Special Problems

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					Special Problems
What is terrorism?

   Using force to intimidate or coerce society to
    advance a social or political agenda
     – Creating change through violence
     – Destabilize society & make authorities seem
     – Break a far more powerful enemy’s will by
        fear, psychological exhaustion and attrition
           Example: Soviet experience in Afghanistan
     – A way for powerless groups to multiply their force
   Methods
     – Individual terror: assassinations and kidnappings
     – Mass terror: Bombings in public places
     – Guerrilla warfare
What propels

   Political elite in tight control
   Large group that...
     – Is socially & economically deprived
     – Has little opportunity to influence policy
   Opposition develops
     – “Revolutionary vanguard” with a dynamic leadership
     – Explanatory ideology, with justifications for violence
     – Recruitment of the dissatisfied, disenchanted and disenfranchised
   Governments can lay the seeds of their own destruction
     – Corruption
     – Over-response & failure to respond
     – Missteps can diminish support from public, police and military

   Russian Revolutionary terrorism
   Italian left-wing terrorism (Red
   German left-wing terrorism
   Cuban revolution                   On November 10, 2005 Amman was
                                       rocked by a series of bomb attacks. A
   Argentine Montoneros
                                       suicide bomber set off a car bomb at the
   Peruvian Shining Path              Days Inn, another detonated a belt bomb
   Northern Ireland (IRA v. the       inside the Grand Hyatt, and a husband-
    “Loyalists”)                       and-wife pair wore belt bombs into the
   Present places of concern          Radisson SAS. His went off, hers didn’t.
      – Ukraine & Georgia              Fifty-seven people were killed, mostly
      – Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan,   Jordanians, including many attending a
         Palestine                     wedding party at the Radisson.
      – Pakistan & Afghanistan
      – And on and on...
International terror:
America as a target
1993 World Trade
Center bombing

   Al Qaeda plot to destroy the North Tower
   Plot led by Ramzi Yousef, financed
    by Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who later planned the 2001 attack
   Yousef came into the U.S. with an Iraqi passport and applied for asylum. An
    associate traveling separately on a forged Swedish passport was caught with a
    bomb-making manual and arrested.
   Yousef was helped to acquire the explosives and make the bomb by extremist
    members of a New York City mosque
   Ryder van contained a 1,300 pound urea/nitrate bomb, enhanced with oxygen
    cylinders. It caused major damage, killing six and injuring more than 1,000
   Technicians traced a hidden VIN on a van part to its renter. That eventually
    led to the arrests of four who helped Yousef. Each was convicted and given
    life. Yousef got away but was arrested in Pakistan in 1995. He was returned
    to the U.S., tried and got life without parole. Khalid Mohammed was arrested
    in Pakistan in 2003. He and other are pending trial for a range of terrorist
    acts, including the 2001 attacks.
2001 Attacks

   Nineteen Islamic terrorists hijacked four
    airliners in the Eastern U.S. They flew two
    into the WTC twin towers, killing 2,600.
    Another was crashed into the Pentagon, killing more than 100. The fourth,
    supposedly intended for the Capitol, crashed in rural Pennsylvania after its
    passengers revolted. All onboard were killed.
   All the attackers entered the U.S. legally on visitor and student visas, some
    passing through Bangkok, others through Hamburg. One was already a
    commercial pilot. Several took flight training in Arizona and Florida.
    Although unaware of the plot, a Phoenix FBI agent had alerted FBI HQ about
    suspicious persons of Middle Eastern descent taking flight training lessons.
   Many tips were received during the preceding months that Al Qaeda was
    plotting to mount an attack using commercial airliners. The 9/11 Commission
    Report severely criticized the FBI and CIA for failing to follow up on this and
    other information.
An uneven response

   Created Department of Homeland Security
     – Consolidated agencies, created databases to vet travelers and visa applicants
     – FBI, CIA and NSA had too much political power and were left out
   Tightened issuance of visas to nationals from certain countries
   Loosened guidelines for initiating foreign intelligence cases
     – Removed “firewall” between intelligence and criminal investigation
   Patriot Act - amended Federal law
     – Loosened restrictions on gathering electronic surveillance and conducting
         searches when foreigners are involved
     – Expanded the right to detain foreign nationals
     – Expanded authority to examine financial transactions
   One-third of FBI now dedicated to counter-terrorism
     – Established major intelligence center to analyze intelligence
   BUT -- is intelligence analysis the solution? Police Issues
Lingering issues

   FBI torn between criminal investigative and intelligence roles
      – How to demonstrate prowess and advance within
        the organization without “making cases”?
   “Rope a dope” cases to respond to public pressures and demonstrate
      – Sears Tower/Liberty City Six Police Issues
      – Fort Dix Six Police Issues
      – An exception? The Najibullah Zazi case Police Issues
   Shift of agents to intelligence impacted other investigations, especially
    financial crime
   Expanded legal powers can lead to abuses
      – Making torture acceptable: the waterboarding debacle Police Issues
      – Straining relations with Muslim communities
Domestic terror and hate
White supremacists

   Common principles
     – Ethnic/religious supremacy –
         white, Christian, Anglo-Saxon
     – Oppose immigration
     – Guns and violence
   Ku Klux Klan
   Aryan Nations
    (prison: Aryan Brotherhood)
   Identity Movement
   The Order
   National Alliance (neo-Nazi)
   Examples from Police Issues
     – 1999: Buford Furrow
     – 2009: Holocaust Museum
Militias and survivalists

   Precepts
     – Paramilitary and survivalist orientations
     – Reject government authority
     – Claim government conspiracies to enslave free people
     – Claim rights to use violence for “self-defense”
     – Anti-tax and anti-regulation
     – Oppose gun control
     – Oppose immigration
   Militia groups in nearly every state
   Notorious examples
     Militia of Montana
     Hutaree militia Police Issues
Oklahoma City

   On the morning of April 19, 1995, Timothy
    McVeigh parked a rented truck full of
    explosives in front of the Federal Building.
    At 9:02am a massive explosion killed 168.
   Two hours later McVeigh was stopped by a
    OK Highway Patrol officer for no rear
    license plate. The officer noticed a bulge in
    McVeigh’s jacket and arrested him for
    carrying a loaded .45.
   McVeigh, an Army veteran, was a Nazi
    sympathizer, survivalist and unlicensed gun
    dealer. Angry at Waco and gun laws, he
    allied himself with Terry Nichols, acquired
    the explosives and carried out the attack --
    by himself.
                                                    The Timothy McVeigh Story
Apocalyptic movements

   Groups clustered around an infallible “prophet”
   Apocalyptic, end-game visions
   Highly authoritarian
     – Obsessive control over membership, including mating and pairing
     – Relentless discipline, including beatings
     – Leaders engage in sexual and psychological abuse
   Similarities with supremacists and survivalists
     – Hatred of Federal government
     – Guns and violence
   Examples
     – Jim Jones’ “People’s Temple” -- Jonestown massacre
     – The Manson Family - Charles Manson
     – Covenant, Sworn and Arm of the Lord (CSA)
     – Branch Davidians and David Koresh (Waco)
Dissent and disorder
Rosa Parks:
A civil rights pioneer
Causes of dissent

   Vietnam war
     – U.S. presence 1956 – 1973
        (heaviest fighting 1964-1971)
     – More than 50,000
        U.S. soldiers killed
   Persistent racial and ethnic bias
   Economic problems
     – Recession, inflation and high
        unemployment in the 1970’s
     – Poverty
     – Inequality
The 1960’s – 1970’s:
An era of violent protest

   Students for a
    Democratic Society
   Weathermen
   Symbionese Liberation Army
   Black Panther Party
   Black Liberation Army
   American Indian Movement
Police use of force
has provoked riots

   1965 Watts riot
   1967 Detroit Riot
   1967 Newark Riot
   1992 Rodney King Riot
   2009 Oakland Riots
Watts Riot --
August 11-16, 1965

   CHP officers made a DUI
    arrest in South-Central
    Los Angeles
   A disorderly crowd gathered. They were egged on by the suspect’s
    mother and family members. CHP officers arrived and dragged them
    away. Rock and bottle-throwing began, then things quickly escalated.
   More than 30 died, more than 1,000 injured, hundreds arrested.
    Widespread looting and fire-setting leveled a large chunk of the Watts
    commercial district. The area never fully recovered.
1992 Rodney King Riot

• Rodney King, drunk and high on drugs,
was speeding. After a high-speed pursuit
he finally stopped.
• He ignored orders and was nearly shot
by a nervous CHP officer. An LAPD
sergeant and three officers took over.
• They beat King with their batons to get
him to comply. All were fired.
• Their acquittal of assault charges in
State court sparked rioting and looting in
South-Central Los Angeles. In the next
seven days 55 persons died, 2,000 were
injured and 12,000 were arrested.
• Two of the officers were later convicted
of Federal civil rights violations and
served prison terms.
Paris riots --
October 2005

•  Rioting began in the Paris
suburb of Clichy-sous-Bois,
where two youths of African
descent being chased on foot by
police were electrocuted in a
power station.
• Things got worse when a police tear-gas canister was thrown into a
Mosque and then-Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy (now the President
of France) made comments disparaging youths.
• Soon the unrest spread to other cities, with many structures and
hundreds of vehicles burned
• Although the worst of the rioting was over in a week, a state of
emergency wasn’t lifted until January 2006
Paris riots --
March 2006

   To stimulate the economy the
    government proposed
    amending labor laws to allow
    employers to fire young
    workers without the need to
    give a reason during their first two years of employment
   Youths were joined in protests by the powerful French labor unions
    who felt that the policy would undermine the strong protections that
    everyone has enjoyed
   The government said the plan would actually make it easier for young
    persons to get a job
Athens riots,
December 2008

 • The shooting death of a teen by
 Athens police in early December
 2008 propelled a week of rioting, injuring scores, burning stores and laying
 waste to large areas of the city center.
 • The uprising was joined by citizens upset with poor economic conditions and
 Government corruption.
 • The two officers involved in the shooting, which took place during a
 “routine” confrontation between police and student anarchists, were arrested:
 one for the killing, the other as an accomplice.
 • A defense lawyer claims that the fatal bullet was a ricochet from a warning
BART police officer shoots,
kills unarmed man at Oakland
transit station
On January 1, 2009 BART officer
Johannes Mehserle, 27, shot and killed a
22-year old man who was being held
down by several officers following a
brawl on a BART train. The shooting, which was captured by a bystander on a
cellphone camera, seemed essentially unprovoked. For reasons that are unclear,
Mehserle stood, drew his gun and fired once into the victim’s back. Mehserle
                                    quickly resigned from the force. On January 14,
                                    2009 he was arrested in Nevada on a murder
                                    warrant. He waived extradition and was
                                    returned to California.
                                  The shooting stirred strong emotions in Oakland
                                  and led to demonstrations and several nights of
                                  disturbances. According to the Alameda County
                                  D.A., murder charges were filed because the
                                  killing was unlawful and done purposefully.
Ethnic crime

   Bound through ethnicity and shared values BUT with
    highly materialistic goals
   Fear of infiltration and ruthless enforcement
   Traditional profit centers: narcotics, prostitution and
    gambling, extortion, racketeering, bribery
   Emerging profit centers: alien smuggling, computer chip theft, international
    car theft, credit card fraud, health care fraud, insurance fraud, identity theft,
    money laundering
   La Cosa Nostra - Italian Mafia
   Russian Mafia
   Prison gangs
   Criminal street gangs
   Motorcycle gangs – Hell’s Angels, Bandidos and Outlaws
                  M.S. 13 – Mara

   Street gang, origins in El Salvador
   Estimated 50,000 members in U.S. and Central
     – Began in McArthur Park area of L.A.,
         now in 33 States and D.C.
     – Loosely-structured federation
     – Concerns about increasing
         cohesiveness and development
         of a traditional OC structure
   Armed and very violent
     – Many originally trained as Salvadoran
     – Extortion of immigrants and small
     – Immigrant smuggling
     – Carjacking, robbery, false documents,
         drug trafficking
Outlaw motorcycle

   Traditionally white and ride Harley-
   Largest gangs in the West Coast
    include Hells’ Angels, Bandidos,
    Hessians, Mongols and Vagos
   Heavily involved in drug trafficking,
    especially the manufacture of
     – Many clandestine labs in the
        Inland Empire region (San
        Bernardino & Riverside counties)
   Try to rehabilitate their image with
    charity rides and toy drives
Street gang

   Response styles
     – Concentrated enforcement: “Sweeps”, stop-
        and-frisk campaigns, serve warrants, drug buys
     – Mixed prevention & enforcement efforts:
        Ceasefire, civil injunctions
     – Coordination: L.A. gang czar
     – Prevention: GREAT
   Specialized gang units
     – Why are they formed -- for objective reasons or
        public pressure?
     – What do they do? What should they do?
        Enforcement? Investigation? Intelligence?
     – Are they properly guided? Officers well
        trained? Held accountable?
     – Are they providing added value? Are their
        accomplishments measured?
     – Are they excessively decoupled from their
        agencies? What are the consequences?
L.A. has a new
gang “czar”

   Mayor Villaraigosa finally succeeded
    in getting control of gang programs
    away from the City Council
   Programs placed under a gang “czar”
    in the Mayor’s office
   He was supported by City Controller
    Laura Chick, who said that
    uncoordinated programs were wasting
   After one year, the impact of the new
    system is an open question
When the police go too far

   Crime’s root causes are outside police control
   Liberty interests
     – Narrow definition of criminal conduct
     – Legal constraints on police
           Limits on wiretaps and surveillance
     – Commercial interests
           Lax enforcement of environmental, commercial,
             immigration laws
   Practical limitations
     – Time, money and manpower
     – Too much information
           What information to collect? What to share? When to act?
     – Police better equipped to react than anticipating
           Focus on past crimes, not prevention
Does monitoring protests
have a “chilling effect”?

   According to the New York Times
    undercover NYPD officers often
    infiltrate protest marches and mass
    bicycling events
   Police videotapes show UC officers
    and informers at seven major events between 8/04 and 12/05
   Officers carried protest signs, held flowers, rode bicycles and
    videotaped participants
   Police admit the surveillance. They say its purpose is to “keep order
    and protect free speech”
   Protestors say officers distort their message and purposely provoke
      – Bike ride – sham arrest of UC officers led to the arrest of two
          protesters who came to the UC’s defense.
      – Poor People’s March, 8/30/04 – UC officer used to provoke
          disorder at end of march
Fighting domestic terrorism

   Secret FBI program (1956-1971) to discredit
    groups considered to be anti-Government
     – Black Panthers
     – Students for a Democratic Society
     – Socialist Workers Party
     – Native Americans
     – Anti-war protesters
     – NAACP and Dr. Martin Luther King
   Methods
     – Infiltration by spies – the agent provocateur
     – Burglaries and illegal phone taps
     – Fake letters and phony propaganda to create rifts between
       individuals and groups
                      Phony letter to discredit
                      Jean Seberg by alleging
                      that she was pregnant by
                      a member of the Black
                      Panther Party

                      1976 Church Committee
                      report, which
                      COINTELPRO as a
                      serious threat to civil
                      liberties, concluded that
                      it was partly motivated
                      by a “frustration with
                      Supreme Court rulings
                      limiting the
                      Government's power to
                      proceed overtly against
                      dissident groups”
Fighting domestic terrorism:
LAPD Public Disorder Intelligence Division

   Formed during the Red scare following WW-II
     – Spied on alleged Communists and sympathizers
     – Expanded to include anti-war protestors and “subversives”
   Infiltrated undercover officers
   Extensive physical and electronic surveillance
   Created a huge records system
   Cooperated with COINTELPRO
   Targets included L.A.’s Mayor, members of the City Council, the
    Governor and members of Congress, the National Organization for
    Women, the Beverly Hills Democratic Club, religious, civil rights and
    environmental groups
   In 1981 a lawsuit forced it to disband and open up its records
   PDID functions were taken over by the Anti-Terrorist Division, with
    much more restrictive guidelines for initiating investigations

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