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									Description of Trigonia. The mantle-lobes are rounded and plaited, to correspond with the ribs of the shell. The edges of the mantle are marked with white spots; posteriorly, opposite the anus they are provided with short convex appendages. The mantle-lobes are disunited throughout, not joining until they reach the upper surface of the posterior adductor, some distance above the anus. The gills are somewhat triangular, extending backwards almost horizontally on each side of the visceral mass. Each gill is formed of three stems, fixed at one extremity, free and pointed at the other, and giving attachment throughout their whole length, on one side to depending filaments, which become shorter as they are more posterior. The filaments are formed of a tubular horny thread, supporting on one side a broad membranous fringe. I could perceive no trace of vessels in this fringe, but it appeared to be covered by an epithelium (ciliated ?). The mouth is placed at the anterior and superior part of the animal, between two thickish horizontal lips. The labial tentacles are two on each side, rather long, lanceolate, and slightly pectinated. The anus is placed posteriorly and superiorly between the gills, and just above the posterior adductor muscle. The so-called "foot" is composed of two portions, an upper and [8] quadrilateral (properly the abdomen), and a lower pointed part (the true foot), the two being set at right angles to one another. The first portion is sharp-edged and slightly pectinated posteriorly, marke by a groove bounded by two folded lips anteriorly. The second portion is slightly pecitnated along its lower edge, pointed anteriorly, prolonged behind into a curved process, where it joins the superior portion. Visceral mass.–The mouth opens by a very short œsophagus into a wide pyriform stomach, surrounded by a dark dendritic liver. The stomach narrows into a long intestine, which descends for the whole length of the abdomen, and forms one or two loops in the substance of the generative gland; then passes up again above the stomach, penetrates the heart, and passing between the two small lateral muscles of the foot, terminates in the anus.

Description of Elephant The African Savanna Elephant is the largest land mammal with adult males achieving body weights greater than 7 tonnes. Parker (1979), from a detailed study of ivory, showed a western race of savanna elephants extending through Angola and northern Namibia across as far west as Matabeleland in Zimbabwe. Namibia is famous for its "Desert Elephant" and, although it has now been demonstrated that these desert-dwelling animals are part of a continuous population extending to Etosha National Park, they possess adaptations not seen in other savanna elephants large body size being one characteristic. The largest elephant recorded (from Fenykoevi in Angola in 1955) was 4 metres high and is probably from the same race as Namibia's north-western elephant. The elephant is described as a 'Pachyderm' because of its very thick skin which may reach a thickness of 3-4cm. Although both species of African elephant have five well-formed digits on both fore and hind feet, Loxodonta africana displays 4 nails on the fore feet and 3 on the hind, whereas L. cyclotis has 5 and 4 respectively. The name Loxodonta is derived from the lozenge-shaped teeth of the genus. During its lifetime a progression of six molars erupt from the posterior of the jaw and move along the mandibles, wearing out as they go, until they fall out. The succession of molars has allowed fairly accurate ageing of animals (Laws 1966, Sikes 1966, 1968). The tusks are elongated upper incisors consisting of a unique mixture of dentine and calcium salts which exhibits a diamond pattern in section. Elephant tusks grow throughout their lifetime (Figure 4). The largest tusks on record are from Kenya and weighed 102.3 and 97kg. In the southern African region the largest recorded pair are 64.3 and 64.8 kg from the Limpopo Valley (Best & Best 1977). Namibian ivory (from the western population) has a reputation for being hard and brittle and broken tusks are a common feature of large adult males. Both males and females possess glands on the temporal region of the face which secrete copiously irrespective of age, sex or season (Short 1972). The discovery of 'musth' in African elephant is relatively recent (Moss 2000) and this discharge is one of the symptoms displayed by adult males in a musth condition. Musth is directly linked to reproductive behaviour and occurs in males over 29 years of age mainly during the rains and lasts for two-three months at a time.

Elephants are capable of communications over long distances using infrasound inaudible to the human ear (14-20Hz). Much of the communication is linked to females in oestrus but also plays a rôle in relaying alarm messages and maintaining contact when elephant groups are separated (Payne 1998, Charif et al 2004). Ansell (1974) recognised four subspecies of savanna elephant but included the Kaokoveld elephant in the main type L.a. africana. male Largest: Fenykoevi Angola 1955 Namibia: from Lindeque (1991) Namibia: Best & Best (1977) 400 female Martin (2005) took the body length and age data for Etosha from Lindeque (1991) and applied the formula from >350 >300 Chase (et al 2003) to derive shoulder heights for these up to 350 250 270 elephants. Lindeque's data only extends up to age classes of 30 years but, in these classes, the indications are that both males and females are at least 10% 305-320 taller than the Kruger National Park elephants. Applying this 250-300 ratio to the oldest animals in the population suggests that 235 210 shoulder heights over 3.5 metres would be expected. Sexing of adult elephants Field experts and authors of books on African elephants will advise that male elephants are taller than females; that they have thicker tusks; that the foreheads of adult females are pointed whereas those of males are sloping; that the back and belly of a male elephant slopes downwards towards the hind legs whereas in the profile of a female these features are more horizontal; and that the shape of the prepuce in the adult male forms an abrupt right angle with the belly whereas the vulva of a female has a triangular profile (Figure 5).

Zimbabwe: Martin (1987) up to 340 Africa: Macdonald (2001) 330 Southern Africa: Shortridge (1934) Asia (Elephas) Macdonald (2001) Forest elephant: Smithers (1983)

Table 1: Shoulder heights for elephant

The presence of mammary glands is limited to females only. Although males have vestigial nipples, they lack the pronounced swelling between the forelegs. The mammary glands can be detected in all views of a female elephant (except perhaps from dead astern). The belly of an adult female dips downwards immediately behind the forelegs and the skin of the mammary gland is paler than the belly skin.

Figure 5: Identification of adult male and female elephants

Description of Cheetah A spotted, slender, sleek, graceful, swift animal that hunts for its food, on the run. This particular cat is a diurnal hunter, which means that it hunts primarily during the day. Why? Because it uses its incredible running ability to catch a daily meal, and it needs to be able to see what it is running after. It's all about adaptations. That means there are special characteristics about each animal that help it live. One of the cheetah's adaptations, its claws, help make it the fastest running animal. Its claws help it catch its prey, which runs nearly as quickly to escape this running machine. There are certain natural history facts that seem to be common knowledge. The elephant is the largest land animal, and most everyone seems to know that the fastest running animal on the planet is the cheetah. Cheetahs are built for speed. They can accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 3.4 seconds and can reach 65 mph when chasing their favorite antelope prey. A cheetah chase is not all that eager to be dinner, so when it is in a race with the worlds fastest land animal it just makes sense NOT to run in a straight line. Football players know this; they change direction often so they aren't tackled easily. But, the cheetah is ready for this tactic. Claws that stick out like a dog's give the cheetah traction in high speed turns. Even the cheetah's tail helps. Other cats have round, fluffy tails - like your house cat - but not the cheetah. Its tail has a flat surface, like the rudder of a boat, and it helps balance its body as the cheetah runs. So the cheetah has speed licked. But there is another problem - stopping. When the antelope falls to the ground, tackled by the cheetah, the cat is still going 60 mph. The antelope isn't going to wait around if the cheetah flies by it. In order to stop immediately, the cheetah has a highly specialized, pointed pad in the back of each front leg. So, while going full speed, the cheetah can slam its two front legs down, hard. The pads tear into the ground bringing the cat to a near instantaneous halt. Then, it grabs its dinner before the antelope can get away. What a game of predator and prey. Both animals are equipped to survive. That is what the balance of life is all about.

Lion, The King of the Jungle Lion Species Lions are carnivorous mammals that come from the family Felidae. They are geographically distributed in mostly sub-Saharan east and southern Africa but can also be found in zoos internationally, India and some parts of Asia . The population of these vulnerable animals has dramatically decreased in the past few decades with no solid reason as to why. It is thought that clashes with humans and habitat loss may be a possibility, but to help further preserve and monitor these creatures, they are usually kept within reserves and parks. Only eight sub species are recognized today and there is a small range of hybrids with lions mating with tigers, jaguars or leopards to create unique creatures. This is discouraged and only initiated at zoos. Lion Manes These kings of the jungle can weigh between 250 and 550 pounds, depending on sex and age and can grow up to be 14 years old in the wild and over the age of 20 years old in captivity. They become capable at hunting at the age of two and are fully grown after 5 or 6 years. Male lions are distinguishable for their impressive manes, which signifies their masculinity and reflects their health. The darker and thicker the mane, the healthier the lion. It allows the lions to appear stronger and frightening to warn off enemies, particularly humans, and appeals to lionesses that are scientifically proven to mate more with lions with thick and dark manes. Lions with no manes are either genetically inbred or have been castrated. White Lion The legendary white lion was once thought to be a figment of one's imagination until less than fifty years ago, when white lion cubs were discovered. This is due a recessive gene and they are not albino as they do have pigmentation in vital parts such as they eye, paw and lip. Their condition is called leucism meaning they only have pigmentation loss in the skin and fur. There are less than fifty white lions in the world. Man Eaters Some lions have been known to eat humans however this is thought to only have been done by those who are suffering injuries and disabilities that make it difficult

for them to hunt natural prey thus pursuing humans as they are weaker and easier to capture. Several other theories include wanting to defend itself. Another is that their natural habitat is unavailable and not wanting to starve, they attack humans. The thought that lions are predatory towards humans has created ignorance and increased the amount of hunting by encouraging the extermination of these creatures. Humans have taken over territories once belonging to lions and by forcing them to leave their natural home has further demolished their habitat and lifestyle, leaving them to suffer and destruct. Lions are now listed as being a vulnerable species and their population is now irreversibly decreased. Prides Lions have a devised a system of living in groups called prides that's based around related females. The majority of the pride, consisting of approximately 15 individuals and can sometimes even reach 40 individuals, is female with only a handful of male. Male cubs eventually leave and typically become nomads before taking over their own group as the territorial male and father of all cubs. They only leave the pride when challenged by other males and are forced to leave or are killed. Nomads usually travel lone or in pairs, most of the time being related males. If a female nomad attempts to join a pride, it is usually very difficult as the other lionesses reject their intruder who is not related to them

Description of the tiger

The Tiger has a long body, a short neck, and a firm head with a short muzzle that contains a set of sharp teeth. Tigers have stout legs that end in broad paws. A well fed tiger is bulky, broad in the shoulders, back, and loins. Males are generally longer and heavier than females. The average length for males is about 6 feet long and with a tail length of 3 feet long. Females are usually 6 to 12 inches shorter in body length. A tiger's fur color varies from orange-red to tawny yellow, with a lot of black stripes that have different lengths and widths. The cheeks, throat, and the insides of the ears and legs are white. The back of the ear is black with a white spot in the center.

Description of Crocodile A crocodile is any species belonging to the family Crocodylidae (sometimes classified instead as the subfamily Crocodylinae). The term can also be used more loosely to include all members of the order Crocodilia: i.e. the true crocodiles, the alligators and caimans (family Alligatoridae) and the gharials (family Gavialidae), or even the Crocodylomorpha which includes prehistoric crocodile relatives and ancestors. Crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. Crocodiles tend to congregate in freshwater habitats like rivers, lakes, wetlands and sometimes in brackish water. They feed mostly on vertebrates like fish, reptiles, and mammals, sometimes on invertebrates like mollusks and crustaceans, depending on species. They are an ancient lineage, and are believed to have changed little since the time of the dinosaurs. They are believed to be 200 million years old whereas dinosaurs became extinct 65 million years ago; crocodiles survived great extinction events.

Monumen Nasional The Monumen Nasional (or Tugu Monas, the National Monument tower) is a 450 ft (137 m) tall tower in Central Jakarta, symbolizing the fight for Indonesia's independence. Construction began in 1961 under Sukarno and was not finished until 1975 under Suharto. It is topped by a 14.5 ton bronze flame, which is plated in 35 kg (1,125 troy ounces) of gold. Visitors can take an elevator up to a platform with a view of Medan Merdeka Park, Istiqlal Mosque, and the city. Inside the base of the monument is an exhibition on the country's Declaration of Independence and several dioramas showing the history of Indonesia. The design of the monument is meant to combine elements of masculine and feminine. The design based on Lingga-Yoni, the symbol of fertility in ancient HinduJavanese belief. The phallic shaft comes toward the ground and is engulfed by square base meant to symbolize fertility. The monument body was made of steel and concrete covered with Italian white marble. On the top of the tower there's a square terrace that can be reach by visitors by elevator. From here visitors can see an aerial view of Jakarta. The monument is crowned by gold-coated flame, right on the top of the peak terrace. This golden flame is intended to symbolize the spirit of freedom and the struggle for independence of Indonesian people

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