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VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 21

									Welcome to Tool 18: FLEET INVENTORY & OPTIONS TOOL
→ Learn about the options for developing a cleaner fleet

The Inventory & Options Tool is divided into fifteen sheets.
These sheets will allow you to assess the environmental impacts of your fleet and to look at the potential benefits
of these actions.
Start with entering your fleet data in the white fields of the Fleet Inventory sheet, replacing the default Example Fleet
figures. This basic data will then allow you to estimate your impacts and review possible actions described
in the subsequent Impacts, Actions, and Monitoring sheets below.

If you don’t know your fleet data, you can use the 'Example Fleet' figures already provided to browse through the tool.

Step 1 - Fill in Your Fleet Data
Fleet Inventory                           In this orange sheet you will fill in your fleet data in the white data fields.

Step 2 - Review Your Impacts
Impacts - Your Emissions                  These yellow sheets will indicate
Impacts - Air Pollution                   your fleet's air pollutant and carbon
Impacts - Climate Change                  dioxide emissions and impacts.

Step 3 - View Your Options
Action - Overview                         The blue sheets in this section will give you examples
Action - Drivers                          of some of the possible corrective actions for your fleet.
Action - Clean diesel
Action - Biofuels
Action - Retrofitting trucks
Action - Changing to diesel
Action - Replacing 2 strokes
Action - Hybrid Passenger cars
Action - New Trucks
Action - Summary

Step 4 - Develop Indicators
Monitoring                                This green sheet gives examples of indicators to help track your progress.
                                                                                                                → Go to next sheet →




 D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                  6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Inventory - Your fleet                                                                                                                                      GO BACK
→ Fill in only the white cells in this sheet with your fleet data, replacing the default Example Fleet data.
In following sheets you will read about your impact and cleaner fleet options, tailored to the fleet specifications you provide here.
The default Example Fleet data is provided only as a guide.

                                          Fill in your fleet name:                      Example Fleet
Notes are at the bottom of this sheet
                                                                     Number of       Total annual       Total annual fuel           Average annual             Average fuel
                                                                     vehicles (2)     mileage (3)        consumption (3)         mileage per vehicle (4)       efficiency (4)
                       Vehicle category (1)                                            (km/yr)                (L/yr)                    (km/yr)                   (km/L)
                     Petrol - without catalyst                           10            195,000               22,000                     19,500                      8.9
      Passenger      Petrol - with 3-way catalyst                        64            960,000               81,600                     15,000                      11.8
         cars:       Diesel - without Particulate Matter filter          12            120,000                8,400                     10,000                      14.3
                     Diesel - with PM filter                              0                0                    0                          -                          -
      Light duty     Light duty - pre Euro                               123          2,214,000             298,890                     18,000                      7.4
   trucks & buses Light duty - Euro I+II                                 356          6,586,000             723,736                     18,500                      9.1
 (2.2 - 4.5 tonnes): Light duty - III+IV                                  2             42,000                5,040                     21,000                      8.3
                     Light duty - Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)           1             17,356                1,607                     17,356                      10.8
    Medium duty      Medium duty - pre Euro                              28            336,000               63,840                     12,000                      5.3
   trucks & buses Medium duty - Euro I+II                                45            562,500              104,063                     12,500                      5.4
  (4.5 -15 tonnes): Medium duty - Euro III+IV                             1             14,000                2,545                     14,000                      5.5
                     Medium duty - Euro V                                 0                0                    0                          -                          -
     Heavy duty      Heavy duty - pre-Euro                               14            327,500              144,780                     23,393                      2.3
   trucks & buses Heavy duty - Euro I+II                                 15            372,765              157,951                     24,851                      2.4
  (15 - 22 tonnes): Heavy duty - Euro III+IV                              4             68,096               26,394                     17,024                      2.6
                     Heavy duty - Euro V                                  1             14,236                4,809                     14,236                      3.0
                     Motorcycles with 4-stroke engines                    5             45,000                 900                       9,000                      50.0
    Motorcycles:
                     Motorcycles with 2-stroke engines                   120          1,020,000              23,460                      8,500                      43.5
                                                         Total:         801          12,894,453           1,670,016

                                                Your diesel sulphur level (5):          5,000           ppm
                                             Your petrol fuel price per liter (6):      1.56                  EUR           (fill in your local currency)
                                                                              (6)
                                             Your diesel fuel price per liter :         1.38                  EUR
Notes
(1) If you don’t know the categories for your vehicles, you can use the guidelines in the 'Vehicle categories' sheet:………………………………………………………..
                                                                                                                                CLICK HERE
(2) The number of vehicles is good to fill in but not necessary if you don't have it.
(3) If you don't have the exact fuel and km numbers you can use estimates. If you only have km or
    fuel consumption you can easily estimate the other by using the 'fuel to kilometers converter':……………………………………………………………….    CLICK HERE
(4) You can use the average annual mileage and the average fuel economy to check your data for errors.
(5) The diesel sulphur level is used to estimate your fleet's emission of sulphur oxides (Sox). Furthermore it determines which
    emission control technologies can be applied. Actual diesel sulphur levels can be obtained from www.unep.org/pcfv/resources/sulphur.asp
(6) Fuel prices are used to estimate the savings from fuel efficiency improvements. (1 US Gallon equals 3.8 liters)                         → Go to next sheet →



  D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                                           6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Impacts - Estimating your emissions                                                                                                                        GO BACK
→ Your annual emissions are estimated below

                                                                                                              Air Pollution                             Climate Change
             The yearly emissions of Example Fleet                                                             (in tonnes/yr)                              (in tonnes/yr)
                                                    Numbers         km/year            CO            VOC            NOx           SOx          PM10             CO2
Petrol - without catalyst                              10           195,000            10.3           1.7            0.5          0.0           0.0               52
Petrol - with 3-way catalyst                           64           960,000            17.3           0.7            1.1          0.0           0.0              192
Diesel - without Particulate Matter filter             12           120,000             0.4           0.2            0.2          0.0           0.0               22
Diesel - with PM filter                                 0              0                0.0           0.0            0.0          0.0           0.0                0
Light duty - pre Euro                                 123          2,214,000            8.0           4.2            3.7          0.6           0.6              777
Light duty - Euro I+II                                356          6,586,000           23.7           1.3           10.8          1.7           0.9             1,882
Light duty - III+IV                                     2            42,000             0.2           0.0            0.1          0.0           0.0               13
Light duty - HEV                                        1            17,356             0.1           0.0            0.0          0.0           0.0                4
Medium duty - pre Euro                                 28           336,000             2.9           0.6            5.2          0.2           0.2              166
Medium duty - Euro I+II                                45           562,500             4.8           0.9            8.4          0.4           0.4              271
Medium duty - Euro III+IV                               1            14,000             0.1           0.0            0.1          0.0           0.0                7
Medium duty - Euro V                                    0              0                0.0           0.0            0.0          0.0           0.0                0
Heavy duty - pre-Euro                                  14           327,500             4.4           0.8            7.8          0.3           0.7              376
Heavy duty - Euro I+II                                 15           372,765             4.4           0.9            7.6          0.4           0.5              411
Heavy duty - Euro III+IV                                4            68,096             0.4           0.1            0.7          0.1           0.0               69
Heavy duty - Euro V                                     1            14,236             0.1           0.0            0.1          0.0           0.0               13
Motorcycles with 4-stroke engines                       5            45,000             0.7           0.2            0.0          0.0           0.0                2
Motorcycles with 2-stroke engines                     120          1,020,000           28.1          14.7            0.2          0.0           0.4               55
                                           Total      801         12,894,453         105.7           26.4           46.5          3.9           3.7           3,925

Disclaimer - This tool is used to estimate your emissions and only gives indicative numbers (especially with regard to air pollutants).
Local conditions influence emissions, including driving conditions, fuel quality, vehicle standards, maintenance and altitude.
However, the emission of CO2 is not influenced by local conditions and can thus be taken as your actual emissions.
The calculations are based on vehicle emission factors based on a Nairobi study by University of California, Riverside and UNEP (IVE model 1.1.1a).
                                                                                                                         Click
More information, including the emission factors used in this model, can be found in the 'Emission factors' sheet:……………………           here
                                                                                                                                                      → Go to next sheet →




  D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                                       6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Impacts: Air Pollution and Health Impacts                                                                                                           Go Back
→ Health effects of Particulate Matter (PM) pollution are explained in this sheet.

           Your current fleetwide PM emissions are:           3.73     tonnes of PM per year.


                        As a guiding estimate, if this amount would be emitted in the Netherlands
                        it is estimated to cause:          1.5     premature deaths/year.
                        In addition, many more people are affected with other diseases such as
                        non-fatal cancers, bronchitis, and cardio-vascular diseases (heart and lung).


The effects of your vehicle emissions are strongly dependent on where the emissions occur .
Emissions in a city center have more health impacts than similar emissions in rural areas as more people are exposed
in cities. As an example, emissions in Paris are estimated to have 10 times more health impacts than
emissions occuring in the rural parts of France.

Particulate matter (PM) is often used as a proxy for all air pollutants when estimating health impacts.
This is because PM is a key pollutant with many different impacts. PM also often includes other pollutants such
as SOx, Lead, etc. The World Health Organisation has estimated that 800,000 people die prematurely worldwide
each year due to outdoor air pollution.

Read more on Health Effects and Air Pollution in Tool 3 and Tool 4

Example: Impact of Netherlands TNT fleet
In the Netherlands TNT vehicles drive 134 millions km annually, emitting approximately 31 tons of PM10. The total estimated PM10 emissions in the
Netherlands are 12,000 tons - estimated to result in at least 5,000 premature deaths. The TNT fleet’s share of these premature deaths can thus
roughly be estimated at 13 persons each year.

Disclaimer - It is difficult to estimate the precise health impacts for specific sources and locations. Therefore the
impact data in this sheet is only to give an indication of the general health impacts of vehicle emissions.                                → Go to next sheet →




  D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                            6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Impacts - Climate Change: your carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions can be calculated
on the basis of your fuel consumption.                                                                                                             GO BACK
→ The indicative cost of your CO2 emissions is explained below.

Remember, with every liter of petrol fuel burned 2.35 kg of CO2 is emitted.
With every liter of diesel fuel burned 2.60 kg of CO2 is emitted.

  Your current fleetwide fuel consumption:           1,670,016       L/yr of petrol + diesel

and your current fleetwide CO2 emissions:              3,925         tonnes/yr of CO2


Offsetting your CO2 emissions can be done by planting trees. It is estimated that 1 up to 7 trees offset 1 tonne CO2 over the lifetime of the tree(s).
The actual number of trees per tonne of CO2 offset varies depending on factors such as climate, rainfall, species and soil type.
For example, in the UK you can offset 1 ton CO2 by planting 1 leaf tree and let it grow during 100 years.
                                                                  1 tree offsets 1 ton CO2         7 trees offset 1 ton CO2
To offset your CO2 emissions you need to plant between                    3,925              and          27,472       trees every year*

This requires between approximately                                         18               and             36        hectares
which equals a square area with sides of respectively                       0.4              and             0.6       km.

* When the CO2 emissions of your fleet increase, additional trees have to be planted to offset the difference.

…or offset your CO2 emissions by buying CO2 Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) certificates
                                  Assuming a CER price of:       15         EUR per ton CO2 (you can update this value! **)

       Offsetting 100% of your CO2 emissions would cost you              58,868              EUR       per year.

** The price for CERs varies and depends on the details of the programme used. In January 2008, the price level for Certified
Emission Reductions Futures for emissions in 2008, was 15 EUR/ton CO2. In November 2008 the same product was worth 18 EUR/ton.
Actual prices can be found on various websites, for example on www.eex.de

Read more about carbon dioxide and climate change in Tool 6

Example: TNT Dutch and UK fleets
TNT’s Dutch and UK fleets produce 258,000 tonnes of CO2 every year.
To absorb these CO2 emissions it would require planting between 258,000 and 1,806,000 trees every year.
This covers between 1,173 and 2,345 hectares, equalling a square area with sides of respectively 3.4 and 4.8km.                            → Go to next sheet →


 D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                             6/28/2011 6:31 AM
      Actions - Overview of options and their effects                                                                                  GO BACK
→ Overview of various options to improve your environmental impact

                             Options                Air pollutant reduction CO2 emissions reduction                     Fuel savings
                      Optimal tyre pressure &
  Drivers &                 alignment                         2 - 4%                          2 - 4%                         2 - 4%
 Maintenance           Improved maintenance                 up to 20%                       up to 7%                       up to 7%
                            Eco-driving                      5 - 10%                         5 - 10%                        5 - 10%
                        Use unleaded petrol          Eliminating lead particles               none                           none
                                                    Reduces SOx and ultra fine
      Fuel           Use ultra low sulfur diesel             particles                        none                           none
                      Biodiesel (max blending)            Eliminating SOx          ~60% (life cycle emissions)               none
                                                    0 - 5% depending on vehicle
                     Bioethanol (max blending)               technology           ~60- 65% (life cycle emissions)            0 - 5%
                                                    20-60% depending on which
     In-use          Diesel Oxidation Catalyst              pollutants                        none                           none
                                                    50-90% depending on which
   Vehicles           Diesel Particulate Filter             pollutants                        none                           none

                                                                                  none compared to diesel, 15%      none compared to diesel,
                       Euro V Diesel trucks         ~90% compared with pre-euro          comp. to petrol              20% comp. to petrol
                    Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
New Vehicles          with emission controls        >90% compared with pre-euro              25 -35%                        25 -35%

                    CNG with emission controls      >90% compared with pre-euro              5 -10%                     10% INCREASE
                     Fuel Cell with renewable
                            hydrogen                99% compared with pre-euro            100% possible                      ~ 50%

                                                                                                                    → Go to next sheet →




 D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                              6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Action - Eco-driving and improved maintenance
→ Two options that are easy to implement to improve your environmental impact                                         GO BACK

Your current fleetwide fuel consumption is:
          127,960              L/yr of petrol fuel, costing you approximately                 199,618 EUR   , and
         1,542,056             L/yr of diesel fuel, costing you approximately               2,128,037 EUR


       Eco-driving               low scenario*        high scenario*
      can save you between         83,501         -    167,002          L/yr of fuel (diesel+petrol)
            translating into
        Fuel cost reduction       116,383         -    232,765          EUR/yr
                          or
  CO2 emission reduction of          216          -       431           tonnes/yr of CO2
* The low estimate for Eco-driving assumes a 5% fuel saving, the high estimate a 10% fuel saving


Read more about Eco-driving programmes in Tool 8.


 Better Maintenance              low scenario**       high scenario**
     can save you between          66,801         -    116,901          L/yr of fuel (diesel+petrol)
           translating into
        fuel cost reduction        93,106         -    162,936          EUR/yr
                          or
  CO2 emission reduction of          172          -       302           tonnes/yr of CO2
** The low estimate assumes a 4% fuel saving, the high estimate a 7% fuel saving


Read more about Better Vehicle Maintenance programmes in Tool 7.                                             → Go to next sheet →




 D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                              6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Action - Switch to low-sulphur diesel                                                                                                              GO BACK
→ Reduce your SOx emissions by switching to lower sulphur fuels

            Sulphur oxides (SOx) are gaseous emissions formed by the oxidation of fuel sulphur during the combustion process. They have
            various respiratory impacts and contribute to the formation of acid rain. The Sox emission depends entirely on the level of sulphur in the fuel.

            Now your diesel sulphur level is                            When the diesel sulphur level changes to:            When the diesel sulphur level changes to:
               5,000      ppm                                             500      ppm,                                        50    ppm,
            and your current fleetwide                                  Your fleetwide emissions become:                     Your fleetwide emissions become:
            SOx emissions:                                                 0.39     tonnes SOx/yr,                             0.04 tonnes SOx/yr,
                   3.9       tonnes of SOx per year                     and so you save:                                     and you save:
                                                                           3.47    tonnes SOx/yr,                              3.82 tonnes SOx/yr,
                                                                        which is a reduction of                              which is a reduction of
                                                                           90%      of your current                            99% of your current
                                                                                    fleetwide SOx emissions                            fleetwide SOx emissions


                     Your SOx emissions with various diesel sulphur levels
             4.5                                                                   Choosing low sulphur diesel also reduces emissions
             4.0
            5000 ppm (currently)
             3.5                                    3.9                            of fine and ultra fine particles (PM10 and PM 2.5)
             3.0
               500 ppm                              0.4
tonnes/yr




             2.5
            50 ppm
             2.0
                                                    0.0                            Read more about low-sulphur diesel in Tool 10 and about
             1.5                                                                   sulphur oxides in the Pollutants dropdown menu
             1.0
             0.5
              -
                    5000 ppm (currently)      500 ppm              50 ppm
                                                                                                                                              → Go to next sheet →




        D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                              6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Action - Using a biofuel mix                                                                                                                             GO BACK
→ Reduce your CO2 emissions by filling up with biofuel blends

                                                If you use low-level blends                                      If you use high-level blends
                                               (e.g. 10% biodiesel or 10% bioethanol)                      (e.g. 100% biodiesel or 85% bioethanol)
   Your current fleetwide                          you will emit between                                            you will emit between:
   CO2 emissions:                         Low savings scenario*       High savings scenario**              Low savings scenario*       High savings scenario**
     3,925   tonnes/yr of CO2                       3,728         -      3,532       tonnes/yr of CO2                1,766         -       0        tonnes/yr of CO2
                                                    You will save:                                                   You will save:
                                                     196          -       392        tonnes/yr of CO2                2,158         -     3,925      tonnes/yr of CO2
                                                    which is a savings of                                            which is a savings of
                                                     5%           -      10%                                          55%          -     100%
                                               of your current fleetwide CO2 emissions                    of your current fleetwide CO2 emissions


                                       Choosing biodiesel or bioethanol also reduces the emission of SOx and ultra fine particles

                                       Every petrol vehicle can drive on up to 20% bioethanol, and every diesel vehicle can drive on up to 20% biodiesel.
                                       For higher biofuel blends vehicles may require some minor engine and vehicle component modifications.

                                       * The low savings scenario assumes a 50% reduction of CO2 emissions on a life cycle basis.
                                       This CO2 reduction is typical for biodiesel produced in Europe from rape seed
                                       or bio-ethanol produced from sugar beet. Using bioethanol from sugar cane (Brazilian ethanol)
                                       reduces CO2 by 50-90% and using ethanol from grain reduces CO2 by 30-40% on a life cycle basis.

                                       ** The high savings scenario assumes a 100% reduction of CO2 emissions on a life cycle basis.
                                       The high scenario assumes that all energy used under the production
                                       and refining process is renewable. This is a very long-term assumption.

Read more about bioethanol and biodiesel in Tool 14                                                                                     → Go to next sheet →




 D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                                 6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Action - Retrofitting emission control technologies                                                                                                   GO BACK
→ Reduce your PM emissions by retrofitting with catalysts and/or filters


     Your current PM emissions from your trucks and buses:
                   pre-Euro:    1.5    tonnes PM/yr
                   Euro I, II:  1.7    tonnes PM/yr                                     Your current fleetwide annual PM emissions:
                 Euro III, IV:  0.1    tonnes PM/yr                                         3.7   tonnes PM/yr
       Euro V and Hybrids:      0.0    tonnes PM/yr +
                       Total:   3.3    tonnes PM/yr

          If you retrofit all your Euro I - V trucks and buses*                           If you retrofit all your Euro III - V trucks and buses **
               with Diesel Oxdiation Catalysts ( DOCs)                                             with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs)
     You will emit between                                                             You will emit between
     20% less - 40% less                                                               60% less - 90% less
       1.44     -     1.08 tonnes PM/yr                                                  0.02    -     0.01  tonnes PM/yr

     So, you will save:                                                                So, you will save:
       0.36      -    0.72      tonnes PM/yr                                             0.04   -      0.06      tonnes PM/yr
     which is equal to a reduction of                                                  which is equal to a reduction of
       10%      -     19%     of your current fleetwide PM emissions.                    1%      -     1%      of your current fleetwide PM emissions.
     Besides, DOCs reduce the emission of carbon monoxide (CO) and
     hydrocarbons (HCs) with 60-90%.                                              For DPFs a diesel sulphur level of 50 ppm or less is required. At this time,
                                                                                  as your current diesel sulphur level is 5000 ppm, this        is not recommended
For DOCs a diesel sulphur level of 500 ppm or less is required. At this time,
as your current diesel sulphur level is 5000 ppm, this    is not recommended      Price indications for DPFs range from 2300 EUR to 7000 EUR,
                                                                                  depending on the system.
Price indications for DOCs range from 350 EUR to 1500 EUR, depending
on the system.                                                                    ** Pre-Euro III trucks and buses cannot be retrofitted with DPFs
                                                                                  because it requires an electronic injection system
* Pre-Euro trucks and buses can be retrofitted with DOCs, but it
is generally considered more cost effective to replace them with newer vehicles

Read more about retrofitting in-use diesel vehicles in Tool 11                                                                           → Go to next sheet →




  D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                                6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Action: Switch your petrol vehicles to diesel vehicles                                                                            Go Back
→ Possible CO2 reductions by replacing light petrol vehicles with light diesel vehicles

                                                 Your         74       petrol passenger vehicles
                                 currently consuming       103,600     L/yr of petrol fuel            Your savings when switching to
                                          costing you      161,616     EUR/yr                                  diesel vehicles
                                         and emitting        243       tonnes/yr of CO2                   fuel costs CO2 emissions
                                                                                                           petrol passenger vehicles
                                                                                                           diesel vehicles
                                                                                              petrol passenger passenger vehicles
                                                                                            100%                100%               100%
   If you switch to diesel passenger vehicles instead,                                        diesel passenger 75%
                                                                                             80%                  vehicles           83%
                     you will consume approximately         77,700     L/yr of diesel fuel   60%
                                         costing you       121,212     EUR/yr                40%
                                                                                             20%
                                        and emitting         202       tonnes/yr of CO2        0%
                                                                                                           fuel costs      CO2 emissions
               Your savings in CO2 emissions will be           41      tonnes/yr of CO2
                                       which equals          1.1%      reduction over your current fleetwide CO2 emissions
                                 Savings in fuel cost       40,404     EUR/yr
                                      which equals            546      EUR/yr per vehicle

Note that one liter of diesel emits 11% more CO2 per liter than petrol fuel (2.6 kg/L CO2 for diesel vs. 2.35 kg/L for petrol).
However, diesel vehicles generally consume 25% less than similar petrol vehicles. So when switching to diesel, on balance
you reduce your CO2 emissions by approximately 17%.

Note: Older diesel vehicles emit significantly more particulate matter when compared to petrol vehicles of similar size and age.
If you consider changing to diesel vehicles then make sure to use modern, low particle emissions diesel vehicles (Euro IV,
Euro V or diesels equipped with a particulate filter). For these models you will need low sulphur diesel fuel (at least <500 ppm).
As your current diesel sulphur level is 5000 ppm, this          is not recommended at this time.

Read more on diesel and petrol vehicles in Tool 2                                                                → Go to next sheet →




D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                       6/28/2011 6:31 AM
     Action - Switch from 2-stroke to 4-stroke motorcycles                                                                                          GO BACK
     → How to reduce emissions by using 4-stroke motor cycles instead of 2-strokes

     Today your fleet of 2-stroke motorcycles,
      has a total annual mileage of     1,020,000   km/yr                                                Your current fleetwide VOC and PM emissions are
                          and emits       14,688    kg/yr of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)             26,434    kg/yr of VOCs
                                plus       357      kg/yr of particulate matter (PM)                        3,726    kg/yr of PM


     If you replace these with 4-stroke motorcycles,
                       you will emit:     5,100      kg/yr of VOCs
                                 and       214       kg/yr of PM

and thus reduce your emissions by:       9,588      kg/yr of VOCs (which equals     36%     of your current fleetwide VOC emissions)
                              and         143       kg/yr of PM (which equals        4%     of your current fleetwide PM emissions).
                                                                                                                      Your savings when switching to
                                                                                                                                4-strokes
     2-stroke motorcycles emit more volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) than
                                                                                                                          2-stroke       4-stroke
     4-strokes, mainly due to high emissions of unburned fuel. That is also one of the reasons               100%
     why 4-stroke engines will consume 10%-15% less fuel than 2-strokes.                                      80%
                                                                                                                              VOCsPM
                                                                                                                     2-stroke ###          100%
                                                                                                              60%
     The above estimates assume motorcycles that can meet basic emission regulations when                            4-stroke ##            60%
                                                                                                              40%
     new (post 1995 US models) and that are well maintained. However, 2-stroke motorcycles can have
                                                                                                              20%
     much higher emissions than indicated above when the wrong type or amount of lubricating oil
     is used and maintenance is poor. This is the case in many developing countries.                           0%
                                                                                                                           VOCs                     PM

     Read more on 2-stroke motorcyles in Tool 2 and about VOCs in the Pollutants dropdown menu                                         → Go to next sheet →




   D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                      6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Action - Switch conventional vehicles to Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)                                                            GO BACK
→ Read about the better fuel economy of hybrid electric passenger vehicles

Fuel economy of current HEV technologies can reach up to 19.6 km/L, according to                                 Your savings when switching
                                                                                                                           to HEVs
US EPA data and depending on vehicle drive cycle (e.g. Toyota Prius).                                                   Current pass.cars
                                                                                                                        With HEVs
With a fuel economy for petrol hybrid vehicles of:         19.6   km/L*, and                        300,000
                                     the hybrid being     1,500   EUR* more expensive,
* you can update these values with your estimations and/or equivalent of 2000 USD average.          250,000
Switching to hybrid passenger vehicles would get you the following results ( *: please update)      200,000
                                            Your current petrol &    After switching to hybrid
                                           diesel passenger cars:     electric passenger cars:      150,000                        CO2 (kg/yr)
                                                                                                                          Fuel costs (EUR/yr)
                # of passenger vehicles           86 cars                       86 cars                                     pass.cars 265,300
                                                                                                                    Current #####
                                                                                                    100,000
                          total mileage    1,275,000 km/yr             1,275,000 km/yr                                      #####
                                                                                                                    With HEVs           152,870
               fuel consumption petrol       103,600 L/yr petrol          65,051 L/yr petrol           50,000
               fuel consumption diesel         8,400 L/yr diesel              -    L/yr
          passenger vehicles fuel cost       173,208 EUR/yr              101,480 EUR/yr                    -
    passenger vehicles CO2 emissions             265 tonnes/yr                153 tonnes/yr                         Fuel costs      CO2 (kg/yr)
                                                                                                                     (EUR/yr)
       Your savings will be as follows:

                    Fuel cost savings     71,728    EUR/yr
                             which is      41%      of your current fuel cost for passenger vehicles

                CO2 emission savings        112      tonnes/yr of CO2
                               which is    42%       of your current CO2 emissions for passenger vehicles
                  which translates into
              CO2 savings per vehicle:     1.31      tonnes/yr per passenger vehicle
        Fuel costs savings per vehicle:     834      EUR/yr per passenger vehicle
So, the payback time of the extra investment of the hybrid technology (instead of a conventional vehicle)
                  will be approximately     1.8      years

In addition, HEVs emit less PM and other air pollutants than conventional passenger vehicles

Hybrid vehicles are a bit more expensive to buy, but the pay back time of the extra investment can be very
short, depending on your annual mileage and fuel prices.

Read more about Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Tool 13                                                             → Go to next sheet →




D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                      6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Action - Reducing particulate matter (PM) and CO2 emissions by replacing your existing trucks and buses
→ The benefits of new technology                                                                       GO BACK

Replace all Pre-Euro-III trucks and buses                                                                                                After replacing your pre-Euro-III trucks
                                                                                                                                                       and buses
                                            All your current         Replaced with                             Replaced with
                                           pre-Euro-III trucks       Hybrid Electric       Replaced with      Euro-V trucks and   120%
                                               and buses            Vehicles (HEVs)*       CNG vehicles**         buses***                   pre-Euro-IIIterms (%)
                                                                                                                                              in relative    CNG     Euro-V    HEVs
# of trucks and buses                              581                      581                  581                  581
mileage (km/yr)                                10,398,765               10,398,765           10,398,765           10,398,765      100%              HEVs
                                                                                                                                             pre-Euro-III CNG           Euro-V
diesel fuel consumption (L/yr)                  1,493,261                1,045,282               n/a               1,343,934                 100% 70%
                                                                                                                                     diesel fuel consumption #VALUE!         90%
fuel costs (EUR/yr)                             2,060,700                1,442,490            unknown              1,854,630                 100% 70%
                                                                                                                                     fuel costs              #VALUE!         90%
fuel cost savings per vehicle (EUR/yr)             n/a                     1,064              unknown                 355         80%CO2 emissions 70%
                                                                                                                                             100%                  95%       90%
CO2 emissions (tonnes/yr)                         3,882                    2,718                3,688                3,494           PM emissions
                                                                                                                                             100%       6%           6%        6%
PM emissions (tonnes/yr)                           3.26                    0.20                 0.20                  0.20        60%

Replace all your trucks and buses
                                                                     Replaced with                             Replaced with      40%
                                             All your current        Hybrid Electric       Replaced with      Euro-V trucks and
                                            trucks and buses        Vehicles (HEVs)*       CNG vehicles**         buses***
# of trucks and buses                              590                      590                  590                  590         20%
mileage (km/yr)                                10,554,453               10,554,453           10,554,453           10,554,453
diesel fuel consumption (L/yr)                  1,533,656                1,073,559               n/a               1,384,330                 100%     70%       #VALUE!             90%
fuel costs (EUR/yr)                             2,116,445                1,481,512            unknown              1,910,375       0%        100%     70%       #VALUE!             90%
                                                                                                                                                      fuel                PM
                                                                                                                                   diesel fuel consumptioncostsCO2 emissions emissions
fuel cost savings per vehicle (EUR/yr)             n/a                     1,076              unknown                 349
CO2 emissions (tonnes/yr)                         3,988                    2,791                3,788                3,599                   100%     70%                95%        90%
PM emissions (tonnes/yr)                           3.32                     0.20                0.20                  0.20                   100%      6%                 6%         6%

* for HEV trucks and buses a 30% reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions is assumed.
Fuel requirements: In principle hybrid vehicles only need unleaded fuels, although emission control technologies can be
installed that require low sulphur fuels. Ask for the requirements to ensure you keep your warrantee.
** for CNG trucks and buses a 5% reduction of CO2 emissions is assumed. Fuel cost savings are not estimated as CNG prices can vary widely.
Fuel requirements: Check the availability and the price level of CNG fuel in your country.
*** Replacing your fleet with Euro V trucks and buses does in principle not reduce your fuel consumption. However, new trucks
are generally more fuel-efficient. Here it is assumed Euro-V trucks are 10% more fuel efficient than pre-Euro-III trucks.
Fuel requirements: For Euro V trucks low sulphur diesel must be available .

The estimates assume that both HEVs and CNG vehicles meet stringent Euro V standards

Read more about environmental friendly vehicles and alternative fuels in Tool 13 and 14                                                                   → Go to next sheet →




 D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                                                6/28/2011 6:31 AM
                     Clean Fleet Management Summary for
                                 Example Fleet
  → For more information and the full results, see previous
    sheets and the information tools 1-17 of the Clean Fleet Management Toolkit
Your current fleet data:
                                                                        Total annual Total annual fuel
                                                              Number of   mileage     consumption
              Vehicle category                                 vehicles   (km/yr)          (L/yr)
              Petrol - without catalyst                          10        195,000             22,000
              Petrol - with 3-way catalyst                       64        960,000             81,600
              Diesel - without Particulate Matter filter         12        120,000              8,400
              Diesel - with PM filter                             0             -                 -
              Light duty - pre Euro                              123     2,214,000           298,890
              Light duty - Euro I+II                             356     6,586,000           723,736
              Light duty - III+IV                                 2          42,000             5,040
              Light duty - HEV                                    1          17,356             1,607
              Medium duty - pre Euro                             28        336,000             63,840
              Medium duty - Euro I+II                            45        562,500           104,063
              Medium duty - Euro III+IV                           1          14,000             2,545
              Medium duty - Euro V                                0             -                 -
              Heavy duty - pre-Euro                              14        327,500           144,780
              Heavy duty - Euro I+II                             15        372,765           157,951
              Heavy duty - Euro III+IV                            4          68,096            26,394
              Heavy duty - Euro V                                 1          14,236             4,809
              Motorcycles with 4-stroke engines                   5          45,000               900
              Motorcycles with 2-stroke engines                  120     1,020,000             23,460
              Total                                              801    12,894,453      1,670,016

                                Petrol fuel price:     1.56    EUR/L
                                Diesel fuel price:     1.38    EUR/L
                             Diesel sulphur level:     5000     ppm


Your fleet's current emissions:
              Climate Change:            Carbon Dioxide:          CO2          3,925    ton/yr
              Air Pollutants:         Particulate Matter:        PM10             3.7   ton/yr
                                         sulphur Oxides:          SOx             3.9   ton/yr
                                        Nitrogen Oxides:          NOx              47   ton/yr
                                      Carbon Monoxide:             CO            106    ton/yr
                           Volatile Organic Compounds:           VOCs              26   ton/yr

  Your CO2 emissions can be offset by planting trees.
  You would need to plant between                3,925 and                 27,472       trees each year
  This involves about                               18 and                   36         hectares of trees
  You can also off-set by buying CO2 emission certificates.

  Your emissions of Particulate Matter are harmful for both public health and the environment.
  In the Netherlands, your emission of 3.7 tonnes/yr of Particulate Matter would cause about 1.5 premature
  deaths/yr, plus many more people being affected with other diseases like non-fatal cancers, bronchitis, etc.


Some of your options for potential savings:
> Ecodriving & Maintenance
  Ecodriving can reduce your fuel consumption by 5 to 10% (7.5% on average), reducing your
  fuel cost by approximately 174574 EUR/yr (on average) and your CO2 emissions by 323 tonnes/yr of CO2.


    D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                         6/28/2011 6:31 AM
  Better maintenance can help reduce your fuel consumption by 4 to 7% (5.5% on average),
  depending on your maintenance level now. It can reduce your fuel cost by appr. 128021 EUR/yr, and your
  CO2 emissions by 237 tonnes/yr of CO2 (on average).

> Fuels
  You can reduce your SOx emissions by switching to cleaner diesel.
  Currently you are using diesel with a sulphur level of 5000 ppm.
  If you switch to 500 ppm diesel, your fleetwide SOx emissions will reduce by 90%.
  If you switch to 50 ppm diesel, your fleetwide SOx emissions will even reduce by 99%.

  If you would use 10% blended biofuels your fleetwide CO2 emissions would be reduced by 5% to
  10%, depending on the type of biofuel you use. You can even decide to use high blended
  biofuels to reduce your emissions even more.

> In-use vehicles
  Retrofitting some of your trucks is possible if you have low sulphur diesel available.
  If you retrofit all your Euro I - V trucks and buses with Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOCs),
  you will save the emission of approximately 538 kg/yr of Particulate Matter, which
  equals 14% of your current fleetwide PM emissions.
  For DOCs a diesel sulphur level of 500 ppm or less is required, therefore it is not recommended        at this time

  If you retrofit all your Euro III - V trucks and buses with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs),
  you will save the emission of approximately 47 kg/yr of Particulate Matter, which
  equals 1.2% of your current fleetwide PM emissions.
  For DPFs diesel with 50 ppm or less sulphur is required (<15 recommended), therefore it is not recommended
  at this time.

> New vehicles
  Switching your petrol passenger vehicles to diesel vehicles, will reduce your fuel
  consumption, fuel costs and CO2 emissions.
  The reduction in CO2 emissions will be 41 tonnes/yr of CO2, which is about 1.1% of your current fleetwide
  CO2 emissions. In addition, fuel cost will be reduced by 40404 EUR/yr.

  Replacing your 2-stroke motorcycles with 4-strokes, will reduce the emission of
  VOC's by 9588 kg/yr -which equals 36% of your current fleetwide VOC emissions,
  and PM by 143 kg/yr, which is 4% of your current fleetwide PM emissions.

  Replacing your conventional passenger vehicles with hybrid electric passenger vehicles,
  can reduce your fuel cost by 71728 EUR/yr.
  This equals an annual fuel cost saving of 834 EUR per passenger vehicle for each year it is driving,
  resulting in a payback time of the investment for the hybrid technology of approximately 1.8 years.
  Furthermore it reduces your fleetwide CO2 emissions by 112 tonnes/yr of CO2.

  By replacing all pre-Euro-III trucks and buses with Hybrid Electric Trucks and Buses, you save
  447978 L/yr of diesel, worth 618210 EUR/yr. Besides, it reduces your annual emissions of CO2 by
  1165 tonnes/yr of CO2, and 3.1 tonnes/yr of PM.

  By replacing all pre-Euro-III trucks and buses with Euro-V Trucks and Buses, you save
  149326 L/yr of diesel, worth 206070 EUR/yr. Besides, it reduces your annual emissions of CO2 by
  388 tonnes/yr of CO2, and 3.1 tonnes/yr of PM.

  By replacing all pre-Euro-III trucks and buses with CNG Trucks and Buses, you reduce
  your annual emissions by 194 tonnes/yr of CO2 and 3.1 tonnes/yr of PM.

  This is not an exhaustive list of options to reduce your fleet's environmental impact.
  Depending on your fleet's specifications, there can be many other options that you may consider.

    D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                  6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Monitoring: Developing indicators                                                                                                             GO BACK
→ Different options to measure the improvement of your fleet's environmental performance

Example indicators for CO2 reductions
Based on your current fuel use and CO2 emissions a possible
baseline indicator number can be:

           Average CO2 emission per km:           304       g/km
                                     or
       Average fuel consumption per km:          0.130      L/km                       Read more on monitoring in Tool 17

Improving your fleet's environmental impact will be represented
by improving indicator-numbers.

However, these indicators are not very useful if you are operating
trucks of various sizes (transport companies) or buses of various sizes (public transport companies).
You should redefine your indicator so that it best represents your situation.

For delivery companies possible indicators are:                                 For public transport companies possible indicators are:

   Average fuel consumption per ton-km*          0.072      L/ton-km                     Fuel use per passenger-km**         0.103          L/passenger-km
                                     or                                                                           or
      Average CO2 emission per ton-km*            168       g/ton-km                CO2 emission per passenger-km**           243           g/passenger-km

* The number of ton-kilometers is the weight of transported materials in tons   ** Passenger-kilometers is the number of persons transported multiplied
multiplied by the kilometers driven. For an example:            CLICK HERE      by the number of kilometers driven. For an example:            CLICK HERE




  D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                         6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Emission factors used in the tool                                                                                 GO BACK
→ Estimating your emissions using emission factors
According to the GreenHouseGas protocol (www.ghgprotocol.org),
                   with every liter of petrol fuel burned, 2.35 kg of CO2 is emitted, and
                   with every liter of diesel fuel burned, 2.60 kg of CO2 is emitted.

The emission factors below provide the amount of air pollutant emitted per kilometer. For example, at the
sheet called "Impacts - Your Emissions" you will note that the cells contain formulas and links like the next
one: (53*D6/1000000). Here "53" is the emission factor indicating that per kilometer driven 53 grams will be
emitted of this specific pollutant. If you have the emission factors for your specific situation you can change
this emission factor table, or change the spreadsheet with your own emissions factors. To do so go to the
"Impacts - Your Emissions" sheet, unprotect it, and replace the link by your emission factor.

                                                              CO        VOC         NOx        SOx       PM10
                      Vehicle category (*)                        (g/km)      (g/km)       (g/km)     (g/km)      (g/km)
                        Petrol - without catalyst                 53.00        8.84         2.52       0.05        0.01
       Passenger        Petrol - with 3-way catalyst              18.00        0.78         1.17       0.05        0.01
          cars:         Diesel - without Particulate Matter filter 3.61        1.88         1.67       0.22        0.22
                        Diesel - with PM filter                    3.61        0.30         0.89       0.16        0.08
       Light duty       Light duty - pre Euro                      3.61        1.88         1.67       0.29        0.27
    trucks & buses      Light duty - Euro I+II                     3.60        0.19         1.64       0.26        0.13
  (2,2 - 4,5 tonnes): Light duty - III+IV                          3.60        0.19         1.64       0.25        0.13
                        Light duty - HEV                           3.60        0.13         0.87       0.26        0.06
      Medium duty       Medium duty - pre Euro                     8.59        1.65        15.33       0.69        0.67
    trucks & buses      Medium duty - Euro I+II                    8.59        1.65        15.01       0.69        0.67
   (4,5 -15 tonnes): Medium duty - Euro III+IV                     5.35        1.15         9.20       0.69        0.29
                        Medium duty - Euro V                       2.45        0.89         4.41       0.69        0.07
       Heavy duty       Heavy duty - pre-Euro                     13.29        2.53        23.80       0.98        2.15
    trucks & buses      Heavy duty - Euro I+II                    11.80        2.53        20.40       0.97        1.34
   (15 - 22 tonnes): Heavy duty - Euro III+IV                      5.79        1.59        10.00       0.97        0.66
                        Heavy duty - Euro V                        4.05        1.43         7.00       0.97        0.46
                        Motorcycles with 4-stroke engines         16.00        5.00         0.99       0.02        0.21
      Motorcycles:
                        Motorcycles with 2-stroke engines         27.50      14.40          0.16       0.01        0.35
(*) If you don’t know the categories for your vehicles, you can use the guidelines in the 'Vehicle categories' sheet:………………………………………………………..
                                                                                                                         CLICK HERE

What do these emission factors tell you ?
The emission factors (average emissions per km measured in g/km) used in this tool represent emissions from real-life driving conditions in Nairobi, Kenya.
The emission factors are calculated using the IVE model 1.1.1a, based on a Nairobi study by California University at Riverside and UNEP.

How were these emission factors calculated in the IVE model ?
The emission factors in the IVE model are dependent on (i) driving patterns, (ii) vehicle standards, (iii) fuel quality and
(iv) road conditions (incl. geographical setting). The emission factors used in this this tool are calculated assuming
that driving patterns and road conditions are similar to those in Nairobi. These conditions are similar to most cities in developing countries.
The different vehicle types and standards in the list above and the fuel quality (5000 ppm used as default) were selected in the model.

The IVE model emissions factors are quite high, higher than those used for legislated purposes like the EU or US standards,
because they are based on real life driving conditions rather than an ideal and predefined "regulatory" driving pattern.

Why do we use these emission factors ?
There are two major reasons we did not use existing regulatory emissions standards like Euro 1- 5 or US Tier 1 and Tier II.
 1. The "Nairobi Overall Driving Cycle" used in the IVE model resembles real life driving conditions that are similar in most developing country cities.
 2. The IVE model provides us with having a solid baseline because it includes all types of vehicles found on the road, from very clean to very old and dirty.
    This minimizes the risk of the emission factors being biased in any particular way.

For more information about these emissions factors and the model used to develop them,
please visit the following website: http://www.gssr.net/ive/index.html

  D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                                                6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Vehicle Categories                                                                                                                                GO BACK
→ Guidelines on categorization of your vehicles

Vehicle categories
Categorization of trucks and buses is based on weight as the engines and emissions of buses and trucks are similar
Petrol passenger vehicles with a 3 way catalyst require unleaded petrol fuel
Diesel passenger vehicles with PM filters are only applicable where diesel with 50 ppm or less sulphur is available.
As an example, almost all passenger cars sold in the EU today have PM filters.
Light duty trucks & buses = Any van, truck or bus between 2.2 - 4.5 tonnes, typical city delivering truck or small passenger car (<12 persons)
Medium duty trucks or buses = Any truck or bus between 4.5 - 15 tonnes, typically mid-sized lorry, very large pickups and vans, mid size passenger bus (12-40pers.)
Heavy duty trucks & buses = Any truck or bus between 15 - 27 tonnes, typically large city buses (>40 persons), large truck-tractors and dump trucks
Motorcycles typically are 100 to 300 cc


Euro categories
Use the tabel and instructions text below to approximate the Euro category with the age of the vehicle.

Emission Standard Year of introduction in the EU                   Corresponding fuel
                  (Similar in the US and Japan)                    requirements
Pre Euro          <1992
Euro I            1992 - 1995,                                    Unleaded petrol
Euro II           1996 – 1999, 2005 in China                      500 ppm diesel & petrol
Euro III          2000 – 2004, 2007 in China                      350 ppm diesel, 150 ppm petrol
Euro IV           2005 – 2008                                     50 ppm diesel & petrol
Euro V            2009 – 2013
Euro VI           2014 -

Most developing countries in Africa and parts of Asia rely on a mix of imported vehicles and locally assembled vehicles.
Locally assembled are usually pre-Euro or Euro I standard due to lack of national emission standards.

Imported vehicles have the standard from the country they were imported. Emission standards in Asia are generally
lagging behind EU, US and Japanese standards with 10 years (except China). However, even if imported with a high
emission standard, this standard soon deteriorates due to lack of effective inspection & maintenance programmes
and high sulphur levels in diesel. Anything beyond Euro I requires <500 ppm of sulphur in diesel which is currently not
available in many developing countries.

Examples:
1. Any vehicle bought and driven in an EU country year 2000 = Euro III
2. A truck assembled in Kenya the year 2000 = Euro I
3. Any truck made in EU year 2000 and imported to Kenya = Euro I due to high sulphur levels in diesel




 D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                                    6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Typical fuel consumption for vehicles                                                                      GO BACK
→ Estimating your fuel consumption based on your mileage, or vice versa

If no fuel or km information is available, you can estimate the other using this table with typical fuel
consumptions. However, as fuel economies can vary a lot between vehicles within one category, it
is recommended to use your own data or estimations if available.

Example: The average diesel passenger car with PM filter, drives 16.7 km on every liter of diesel.
So when driving 100 km, 100 / 16.7 = 6.0 liter of diesel is consumed.

                                                 Fuel                             OR                          Fuel
                                              Consumption           km                          km         Consumption
Petrol - without catalyst                          1                11.8                         1            0.085
Petrol - with 3-way catalyst                       1                11.8                         1            0.085
Diesel - without Particulate Matter filter         1                13.3                         1            0.075
Diesel - with PM filter                            1                16.7                         1            0.060
Light duty - pre Euro                              1                 8.3                         1            0.120
Light duty - Euro I+II                             1                 9.1                         1            0.110
Light duty - III+IV                                1                 9.1                         1            0.110
Light duty - HEV                                   1                11.1                         1            0.090
Medium duty - pre Euro                             1                 3.9                         1            0.260
Medium duty - Euro I+II                            1                 3.9                         1            0.260
Medium duty - Euro III+IV                          1                 3.9                         1            0.260
Medium duty - Euro V                               1                 3.9                         1            0.260
Heavy duty - pre-Euro                              1                 2.7                         1            0.370
Heavy duty - Euro I+II                             1                 2.8                         1            0.360
Heavy duty - Euro III+IV                           1                 2.8                         1            0.360
Heavy duty - Euro V                                1                 2.8                         1            0.360
Motorcycles with 4-stroke engines                  1                33.3                         1            0.030
Motorcycles with 2-stroke engines                  1                25.6                         1            0.039




D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                          6/28/2011 6:31 AM
Example of ton-kms and passenger kms calculations                                                                                                 GO BACK
--> Fill in the white cells: average load (in tons) or average number of passengers

The ton-kilometer is a unit of measurement often used for the work done in transport.
The number of ton-kilometers is the weight in tons of material transported multiplied by the number of kilometers driven.

The passenger-kilometer is a unit of measurement often used for the work done in public transport.
The number of passenger-kilometers is the number of passengers transported multiplied by the number of kilometers driven.

                                                                                    Delivery companies                            Public transport companies
                                                     Total                     Average               Total                      Average                Total
              Vehicle category                     km per year               load (tons)           Ton-kms                  load (passengers)         Ton-kms
Petrol - without catalyst                                  195,000                                                                 0.8                      156,000
Petrol - with 3-way catalyst                               960,000                                                                 1.1                    1,056,000
Diesel - without Particulate Matter filter                 120,000                                                                 1.0                      120,000
Diesel - with PM filter                                        -                                                                   0.9                          -
Light duty - pre Euro                                    2,214,000               1.7                       3,763,800
Light duty - Euro I+II                                   6,586,000               1.8                      11,854,800
Light duty - III+IV                                         42,000               1.8                          75,600
Light duty - HEV                                            17,356               1.6                          28,117
Medium duty - pre Euro                                     336,000               8.2                       2,755,200
Medium duty - Euro I+II                                    562,500               8.4                       4,725,000
Medium duty - Euro III+IV                                   14,000               8.7                         121,800
Medium duty - Euro V                                           -                 0.0                             -
Heavy duty - pre-Euro                                      327,500                                                                19.1                    6,255,250
Heavy duty - Euro I+II                                     372,765                                                                18.4                    6,858,876
Heavy duty - Euro III+IV                                    68,096                                                                20.4                    1,389,158
Heavy duty - Euro V                                         14,236                                                                21.2                      301,803
Motorcycles with 4-stroke engines                           45,000             0.011                              495             0.3                           149
Motorcycles with 2-stroke engines                        1,020,000             0.012                           12,240             0.3                         3,672
                                   Total km                                        Ton-kms                                     Passenger-km
                                                    12,894,453                                      23,337,052                                     16,140,908
                                    driven:                                       delivered:                                       serviced:




 D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\6f59cbe1-681a-4ac2-8fbc-5ca260569c2e.xls                                                                                6/28/2011 6:31 AM

								
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