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The Effects of Antacids on Pepsin

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					The Effects of
Antacids on Pepsin
Madeleine Finkenaur
The Academy of Notre Dame
Question

  How much do antacids interfere with the
   stomach’s ability to breakdown food
   proteins?
Background Information
  Food proteins are vital to the body and are
   broken down in the stomach by pepsin
  Pepsin, a proteolytic enzyme in the stomach,
   requires a pH level of 1-3
  This acidity is obtained by hydrochloric
   acid(HCl), which is secreted by the stomach
  Antacids lower the acidity level of the stomach,
   making it difficult for food protein breakdown to
   occur
Hypothesis

  The antacids will slightly hinder the food
   protein breakdown process in the
   stomach.
Materials
    1 ml of Pepsin                 .1 Molar HCl
    Distilled water                Single dose of Heartburn
    Single dose of Pepto-Bismol     Relief
    Single dose of Acid Reducer    Single dose of TUMS
    650 mg of NaHCO3               27 test tubes and holders
    7 150 ml beakers               27 small hard-boiled egg
    electronic pH probe             pieces
    stirring batton                pH strips
    mortar and pestle              scale
    10 ml Graduated cylinder       pipets
    incubator at 37C              chemical spoon
                                    100 ml Graduated cylinder
Procedure
    Make a 1% pepsin solution with 99mL of distilled
     water in a 150mL beaker
    Make a 1% hydrochloric acid solution with 99mL of
     distilled water in a 150mL beaker
    Take four test tubes and add 5mL of the pepsin
     solution and 5mL of distilled water in one, 5mL of the
     hydrochloric acid solution and 5mL of distilled water in
     another, 5mL of the pepsin solution and 5mL of the
     hydrochloric acid solution in the third test tube, and
     10mL of distilled water in the last one
    Crush a single dose of each antacid (TUMS, Pepto-
     Bismol, Acid Reducer, Heartburn Relief, and NaHCO3)
     separately with a mortar and pestle.
    Add each antacid to a 150mL beaker with 100mL of
     hydrochloric acid
Procedure
  Take five more test tubes and fill each one with 5mL of
   the 1% pepsin solution
  Add 5mL of every one of the five antacid solutions to the
   five test tubes with the pepsin solution separately
  Record the pH level of every test tube
  Cut a small piece of hard-boiled egg for each test tubes
   and record the mass of each egg piece
  Add the egg to every test tube and cover all the test
   tubes
  Store all the test tubes in an incubator at 37C for 48
   hours
  Uncap all the test tubes after 48 hours and weigh the
   hard-boiled egg slices from each test tube and record
  Repeat this procedure for three trials
Controls and Variables

  Controls
    Pepsin + Distilled Water, HCl + Distilled Water,
     Distilled Water, Pepsin + HCl
  Independent Variable
    Antacids: TUMS, Pepto-Bismol, Acid Reducer,
     Hreatburn Relief, Sodium bicarbonate(NaHCO3)
  Dependent Variables
    Percent of change in egg mass after the incubation
     period
                            Data
                                                                        Average Change in Egg Mass


                             40                       HCl + Distilled Water


                             20
Percent of Change in Mass




                              0
                            Distilled Water

                             -20
                                      Pepsin + Distilled Water                           TUMS      Pepto-Bismol                                 NaHCO3

                             -40


                             -60                                                                                  Acid Reducer


                             -80
                                                                         HCl + Pepsin
                                                                                                                                 Heartburn Relief
                            -100
                                                                                  Contents of Test Tube
                             Data
                                                         Average Change in Egg Mass for Antacids

                              0

                             -10

                             -20
                                                  TUMS            Pepto-Bismol                                            NaHCO3
Percent of Change in Mass




                             -30

                             -40

                             -50

                             -60
                                                                                        Acid Reducer
                             -70

                             -80

                             -90
                                   HCl + Pepsin                                                        Heartburn Relief
                            -100
                                                                             Antacids
Data

   Contents of Test Tube      PH Level
   Distilled Water            6.5

   Pepsin + Distilled Water   6
   HCl + Distilled Water      1.5
   Pepsin + HCl               1.5

   TUMS                       6
   Pepto-Bismol               1.5
   Acid Reducer               1.5
   Heartburn Relief           1.5
   NaHCO3                     3
Data

   Antacid            T-Test with Pepsin + HCl

   TUMS
                        0.000110132

   Pepto-Bismol
                       0.000107917

   Acid Reducer
                         0.00499215

   Heartburn Relief
                         0.299909524

   NaHCO3
                        0.000124073
 Post-incubation



 HCl + Distilled Water and
 Pepsin + Distilled Water    Pepsin + HCl and Distilled Water




                                                                 NaHCO3

TUMS and Pepto-Bismol        Acid Reducer and Heartburn Relief
Conclusion
  The hypothesis for this experiment was partly
   supported and partly rejected
    TUMS was ineffective in breaking down food protein
     because it had pH level of 6
    Pepto-Bismol was ineffective in breaking down food
     protein
    Acid Reducer only had a mild amount of food
     protein breakdown
    Heartburn Relief was very effective in food protein
     breakdown
    NaHCO3 was ineffective in breaking down food
     protein
Conclusion

  Limitations
    Only tested 5 antacids out of many
    Some egg mass was lost when the egg was
     moved
  Further Study
    What are the effects of limited protein
     breakdown on the body?
    Do more acidic food increase pepsin’s ability
     to breakdown food protein?
References
    American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (2010). Bismuth Subsalicylate .
     Retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information database.
    Avraham, R. (2000). The Digestive System. Philadelphia: Chelsea House
     Publishers.
    Carpi, A., Ph.D. (n.d.). Introduction. In Acids and Bases. Retrieved 2003, from
     Visionlearning database.
    Gbemudu, A., PharmD. (n.d.). Antacid faq. In RxList [Fact sheet on Antacids].
     Retrieved October 6, 2010, from
     http://www.rxlist.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=95545
    Gillson, S. (2010, April 16). H2 Blockers. Retrieved from About.com database.
    Pali-Schöll, I., Herzog, R., Wallmann, J., Szalai, K., Brunner, R., Lukschal, A.,
     Karagiannis, P., Diesner, S. C. and Jensen-Jarolim, E. (2010, July). Antacids and
     dietary supplements with an influence on the gastric pH increase the risk for food
     sensitization. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 40(7), 1091-1098. Abstract retrieved
     from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2010.03468.x/full
    Pepsin. (2008). Retrieved from The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition website:
     http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/pepsin.aspx
    Sexton, T. (n.d.). History of Antacid. Retrieved July 17, 2008, from Health &
     Wellness database.

				
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