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									                               Chapter 32: Vertical Transportation:
                                        Special Topics

Chapter in Brief

This chapter covers a somewhat eclectic collection of vertical transportation topics: residential
elevator applications, innovative elevator systems, and material-handling systems.

Shaft space for elevators has a major impact on efficiency of space use. Sky-lobby and double-
deck elevator systems represent attempts to reduce the impact of elevator shaft requirements on
building space efficiency while retaining acceptable performance.

Freight elevator design considerations are introduced and components and systems reviewed. The
main design issues include: size, weight, nature, and frequency of loads; travel patterns; means of
loading; and elevator car characteristics (doors, speed, capacity). Freight elevators are classified by
ANSI into five load classifications (A, B, C1, C2, C3). Geared traction (with VVVF or umv
controls) and hydraulic drives are most commonly used. Relative cost data for freight elevators are

Special elevator designs are briefly addressed. These include systems with observation cars,
inclined elevators, rack and pinion drives, and linear motor drives. Residential elevators and chair
lifts are considered in some detail, with examples of equipment and installations.

Material-handling systems are reviewed. The general need for such systems in buildings is
discussed. Typical systems and applications are presented. These include: manual load/unload
dumbwaiters, automated dumbwaiters, horizontal and vertical conveyors, pneumatic tubes of
various types, automated container delivery, and self-propelled vehicles.

Chapter Outline

32.1 Sky Lobby Elevator System
32.2 Double-Deck Elevators
32.3 General Information
32.4 Freight Car Capacity
32.5 Freight Elevator Description
32.6 Freight Elevator Cars, Gates, and Doors
32.7 Freight Elevator Cost Data
32.8 Observation Cars
32.9 Inclined Elevators
32.10 Rack and Pinion Elevators
32.11 Residential Elevators and Chair Lifts
32.12 Innovative Motor Drives
                       CHAPTER 32: Vertical Transportation: Special Topics

32.13 General Information
32.14 Manual Load/Unload Dumbwaiters
32.15 Automated Dumbwaiters
32.16 Horizontal Conveyors
32.17 Selective Vertical Conveyors
32.18 Pneumatic Tubes
32.19 Pneumatic Trash and Linen Systems
32.20 Automated Container Delivery Systems
32.21 Automated Self-Propelled Vehicles
32.22 Materials Handling Summary

Key Concepts

 sky lobby (as an organizational and zoning approach)
 double-deck elevators (as a means of reducing shaft requirements)
 freight elevator (as a means of moving materials/goods)
 freight elevator load classifications (as a design consideration)
 observation cars and inclined elevators (as alternative elevator designs)
 linear elevator drive (as a potential new technology)
 residential elevators and chair lifts (as related to this scale of occupancy)
 material handling systems (as a requirement in many facilities)
 dumbwaiters, conveyors, pneumatic tube systems (as material handling options)
 automated container delivery (as a material handling option)
 self-propelled vehicles (as a material handling option)

Important Terminology

 ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
 sky lobby (sky plaza)
 freight elevator classes (A, B, C1, C2, C3)
 VVVF (variable-voltage, variable-frequency) control
 umv (unit multi-voltage) control
 rheostatic control
 rack and pinion elevator drive
 linear motor drive
 dumbwaiter
 ejection lift
 conveyor
 pneumatic tube
 automated messenger cart

Important Metrics

None introduced.

Look For

Figure 32.1, which illustrates the elevator zoning for the John Hancock Center.
                       CHAPTER 32: Vertical Transportation: Special Topics

Figure 32.10, which gives typical design data for traction freight elevators.

The many examples of materials-conveying systems presented in this chapter.
                       CHAPTER 32: Vertical Transportation: Special Topics

Discussion Questions

1. How would you, as a first time visitor to a building, respond to an elevator system using a sky-
lobby or double-deck car approach? Would the response of day-to-day users of such system
approaches be similar or different to that of casual visitors? If different, how might the differences
be addressed (and perhaps mitigated) through design?

2. At some point in the past you have probably had to wait, and wait, and wait in an elevator
lobby for a slow system to respond. Try to remember what you thought was going on with the
system and whether you ascribed responsibility (“blame”) for the poor performance to anyone or
anything in particular as you milled about the lobby or were beat to the next available car by lucky
or aggressive latecomers.

Exam/Quiz Questions

1. A “sky-lobby” elevator design is fundamentally a response to:
       (a) concerns about excessive space requirements for elevator shafts
       (b) concerns that passenger travel time be kept to an absolute minimum
       (c) concerns about the structural stability of very long elevator cables
       (d) concerns about smoke migration in very tall buildings

2. List three benefits of double-deck elevators.

3. Before selecting a freight elevator one must complete:
        (a) a material-flow study
        (b) a structural test
        (c) an energy evaluation
        (d) a fire safety evaluation

4. Freight elevators are categorized into five classes based upon:
        (a) their car speed
        (b) their required vertical rise
        (c) their required load-carrying duties
        (d) the hazardousness of their cargo

5. Two primary benefits of an observation-type elevator system are:
       (a) waiting time seems to be reduced and security is much improved
       (b) riders get an open view and “shafts” are often placed outside of a building
       (c) such systems are exempt from both the elevator and life safety codes
       (d) passersby and users both understand the building’s circulation organization

6. All of the following are characteristics of a rack and pinion elevator, EXCEPT:
        (a) limited rise
        (b) simplicity and safety
        (c) minimum space requirements
        (d) low maintenance and operating costs

7. A “dumbwaiter” is effectively:
       (a) a pressurized shaft that moves goods from point to point
       (b) a small elevator car
                        CHAPTER 32: Vertical Transportation: Special Topics

        (c) a self-propelled cart that moves goods
        (d) a motorized chair that can carry a person up or down a stairway

8. A dumbwaiter would probably not be used in which of the following applications:
       (a) to transport food and dishes in a restaurant
       (b) to transport merchandise from stock areas to pickup counters in a department
       (c) to transport food, drugs, and linens in a hospital
       (d) to transport baggage in an airport

9. Automated self-propelled vehicles are guided by:
       (a) a recessed track set into a floor slab
       (b) an electrically charged cable run along the ceiling of a facility
       (c) passive guidance floor-tape located on the floor or under carpet
       (d) there is no such thing as an automated self-propelled vehicle

Internet Resources

Gateway Arch (tram system background):

ThyssenKrupp Elevator (hydraulic and freight, select the area of interest):

Otis Elevator (hydraulic and freight, select area of interest):

Sweet’s System Online (Division 14: people and materials handling):

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