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POLITICAL CULTURE

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					    CHAPTER 1
POLITICAL CULTURE




     Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   1
                    VALUES
• Political culture in U.S. is based on our values
  which in turn determines:
   – Who should govern?
   – What is good and desirable?
   – What is right and wrong?
• There are sometimes contradictions between our
  values and existing conditions--ex., the
  Declaration of Independence said that ―all men are
  created equal‖ but we practiced slavery for
  hundreds of years.
                      Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       2
                     VALUES
• According to Pulitzer-award winning journalist Thomas
  Friedman, America’s greatest asset is its diversity—over
  the years the U.S. has absorbed not only the first-round
  intellectuals from around the world, but also the low-
  skilled high-aspiring ones as well—this influx of brainy
  and brawny immigrants is our oil well—one that never
  runs dry.
• The Taliban and Islamic-totalitarians like bin Laden and
  Zarqawi worry about how to purify their world from ―the
  other,‖ from diversity, from ―infidels‖ – when their oil
  runs dry, their society will be as barren, bland and
  unproductive as their dessert.
                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)              3
     AMERICANS ARE VERY
         GENEROUS
• Americans give to charities twice as much
  as the next most charitable country—the
  willingness of Americans to give cuts
  across income levels.
• Britain is the second most generous country.
• France is less generous than such countries
  as South Africa, Singapore, Turkey and
  Germany.

                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    4
           FAMILY VALUES
• China: Has a one-child-per-couple policy (as a
  result, China has a serious problem with gender
  imbalance – has 12.7 million more boys than girls
  under age 9)
• Russia: Recently adopted a ten-year program to
  stop the sharp decline in Russia’s population by
  offering financial incentives and subsidies to
  encourage women to have children (one-time cash
  grants to mothers upon the birth of a second child,
  extended maternity leave benefits, and day-care
  subsidies). Russia has lost the equivalent of a city
                     Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)        5
              FAMILY VALUES
of 700,000 people every year since the collapse of the Soviet
   Union. Its people are succumbing to one of the world’s
   fastest-growing AIDS epidemics, resurgent tuberculosis,
   rampant cardiovascular disease, alcohol abuse (the average
   Russian drinks 5 gallons of pure alcohol a year), smoking,
   suicide (rate of 36 per 100,000 people is second only to
   Lithuania), and the lethal effects of unchecked industrial
   pollution. In 2006 President Putin pledged payments of
   $111 a month to mothers who elected to have a second
   child, plus a nest egg of $9,260 to be used for education, a
   mortgage or pensions.

                        Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)              6
         FAMILY VALUES
• Russia: The Governor of Ulyanovsk,
  Russia, for three years now has decreed
  September 12 as a Day of Conception—
  couples are given time off from work to
  make a baby—couples who give birth nine
  months later on June 12 (Russia’s National
  Day) receive money, cars, refrigerators, and
  other prizes.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)        7
          FAMILY VALUES
• France: To encourage couples to have a third
  child, the French government recently began
  paying couples $960 a month for the year
  following the birth, twice the allowance for a
  second child—the French government also pays
  some of the cost of child care up to age 3 – from
  ages 3 through kindergarten, the French
  government provides free child care, tax breaks,
  transportation subsidies, and other benefits.
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)          8
         FAMILY VALUES
• U.S.: The U.S. has the highest fertility rate
  of any developing country, with 2.1
  children per woman—America’s fertility
  rate would not be this high were it not for
  Hispanics who typically have more
  children—whites only have a 1.6 fertility
  rate as compared to Hispanics (2.9)—so we
  can thank Hispanics that in America, unlike
  most of Europe, we are replacing ourselves.
                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)        9
            FAMILY VALUES
• India: Suffers from male-child mania—according to a
  recent UNICEF report, 7,000 girls go unborn each day in
  India, where abortions are legal and a ban on finding out
  the sex of the unborn children and aborting female fetuses
  is widely flouted—Indian families traditionally have
  preferred boys, partly because of the Hindu religious belief
  that only a son could perform the last rites when his father
  dies—in addition, girls are seen as a burden on the family,
  requiring a huge dowry that many families cannot afford—
  women are generally the last to be educated or get medical
  treatment when ill.

                        Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)            10
         FAMILY VALUES
• U.S.: Foreign couples come to the U.S. for
  help in choosing the sex of their babies
  (cost is approximately $20,000) – it’s legal
  in the U.S., but totally banned in Austria
  and banned except for medical reasons in a
  lot of other countries.


                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       11
             FAMILY VALUES
• India: Another business that has been outsourced
  to India is rent-a-womb services which are far
  cheaper than in the West—in the U.S. a childless
  couple would have to pay up to $50,000 to have a
  woman carry a baby for them—in India, it’s done
  for $10,000 to $12,000—commercial surrogacy
  has been legal in India since 2002 and is not
  regulated by the government—in India the egg is
  usually from the intended mother or a donor to
  reduce chances of the surrogate mother developing
  an emotional attachment to the baby.

                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      12
         FAMILY VALUES
• Spain: In March 2007 Spain’s parliament
  passed a gender-equality bill that grants 15
  days of paternity leave to fathers—in 2013,
  the paternity leave will expand to a
  month—the bill also requires that 40% of
  the political candidates running for office
  must be women.

                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       13
         FAMILY VALUES
• Japan: Many Japanese parents use GPS
  tracking systems in their child’s backpacks
  to keep their children safe. One popular
  backpack costs $330 with a $60 start-up fee
  and a $7 monthly fee—parents can call a
  telephone number or use the Internet to
  determine their child’s exact location at any
  given moment.
                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    14
             CHINESE VALUES
• China: Prohibits private gun ownership (sometimes in
  rural China, the preferred method of murdering someone is
  rat poison).
• China: Recently 50,000 dogs were slaughtered by the
  Chinese government in a province in southwestern China
  after three people died of rabies—in China only 3% of
  dogs are vaccinated for rabies (as compared to 70% in the
  U.S.).
• China: To save the nation’s vanishing forests, China
  recently imposed an unpopular 5% tax on disposable
  wooden chopsticks—South Korea and Japan have already
  switched to reusable metal chopsticks.

                      Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)            15
           CHINESE VALUES
• China: The Chinese government recently
  launched a campaign to limit the number of hours
  teenagers spend online playing computer games.
   – Chinese Internet gaming companies must install a
     program that requires users to enter their ID card
     numbers.
   – After three hours, players under 18 are prompted to
     stop and ―do suitable physical exercise‖—if they don’t,
     their points are slashed in half—after five hours of play,
     all points are wiped out.
                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)              16
         CHINESE VALUES
• China: The Chinese government patrols the Web
  using animated beat officers that pop up on a
  user’s browser and walk, bike or drive across the
  screen warning users to stay away from illegal
  content (nudity, profanity, illegal gambling and
  pirated music, books and film).
• China: In early 2008 China banned thin plastic
  grocery bags for environmental reasons.

                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       17
          CHINESE VALUES
• China: #1 country in world in number of
  executions carried out – primary method is
  gunshot wound to back of head (government bills
  family for cost of bullet) – organs of deceased
  prisoner immediately harvested for transplant
  operations
• China: In January 2004 began banning TV ads
  during dinnertime hours of 7 to 9 p.m. for sanitary
  napkins, hemorrhoid ointments, and athletic foot
  medicines (GREAT IDEA – WE SHOULD DO
  THIS)
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)        18
          CHINESE VALUES
• China: China is the #1 source of foreign-
  born children adopted by Americans—
  China recently tightened adoption rules for
  foreigners:
  – Must be under 50 (can be 55 if adopting a
    special-needs child)
  – Must have a body mass index of less than 40
  – Can’t have a criminal record
  – Must have a high-school diploma
                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)        19
         CHINESE VALUES
– Can’t have health problems like AIDS or cancer
– Must have been married for at least 2 years and a
  couple must have had no more than 2 divorces between
  them—if either spouse was previously divorced, the
  couple cannot apply until they have been married for at
  least five years
– Parents must have a net worth of at least $80,000 and
  incomes of at least $10,000 per person in the
  household, including the prospective adoptive child


                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)             20
             VALUES RE HEALTH
• Netherlands: First nation to allow doctors to end
  the lives of terminally ill patients (mercy killing)
   – In U.S. only one state, Oregon, allows doctors to
     prescribe lethal doses of medicine (physician-assisted
     suicide)—California is considering a similar measure.
• Netherlands: Has the world’s first state-
  sanctioned retirement home for drug addicts –
  aging junkies line up to get daily doses of heroin
  and cocaine – also recently opened Europe’s first
  detox clinic for video game addicts.
                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)               21
      VALUES RE HEALTH
• Canada: The federal government grows
  and distributes marijuana to patients for
  medical purposes—in the United States, 12
  states allow medical marijuana (not Texas),
  but the federal government doesn’t
  recognize medical marijuana as legal—
  therefore, persons in those 12 states buying
  and using medical marijuana risk arrest.
                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   22
      VALUES RE HEALTH
• Canada: The government is more
  concerned about tobacco than marijuana—
  the government puts graphic warnings on
  cigarette packages (gross pictures plus a
  verbal warning)—in the U.S., the FDA is
  currently considering a proposal to add
  gross pictures to our cigarette packages.

                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     23
        VALUES RE HEALTH
• Denmark: In 2004 Denmark became the first country to
  ban trans fat—no food can have more than 2% trans fat—
  offenders pay hefty fines or even serve prison terms—New
  York City recently became the first U.S. city to ban trans
  fat in restaurants--many American food companies are
  removing transfat from their products and menus— the
  Great Indiana State Fair in Indianapolis this year banned
  oils with trans fat from all the fryers that line the
  grounds—but, you can still get fried battered Snickers
  bars, fried battered Oreos and fried battered Reese’s
  Peanut Butter Cups (only in America).

                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           24
       VALUES RE HEALTH
• Pakistan: At least 20 kidney transplant clinics
  exist in Pakistan—many poor people sell their
  kidneys to people from all over the world—the
  seller typically gets $2,500, sometimes less—the
  recipient of the kidney typically pays between
  $6,000 to $12,000, much less than the $70,000
  that is paid for a kidney in neighboring China—in
  the U.S., donating kidneys for money is banned.
• Japan: Only 1.3% of females ages 15-49 use the
  birth-control pill (as compared with 15.6% of
  American women the same age)
                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       25
        VALUES RE HEALTH
• Germany: Germany announced in December
  2006 that it would seek to ban smoking in
  restaurants, discos, schools and other public
  buildings, but not in pubs, bars or beer tents—
  Germany lags behind other European countries in
  banning smoking—Germans have been very
  tolerant of smoking—restaurant customers who
  ask for a nonsmoking table are often treated
  brusquely.
                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)         26
      VALUES RE HEALTH
• On January 1, 2008, a law went into effect
  in France banning smoking in bars,
  restaurants, nightclubs and cafes—smokers
  pay a $93 fine for violating the law, and the
  owner of the establishment where a smoker
  broke the law pays a $198 fine.


                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    27
         VALUES RE HEALTH
• United States: Contrary to many countries, the
  United States does not have a nationwide smoking
  ban—instead it leaves the decision up to state and
  local governments—thousands of municipalities
  across the U.S. have banned smoking in public
  places (Lake Jackson and Angleton, for
  example)—twenty two states (including California
  and New York) and Washington, D.C. have
  enacted overall bans, though their restrictions
  vary.
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      28
         VALUES RE HEALTH
• Smoking bans in other countries: A global view
  shows several countries have enacted nationwide
  bans on smoking in workplaces, including
  restaurants and bars:
  –   Ireland
  –   Italy
  –   Scotland
  –   England
  –   Norway
  –   Sweden
  –   New Zealand
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   29
      VALUES RE HEALTH
• Houston: Effective September 1, 2007,
  Houston began banning smoking in most
  public places, including restaurants and
  bars. The previous smoking ban had only
  covered restaurants.




                Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     30
      VALUES RE HEALTH
• South Africa: Sesame Street (Takalini
  Sesame) introduced a five-year-old female
  muppet who is HIV positive (not in
  American version)




                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     31
    VALUES RE MARRIAGE
• Canada, Spain, Belgium and the
  Netherlands legally recognize same-sex
  marriages--in the U.S. several states
  recognizes ―same-sex unions,‖ but
  Massachusetts is the only state in U.S. to
  recognize ―gay marriages‖


                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     32
      VALUES RE MARRIAGE
• England on December 21, 2005, began
  recognizing same-sex civil partnerships—couples
  have the same rights as married heterosexual
  couples, including inheritance and pension rights,
  bereavement benefits and next-of-kin standing
  (Elton John married his long-time partner right
  after the law went into effect).
• Chile: Legalized divorce for the first time in
  2004—previously couples could only get an
  annulment.
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       33
     VALUES RE MARRIAGE
• Japan: Only 5% of their population is divorced –
  divorce is looked upon as losing face for the entire
  family – once in America, Japanese couples
  divorce more often, but still at about half the rate
  of the U.S. population as a whole.
• Mexico: Until November 2005 it was not a crime
  in Mexico for a man to rape his wife—he was
  entitled to exercise his ―conjugal rights‖ – a
  decision of the Mexican Supreme Court reversed
  this policy.
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)         34
        VALUES RE RELIGION
• France: Adopted a law banning religious apparel
  in schools, including Islamic head scarves, Jewish
  skullcaps and large Christian crosses – intended to
  insure a strict separation of church and state in the
  public domain—in the U.S., there is no such law.
• Britain: In March 2007 British authorities
  proposed new rules that would allow schools to
  forbid Muslim students from wearing full-face
  veils (niqab) in class.
                     Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)         35
       VALUES RE RELIGION
• India: Is home to an ancient religion called
  Zoroasrtianism that predates Christianity and Islam—
  Zoroastrians do not believe in burying their dead—instead
  they wrap their dead in white muslin and leave them to be
  devoured by vultures—only then, according to the tenets
  of the ancient religion, can the soul be freed—to speed up
  decomposition, they often install solar panels—the
  problem nowadays is that 90% of India’s vultures have
  died, there are nowhere near enough vultures to consume
  the corpses, and people are complaining about the piled up
  corpses in their neighborhoods.

                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)            36
   VALUES RE ASSIMILATING
        FOREIGNERS
• France in fall 2005 had widespread riots by
  Muslims who had not been assimilated well
  into the French society—thousands of cars
  and businesses were torched—many of the
  rioters were poor, lived in segregated high-
  density housing and were unemployed—
  there are over six million Muslims in
  France.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    37
    VALUES RE ASSIMILATING
         FOREIGNERS
• United States: The states of Minnesota and Michigan
  have large Muslim populations and there’s recently been a
  problem at the Minneapolis-St. Paul airport with Muslim
  taxi drivers refusing to carry passengers who are
  transporting alcohol—Islam frowns on liquor—there was
  also an incident where a Muslim taxi driver refused to
  carry a blind person with a seeing-eye dog because of
  Islamic teachings that the saliva of dogs is unclean—the
  airport now makes Muslim taxi drivers who refuse to carry
  a passenger go to the back of the line—after two such
  instances, they are not allowed to work at the airport.

                      Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)            38
   VALUES RE ASSIMILATING
        FOREIGNERS
• United States: Some Muslim clerks at Target
  stores in Minneapolis recently refused to ring up
  pork products (considered unclean by Muslims) –
  Target reassigned these clerks to other jobs.
• United States: The first Muslim was sworn into
  Congress in January 2007—he took his oath on a
  copy of the Koran once owned by Thomas
  Jefferson.

                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)          39
   VALUES RE ASSIMILATING
        FOREIGNERS
• Denmark: In 2005 a Danish newspaper
  published 12 cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad
  (in one, he was depicted with a bomb in his
  turban) – these cartoons were later reprinted in
  other European newspapers – for months,
  Muslims staged violent protests – in the June 2006
  issue of Harper’s Magazine, U.S. Satirist Art
  Spiegelman reprinted the cartoons because he felt
  the cartoons needed to be seen by Americans to
  understand what all the fuss was around the world.
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       40
     VALUES RE WAR AND
       DEATH PENALTY
• Americans and our neighbors to the north
  and south often have different views on
  social and political issues:
  – Canada refused to send troops to Iraq (also
    welcomed American draft evaders during the
    Vietnam War)
  – Canada and Mexico oppose the death penalty
    – 38 states in U.S. have a death penalty.

                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)        41
       VALUES RE MILITARY
• Switzerland: Has no standing, full-time army –
  instead the country requires all men to undergo
  some form of military training throughout most of
  their lives for a few weeks a year – men between
  21 and 32 are given M-57 assault rifles and 24
  rounds of ammunition which they are required to
  keep at home – amazingly, the country has a low
  level of violence, even though there are guns
  everywhere and gun competitions are a favorite
  pastime.
                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       42
  VALUES RE PUBLIC LAWS
• Singapore: Very strict laws – huge fines for chewing
  gum, speeding, not flushing a toilet, littering, etc. –
  Michael Faye, an American teenager who lived with his
  parents in Singapore, was once sentenced to a public
  ―caning‖ for spraying paint graffiti on cars – Americans
  were outraged—on December 2, 2005 a 25-year-old
  Australian was hung for being caught at the Singapore
  airport on his way home to Melbourne, Australia, with 14
  ounces of heroin—no amount of pleading by Australian
  officials could stop the execution.



                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)              43
 VALUES RE PUBLIC LAWS
• New Delhi, India: In March 2007 the city
  became the first to ban smoking while
  driving a car.
• France: Five years ago France adopted a
  35-hour work week to lower the 13%
  unemployment rate—France has a new
  conservative President who wants to
  lengthen the French work week.
                Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     44
  VALUES RE PUBLIC LAWS
• Germany: Is the only country in Europe
  that allows motorists to drive as fast as they
  like on certain parts of the Autobahn – is
  currently under pressure from European
  Union to impose speed limit – within
  Germany there is pressure to impose speed
  limits due to some recent highly-publicized
  accidents.
                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     45
   VALUES RE PUBLIC LAWS

• Mexico, India, and Italy allow cell-phone
  jamming equipment to keep cell phones
  from ringing in such places as churches,
  parliaments, theaters, and concert halls –
  cell-phone jamming equipment is not
  allowed in the U.S.


                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      46
                VALUES RE OIL
• Norway: Is the world’s third largest oil exporter (behind
  Saudi Arabia and Russia) but discourages its own citizens
  from using any of that oil by having the world’s highest
  gasoline prices ($6.66/gallon) and putting very high taxes
  on gas-guzzling cars.
• Venezuela: Is also a large exporter of oil, but wants
  gasoline to be cheap for its citizens – it has imposed price
  controls and granted government subsidies for its citizens
  so that Venezuelans pay 12 cents for a gallon of gasoline,
  about the same as what a banana costs—the most coveted
  S.U.V. in Venezuela is the gas-guzzling Hummer.

                        Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)                 47
          VALUES RE OIL
• Iran: Is another oil-rich country that
  subsidizes gasoline for its citizens—
  Iranians pay only 34 cents a gallon.




                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   48
        VALUES RE ABORTION
• Nicaragua: In October 2006 Nicaragua’s legislature
  passed a law criminalizing all abortions, with no
  exceptions (the previous law permitted an abortion if the
  mother’s life was in danger).
• Mexico City: In April 2007 Mexico City legalized
  abortion during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy—very
  unusual in Latin America where only Cuba, Puerto Rico
  and Guyana allow abortion on demand—supporters said
  the law was meant to address a wide-spread and hidden
  public-health crisis where thousands of women die each
  year as a result of illegal and unsafe abortions.

                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)               49
    VALUES RE ABORTION
• United States: In the United States
  abortion was legalized in 1973 when the
  U.S. Supreme Court struck down state anti-
  abortion statutes in Roe v. Wade—but, a
  2006 Supreme Court decision upheld a
  federal ban on partial-birth abortion.


                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   50
           ISLAMIC VALUES
• Saudi Arabia: Women are required to wear veils over
  their faces in public; women can’t drive; women and men
  attend separate schools; women may not obtain identity
  cards or an exit visa; women cannot be admitted to a
  hospital without permission of their fathers, husbands, or
  in the case of widows, their sons; women may not study
  engineering, law or journalism; women may not travel
  outside the home unless accompanied by an adult male
  family member; no alcohol is allowed in the country –
  King Abdullah recently told Saudi newspaper editors to
  stop publishing pictures of women because they could lead
  young men astray.
                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)            51
          ISLAMIC VALUES
• Saudi Arabia: For the first time all-female
  Saudi car dealerships have opened up where
  women sell cars to other women—even
  though Saudi women cannot drive, they can
  own autos and, in fact, own half the cars in
  the country—Saudi women typically pay
  $300-$400 a month (if they can afford to)
  for live-in drivers—Saudi women continue
  to lobby for the right to drive.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    52
             ISLAMIC VALUES
• Saudi Arabia: President Bush appointed his long-time
  friend and close advisor Karen Hughes as a deputy
  Secretary of State with the primary duty of improving
  America’s image in Muslim countries like Saudi Arabia—
  when she traveled there Karen Hughes was taken aback
  that most women over there do not feel mistreated because
  they cannot drive or vote or travel around without a male
  escort—rumor has it that there has been discussion in the
  State Department about sending Oprah Winfrey to the
  Muslim world – Muslim women apparently love Oprah
  and regularly watch her show – perhaps Oprah could better
  explain America and its values.
                      Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           53
           ISLAMIC VALUES
• Saudi Arabia: In November 2007 First Lady Laura Bush
  traveled to Saudi Arabia to help raise awareness about
  breast cancer, which is considered a taboo in the country
  and which is the #1 killer of women. In Saudi Arabia
  about 70% of breast cancer cases are not reported until
  they are at a very late stage. In the U.S. most women get
  regular mammograms which diagnose breast cancers
  sooner, when they are more easily cured. In Saudi Arabia
  some families are afraid no one will marry their daughters
  if a mother’s cancer becomes known. For others, the
  greatest obstacle is the idea of a woman being examined by
  a male doctor.
                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           54
          ISLAMIC VALUES

• Muslim Countries: There is a movement
  underway in countries such as Saudi Arabia,
  Pakistan, Egypt, and Jordan to revise school
  textbooks to remove Islamic extremism that
  glorifies jihad and fills young minds with
  such hate, anger, and intolerance that they
  are willing to strap themselves with bombs
  and blow themselves up.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   55
           ISLAMIC VALUES
• Saudi Arabia: When King Fahd died in August
  2005, his body was washed, wrapped in cloth, and
  buried without a coffin in the desert sands
  alongside hundreds of other unidentified dirt
  graves—non-Muslims and women were not
  allowed at the burial site—VP Dick Cheney and
  other dignitaries from around the world attended
  ceremonies the next day and declared loyalty to
  the new King Abdullah.
                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      56
              ISLAMIC VALUES
• Muslim Countries: The debate over the wearing of the
  veil has ignited disputes in the Arab world—a woman’s
  face is fully covered in some countries, while in others,
  only her hair is covered, and yet in others, no head
  covering is worn—the debate is most intense in Egypt, the
  world’s largest Arab country, where one university in
  October 2006 banned women who wear the face veil (or
  niqab) from living in a hostel, and newspapers backed by
  the government launched a campaign against it—one
  newspaper columnist wrote: ―It expresses an extremist
  attitude . . . Wearing the niqab is as outrageous as wearing
  a bathing suit or pajamas to the office.‖
                        Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)             57
         ISLAMIC VALUES
Afghanistan: Under the Taliban women were
 required to wear burqas covering their bodies head
 to toe with narrow slits for eyes – if one inch of
 skin were exposed in public, the woman would be
 beaten with a metal rod by the ―virtue police‖ –
 women were not allowed to leave their homes
 unless accompanied by a male and were not
 allowed to go to school – they often received
 inadequate medical care because they could not be
 physically touched by a male doctor – would be
 beaten if their shoes made noise in the streets.

                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       58
            ISLAMIC VALUES
• Nigeria: Twelve states in northern Nigeria impose
  Islamic law (Sharia) on criminal defendants (the remaining
  24 states and the federal capital, Abuja, have a mix of
  religions and are governed by secular laws). In the 12
  primarily Muslim states where the Sharia applies, there are
  floggings for drinking alcohol, amputations of hands for
  stealing, death by stoning for adultery, and travel bans for
  women on motorcycle taxis and the front sections of public
  minibuses (the government has purchased new single-sex
  vehicles for women).



                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)             59
          ISLAMIC VALUES
• Nigeria: In 2002 a single woman in
  Nigeria who had a baby more than 9 months
  after divorcing her husband was sentenced
  to death by stoning. When the Miss World
  Pageant was later held in Nigeria in August
  2002, 5 Miss World contestants boycotted
  the pageant to protest the sentence—the
  woman’s life was ultimately spared because
  of international pressure.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   60
        ISLAMIC VALUES
• Saudi Arabia: Fourteen girls may have
  died unnecessarily in a school fire because
  members of the ―virtue committee‖
  interfered with efforts to rescue them--
  because the girls were not wearing the
  required black cloaks, the virtue police
  herded them back into the burning building
  to retrieve their head coverings—they were
  burned to death.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       61
          ISLAMIC VALUES
• Sudan: In November 2007 a British teacher at a
  private school in Sudan was arrested and
  sentenced to 15 days in jail and deportation after
  she allowed her students to name the class teddy
  bear Muhammad (not actually after the Prophet
  but after a boy in the class)—the British Embassy
  pleaded on her behalf and Sudan’s president
  ultimately pardoned her and allowed her to travel
  back to Britain.
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           62
          ISLAMIC VALUES
• In Pakistan a woman who has been raped and
  who wants the state to prosecute her case must
  have 4 Muslim men testify that they witnessed the
  assault—on average a woman in Pakistan is raped
  every two hours and two women a day die in
  honor killings.
• In Morocco women are treated as legal minors
  and their husbands have authority over them – it is
  easy for a man to get a divorce, but very difficult
  for a woman to get one – men can have up to 4
  wives simultaneously.
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)        63
           ISLAMIC VALUES
• Iraq: In early 2006 Iraq held its first beauty
  pageant since the U.S.-led invasion in 2003—the
  winner had to go into hiding to escape the wrath of
  Islamist militants.
• Iran: Hard-line President Mahmoud
  Ahmadinejad issued a decree banning western
  music from the country’s radio and TV stations
  (but Iranians with satellite dishes can get
  broadcasts originating outside the country).
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       64
         ISLAMIC VALUES
• Malaysia: In October 2007 Beyonce
  Knowles scrapped plans to stage her first
  concert in Malaysia and moved her concert
  to neighboring Indonesia which has less
  stringent rules about how performers should
  dress and behave—Malaysia demands that
  female performers cover up from the top of
  their chests to their knees, including their
  shoulders (not exactly Beyonce’s style).
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    65
          ISLAMIC VALUES

• Afghanistan: Senior Muslim clerics
  recently wanted the government to put a 41-
  year-old former medical worker on trial for
  converting from Islam to Christianity, an
  offense that carries the death penalty—after
  much international pressure, the man was
  allowed to leave Afghanistan and live in
  another country.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    66
           ISLAMIC VALUES
• Saudi Arabia: Bans the following items: Barbie dolls,
  Valentine’s Day gifts, perfume bottles in the shape of
  women’s bodies, and clothing with logos that include a
  cross.
• Palestine: Hamas, a radical group in Palestine, uses TV
  programs directed at children to inspire kids to want to
  grow up to become suicide bombers—one program
  featured a giant Mickey Mouse look-alike who was
  ultimately beaten to death by Jews for not handing over
  Palestinian land to the Jews—his replacement character, a
  bee, is carrying on the job of defending Palestinian land.

                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)                67
     STONINGS IN MUSLIM
         COUNTRIES
• In Iran (and several other Muslim countries)
  married men or women who commit adultery can
  be punished by stoning
• Method is different for men and women
• A man is buried up to his waist and then stoned
• A woman is buried up to her neck and then stoned
• The law provides that if a person manages to
  escape, he or she should be allowed to go free

                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      68
    BEHEADINGS IN SAUDI
         ARABIA
• Saudi Arabia uses public beheading as the
  punishment for murder, rape, drug
  trafficking, sodomy, and armed robbery
• Men and women are beheaded
• The condemned is given a tranquilizer and
  then taken by police van to a public square
  after midday prayers

                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       69
    BEHEADINGS IN SAUDI
         ARABIA
• His eyes are covered by a blindfold, his feet
  are shackled, and his hands are cuffed
  behind his back
• He kneels facing Mecca on a sheet of blue
  plastic about 16 square feet
• An Interior Ministry official reads out the
  prisoner’s name and crime to the crowd of
  witnesses

                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    70
     BEHEADINGS IN SAUDI
          ARABIA
• A policeman hands the sword to the executioner
  who raises the gleaming sword, swings it 2 or 3
  times before he approaches the prisoner from
  behind – he jabs the prisoner with the tip of the
  sword, causing the person to raise his head
• Normally, it takes just one swing of the sword to
  sever the head, often sending it flying some three
  feet

                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           71
     BEHEADINGS IN SAUDI
          ARABIA
• Paramedics bring the head to a doctor, who uses a
  gloved hand to stop the blood spurting from the
  neck – the doctor sews the head back on and the
  body is wrapped in the blue plastic sheet and taken
  away in an ambulance to be buried in an
  unmarked grave in a prison cemetery.
• The Saudi government beheaded 83 people in
  2005 and 38 people in 2006.

                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       72
            HINDU VALUES
• India: Cows are sacred in Hindu religion – they
  can be seen everywhere munching on garbage,
  dozing at traffic intersections or striding through
  shopping center – because of health concerns,
  Delhi, India recently decided to move its city cows
  to the country – hired 70 cow catchers and
  purchased 12 trucks equipped with hydraulic
  trolleys designed to gently elevate cows into the
  trucks
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       73
COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARN
 ABOUT OTHER CULTURES
• The University of North Carolina at Chapel
  Hill caused controversy when it required its
  entering freshmen in Fall to 2002 to read
  the Koran as a summer reading assignment.
  The entering freshmen were divided up into
  discussion groups to discuss the material.
  The idea was to help students begin
  understanding a culture they knew nothing
  about.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    74
COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARN
 ABOUT OTHER CULTURES
• A conservative Christian group went to
  court seeking an injunction to stop the
  discussions (said students should be reading
  the Bible instead).
• Both a federal district court and a federal
  appellate court ruled against the group and
  in favor of the university.

                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    75
 HOUSTON POLICE LEARN
 ABOUT OTHER CULTURES
• The Houston Police Departments runs
  regular cultural awareness programs to
  educate officers about the city’s diverse
  communities (Latinos, Jews, Asians, gays,
  etc.)
• Olajuwon put on a program about Muslims
  (said that they’re not all like Osama bin
  Laden or Saddam Hussein)
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     76
               U.S. VALUES
• Most early American settlers came from Europe
  and their values were influenced by philosophers
  of 18th-century enlightenment period, particularly
  John Locke
• Our founders believed in the ideals of classical
  liberalism
• Argued that even where no government exists, as
  in a ―state of nature,‖ individuals possess the right
  to:
                     Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)         77
               U.S. VALUES
  – Life
  – Liberty
  – Property
• Government does not give you these rights
  and they cannot take them away.
• Humans form a social contract with one
  another to form a government that will
  protect their natural rights.

                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     78
               U.S. VALUES
• Government activity should be limited.
• Restrictions on individual’s rights should be kept
  to a minimum.
• The terrorist attacks on 9/11/01 have resulted in
  new U.S. laws designed to keep us safe but at the
  cost of increasing the government’s powers to
  wiretap citizens and conduct surveillance – we
  have more safety but less individual privacy.

                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           79
 U.S. CHOSE A DEMOCRACY
• Our forefathers chose a democratic form of government.
• Genuine democracy must involve all citizens and serve the
  general interest (it is not a government by and for the
  majority)—therefore, in Iraq the majority Shiite Muslims
  need participation from the minority Sunni Muslims and
  Kurds in order for democracy to succeed in Iraq.
• A democratic government tries to express:
   – Freedom from tyranny
   – Harmony (entails wanting together – lack of harmony can lead to a
     civil war)



                          Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)                  80
U.S. CHOSE A DEMOCRACY
– The rule of law
– Natural equality (rests on the idea that the poor
  should be equal to the rich in politics)
– Citizen wisdom
– Reasoning without knowledge (depends on
  working out what is most reasonable)
– General Education


                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)        81
   U.S. ECONOMIC VALUES
• Founders chose capitalism as our economic
  system.
• Capitalism is based on individuals’ rights to own
  and use private property as they see fit
• Individuals have freedom to:
   –   Make contracts
   –   Bargain for services
   –   Change jobs
   –   Join labor unions
   –   Start their own businesses
                        Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      82
   U.S. ECONOMIC VALUES
• In a capitalist economy, the government’s
  role is to:
  – Protect property
  – Enforce contracts
  – Perform only those functions that cannot be
    performed by the private market
     • But in the wake of the Enron/Arthur Anderson
       debacle, government is stepping in and passing
       tougher regulations

                     Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           83
     EQUALITY: IMPORTANT
       AMERICAN VALUE
• Equality and liberty are two major values in
  America
• In theory, Americans believe that no person
  has greater worth than any other person -
  radical idea in 1776
• Millions came to America to pursue their
  dreams

                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    84
                  EQUALITY
• Americans believe in ―equality of opportunity‖
  not “equality of results‖
• Equality of opportunity: Everyone begins at the
  same starting line in life
   – But Blacks say not so – because of 200 years of slavery
     and discrimination, they started out behind the starting
     line – therefore, many believe we need affirmative
     action – some have even sued for reparations.
• Not Equality of results: Everyone reaches the
  finish line of the race at the same time
                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)             85
                 EQUALITY
• Americans believe in ―earned desserts‖ -
  you reap what you sew (hats off to people
  like Donald Trump and Bill Gates)
• But, we believe in equality in politics:
  Regardless of whether you’re rich or poor,
  everyone’s vote is equal to another’s vote.


                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      86
 INEQUALITY OF INCOME
     AND WEALTH
• Inequality causes conflicts in society
• Income inequality has increased since 1970—the
  percentage of poor Americans who are living in
  severe poverty has reached a 32-year high as the
  gulf between the ―haves‖ and ―have-nots‖
  continues to widen.
• About one in three severely poor people are
  younger than 17, and nearly two out of three are
  female—poverty is most pronounced near the
  Mexican border and in some areas of the South.
                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)          87
 INEQUALITY OF INCOME AND
         WEALTH
• Why has the gulf between the ―haves‖ and
  ―have-nots‖ widened?
  – Reagan’s domestic policies in the 80’s undid
    some of Johnson’s 60’s war on poverty
    programs designed to lower the gap between
    rich and poor
  – Decline in blue-collar (manufacturing) jobs and
    increase in white-collar (service) jobs

                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       88
INEQUALITY OF INCOME
    AND WEALTH
– Rise in number of two-wage families
– Increase in families headed by females
– Global competition which restrains wages in
  unskilled and semiskilled jobs
– Nowadays, even high-tech, white-collars jobs
  are being outsourced to countries like India.



                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)         89
BIG GAP BETWEEN CEO’S AND
         WORKERS
• The average worker in 2004 earned about
  $33,000.
• The average CEO in 2004 earned about $9.6
  million (or 290 times more than the average
  worker).
• In 2004 average executive compensation rose 15%
  compared with a 3% pay raise for the average
  worker.
• That’s why the gap is widening between the
  have’s and the have-not’s.

                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      90
        WIDE GAP BUT NO
          REVOLUTION
• In spite of inequalities, America has not had
  revolutions and political instability
• Why?
• People in America have social mobility (and
  therefore hope).
• In the former Soviet Union and many South
  American counties, poor people saw no way to
  better their lot except to overthrow the
  government and seize property from the rich –
  hence communist revolutions.

                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       91
       IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
            CULTURE
• According to Spring 2007 census figures,
  Hispanics are the largest minority group in
  the United States, making up 14.8 percent
  of the population as of July 1, 2006.
• In Harris County as of July 1, 2006,
  Hispanics exceeded whites for the first time.
  – Hispanics make up 38.2% of Harris County’s
    population.
                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       92
      IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
           CULTURE
  – Whites make up 36.9% of the population.
• Six years previously, in 2000, whites made
  up 42% of the population in Harris County,
  Hispanics made up 33%, and Blacks made
  up 18.4%.
• Harris County ranks #2 in total Hispanic
  population behind #1-ranked Miami-Dade
  County, Florida.

                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     93
        IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
             CULTURE
• Eighty-eight percent of the Houston ISD student
  body is either Hispanic or Black.
• HISD has been recruiting bi-lingual teachers in
  Mexico, Spain, Puerto Rico, China and the
  Philippines.
• In 2006 the 2.8 million Latin American
  immigrants in Texas sent $5.2 billion back home
  to relatives in their mother countries (California
  sent the most, $13.2 billion, Texas was second at
  $5.2 billion, and New York was third at $3.7
  billion).
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           94
       IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
            CULTURE
• It is estimated that 12 million undocumented
  immigrants live in the U.S.
• About 800,000 more arrive each year.
• And, they are not all going to California and
  Texas.
• More and more, they are spreading out and going
  to states that previously only had small foreign-
  born populations: Massachusetts, Nevada,
  Virginia, North Carolina, etc.

                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)          95
       IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
            CULTURE
• In October 2006 the population of the
  United States hit 300 million.
• In 2043 the population will hit 400 million.
• By 2043 barely half of Americans will be
  white, and one in four whites will be senior
  citizens—nearly one in four people will be
  Latino, and multiracial Americans will be
  commonplace.

                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       96
      IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
           CULTURE
• Currently in Texas Anglos make up 49% of
  the Texas population, Hispanics 35%,
  blacks 12% and Asians and ―others‖ 4%.
• By 2043 Hispanics will represent 53-59%
  of the Texas population, Anglos 25-33%,
  blacks 8-10%, and Asians and ―others‖ 6-
  8%. NOTE: There will be twice as many
  Hispanics as Anglos.
                Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   97
     IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
          CULTURE
• Everywhere there are signs of increasing
  influence of Hispanics on culture
• Salsa outsells ketchup
• 9% of President Bush’s picks for senior
  spots in his administration are Hispanic
• In May 2001 Bush’s weekly radio address
  began being done in English and in Spanish

                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   98
      IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
           CULTURE
• President Bush’s website was redesigned to
  include section in Spanish
• In last two Houston mayoral elections, Hispanic
  Orlando Sanchez (a Cuban) was in the runoff
  elections – lost both times—Houston has never
  had a Hispanic mayor, but it’s just a matter of time
  and it will.
• Matel Toy Company came out with a Latin GI Joe
  doll named for Roy Benavides, a Texas Vietnam
  War hero, and Dora the Explorer toys are popular
  with children from all ethnic groups.
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)        99
        IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
             CULTURE
• The quinceaneras (sweet 15) industry has gone mainstream
  and has grown into a $400-million-a-year industry in the
  United States—400,000 U.S. Latinas turn 15 each year—
  the industry supports two magazines offering tips and
  advice on hair, makeup, etc.—Houston had a quinceaneras
  expo at Reliant Arena in 2007.
• In 2000 census data showed that for the first time two
  Hispanic names (Garcia and Rodriguez) were on the list of
  the top ten most common names in the nation—these two
  names knocked ―Moore‖ and ―Taylor‖ off the list.


                      Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           100
     IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
          CULTURE
• More than 50 members of the U.S.
  Congress recently took a 10-week class in
  conversational Spanish on Capitol Hill
  (both Democrats and Republicans).
• Why? Both Democrats and Republicans
  feel that Hispanics hold the key to future
  election victories.

                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      101
      IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
           CULTURE
• In February 2007 Congress funded a
  commission to study the idea of building a
  museum in Washington, D.C. honoring
  Latinos—their report is due back in two
  years.




                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      102
      IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
           CULTURE
• Mexican food is the most popular ethnic food in America
• Look at the popularity of stars such as Jennifer Lopez,
  Ricky Martin, Salma Hayek, Gloria Estefan, George
  Lopez, Enrique Iglesias, Cameron Diaz, Marc Anthony,
  Eva Longoria, Penelope Cruz, Eva Mendes, Jessica Alba
  and Antonio Banderas.
• Movie stars who once hid their Hispanic backgrounds now
  proudly proclaim it:
   – Raquel Welch
   – Linda Carter



                      Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)         103
     IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
          CULTURE
• Avon in September 2002 came out with a new line
  of makeup called Eres Tu’ designed to match
  Hispanic skin tones
• The University of Texas became the first
  university in the country in the fall of 2002 to
  require all its nursing students to take a 3-hour
  course in Spanish (even if they speak Spanish or
  have already completed other Spanish courses)—a
  Hispanic woman was told to take a pill once a
  day—she took it 11 times a day because once in
  Spanish means 11.
                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      104
        IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
             CULTURE
• In February 2007 Bank of America began test
  marketing credit cards for Spanish-speaking
  customers who may not have Social Security
  numbers—these cards carry higher-than-usual
  interest rates and allow users to charge only $500.
• CitiBank and Wells Fargo Bank are experimenting
  with providing mortgages to immigrants who have
  no Social Security numbers—instead, immigrants
  use their IRS-issued ITINs (individual taxpayer
  identification numbers).
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       105
      IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
           CULTURE
• The University of Texas at Austin recently
  hired a new vice provost for inclusion and
  cross-cultural effectiveness—his salary is
  $175,000 a year—his job is to help recruit
  more Hispanic students and faculty—
  currently Hispanics comprise only 13.3% of
  UT Austin’s student body (more than one-
  third of Texas is Hispanic).
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   106
       IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
            CULTURE
• Many businesses like long-haul trucking companies and
  Home Depot are actively recruiting Hispanic workers.
• In October 2006 HEB opened in Pasadena, Texas, the first
  of five planned Texas grocery stores called ―Mi Tienda‖
  (―my store‖)—these stores make shoppers feel like they
  have stepped inside a Mexican village. Borrowing
  concepts from south of the border, the grocery stores sell
  goods favored by Hispanic customers, such as pinatas, pan
  dulce and pupusas. Seventy percent of the residents who
  live within three miles of the Pasadena store are Latinos.


                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           107
       IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
            CULTURE
• A shortage of Hispanic workers to chuck oysters
  recently shut down a Dickinson seafood plant—
  the company plus some other small businesses
  have asked Congress to pass legislation that would
  allow them to rehire workers with expired H-2B
  visas.
• The federal government is trying to recruit
  Hispanic employees—currently Hispanics make
  up 7.6% of the federal workforce, which is sizably
  less than the 12.8% Hispanic representation in the
  civilian labor force.
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      108
      IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
           CULTURE
• Republicans are actively recruiting the Hispanic
  vote -
   – see little chance in attracting large numbers of Blacks
     who are firmly in Democratic corner
• 2000 election: Bush got 35% of Hispanic vote
  and Gore got 62%.
• 2004 election: The number of Hispanic voters
  rose from 5.9 million in 2000 to 7.8 million in
  2004—Bush got 40% of the vote and Democrats
  got 58% of the vote.
                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)                109
       IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
            CULTURE
• 2006 election: 69% of Hispanics voted
  Democratic and 30% of Hispanics voted
  Republican—dissatisfaction over the economy and
  job creation, the war in Iraq, and the Bush
  administration’s policies proved more important to
  Hispanic voters than immigration issues.
• Hispanics are called the Sleeping Giant—they
  vote less than Whites and Blacks, but if they wake
  up and start voting, they hold the key to future
  elections and both parties are courting them.
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      110
         IMMIGRANTS AFFECT
              CULTURE
• Both Democrats and Republicans sent people to the July
  2005 LULAC convention in Little Rock.
   – Democrats sent former President Bill Clinton
   – Republicans sent members of President Bush’s Cabinet:
       • Commerce Secretary Carlos Gutierrez
       • HUD Secretary Alphonso Jackson
       • Treasurer Anna Escobedo Cabral
• For the first time ever, a Hispanic ran for President in
  2008: Democratic Governor Bill Richardson from New
  Mexico—he dropped out, however, after poor showings in
  the Iowa Caucus and New Hampshire Primary.

                          Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           111
    IMMIGRATION REFORM
• In December 2005 the U.S. House passed its version of
  immigration reform which primarily focused on beefing up
  border security by building a 700-mile fence.
• In July 2006 the U.S. Senate passed its version of
  immigration reform which provided for a balanced
  approach and which was more in line with President
  Bush’s recommendation. The Senate version doubled the
  number of Border Patrol agents, added resources for
  detaining illegal immigrants and deporting them more
  quickly and expanded state and local enforcement of
  immigration laws. The Senate version created a system to
  verify workers’ identifies and imposed tougher
  punishments on employers who defy the law.

                      Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)          112
     IMMIGRATION REFORM
• The Senate version, unlike the House version, also created
  a path to citizenship for the millions of illegal residents
  already here before 2004 – the process of becoming an
  American citizen would take 11 years and would require
  illegal residents to undergo criminal background checks, to
  have a steady job, to pay a $1,000 fine and to pay all back
  taxes, to know English, and to know about our
  government—the Senate version was not like the 1986
  blanket amnesty given to three million illegal immigrants
  under the bill signed by President Reagan—Senators called
  it ―earned citizenship.‖

                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           113
   IMMIGRATION REFORM
• No final bill was passed before the 109th
  Congress adjourned in December 2006, and
  so far the new 110th Congress has been
  unable to find a compromise and to pass a
  final immigration-reform bill either.




                Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   114
             DREAM BILL
• In November 2007 Congress failed to pass
  the DREAM bill which would have granted
  legal status to illegal immigrants who are
  high school graduates and who either
  attended college or served in the military for
  two years—many of these illegal Hispanics
  came to the U.S. as small children.

                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    115
     MAY 1, 2006 BOYCOTT
• On May 1, 2006, hundreds of thousands of mostly
  Hispanic immigrants did not work but rather
  participated in a nationwide boycott that disrupted
  many farms and businesses across the U.S. – it is
  estimated that 300,000 immigrants protested in
  Los Angeles, 15-30,000 in Houston, 20,000 in
  New York, and 20,000 in Orlando – it was called
  the ―Day Without an Immigrant‖ protest.


                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       116
  BUSH SENT 6,000 NATIONAL
  GUARD TROOPS TO BORDER
• On May 15, 2006, President Bush pledged to send
  6,000 National Guard troops to the Mexico border
  over the next year for non-law-enforcement duty
  while more border patrol agents are being trained.
• President Bush also asked Congress for an
  additional $327 million to end the so-called ―catch
  and release‖ program in which illegal immigrants
  from countries other than Mexico are released
  because of delays in returning them to their home
  countries.
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       117
           ANCHOR BABIES
• Any child born in the United States to illegal
  residents automatically becomes a U.S. citizen
  who is instantly eligible for such social services as
  food stamps and other forms of aid – when the
  anchor baby reaches the age of 21, he can petition
  to have his parents and siblings declared
  permanent residents (basically, he can sponsor his
  parents).
• Seventy percent of the babies born at Houston’s
  two public hospitals (LBJ and Ben Taub) are born
  to illegal immigrants.
                     Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)        118
ANTI-IMMIGRANT SENTIMENT
 AMONG SOME AMERICANS
• There is strong anti-immigrant sentiment in
  various parts of the U.S. – in 2004 Arizona
  passed Proposition 200 which requires that
  individuals must prove their citizenship
  when registering to vote and must produce a
  valid ID when voting or applying for public
  benefits. Proponents say this measure will
  save Arizona $1.3 billion a year.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   119
ANTI-IMMIGRANT SENTIMENT
 AMONG SOME AMERICANS
• In March 2005 and March 2006 a group of
  civilians (known as the Minutemen) went to
  the Arizona border to help spot illegal
  immigrants as they came over the border
  (over half the illegal immigrants enter the
  U.S. through Arizona) – they watched with
  binoculars and called INS border patrol
  agents when they saw someone coming
  across the border – some carried guns.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   120
ANTI-IMMIGRANT SENTIMENT
 AMONG SOME AMERICANS
• The same group (the Minutemen) came to
  Houston in November 2005– they went to a
  popular spot in Houston for men to assemble
  every day to be picked up as day laborers (the
  intersection of Shepherd and Washington)—the
  Minutemen videotaped the people who were
  picking up these day laborers--the 1986
  Immigration Reform and Control Act law makes it
  illegal for businesses to hire unauthorized
  workers.
                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     121
ANTI-IMMIGRANT SENTIMENT
 AMONG SOME AMERICANS
• Seventy conservative members of the U.S.
  House of Representatives are pushing to
  end the long-standing practice of granting
  automatic citizenship to all children born on
  American soil—even if their parents came
  to the U.S. illegally (this change would
  likely require an amendment to the U.S.
  Constitution).
                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   122
ANTI-IMMIGRANT SENTIMENT
 AMONG SOME AMERICANS
• Colorado lawmakers recently passed several
  bills that will force a million people
  receiving state or federal aid in Colorado to
  verify their citizenship—the new laws deny
  most non-emergency state benefits to illegal
  immigrants 18 years old and older.


                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   123
ANTI-IMMIGRANT SENTIMENT
 AMONG SOME AMERICANS
• There’s some discussion about the possibility of
  employing a tamper-proof identity system for
  immigrant guest workers that would implant a tiny
  microchip just under the skin (it’s the size of a
  grain of rice) – this is the same technology that’s
  already used in pets and Alzheimer’s patients – the
  chips are not tracking devices, do not contain GPS
  transmitters, and are more reliable than biometric
  credentials that use fingerprints or optical scans to
  confirm identity.
                     Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)        124
ANTI-IMMIGRANT SENTIMENT
 AMONG SOME AMERICANS
• There was recent controversy when a Spanish version of
  The Star Spangled Banner called ―Nuestro Himno‖ came
  out right before the May 1, 2006 boycott.
• President Bush said: ―I think the national anthem ought to
  be sung in English and I think people who want to be a
  citizen of this country ought to learn English, and they
  ought to learn to sign the national anthem in English.‖
• Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said that she had
  heard the national anthem sung in many languages and
  didn’t see a problem with a Spanish version.


                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           125
     SECURING THE BORDER
• Nine nearly 100-foot towers with radar,
  high-definition cameras and other
  equipment are close to being completed
  along 28 miles of the Arizona/Mexico
  border—the project is called Project 28 and
  it will provide a virtual fence when it’s up
  and running—if it proves successful,
  hundreds of such towers could dot the 6,000
  miles of the Mexican and Canadian borders.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   126
      SECURING THE BORDER
• In October 2005 Governor Perry outlined a $9.7
  million proposal to beef up local law enforcement
  patrols along the Mexican border by giving $6
  million to local sheriffs so they can hire more
  deputies, pay overtime to existing personnel,
  improve radio communications between multiple
  agencies, and pay the National Guard to assist in
  training local law enforcement personnel.


                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      127
   SECURING THE BORDER
• Governor Rick Perry announced in
  December 2007 that with $3 million of
  federal funds he would restore a short-lived
  but highly publicized ―virtual border watch‖
  program that will allow Internet users to
  access video feeds from some of the 200
  cameras set up along the Texas/Mexico
  border at
  http://www.texasborderwatch.com.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   128
    SECURING THE BORDER
• U.S. border agents have phased in ―zero tolerance
  zones‖ along the Mexican border—the first
  section in 2005 was a 210-mile stretch covering
  the middle of Texas’ southern border (the DelRio
  Sector)—the second section in late 2006 was in
  Western Arizona (the Yuma Sector)—the third
  section which was recently added in late 2007 is a
  171-mile section along the Texas border (the
  Laredo Sector).
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       129
   SECURING THE BORDER
• In these ―zero tolerance zones,‖ illegal
  immigrants from Mexico who are caught
  are arrested, prosecuted in federal court, and
  sentenced to two weeks to six months in
  jail. In the past illegal immigrants without
  criminal histories or too many previous
  crossing attempts were caught and then
  simply driven back across the border into
  Mexico.
                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    130
    2007 TEXAS LEGISLATURE
       IMMIGRATION BILLS
• The Texas Legislature, while in session from
  January to May 2007, considered a number of bills
  that could affect immigrants (none of them
  passed):
   – A bill that would deny citizenship to ―anchor babies‖
     (babies born in Texas to illegal immigrants)—would, if
     passed, most certainly trigger a constitutional challenge
     in the courts because the 14th amendment to the U.S.
     Constitution has always been interpreted to confer
     citizenship on anyone born in the United States.
                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)             131
 2007 TEXAS LEGISLATURE
    IMMIGRATION BILLS
– A bill that would rescind a 2003 Texas law that
  currently allows an illegal immigrant who
  graduated from a Texas high school after at
  least three years of attendance to pay in-state
  tuition at Texas colleges and universities
  (Governor Perry opposed this change).
– A bill that would impose a 8% tax on all money
  wired to Mexico and other Latin American
  countries.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      132
   IS HOUSTON A SANCTUARY
            CITY?
• A 2006 Congressional Research Service Report called
  Houston and 30 other cities sanctuary cities because of
  their ―don’t ask, don’t tell‖ policy when it comes to
  questioning illegal immigrants about their immigration
  status.
• In December 2007 FoxNews host Bill O’Reilly did a story
  about Pasadena resident Joe Horn shooting to death two
  illegal immigrants from Colombia who had burglarized his
  neighbor’s home—O’Reilly blamed Mayor Bill White and
  Houston Police Chief Harold Hurtt for what happened and,
  on national TV, called Houston a sanctuary city.

                      Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)          133
   IS HOUSTON A SANCTUARY
            CITY?
• Mayor Bill White gave an interview strongly
  disagreeing with O’Reilly’s characterization of
  Houston as a sanctuary city.
• Mayor White said Houston has a new policy that
  requires Houston police officers to check the
  warrant status of everyone who is ticketed,
  arrested or jailed if they fail to show proper ID.
  People arrested for class B misdemeanors or more
  serious crimes are booked into jail and asked
  whether they are U.S. citizens under the policy. I
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      134
  IS HOUSTON A SANCTUARY
           CITY?
• Immigration and Customs Enforcement
  (ICE) officials are given full access to city
  jails and the information collected by HPD.
  HPD officers are required to notify ICE of
  any suspects with outstanding immigration
  warrants and previously deported felons.


                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    135
     ARNOLD SAYS TURN OFF
          SPANISH TV
• Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger recently said
  that Hispanics should ―turn off the Spanish
  television set—it’s that simple—you’ve got to
  learn English.‖
• Reporters were quick to point out that when
  Arnold ran for re-election in 2006, he ran ads in
  Spanish and was interviewed frequently on
  Spanish-language TV and radio.
• In 2003 Arnold accepted $4 million in campaign
  contributions from the chairman of Univision.
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)          136
COMPARISON OF HISPANICS
     AND ASIANS
• Hispanics take approximately 18 years to
  become U.S. citizens, but Asians take only
  5 years
• Why?




                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      137
COMPARISON OF HISPANICS
     AND ASIANS
 – Asians work for themselves - Hispanics work
   for others
 – Asians place high priority on education -
   Hispanics have a high dropout rate
 – Asians are farther away from their mother
   countries and therefore attach to U.S. easier -
   Hispanics are close by their mother countries
   and cling to it

                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           138
 AMERICAN IMMIGRATION
       POLICIES
• No limits until 1882
• Major immigration acts passed in 1882,
  1921, and 1986
• About 25 million people receive visas for
  short-term visits
• About 1/2 million people enter U.S.
  illegally vs. 1 million legally

                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     139
 AMERICAN IMMIGRATION
       POLICIES
• September 11, 2001 tragedy has impacted
  immigration policies
  – Beginning 1/4/04 the U.S. immigration
    authorities began using a digital inventory
    control system to keep tabs on millions of
    foreign visitors who enter the country with a
    visa


                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)         140
AMERICAN IMMIGRATION
      POLICIES
– Arriving visitors proceed through the usual
  customs and immigration checks with two
  additional steps:
   • They have their right and left index fingers scanned
     by an inkless device;
   • And they have a digital photograph taken
– The government recently added a departure
  component to enable the government to keep
  track of foreigners who overstay their visas
                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)             141
NEW PASSPORT REQUIREMENT
• Beginning January 23, 2007, all Americans flying
  back into the United States have to show a U.S.
  passport.
• The requirement at land crossings for Americans
  to show a passport, originally scheduled to go into
  effect in 2008, has been postponed until July 2009.
• It’s just a matter of time before every American
  will have to have a passport so be thinking about
  getting one (it costs $97).
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       142
NEW CITIZENSHIP TEST IN THE
          WORKS
• The U.S. government is overhauling the naturalization
  exam every new American citizen must pass.
• Both old and new tests determine the would-be-citizen’s
  proficiency in English and knowledge of U.S. history and
  government.
• The old test just required applicants to memorize isolated
  facts and then correctly answer 6 out of 10 questions on
  the test correctly.
• The new test measures real understanding of how
  government works—in 2007 the test was piloted in 10
  cities (two in Texas—El Paso and San Antonio)—the new
  citizenship test went into effect nationwide in 2008.

                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           143
NEW CITIZENSHIP TEST IN THE
          WORKS
• The old test would ask a question such as:
  How many bars are on the U.S. flag? [13]
• The new test asks: Why do we have 100
  U.S. Senators [because there are two from
  each of the 50 states].
• About 800,000 people apply for
  naturalization in the United States every
  year.

                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      144
FAST PATH TO CITIZENSHIP
• In July 2002 President Bush signed an executive order that
  allows immigrants who serve in the U.S. military for one
  year of active duty to become U.S. citizens (used to be
  three years).
• More than 25,000 immigrants have become U.S. citizens
  while in the military since 2002. Over 40,000 immigrants
  can apply for citizenship in the next three years.
• At least 80 immigrants gained citizenship posthumously
  after being killed in Iraq or Afghanistan (gives military
  benefits to their families).


                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           145
     LOS ANGELES’ HISPANIC
            MAYOR
• Los Angeles’ first Hispanic mayor (48% of LA is
  Hispanic) was sworn in office July 1, 2005.
• His name is Antonio Villaraigosa (his name was
  Villar and his wife’s name was Raigosa – when
  they married, they merged their surnames, hence
  the odd name).
• He grew up as a poor Chicano kid and was raised
  by a single mom who worked as a part-time
  secretary in a state office (his parents divorced
  when Villaraigosa was 5).
                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      146
    LOS ANGELES’ HISPANIC
           MAYOR
• His father was a drunk who beat his wife
  and kids.
• In the 10th grade, Villaraigosa was
  diagnosed with a tumor in his spine that
  began to paralyze his legs – got the problem
  fixed.
• Started getting into fights – got a tatoo that
  read ―Born to Raise Hell.‖

                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    147
    LOS ANGELES’ HISPANIC
           MAYOR
• He was kicked out of one high school and
  dropped out of a second.
• Eventually he went back to school where a
  remedial English teacher took him under his
  wing.
• He graduated from UCLA in 1977 and went
  to law school at night.

                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   148
    LOS ANGELES’ HISPANIC
           MAYOR
• In July 2007 Villaraigosa acknowledged
  that he was in ―a relationship‖ with a
  Spanish-language television newscaster and
  that his wife of two decades had filed for
  divorce.




                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   149
 BUSH’S HISPANIC ATTORNEY
          GENERAL
• President Bush appointed Alberto Gonzales
  to be his second-term Attorney General.
• Alberto Gonzales was one of 8 children
  who grew up in a two-bedroom house north
  of Houston – he didn’t have hot water or a
  telephone until he was in high school.
• As a 12-year-old, his first job was selling
  sodas at Rice University football games.

                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   150
 BUSH’S HISPANIC ATTORNEY
          GENERAL
• There was never any discussion about Gonzales
  going to college so he did what a lot of poor
  minority kids do: He enlisted in the military – he
  joined the Air Force and was sent to a base in
  Alaska.
• Gonzales got into the Air Force Academy and
  eventually transferred to Rice University.
• After Rice, he went to Harvard Law School.

                    Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)       151
 BUSH’S HISPANIC ATTORNEY
          GENERAL
• After law school, Gonzales went to work for the
  prestigious Houston law firm, Vinson Elkins.
• When George W. Bush was elected governor of
  Texas, he appointed Gonzales to be his lawyer.
• Later Bush put Gonzales on the Texas Supreme
  Court.
• When was elected President, he named Gonzales
  to be his White House Counsel.

                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)         152
 BUSH’S HISPANIC ATTORNEY
          GENERAL
• When Bush was re-elected to a second term
  and his first-term Attorney General John
  Ashcroft stepped down, Bush named
  Gonzales to be his Attorney General.
• Alberto Gonzales resigned in 2007 in the
  face of much criticism over his role in the
  firing of eight federal prosecutors—Bush’s
  new Attorney General is Michael Mukasey.
                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   153
        LIBERALISM AND
         CONSERVATISM
• Liberalism and conservatism are ideologies
• An ideology is an integrated set of values
  and beliefs
• Most Americans are neither pure liberals
  nor pure conservatives
• Texas is a very conservative state (a red
  state in red/blue America)

                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   154
         LIBERALISM AND
          CONSERVATISM
• You can go to the following website and
  take a short quiz to determine your political
  ideology (whether you’re a liberal or a
  conservative):
http://people-press.org/fit/



                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    155
        LIBERALISM AND
         CONSERVATISM
• There used to be:
  – Liberal Republicans and Conservative
    Republicans
  – Liberal Democrats and Conservative Democrats
• Now there are primarily only:
  – Liberal Democrats
  – Conservative Republicans

                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    156
        LIBERALISM AND
         CONSERVATISM
• Liberals want government to be active in
  economic affairs, but stay out of individual
  social conduct
• Conservatives want government to be active
  in regulating individual social conduct, but
  stay out of economic affairs and let the free
  markets work

                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   157
           LIBERALISM AND
            CONSERVATISM
• Criminal matters:
   – Liberals are more concerned with social problems that
     cause poor, hopeless, drug-addicted, jobless people to
     commit crimes and with the rights of defendants once
     arrested - believe that if you want to reduce crime, you
     have to eliminate poverty and joblessness at the root of
     crime
   – Conservatives believe to reduce crime, you need to hire
     more police and build more prisons


                       Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)            158
         LIBERALISM AND
          CONSERVATISM
• Abortion:
  – Liberals believe a woman has a right to choose
  – Conservatives believe unborn child should be
    protected
• Gun Control
  – Liberals believe society would be safer if there
    were more laws restricting gun purchases

                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)        159
       LIBERALISM AND
        CONSERVATISM
– Conservatives believe individuals have the right under
  the 2nd amendment to purchase any type of gun they
  want to protect themselves and their families --in 2004
  the Republican-controlled Congress voted not to renew
  Clinton’s 1994 ten-year ban on 19 types of assault
  weapons—in late 2007, however, liberals and
  conservatives came together to pass a bill (signed by
  President Bush in January 2008) that closes a loophole
  in the Brady Bill handgun background check that
  allowed the Virginia Tech gunman to purchase a
  handgun even though he had been ordered by a judge to
  seek outpatient counseling.
                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)            160
          LIBERALISM AND
           CONSERVATISM
• Prayer in Schools:
   – Liberals believe the U.S. Supreme court decided
     correctly in 1963 to take prayer out of public school.
   – Conservatives believe a lot of societal problems would
     improve if God were allowed back in the classroom
• Government Spending:
   – Liberals would tend to increase spending on domestic,
     social matters
   – Conservatives would tend to increase spending on
     foreign and military matters

                      Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)            161
        LIBERALISM AND
         CONSERVATISM
• Affirmative Action:
  – Liberals: Because of past discrimination,
    women and ethnic minorities should be given
    preferences in employment and education to
    increase their numbers
  – Conservatives: Whoever’s most qualified
    should get the job or scholarship


                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)        162
         LIBERALISM AND
          CONSERVATISM
• Environment:
  – Liberals are tree huggers and more concerned about the
    environment (global warming, for example).
  – Conservatives care about the environment, but think
    some of the rules of the Environmental Protection
    Agency border on ridiculous and hurt the economy and
    cost jobs—some conservatives question the science
    behind the dire global warming predictions.



                     Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)           163
         LIBERALISM AND
          CONSERVATISM
• Today liberals are seen as better protectors
  of the environment
• But Republicans have a long history of
  being green
  – Teddy Roosevelt: 1906 signed the Antiquities
    Act which is used to set aside public land for
    national monuments and wildlife


                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      164
       LIBERALISM AND
        CONSERVATISM
– Dwight Eisenhower set aside land for the Arctic
  National Wildlife Refuge (where Bush is trying
  to drill for oil)
– Richard Nixon signed:
   • Clean Air and Clean Water Acts
   • National Environmental Policy Act
   • Endangered Species Acts



                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     165
         LIBERALISM AND
          CONSERVATISM
• Size of Government:
  – Liberals: Government can fix problems - OK
    with big government - proponents of programs
    that help the poor
  – Conservatives: Government is the problem -
    too big - proponents of tax cuts
     • But under President George W. Bush, government
       spending has increased dramatically (and not
       entirely due to cost of fighting war on terrorism in
       Iraq and Afghanistan).
                      Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)                166
 FORMER PRES. REAGAN AND
       SON DIFFER
• Former President Ron Reagan was a conservative
• His son, Ron Reagan, is a liberal who spoke
  during prime time at the 2004 Democratic
  National Convention in Philadelphia about the
  importance of expanding stem-cell research
• Republicans also got a dig in at the Democrats
  when retiring Democratic Zell Miller from
  Georgia spoke at their 2004 Republican National
  Convention in New York and lambasted his own
  political party.
                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     167
          LIBERTARIANS
• U.S. Representative Ron Paul from Lake
  Jackson ran for President on the Libertarian
  ticket in 1988—is running for President as a
  Republican in 2008.
• Libertarians believe in minimal government
• Against most:
  – environmental regulations
  – consumer protection laws

                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)   168
        LIBERTARIANS
– Antidrug laws
– government restrictions on abortion
– government rules about wearing seatbelts,
  motorcycle helmets, etc.
– tax laws
– defense spending to send troops all over the
  world - would only have a small army and navy
  to defend the homeland

                Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)     169
           LIBERTARIANS
  – Sending foreign aid to countries all over the
    world
  – welfare programs except for the very neediest
• Libertarians favor:
  – low taxes
  – much smaller government



                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)         170
 CLINTON AND BUSH DEFY
        LABELS
• President Clinton, purportedly a ―liberal
  Democrat,‖ pursued some ―conservative‖
  policies:
  – Signed welfare-reform into law
  – Supported capital punishment
• President George W. Bush, purportedly a
  ―conservative Republican,‖ pursued some
  ―liberal‖ policies:

                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)    171
CLINTON AND BUSH DEFY
       LABELS
– Signed a prescription-drug benefit addition to
  Medicare into law
– Increased federal funding of education
  initiatives




                 Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)          172
    AMERICANS NOT AS
 CONSERVATIVE AS ALLEGED
• A recent report by the Gallup and the Pew
  Research Center presents a picture starkly at
  odds with the allegation that Americans
  have become much more conservative.
  – Abortion: 62% of Americans oppose
    overturning Roe v. Wade, the 1973 Supreme
    Court decision that legalized abortion.


                  Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      173
    AMERICANS NOT AS
 CONSERVATIVE AS ALLEGED
  – Stem cells: 61% of Americans support using
    stem cells for research.
  – Guns: 60% of Americans would like to see
    more government restriction.
• For the past 30 years, Americans have
  clearly been moving left.
  – Thirty years ago conservative and liberals
    sparred over whether a woman could do a
    ―man’s work‖—answer yes.
                   Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      174
   AMERICANS NOT AS
CONSERVATIVE AS ALLEGED
– Thirty years ago conservatives and liberals
  sparred over whether black people could marry
  white people—answer yes.




                Chapter 1 (revised 1/08)      175

				
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