crisis, the problem is likely to have been exacerbated now that livelihoods
have been severely disrupted. The affects on family income, depletion of assets and general
disruption to family routine combined with the basic needs in camp conditions is likely to have
placed greater demand on children to contribute to family wellbeing and financial upkeep.
Location of school s and access: [see ‘Access section’]
Safe Play: Outside on the ‘foreground’ of the school, sits a large frame of a tent without a canopy
which children are gaining maximum enjoyment from using it as a climbing frame at any spare
moment. It was highly evident that children need some resource like this as it is climbed upon by
scores of children all day. It could be hazardous for it is not properly attached to the floor and also
younger children are vulnerable as older children scramble over it and knock them aside. Child
friendly play equipments such as a basic, safe climbing frame and other play and recreational items
would be highly beneficial to the children. Equipments safe for younger children should be
considered.
Child Friendly Play: At the time of assessment, a Child Friendly Space for children’s play and other
activities was being installed in the camp. The resource should increase children’s access to play
and facilitate psychosocial wellbeing. There will be an emphasis on free play under close
supervision and support of KRC volunteers. It is also a mechanism for referral of children who need
access to special services including those supporting separated children and those in need of
special attention to health including emotional/social wellbeing.
Sexual exploitation and abuse: The Protection Cluster reported an increase in cases of sexual
exploitation and abuse within the camps with special concern teenage boys and girls. Reports of
adults entering the camps and taking advantage of children lead to the tightened security at the
camp entrance and also the establishment of mechanisms for reporting and following up of alleged
cases/concerns. A community network has been established to help raise and address issues of



                                                                                                    50
concern with information channelled through Hope for Women, the Child Protection Committee and
                                                                                   21
also children themselves through structures like the Child Friendly Space. The CFS    will be a
useful mechanism from which the KRC can operate given that the organisation manages the
registration, tracing and reunification of children.
Methods of managing discipline and large classes: Increased numbers of children have
increased tensions in some of the schools. Teachers need support in managing children well using
child-friendly methods.

Afraha Camp, Nakuru
The current population for Afraha Stadium is unclear as figures presented by the Red Cross on the
8/03/2008 were well below the figures reported by the camp management. IDPs here are of
Kallingen, Kiisii, Kamba, Luo and Luyia Tribes; unlike the Showground, there are none from the
Kukuya tribe. IDPS here have come from Lakeview, Free Area, Rhonda, Githina, Keptembwa,
Kiretina, Ponde Mali and Langalanga. Situated in the stadium, most of the tents are on the grass
with a few dwellings around the outside walls. The camp was apparently not organised to the
standard of 16 tents per cluster. There are no drainage channels between the tents and so when the
rains begin the tented area could be flooded. The camp management reported that some may be
moved outside. In the meantime, numbers continue to fluctuate.
Strong efforts were made to place children in schools outside the camp as space is limited here but
moreover, integration of children has been a major initiative. There are two ECD tent/classes which
were visited during the assessment. Discussions were held with a volunteer education officer
supporting the Red Cross. Discussions were held tent-to-tent focussing on access to and quality of
education.

Access to ECD primary, secondary - Afraha, [children go to schools outside, with exception
of ECD]
        No students placed in
        schools outside camp
        ECD                          350
        Primary Std 1- 8             375
        Secondary Form 1 - 4         45
The camp management has supported the placements of the children in surrounding schools
although there are a small number who have been unable to enrol due to the cost of uniform and
other items, plus other issues [for example, some schools only admit students who have achieved a
certain mark for Form 1 exam]. The camp management is following up and trying to address these
issues, with support from the KRC [for example, finding second hand uniforms etc].
Items that a Form 1, 2 and 3 student needs were outlined as: mathematical set, ruler, bible, atlas,
dictionary, calculator Fx 82 ms, school bag, pens, pencils.
The education officer reported that presently, 28 students need the maths set.

Categories of schools admitting students: Provincial schools [for example Mencengai, Kirobon,
Ngoro Boys etc, admit students with 380 - 420 marks. District schools admit students with 379 – 315
marks, while private schools admit students who achieved 198 – 300 marks. The camp
management is also negotiating with church schools, such as the Catholic and PCA in hope to place
remaining students out of school.

Resources and other materials received: 122 school bags for students attending Kenyatta.
Exercise books, tents x 2 for ECD. Geometry sets x 48
Resources required: Geometry sets x 28, school bags, ink, exercise books, writing pens and
pencils, uniforms for small number of students.

21
     CFS: Child Friendly Space, Save the Children

                                                                                                51
Psychosocial support with the camp: KRC works together manage and coordinate psychosocial
care and counselling for people in a number of locations including 2 camps in Naivasha [Kengong
and Stadium], camps in Molo [Baraka and Saw Mill], Elementita [STU, AIC/Kongasis and Chiefs
Camp], Danduri [2 camps and Bahati] and also the Showground and Afraha Camps. The
coordinators/officers meet frequently at Afraha. While psychosocial support is provided, it was
generally felt by the councillors of KRC that it is a challenge to provide the level of support that
children affected by the crisis need. Those consulted pointed out how the services are provided
mostly in the camps which children miss out on if at school. In addition, with funding for mobility an
issue an that reaching many of the outreach locations means follow-up to cases is difficult.


ECD school within Afraha Camp
Access to ECD Afraha
Two tents accommodate the 350 children IDP children enrolled. The school/centre is for children
from ages 2 ½ to 6 years. At the time of assessment, a small proportion of this [78] were attending
and were split between the two classes, one of which was the ‘baby class’ and the other ‘middle
class’. Classes start at 7.30 and resume until 4.00. It is situated beside the living tents and so
easily accessible. The tents sit between the outside wall and an inner fence that surrounds the
centre pitch on which the living tents are erected.
The assessment did not involve in-depth exploration of all children’s needs although the quality of
ECD care provided by teachers and the general facilities of the school were observed and also
explored through discussions with the two voluntary teachers.

Quality of ECD provision Afrhaha Camp
Teachers: Four teachers run the centre which is usually comprised of three classes within two
tents. All are volunteers. Two of the teachers are trained in ECD and come from outside the camp.
Generally, the teachers seemed to be tired and to an extent disappointed with the lack of support
the centre has received for the young children. The tents received by UNICEF were very much
appreciated and significantly helped to establish the much needed facility for the younger children.
However, it was felt that more basic resources, support and encouragement was needed in order to
provide the level of basic care that was good for the children attending every day.

As volunteers, the issue of incentives was raised. One of the teachers clearly has a good
understanding of child-centred, active learning methods, but felt limited and frustrated with the level
of care she could provide for a large number of very young children with almost no materials. No
ground sheet over the dusty dirt floor also means that simple circle-time activities are not practical
and compromises children’s health and hygiene.

Teaching and Learning processes: The children in the Baby Class were considerably more active
than those in the Middle Class who had no resources aside from an exercise book (some but not all
children) and a pencil. The 32 children in the Baby Class shared one box of small blocks. Six
children seemed withdrawn and unhappy and one child chose to sit alone on a stone brick for the
hour and withdrew each time he was asked to sit with others. There was very little engagement
between the teacher and the children in the older class until they were called in a line for marking
books. Children were mostly working independently, sitting on the ground, writing letters and
drawing in their books.
There is urgent need to raise the quality of care for the children and morale of the teachers in this
school.

Learning materials and other resources received: Tents x 2 UNICEF, exercise books [stock
finished], box of blocks.

Tents: The tents were hot and humid inside. Teachers were shown how to roll the sides back to
increase ventilation.


                                                                                                    52
Health and hygiene: As mentioned, with no ground sheet, the dusty dirt floor compromises
children’s health and hygiene. Some children sat on stones brought in from outside while others
pulled down the sides/walls of the tent and sat against that around the periphery. Teachers said that
many children come to school in an unclean state because parents know they will get dirtier once in
the tent.
While there are no immediate, obvious health issues, the general level of hygiene for children in this
school should be improved and emphasised. A number of children using latrines were not in the
practice of hand-washing. The KRC has appointed a trained Health and Hygiene Education Officer
to each camp. The school may need greater support from this individual.




                                   Children in ECD School, Afraha Camp



Water and sanitation: 5 latrines are provided for the 350 children of ECD classes [although it
should be considered that teachers commented that 150 are in regular attendance and on the day
of assessment, 78 children were in school].

Resources required: plastic mats or floor covering [urgent], cushions’ blocks, low tables, buckets
for washing, plastic cups, panties for children, other play materials.

Protection
It was felt that support to manage the large classes with creative, positive, child friendly methods in
this difficult environment would benefit both teachers and children.

Immediate needs for ECD at Afraha Camp:
       Training, support and guidance for the teachers; although ECD trained, the teachers may
        need further support for managing classes in an emergency environment. Support in
        establishing interactive and child-centred activities
       Follow-up on issue of incentives for volunteer ECD teachers in the camp setting.
       Basic resources required: plastic mats or floor covering for two tents of 28 ‘ / 28 ‘[urgent], cushions
        [possibly plastic covered], blocks, low tables or benches [could be plastic], buckets for washing,
        plastic cups, panties for children, other play materials for two classes of children between ages 2.5
        and 6 years.
       With rainy season approaching, extra care and support will be needed to ensure hygienic conditions
        and practices for children access the ECD.



                                                                                                            53
   Consider establishing parents’ committee [if not already existing] and strengthening
    communications with camp management and other support mechanisms.
   Monitoring of the conditions and also the daily activities of the centre to ensure that basic
    materials are provided, child friendly activities occurring and that teachers are supported
    and encouraged.




                                                                                              54
Lenana School
Access - Lenana
Previous to the crisis 427 children were enrolled at Lenana Primary. At the time of assessment,
1,116 IDP children were enrolled, bringing the total to 1,453 [fluctuating]. The school had extra
capacity as 7 classrooms were empty at the time. The school operates two shifts to accommodate
the large number of Standard 4 – 8 students. Tents x 2 have been provided by UNICEF and two
more are needed since the school significantly increased. Children at this school are concerned
for the large number of children at the camp who are not enrolled: ‘Some girls who refuse to go to
school stay in the camp and do nothing – there are many; they don’t want to study and they don’t
want to work but just bath and walk with the boys during day and night.’

The majority of the children are from the camps [many stay in the Showground] although the
families of some are renting.

            Shift 1
            Class         Girls     Boys                              Shift 2
            Std 1         25        28                                Class        Girls       Boys
            Std 2         32        17                                Std 4        62          78
            Std 3         28          9                               Std 5        60          85
            Std 4         26        17                                Std 6        70          80
            Std 5         32        31                                Std 7        70          65
            Std 6         24        19                                Std 8        62          78
            Std 7         31        32                                             324         386
            Std 8         25        30
                           223       183

Quality - Lenana
Teachers [particularly IDPs] reported that the challenge is mostly lack of materials,
particularly text books for teaching and learning.
Teachers: 22 of the teachers are IDPs while 9 are regular teachers from Lenana. All of the
teachers are TSC trained. As with the child population, the number of teachers is expected to
fluctuate as people resettle or shift to another place as IDPS




    IDP children reported that desks provided by UNICEF made them feel like they were back in school again.




                                                                                                              55
Teaching and learning processes:




In all IDP classrooms observed, children appeared generally happy, relaxed but active and open.
Despite the lack of text books which is to some extent limiting the variety of teaching methods
employed, IDP children in Lenana appeared happy to be in school. This impression was consistent
with children’s views of the school and their general statements about how they feel when coming to
school. No children mentioned any insecurity when walking to school or being in school.

The Deputy Head Teacher has a good rapport with the children who approach her openly . The children were
eager to show work in their books, some of which depicted the scenes of violence. Others were
proud to share good work they had completed on the day of the assessment.

Some children commented on the lack of text books impacting upon their learning. Some children
feel they are not learning enough to be able to pass the national exams.




      Standard 2 IDP children using UNICEF enjoy use of desks and exercise books in the tented
                             classrooms, Lenana Primary School, Nakuru
{




                                                                                                     56
Desks: UNICEF delivered 200 desks which according to the teachers made an immediate and
positive difference to what otherwise (especially if teaching in the tents) is a difficult learning
environment. Both teachers and children commented on the quality of the desks calling for a more
durable, robust model as more than a quarter of them were badly damaged after two weeks with the
desk top falling off of some. More desks are needed at Lenana. Children’s opinions on the quality of
the desks were mostly positive. Teachers however felt they should be of better quality and more
robust as some had broken within the first two weeks due to wear and tear.




Mterials Received: excerise books [Save the Children – stock finished – 18/03/2008], Text books
– small supply [CELTEL], sanitary pads [UNICEF] desks x 200 [UNICEF], education kits [UNICEF],
Recreation Kit [UNICEF], daily food ration – beans, maize [KRC/WFP], water tank 500 litres
[UNICEF], Latrine installation x 25 [Action Against Hunger]
Integration: The IDP children are taught separately, some within the 2 tents and others within the
classrooms that were spare. According to the Head Teacher, the children mix and play at break
and lunch times and several activities have helped with integrating the children socially. Some
children have donated a uniform to other. Discussions have been held with the host children to help
them understand the plight and challenges of being displaced. Some integration was observed
during the break times, although IDP children that participated in children’s discussions said they
preferred to play with friends they had made at the camp.
The girls seem to have made some strong friendships, one girl said ‘when I arrived coming from
Molo, I didn’t know any others and I was lonely. When I came to school I found two new friends; we
play and talk together. We walk to the camp; we share our things.’
The workshop for teachers is designed to support integration at different levels, but most
importantly, to foster good relationships and understanding between the children.
Health and hygiene: Girls are in further need of sanitary pads. UNICEF supplied an initial stock
and more are urgently needed especially to protect the wellbeing, personal care routines and dignity
of girls from the rural areas.

Water and sanitation ACF22 have installed 25 extra latrines [15 for boys and 10 for girls]. Taking
2 weeks to build they should last for ten years. They are 5-block latrines. The labour was taken
from the Showground [masons paid 300 ksh a day, general labourers and casual workers paid 150
ksh per day]. [See annex for latrine Bill of Quantities], ACF.

22
     Action Against Hunger

                                                                                                 57
Psychosocial needs and support:
       Many children experienced traumatic events and still require support to recover.
       Teachers are also living in difficult conditions as IDPs and require support
       Some teachers are counsellors who provide some support but this is a pressure on them as
        they also teach.
       Children are concerned and worried about examination registration. The school has been
        told to wait for registration until the Government makes a decision on how to proceed with
        this issue.

Protection - Lenana
IDP girls talked about the insecurity of other teenage girls, especially those not enrolled in school.
They were concerned how other children who were not IDPS viewed them as everyone knows
about the conditions in the camps and the vulnerability of young girls.
‘In the evening, there is no light and girls walk with boys where there is no light. If there was light
you couldn’t be seen and girls wouldn’t go to walk with them. In the camp there are many diseases
and some might have it, the HIV is possible from twelve up. Some go in the tent and some go into
town. Boys give money to girls; they can give 50 or 20, enough for having lunch.’

Organisations supporting health and also protection report an increase of incidents of sexual
exploitation in some of the camps. Such trends call for serious efforts to be made not only to reduce
vulnerability to incidents of exploitation, but also to address the root causes and contributing factors
– such as barriers that children face in accessing education.
Some of the girls believe children who are presently out of school have never been or dropped out
before the crisis, where as others believe there are a many who were previously enrolled but are
unable to go now, especially those who were leaving Standard 8 and should enrol in Form 1.

Immediate needs Lenana Primary School:
       Desks x 200 [each seating 3 children]
       Forum for children’s discussions to support IDP children in addressing personal issues
       Exercise books for all children, minimum x 3 books per child, x 1,450
       Follow-up on process for national exam registration process, Standard 8
       Provision of text books for Standard 1 – 8, All Classes, Standard 1 - 8
       Tents x 2 [reported 18/03/2008]
       Sanitary pads for girls [3 months supply]
       Follow-up workshop on Integration and Emergency Preparedness




                                                                                                     58
MOLO DISTRICT

IDPS in many of the smaller camps in Molo have recently have recently moved to formal camps
organised for larger groups and these are Milimane, Baraka and Saw Mill. As assessment here
took place on a Sunday, meeting the DEO was not possible as in other districts although secondary
                                   th
data was gathered [MoE], dated 25 February which highlighted the priority schools in Molo.
            th
On the 18 February 41 primary schools and 11 secondary schools of the Molo District were
reported as closed which gives some indication of the level of impact of the violence in this area. By
  th
26 February, 7 of these were reported as operational: Githiriga, Cheptagum, Baringo, By-gum,
                                                                                              th
Milimani, Mahiga, and Sinendet. In addition, the following schools were hightlighted on 25
                                                                                                 23
February as priority need for schools as a result of being overstretched by the influx of IDPS:

Primary Schools absorbing displaced children Molo
[It is assumed the list comprises displaced children that have enrolled and not the total number of
children enrolled.]
          Name of School Molo District          Boys              Girls             Total
          Kambala                               631               541               1172
          St Marys                              760               640               1400
          Mono                                  720               572               1292
          Turi Surugwita                        22                290               510
          Tayari                                450               580               1030
          PCEA Elburgon                         110               118               228
          St Bredlans                           25                15                40
          St Peters Boarding                    59                61                120
          New Creation                          71                52                123
          St James                              34                34                68
          Sokoro                                60                42                102
          Orthodox                              58                68                126
          Machinda Boys                         25                -                 25
          Mianzini                              35                18                53
          Elburgon DEB                          280               295               575
          Total                                 3538              3323              6861

Secondary School absorbing displaced children, Molo
[It is assumed the list comprises displaced children that have enrolled and not the total number of
children enrolled.]
          Name of School                    Boys                  Girls             Total
          Molo Secondary                    63                    57                120
          Kambabala                         17                    21                38
          Njennga                           63                    65                128
          Tayari                            143                   137               280
          Total                             286                   280               566




23
     District Education Officer, Molo [Ref EDM/GEN15/Vol 1/133]

                                                                                                      59
Saw Mill Camp

Saw Mill is one of the formal camps that that been recently established and has taken IDPS who
were residing in small, spontaneous camps situated in churches, the police station and other public
                                                                                   24
places around Molo town On 18/03/08, the population was reported to be 2,174 of which over
half are children at 1,160. KRC reported that there are also significant education needs at Baraka
Camp and AIPC.
During a one-day assessment, consultations were held with children and a women’s group. KRC
Officers were also consulted for data, information on camp planning and an orientation of the camp.
The following data on children and details of school enrolment were give by KRC.

 Age Group               Total.
                         Children     Children accessing school             Children not accessing
                                                                            school

 0 – 5 Yrs               350          200 children participate in           150 + children 0 – 3 year in
                                      activities in the CFS provided by     need of support and care.
                                      Save the Children. With no
                                      preschool facility, the CFS is        200 children of pre-school
                                      presently operating more as a         age in need of formalised
                                      pre-school.                           ECD or Pre-school attached
                                      The camp management and               to a primary school.
                                      parents would like to see a
                                      formalised ECD centre/school for
                                      children.
     6 – 12 yrs          450
                                      300 go to school.                     152 primary school age, in
                                      Moto Primary, Kampala Primary,        the camp, not enrolled in
                                      St Mary’s Boys, Nyanda Primary        school.
                                      and Tayari Primary.
                                      An unconfirmed number of
                                      children that should live in Saw
                                      Mill are residing in town in order
                                      to continue going to school and
                                      avoid risks in walking to school
                                      from Saw Mill.

 13 -18 yrs              360          300 enrolled in schools:              60 secondary children not in
                                      Njenja secondary school               school
                                      Two-Twenty Secondary
                                      Tayari Secondary
 Total                   1160                                               512 children not enrolled in
                                                                            school
Access – Saw Mill
IDPs that now occupy Saw Mill previously occupied some the 48 smaller, spontaneous camps in
town that recently closed down: Apostoric Church, Full Gospel, Pyrethrum Board, P.A.G, Good
News Church and Highlands. While residing in the above camps, children enrolled at Moto Primary,
Kampala Primary, St Mary’s Boys, Nyanda Primary and Tayari Primary. These schools are 1 hours
walk from Saw Mill. Therefore, the children are staying with relatives or others in town in order to
continue to go to school.
The IDP community at Saw Mill community requested that a temporary primary school is created
within the camp grounds to enable children to go to school without being separated from their
parents/family carers.

24
     KRC Camp Manager , Saw Mill, Official Population Report 18/03/2008

                                                                                                         60
The camp management has allocated land for the school at the back of the camp and are
negotiating with the DEO for it to be established at the soonest.
Children who are not presently enrolled in school at Saw Mill
           Children of Sawmill Camp not enrolled
           pre-school age  200
           primary         152
           secondary         60
                           512
The camp management and parents suggest that a primary school is created, accommodating all
452 primary school age children, and also, in addition an ECD pre-school, for the 200 children ages
3-5 years.
Psychosocial needs and support: Women articulately very strongly that children especially are
need of more support for their emotional wellbeing.
 ‘Children have been badly affected; they run and play now but what happened is in their mind. It will
take time to erase what has happened’.
‘Most people here have mental torture and need help. Those in the Red Cross can help and others
came from Nakuru but our needs are great’.
 ‘The young children need drama, time for singing, games, concerts and netball… the kinds of
things they enjoyed before. You don’t see any of this here’.
Protection -
As in other camps, the protection children, particularly teenage girls and boys is a concern here.
Two young girls spoke privately, aside from the group, about the vulnerability of girls. ‘Some people
will come and girls will accept to go with them just for two mangos or something else to eat. People
don’t have money to buy and some are hungry so they will accept’. ‘Some will go so they can have
the things they had before they were in this condition’.
At the time of assessment, there was no fencing around the camp; a ditch separated the field from the road.
The front should be fenced and gated for the protection of all in this camp which the camp management, KRC,
are soon to follow up. There was no obvious entry surveillance ongoing and thus it is easier for girls to be
approached by outsiders.
A small group of secondary school –age children/youth were asked about schooling, they were initially
uninterested in commenting but later said that enrolling in school and staying in school is too costly. They were
not in school before the crisis and feel it is even less likely that will go now that the economy is poor and things
around them destroyed.
Participation of camp community in school development
Women are concerned for the care and wellbeing of the younger children of 3-5 but particularly the
0 – 3 age group. Women felt that in the camp setting there were greater demands on them to
manage the domestic duties and that care for very young children was more challenging. They
believe that the poor economic situation impacts the quality of care they provide for young. Two
women said that the very young children can be forgotten in this kind of setting and that special
attention must be given to them, not only to school children who are more able to care for
themselves.
Women also felt they had many skills and also some resources which should be utilised for
supporting children’s education and also the care of younger children. There are a number of crafts
people within the camp who do not have the capital or basic resources to restart business.
There are tailors who are able to make clothes and other items.
Secondary school children were a great concern to the women as they should either be in school or
learning a trade of some kind. They felt that amongst the women there was rich experience and
expertise in craft and other small businesses, but given the destruction of their homes and all tools,
they now have nothing to share with the younger people.
Skills amongst the group consulted: dress-making/tailoring/embroidery/potato growers/carpenters
[men]/bag-makers.



                                                                                                                61
NAIVASHA DISTRICT

The impact of the criss on Naivasha District was largely as result of the influx of IDPS from Eldoret,
Timburar and Molo. Schools in town were occupied by the displaced for some weeks and some of
them, once operational for the new school year, absorbed large numbers of IDP children, many of
whom are in need of support in settling into the new environment while also dealing with the
psychological impacts of the crisis.

In terms of response so far throughout the district, the DEO reported that UNICEF installed tents in
some schools, delivered exercise books and education kits. Displaced teachers from across the Rift
Valley have been placed in schools throughout the district.

Given the large influx of children, the resources are overstretched with classes bursting and unable
to accommodate more children. There is severe shortage of basic equipments in some schools
because of the increase in numbers at a time when the capacity of the DEO was also reduced. In
Naivasha, the DEO was forced to leave because of the violence and also the DEO vehicle was
burnt amidst the skirmishes while in Nakuru.

The majority of schools have not increased capacity to extend needed. Towards the end of
                                        25
February, the displaced IDPs was 7,916 . As an education official commented ‘We have taken the
children in but the schools are strained – you cant asked displaced child to buy a desk, books or
other basic school items, but they have the right to be here. Some of our schools are dangerously
over congested – soon the sanitation will become a problem.

Priority issues highlighted by the education officials:
     Water and sanitation - insufficient number of latrines
     Students cannot pay national examination fee [mandatory fee of 3,200 KSH – Secondary,
        3,000 KSH Primary]
     Over stretched basic resources including desks, text books and basic stationary

Schools Prioritised Naivasha                          IDPs               Present enrolment
Mirera Primary School                                 434                3416
Gil Gil Towship Primary l                             355                1268
Prisons Primary [few IDPs but lost teachers]          33                 579
Kiunguguria                                           108                604
Echariria                                             418                1456
Kariandusi                                            134                545
Gil Gil DEB Primary School                            412                1268
Ngeya                                                 271                1577
Mirindu                                               198
Naivasha Highway                                      175
Kedong Camp                                           85
St Patricks                                           172
Kiambogo                                              162
Longongot DEB                                         156
Oserian                                               148
Sher Moi                                              148




25
     Naivasha District Primary School Enrolment Data on Displaced Teachers and Schools., 26-02- 2008

                                                                                                       62
Kedong Camp
At the time of assessment the camp management reported 1,643 people to be in the camp. IDPs
here are Luos, Kalligers and Luhyias and most are employees of the flower farm which is situated
beside the camp. The farm owners helped fund the establishment of the camp which helped
stabilise the community so they could continue working on the farms without too much disruption
despite displacement. The installed lighting throughout the camp and also secured fencing. It is
possible that the owners may also be interested in supporting education or social protection activity
in the camp.
Access - Kedong
The majority of children access school outside the camp in line with the move to integrate IDPS.
However, parents are not in favour of sending the younger children [Standards 1 – 3 ] outside to the
schools nearby as they parents still fear the environment is not safe for younger children.
UNICEF delivered three tents which were in use for some days before they blew down with the wind
and the frames broke – these have been taken away for repair by local construction workers.
Enrolment at the camp school:

          Class                  Numbers by gender
                                 were not available.
          ECD                    85
          Std1                   29
          Std 2                  28
          Std 3                  85

According to the teachers, there are 52 children of primary school age within the camp not attending
school.
Access / security: There are four Form 4 children that have not enrolled in school; all four do not
feel safe in the schools they are expected to enrol in [Mirera Secondary].
Parents of the primary school children attending the small camp school worry about their safety in
other schools. They could be placed at the school located just 200 metres away from the camp but
parents believe that it is in school that children’s safety is compromised.

Quality - Kedong
On the day of assessment there were no school tents to be seen. Classes had finished although
had taken place under a tree. There are no seats and no ground sheets to sit on.
Ideally, the children would be integrated into the neighbouring schools along with other IDP children
although parents and the children themselves might not agree. It was unclear as to whether specific
incidents in addition to the skirmishes have lead to this sentiment.
Teachers: 4
Resources delivered: Tents x 3, exercise books
Resources needed: flooring/ground sheets, seating, exercise books for all students, text books,
desks, blackboard, pencils/pens and other basic classroom supplies.
Issues of inclusion, teaching methods, classroom management and other aspects of quality
education were not explored due to time constraints.




                                                                                                      63
Mirera Primary School
Mirera has absorbed a massive influx of children although currently, the number of IDPS has
stablised at about 564. In total there are 3,351 children. In depth assessment was not possible due
to time constraint at this location although it was evident that needs were great.
Access - Mirera
Large classes, some with more than 120 children. There are five streams for class 8 and seven
streams 5 streams for class 7. IDP children come mostly from the flower farm [presently in
Kedong Camp and also Stadium and St Annes.

        Class      Girls   Boys
        Std 1      218     229       510
        Std 2      213     281       494
        Std 3      243     255       498
        Std 4      245     213       458
        Std 5      224     259       483
        Std 6      209     229       478
        Std 7      311     215       546
        Std 8      162     145       307
        Total      1725    1826      3,351
Quality - Mirera
Teachers: 4 teachers are IDPs while a teacher /child ratio 1:110
Integration: Some IDPS have been integrated into the classes while some classes are exclusively
IDPS. At break time, the play area was overcrowded although it was possible to distinguish IDP
and host-school children. Integration through play was evident although assessment time was
limited and detailed observation nor children’s discussions were not possible.
Resources supplied: The Head Teacher was not available and it was not clear if emergency
resources had been supplied to the school. .
Resources needed: Certainly some teachers were stressed in managing large numbers and
according to the deputy there was a shortage of teaching staff, desks, classroom space and basic
teaching and learning resources which was evident
Desks: Many classrooms are crowded and congested and more desks are needed. Elsabar
Conservation Centre occasionally support the school with emergency materials and are in the
process of donating a small number of desks.

Psychosocial needs and support: A teacher appointed for guidance and counselling but does not
have the capacity to reach the volume of children that require support.
Classroom management: generally teachers are extremely overstretched here. No class has
below 100 children. Teachers are in need of training and support for applying positive methods of
managing large classes in a highly stressful environment.

Immediate needs for Mirera
        Training for teachers in managing large classes and positive methods of managing children
        Tents or other temporary structures x 6 classes
        Latrines
        Education kits
        Recreation kits




                                                                                                    64
   ANNEX
Latrines, bill of quantities [5 latrines] – Provided by Action Against Hunger
[ACF]

                                                              price per toilet - usd   219.1618           68   ksh/usd
Block of 5 latrines with Iron sheeting and slap            1.47 usd/euro

                                       men          days               unit price      total Ksh    usd          euro
masons                                  2            7                    300             4200       61.76        42.00
carpenters                              2            7                    300             4200       61.76        42.00
helpers                                 6            7                    150             6300       92.65        63.00
Digging pit 0.6x5x2.5 m                                                  2000             1200       17.65        12.00
Materials Total                                                                          58615      861.99       586.15
                                                                                         74515     1095.81       745.15
 block of 5 latrines

                                                  tie beams: 2x2 x 24 ft - 2
                                                  pces
                                                  pylons :   2x2 x 7 ft - 6
                                                  pces


                                           horizontal for slab = 45inx45in
                                           (3.75 ft)
                                           back: 2x2 x 4 ft - 3 pces x 5 sets
                                           sides: 2x2 x 5 ft - 3 pces x 6 sets

   uprights:
   3x2 x 8ft - 6
   pces
   3x2 x 7ft - 6
   pces                     front (top and bottom): 2x2 x 4 ft - 2 pces x 5
                            sets
                             ft - 2
                            door: pces x 5 sides
                            2x2 x 6 ft - 2 pces x 5 doors
                            2x2 x 3.5 ft - 3 pces x 5 doors
                            extra 1 foot - 4 pces x 5 doors




                                                                                                          65
          ANNEX - Example of standardised data collection format


DISTRICT: _________________
                                                              EMERGENCY
CONTACT: ________________
                                                              REQUIREMENTS - [DATE]
UPDATED: _________________
            Zone Total      IDP     IDP    Total   Total      Tents/        Desks     Latrine   Edu    Rec     Text
                   on roll  Girls   Boys   IDPS     on roll                           s         Kits   kits    Books
Name of                                                       c/rooms
                   2007                            2008       50            1=
school                                                        children      Seating
                                                              per tent or   3 chldn
                                                              classroom
xxx         xxx




TOTAL




                                                                                                          66
           ANNEX - Camp population – Provided by UNICEF
NORTH RIFT REGION

MAJOR CAMPS TALLY as at 12.03.2008
DISTRICT   NO. IDP CENTERS               IDPs    HH          MALE      FEMALE    12-18                <5YRS
                                                                                 YEARS
                                                                                           6-11
                                                                                           YEARS


Trans Nzoia    1    Endebes              8081         1583      3333      4748


               2    Showground-Kitale    2714


               3    Noigam               3320         550


               4    Matisi Chief Camp    2887


                    TOTAL                17002


Lugari         5    Turbo                2653


                    TOTAL                2653


Koibatek       6    Timboroa             4171                   1035      1169                            734


                    TOTAL                4171


Uasin Gishu    7    Showground-Eldoret   15106        3323


               8    Matharu              2676


               9    Burnt Forest         6163         1747      1229      1334       978      1175        1447


                    TOTAL                23945


                    TOTAL                47771




                                                                                                     67
ANNEX
Schools targeted for material support by Save the Children in [list does not include Eldoret
[Uasin Gishu or Trans-Nzoia Schools] – Developed by SC Education Advisor, Nakuru

           Schools Targeted for Material Support
           Nakuru Municipality
       1   Lenana                        515    486    1001
       2   Moi                           385    436     821
       3   Madaraka                      235    230     465
       4   Lionhill                      216    209     425
       5   Prisons                       198    182     380
       6   St Johns                      232    112     344
       7   Lanet                         162    152     314
       8   Hyrax                         148    150     298
       9   Pangani                       126    145     271
      10   Eileen Ngochoch               149    122     271
      11   Muslim                        132    130     262
      12   Mirugi Kariuki                134    120     254
      13   Kenyatta                      132    103     235
      14   Mamangina                     120    112     232
      15   Mburu Gichua                   93    115     208
           Totals                      2977   2804     5781       15
           Nakuru North
       1   Kiamaina                      329    318     647
       2   Kagoto                        271    296     567
       3   Lanet Umoja                   267    260     527
       4   Eldonio                       226    260     486
       5   St Lwanga                     226    215     441
       6   Ndungiri                      234    195     429
       7   Olbonata                      209    209     418
       8   Dundori                       172    184     356
       9   Rigogo                        150    146     296
      10   St Johns Bahati               122    158     280
      11   Subukia                       150    128     278
      12   Kinari                        126    144     270
      13   Mikeu                         128    134     262
      14   Rurii                         131    118     249
      15   Our Lady of Mercy             120    128     248
      16   Muriundu                      124    122     246
      17   Engoshura                      96    116     212
      18   Kabazi                        116     94     210
      19   Kieni                         100    107     207
           Totals                      3297   3332     6629       19
           Naivasha
       1   Mirera                        209    225     434
       2   Echariria                     218    200     418
       3   Gilgil Deb                    224    188     412
       4   Gilgil T/S                    162    193     355
       5   Ngeya                         128    143     271
           Totals                        941    949    1890        5
                                       7215   7085    14300       39


                                                                                           68
Supplies distributed to primary schools in Nakuru by Save the Children
Excersise Book (48 pages)
Excersise Book (96)
School bag
Blue Biros
Pencils
Pencil Sharpner.
Geometry Kits
Rubbers
Plastic Ruler
Pkt Wax Crayons

Teacher Kits
Notebooks
Plastic Carrying Folder
Registers
Black biros

Primary School

Chalk box
Coloured Chalk box
Marker pens
Flipchart paper
Soap bars
Wax Crayons
Blackboards 3x2
Megaphone
Wash basins
Soap blocks
Firewood truckload
Young African Express
Fountain pens
Ink
Sanitary Towels (pkt)
Recreational kit
Chalk (White) pkt
Chalk (Coloured) pkt




                                                                         69
ANNEX
The following details were provided by CARE and provide an outline their ECD
work in Nairobi

CARE KENYA’S GRASSROOTS CIVIL SOCIETY EMERGENCY RESPONSE NETWORK -
KIBERA

Within Kibera CARE is working through a core team of 8 CBOs and 3 FBOs (coordinating with a
wider network of 15 CBOs, 23 FBOs, 15 primary schools and 20 ECD centres ) who offer safe
distribution locales along the periphery of the settlement. The following are details of the partners.

1. COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATIONS
The following community based organizations have partnered with CARE Kenya in Kibera since
2005 under the following projects
    Local Links project for OVC support
    Hope of the African Child Initiative (HACI)
   1) Homecare Mentors
   2) Haki Self Help (HAKISHEP)
   3) Baraka za Ibrahim
   4) Institute of Development and Welfare Services (IDEWES)
   5) Youth Development Forum (YDF)
   6) Kibera Post Test Club Network (KIPOTEK
   7) Kibera Slum Education Programme (KISEP)
   8) Kenya Organization of PLWHAs (KOPLWA)
   9) Hands of Love
   10) Kibera Community Self Help (KICOSHEP)
   11) Strategic Community Development Network (SACODEN)
   12) Kibera Community Counseling and Feeding (KICOF)
   13) Kibera Soweto School
   14) Dorna Rehabilitation Centre
   15) Fountain of life
   16) Kibera OVC Initiative Network- (KOIN) – A network formed by the above 15 CBOs

Through the partnership with CARE, the CBOs have since been trained in the following areas:
     Financial management
     Organization development
     Resource mobilization
     Lobby and advocacy
     Project design and management
     OVCs caregivers economic empowerment program – Group savings and loans, selection
       planning and management of income generating activities
     Psychosocial support
     Child rights and child rights programming
     Home based care
     HIV/AIDS and the reduction of the associated stigma

2.      SCHOOLS

Local links project is also working with schools drawn from all the thirteen villages in Kibera.Some of
the schools are listed below.

A committee of patrons/teachers (composed of one representative from each school) is charged
with the responsibility of planning and implementing our work with the schools.



                                                                                                         70
Since the inception of our partnership with the schools we’ve been able to provide them with
trainings on the following areas
      Safe water systems
      Child rights – to both the teachers and the school children
      Psychosocial support training – to the teachers
      HIV/AIDS and the related stigma and discrimination – to the teachers and children
      IEC materials development – to the school children

The following are the school’s pupil population:

No        Primary school                     Male           Female              Total
1         Bible Baptist                      165            145                 310
2         Ayany                              992            1045                2037
3         Raila education centre primary     170            210                 380
4         Raila education centre secondary   160            140                 300
5         Jeremic academy                    185            152                 337
6         Undugu basic education             128            102                 230
7         Magoso center                      104            122                 226
8         Ushirika children centre           102            135                 237
9         St charles Lwanga primary          216            197                 413
19        St charles Lwanga Secondary
10        Glory primary                      183            152                 335
11        Glory secondary                    114            61                  175
12        St Aloysius Gonsaga                105            126                 231
13        Mashimoni primary                                                     246
14        Mashimani squarters                                                   840
15        ACK                                255            300                 555


3.       FAITH BASED ORGANIZATIONS
Local links has been working with 23 faith-based organizations since the year 2005.
The work with the FBOs is also done through already established networks of faith based
organizations.

     1)   Great revival church
     2)   Jesus believer’s church
     3)   Harvest bible church
     4)   Milimani PAG church
     5)   Sheep gate ministries
     6)   Grace ministries
     7)   GRC
     8)   New testament church of God
     9) Calvary center
     10) ADC
     11) Redeemed gospel church
     12) Exodus evangelical fellowship church
     13) The door Christian fellowship
     14) Olympic church of god
     15) Pentecostal fellowship church
     16) Galilaya church ministries
     17) Christ the king
     18) Glory worship centre
     19) WME



                                                                                               71
   3. KIBERA DIVISION AREA ADVISORY COUNCIL

   Local links project also partners with the KIBERA AAC, a government’s arm that is
   charged with the responsibility of coordinating children activities

   4. EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT CENTRES

S/N      Center Name                        Females         Males          Total
   1)    SODA ECD center
   2)    St George ECD                      29              32             61
   3)    St Monica ECD                      26              23             49
   4)    St Christine ECD                   14              18             32
   5)    Imani ECD                          19              19             38
   6)    Zacks Junior ECD                   4               12             16
   7)    Lindi Ushirika ECD                 83              93             176
   8)    Gatwekera Ushirika ECD             51              51             102
   9)    Olympic church of God ECD          10              15             25
   10)   Jamii ECD                          38              36             74
   11)   St Juliet ECD                      38              25             63
   12)   St Charles center                  45              51             96
   13)   Kambi Muru Ushirika ECD            53              62             115
   14)   Siloam Fellowship Ministry ECD     50              62             112
   15)   ACK Emmanuel ECD                   24              36             60
   16)   Harvest Shepherd ECD               14              17             31
   17)   Grace ECD                          25              31             56
   18)   Luphina Daycare center
   19)   Oasis ECD                          4               6              10
   20)   BEMACA ECD
   21)   St Stephen’s                       14              18             32




                                                                                       72