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Taxonomy Taxonomy The Science

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					Taxonomy

  The Science of Classification
Consider These
  Loxodanta africana:
Consider These
  Loxodanta africana:   African elephant
Consider These
  Loxodanta africana:   African elephant

  Equus zebra:
Consider These
  Loxodanta africana:   African elephant

  Equus zebra:          Zebra
Consider These
  Loxodanta africana:   African elephant

  Equus zebra:          Zebra

  Lepus californicus:
Consider These
  Loxodanta africana:   African elephant

  Equus zebra:          Zebra

  Lepus californicus:   California desert Jack Rabbit
Consider These
  Loxodanta africana:   African elephant

  Equus zebra:          Zebra

  Lepus californicus:   California desert Jack Rabbit

  Gorilla gorilla:
Consider These
  Loxodanta africana:   African elephant

  Equus zebra:          Zebra

  Lepus californicus:   California desert Jack Rabbit

  Gorilla gorilla:      Mountain gorilla
Consider These
  Loxodanta africana:   African elephant

  Equus zebra:          Zebra

  Lepus californicus:   California desert Jack Rabbit

  Gorilla gorilla:      Mountain gorilla

  Pan troglodytes:
Consider These
  Loxodanta africana:   African elephant

  Equus zebra:          Zebra

  Lepus californicus:   California desert Jack Rabbit

  Gorilla gorilla:      Mountain gorilla

  Pan troglodytes:      Chimpanzee
Consider These
  Loxodanta africana:        African elephant

  Equus zebra:               Zebra

  Lepus californicus:        California desert Jack Rabbit

  Gorilla gorilla:           Mountain gorilla

  Pan troglodytes:           Chimpanzee


  Drosophila melanogaster:
Consider These
  Loxodanta africana:        African elephant

  Equus zebra:               Zebra

  Lepus californicus:        California desert Jack Rabbit

  Gorilla gorilla:           Mountain gorilla

  Pan troglodytes:           Chimpanzee


  Drosophila melanogaster:   Fruit Fly
Now These
  Drosophila domestica
Now These
  Drosophila domestica   House Fly
Now These
  Drosophila domestica   House Fly

  Homo sapien:
Now These
  Drosophila domestica   House Fly

  Homo sapien:           human
Now These
  Drosophila domestica   House Fly

  Homo sapien:           human

  Homo habilus:
Now These
  Drosophila domestica   House Fly

  Homo sapien:           human

  Homo habilus:          “tool using human”
Now These
  Drosophila domestica   House Fly

  Homo sapien:           human

  Homo habilus:          “tool using human”

  Homo erectus:
Now These
  Drosophila domestica   House Fly

  Homo sapien:           human

  Homo habilus:          “tool using human”

  Homo erectus:          “Upright human”
Now These
  Drosophila domestica   House Fly

  Homo sapien:           human

  Homo habilus:          “tool using human”

  Homo erectus:          “Upright human”

  Homo neanderthalis:
Now These
  Drosophila domestica   House Fly

  Homo sapien:           human

  Homo habilus:          “tool using human”

  Homo erectus:          “Upright human”

  Homo neanderthalis:    Neanderthal Man
Now These
  Drosophila domestica         House Fly

  Homo sapien:                 human

  Homo habilus:                “tool using human”

  Homo erectus:                “Upright human”

  Homo neanderthalis:          Neanderthal Man


  Australapithicus afarinis:
Now These
  Drosophila domestica         House Fly

  Homo sapien:                 human

  Homo habilus:                “tool using human”

  Homo erectus:                “Upright human”

  Homo neanderthalis:          Neanderthal Man


  Australapithicus afarinis:   “Lucy”
The Need for Classification

  Sheer volume: 1.5 million life forms
   “known” . Might be 10 million yet to
   “identify
  Study and understanding: lots of ways
   of carrying out the 8 life functions.
  Communication: lots of organisms have
   local common names…scientists need to
   communicate across languages.
  Binomial Nomenclature
I. A “Two-name” naming system “Scientific name”



               Genus species
     Genus: a group of closely related species, derived by
     speciation from a common ancestor. Genus name
     must be unique.

     Species: Adjective or modifier (does not need to be
     unique)
For Example:

 Drosophila melanogster             Thamnophis melanogster




         Fruit fly                     Semi aquatic garter
                                             snake
 Note: Genus is frequently reduced to its initial letter:

     D. melanogster                      T. melanogster
Definition of a “Species”:

   All members of a species can mate
   in the wild and produce fertile
   offspring.
Examples of Sterile Hybrids




      “Hobbs” The Liger at the Sierra Safari Zoo


  http://www.greenapple.com/~jorp/amzanim/crossesa.ht
  m




                                                        A Mule
 Other naming notes:
•First one to describe it names it. Can be named after someone.
    E. coli is named for Theodore Escherich, German
    physician. (Escherichia coli)

•Name can be descriptive:
   First horse fossil was named Hyracotherium or “Hyrax-
   like beast (distant relative of the elephant). Later named
   Eohippus. (dawn horse)
•Name can be “heartfelt”:
   Some species names for mosquitoes: punctor, tormentor,
   vexans, horrida, perfidiosus, abominator.

    Ursus horribulus: The Grizzly Bear
More naming notes:
 •Name can be fun:
     An Entomologist used the pseudo-Greek: chisme to name
     various beetles:
        Polychisme
        Peggichisme
        Dolichisme
        Ochisme
     The horsefly: Tabanus balazaphyre
 Hierarchical Classification
Kingdom   Most general    K
                                King
Phylum                    P
                               Phillip
Class                     C
                              cries out
Order                     O
                                 for
Family                    F
                               greasy
Genus                     G
                              sausage!
species   Most specific   s
King Phillip
cries out
for greasy
sausage!
King Phillip
cries out
for greasy
sausage!
Classification & History

 Carolus Linnaeus – Swedish botonist in 16th
  century that started “Binomial nomenclature”
  system. Set out to classify all living things!
 Current system of classification suggests
  evolutionary relationships:
       Closely related organisms are likely to have
        similar form and structure
Homologous Structures
Methodologies:
1. Outward similarities “If it looks like a fish, it might be a fish”
                     Unless it’s a whale
2. Test similarities for homology.
                      Can be tedious and subjective
3. Examine the fossil record, if possible
                     Hares and rabbits are NOT rodents

                     Ursus and Canis are closely related
4. Compare various stages in the life cycle and embryological
development
                   Losing favor
Comparative
Embryology
Molecular Taxonomy

  Amino Acid Sequencing

  • 20 essential amino acids make up each protein:

  • Compare similarities and differences in:

         1. Enzymes
         2. Reaction pathways

         3. Hormones

         4. Structural proteins
Molecular Taxonomy

  Nucleotide sequencing

  Only 4 different nucleotides

  Compare similarities and differences in:

         1. Overall gene structure
         2. DNA – DNA Hybridization
DNA-DNA Hybridization
Technique
Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus )
Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla)
Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes )
Chimpanzee
Example of Classification
           Man       Chimpanzee      Dog         Housefly

Kingdom Animalia     Animalia      Animalia     Animalia
 Phylum Chordata     Chordata      Chordata     Arthropoda
   Class Mammalia    Mammalia      Mammalia      Insecta
  Order Primates     Primates      Carnivora     Diptera
 Family Hominidae     Pongidae      Canidae      Muscidae

  Genus    Homo         Pan          Canis      Drosophila
 Species   Sapiens   Troglodytes   Familiaris    domestica
Example of Classification
           Man       Chimpanzee      Dog         Housefly

Kingdom Animalia     Animalia      Animalia     Animalia
 Phylum Chordata     Chordata      Chordata     Arthropoda
   Class Mammalia    Mammalia      Mammalia      Insecta
  Order Primates     Primates      Carnivora     Diptera
 Family Hominidae     Pongidae      Canidae      Muscidae

  Genus    Homo         Pan          Canis      Drosophila
 Species   Sapiens   Troglodytes   Familiaris    domestica

				
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