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Semi-structured interviews

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					Promoting Rational Drug Use
     in the Community

         Fieldwork
         Fieldwork objectives
        At the end of the session participants will:
         Be able to define the research methods
         Be able to develop research tools
         Have experience with key methods to study
          drug use practices and ideas, e.g. semi-
          structured interviews, drug inventories in
          pharmacies and community drug stores, and
          simulated client visits
         Have gained insight into strengths and
          weaknesses of various methods
         Have an understanding of the way in which
             qualitative research can be used to re-focus
Fieldwork    and refine a problem analysis diagram.       2
Promoting Rational Drug Use in the Community   WHO
         Group activities
        Today:
        1. Prepare appraisal matrix and revise/make tools
        2. Pretest tools and prepare plan for field work

        Tomorrow:
        3. Conduct fieldwork
        4. Feedback in plenary on refinements in problem
          analysis and strengths/weaknesses of methods




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Promoting Rational Drug Use in the Community   WHO
         How to conduct semi-structured
         interviews

        1.Greet your informant in a culturally
          appropriate way.
        2.Consider where you are sitting, and
          where the translator sits.
        3.Jokes and friendly gestures can help
          break the ice.
        4.Explain the purpose of the
          interview/informed consent.


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Promoting Rational Drug Use in the Community   WHO
         How to conduct semi-structured
         interviews 2
        5.Start with a topic that is not sensitive
          and is important to the respondent
        6.Use open-ended questions
        7.Avoid asking leading questions
        8.Follow the flow of the discussion
        9.Ask “probing” questions
        10.Listen actively: do not only look at your
          interview guide

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Promoting Rational Drug Use in the Community   WHO
         How to conduct semi-structured
         interviews 3
        11.Pick up phrases that the informant uses
          and use for your questions. Instruct your
          translator to do this too.
        12.Avoid passing opinions or judgements.
          Treat your informant as an equal.
        13.Respond to issues raised by your
          informants.
        14.Thank the informant at the end and
          give time for questions.
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Promoting Rational Drug Use in the Community   WHO
         How to conduct simulated client visits
         Make a realistic „script‟
         Think of details -- you need money to
          pay for the drugs -- do you have a
          limited budget -- what do you do if the
          treatment is too expensive for your
          budget
         Make sure the „client‟ looks like a real
          client. What will the client wear?
         Don‟t step out of your role



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Promoting Rational Drug Use in the Community   WHO
         Strengths of semi-structured
         interviews
         Depth of information
         Respondent can influence the topic so
          unexpected issues/topics emerge
         Researcher can probe to understand
          perspectives and experiences
         Topic guide ensures that a core list of
          questions is asked in each interview
         Because order of questions not fixed,
          flow and share of views more natural.

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Promoting Rational Drug Use in the Community   WHO
         Weaknesses of semi-structured
         interviews
         Trained interviewers needed to probe
          without being directive or judgemental
         Difficult to analyse findings -- must be
          done by people who did the interviews
         Researcher has to avoid bias in analysis
         Analysis is time-consuming
         Difficult to generalise findings


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Promoting Rational Drug Use in the Community   WHO
         Strengths of simulated client visits

         If done well: give information on what
          drug sellers really do
         Representative sample of pharmacies can
          be interviewed
         Results can be generalised
         Results can be quantified
         Can be used to evaluate effects of
          training of pharmacy sellers
         Can be used as participatory method

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Promoting Rational Drug Use in the Community   WHO
         Weaknesses of simulated client visits

         Difficult to do a lifelike simulation

         Disturbances occur

         Difficult to probe on why advice is given

         Depth of information collected is limited




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Promoting Rational Drug Use in the Community   WHO

				
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