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Friends of Presidency Group meeting

Tim Rymer
Head of Joint Border Operations Centre
Border & Immigration Agency
27 March 2008
    a c 008
Friends of Presidency group: PNR

     ● History and setting up of PNR system: e-
       Borders and Project Semaphore
       B d        dP j tS          h

     ● PNR data collection

     ● Use of API and PNR: watchlists, risk criteria etc

     ● Storing and sharing PNR

     ● Results of PNR systems
e-Borders and Project Semaphore

•   e-Borders
    e Borders work started in UK in 1990s
      – Recognised the need to facilitate travel and maintain secure borders

      – Mass migration has created an exponential growth in world travel

        UK s
      – UK’s position on world stage leaves it open to a range of serious risks

•   Project Semaphore Nov 2004 – March 2008

•   Full e-Borders roll out over next ten years
e-Borders vision

To help create an integrated and secure border for the 21st
    t      i        technology t manage more people, more
century, using new t h l       to                    l
quickly and more securely through our borders
 Strategic aims of e-Borders

         “An integrated, secure border for the 21st Century”

• Enhance the security of the UK by identifying individuals who
  present a risk
• Support more efficient management of core agency resources
  utilised on UK border control
• Enhance the operational effectiveness of UK border control

                           Council Committee on
                        Terrorism and Allied matters
e-Borders will integrate agency activity





                                           Enabling consistent
                                           and comprehensive
                                           Border management
e–Borders solution overview

A                                                                                D
    Visas issued overseas                                                              Leaving the UK
    Watchlisting of visa                                                               C i         ill  d
                                                                                       Carriers will send
    applicants                                                                                 of
                                                                                       detailsthe UK
                                                                                     Exit from
                                                                                       passengers as they
    E-borders travel
                                                                                       check in.
    history used to
    assist visa                      Post                                            Electronic systems count people out at
                                                                                         Border Agency
                                                                                     border control
                                                                                                          g       y
    decisions                                                                           Officers will
                                  Overseas                                              establish targeted
                                                                                        embarkation checks
                                                                                        in response to risk
                                                                                        assessment against
                                                                                        this data.
B Departure from overseas
   Carriers submit details to
   UK Border Control before
                                               Airport /
   departure                                 Station / Port
     Authority to Carry will be
     refused to unwelcome
     passengers                                                  C     Arrival at the UK border
     Passenger subject to                    UK Border Control   N        t      ill   bl Border Agency
                                                                 New systems will enable B d A
     Watchlist checks prior to
                                             Operations Centre   Officers to:
     their arrival in the UK                                          Biometrically verify identity of
                                                                      arriving Passengers
                                                                      Intervene in response to Alerts
                                                                      Grant/refuse leave to enter
    Project Semaphore

•   Semaphore - 39 month project November 2004 – March 2008

•         yp
    Prototype for e-Borders

•   Initial scope 6 million passenger movements per annum

•   Provided a working model on:

     Joint agency business processes

     Testing data sharing capability

     Technical model for supplier community

     Single window for data presentation for carriers
Joint Border Operations Centre (JBOC)

• Operational hub of Project Semaphore

                                   BIA, HMRC Police, SOCA
• Multi-agency operations centre – BIA HMRC, Police SOCA, UKvisas

• Opened 10 January 2005

• Captures inbound and outbound passenger information (API/PNR)

• Risk-based assessment and analysis of information

• Alerts issued to border agencies

• Provides a joined-up border protection capability and new opportunities
  for the legal sharing of information and intelligence
e-Borders progress to date

• Project Semaphore
 • Demonstrated successful cross agency working
 • Established collaborative approach with carriers rather than imposition
                              pp                                  p
 • 103 carriers on 182 routes covering over 30m passenger movements pa
 • Over 20,000 alerts generated with over 1,700 arrests

• Industry engagement
 • Trials and pilots with Semaphore
 • Concerns on costs benefits and operational impacts included in RIA
 • Influence on e-Borders design (OPI, International standardisation, level field)

• Government response to industry concerns
 • Support for OPI and single data submission window
 • Announcement of unified Border force leading to single primary checkpoint
e-Borders Implementation

• Autumn 07 Contract awarded to Trusted Borders
• March 2008
 – Data capture legislation commences

• 2008-2010 Carrier roll out
 –   April 2008 = 30m passenger and crew movements captured pa
 –   April 2009 = 100m                ‘’
 –   December 2009 = 60%              ‘’
 –   D       b
     December 2010 = 95%              ‘’

• 2009 e-BOC launch
 – And completion of Semaphore transfer

• 2011-2013 Port roll out
Core features of full e-Borders system

 ●   API Data Capture and Movement Database
          Capture of data for all international passengers and crew
                                     ( ,    ,
          Inbound and Outbound (air, sea, rail)  )
          Data contained within the machine readable zone of the travel document.
          That is: Document type, issuing state, full name, travel document number,
          nationality, date of birth, gender, expiry date of travel document.

 ●   PNR data capture : compatible with international messaging standards
         Up to 100 million passengers
         Profiling on PNR/API

 ●   Central e-BOC (e-Borders Operations Centre)
      ●               g                  g
          Watch listing for all Partner Agencies

 ●   Automated Alert Distribution to Agencies at Ports
      • Identification and decision support for Immigration Officers
Summary of routine data requirements from carriers

• Two categories of data
 • Mandatory data provision
   − Travel Document Information -crew and passenger (TDI)
   − Service data
 • To the extent known by the carrier
   − Other Passenger Information (OPI or PNR)
• Timing
 • Main obligations fall between 24 and 48 hrs prior to departure, at check-in
   and on departure
• Form and Manner
 • Electronically and in a particular form via one of a number of specified
   technical interfaces
• Subject to code of practice
 • Immigration, Asylum and Nationality Act 2006 Section 37(2)
Aspects of collecting PNR

•Little structure to PNR

•Some carriers will have lots, some little, some none

•PNR is not standardised

•Not just air - e-Borders refers to OPI (other passenger information)
as e-Borders covers all modes of transport

 UK      t             to
•UK captures PNR up t 24 hhours i advance; going f
                                in d           i         d    to
                                                  forward up t 48
hours in advance. 24 hours essential as many persons of interest
travel at short notice
Aspects of collecting PNR

•There will be around 300 million passenger movements in/out of UK by

•PNR capture is capped at 100 million records from up to 100 carriers

•UK recognises a need with PNR to focus on risk

•Also recognise PNR is not available on all journeys

•UK will get to 100 million PNR records over 5 years (20 million increase
each year)

•At present under Semaphore we capture PNR data from 7 air carriers
covering 42 arrival/departure points
Aspects of collecting PNR

•e-Borders provides a range of interfaces for carriers to provide PNR

•We favour push and this is done where already deployed through
GDS (e.g. Amadeus)

•We use intermediaries e.g. SITA. SITA pulls PNR from carriers and
pushes it to e-Borders in a structured package
p                                      p    g

•We also screen-scrape – pulling PNR from a limited number of
carriers Relevant carriers favour this on cost grounds
The use of API and PNR data - API

•API provides biographical identity information

•API is compared against watchlists to identify known persons of
interest before they arrive/depart the UK

•API collection and storage supports immigration control by
         g              p                       gg
recording arrival and departure details, enabling government to
monitor compliance.

•API is also used to identify travel movements post-event
 API                                           post event

•API will be captured on all routes in/out on all transport modes
The use of API and PNR - API

JBOC is helping transform border agency business processes

•   Travel history data routinely available

•   Advance checking against watchlists to identify persons of interest
    (including transit passengers)

•   Police and HMRC able to carry out interventions with information not
    previously available

•   Alerting border agencies in advance of arrival/departure leads to
    effective interventions

•   Opportunities to risk assess flights/ships etc increases border agency
JBOC watchlist alert process

    Passenger Data
                     •JBOC receives API from carriers

                                       g             g       g   y
                                •Passenger data run against agency watchlists
                t hli t   t h
              watchlist match

                                           •JBOC staff analyse matches

                                       Background       •Further checks against
                                         checks         watchlists and other data as
             •JBOC staff confirm the            Match validated
                                                            Primary agency
                        •Decision taken about which            identified
                        agency has primary interest

                       •Sent to primary agency and copied as             Alert issued
The use of API and PNR data - PNR

•PNR is information held by carriers relating to travel bookings

•PNR is used by border agencies to identify patterns and trends of
behaviour and for information which can be used to support
i t lli         k
intelligence work

•One aspect of analysis is profiling or targeting. PNR is checked
        p            y       p     g       g     g
against profiles of behavioural patterns which indicate risk activity.
Profiles are run to identify behaviour, not to identify individuals, and
are based on evidence and intelligence.

•PNR is also used to enrich API and other information
The use of API and PNR data - PNR

•The use of PNR to assist law enforcement is not new

•Customs officers in the UK have used PNR for at least 30 years for
targeting work and for evidential purposes

•Expertise has developed such that basic profiles account for a
significant proportion of customs successes, particularly in
                                      g          y g p       p
narcotics but also other areas of illegal activity e.g. paedophilia

•Use of PNR is not limited to work within e-Borders

•Customs and immigration officers analyse PNR at selected
targeting hubs around the UK
The use of API and PNR data - PNR

•Joint working between immigration and customs officers has
shown that some risk indicators are the same for people and
commodity smuggling

•Disruption to smuggling activities is a core part of border security
work; the profits of such illegal activity feed organised crime and
terrorist activities

•Use of PNR alongside API and other intelligence allows us to focus
more effectively on those passengers appearing to pose a higher
risk – leading to fewer random stops
The use of API and PNR data - PNR

                        UK s
•PNR is of value to the UK's Security and Intelligence Agencies in
supporting their efforts to counter terrorism.

•PNR supports our capabilities but is not a sole source of material in
that context.

•The UK does not profile terrorists using PNR. In that respect we
believe we are different to other governments who do use profiling
       q     ,       g                p
techniques, although we do remain open to re-assessment based on
the utilities that others employ.
JBOC profile alert process

    Passenger Data
                     •JBOC receives PNR from carriers

                Automated        •Passenger data run against rules-based
               check against
                                            •System identifies passengers
                          presents match
                              results       most closely matching profiles
                                      Dedicated staff
                                      provide expert      •Expert analysis by trained
                                         analysis         officers familiar with raw PNR

                                                  Some matches
             •Examination of raw PNR will            discounted
             rule out some of the system
             generated matches
                        •Possibility of additional checks       Other checks
                        to add information to alert.

                       •Sent to primary agency and copied as                 Alert issued
Aspects of storing and sharing PNR data

•Travel-related data will be held on the e-Borders system for five
years Also provision for access on a case by case basis for a
further five years.

   B d       t        i l
•e-Borders acts as a single window for carriers to provide data to
                             i d   f       i    t      id d t t

•It is not intended to limit the use of PNR to the e-Borders
Operations Centre. It would not be practical or appropriate for all
agencies to conduct all of their analytical work within the eBOC.
Domestically PNR captured will be shared where it is appropriate
and lawful to do so.
Aspects of storing and sharing PNR data

•PNR data for the vast majority of travellers is never manually

•Confident our use of PNR data is proportionate and complies with
  b td t       t ti      f     d
robust data protection safeguards

•For cross-border sharing; the UK likewise acts in accordance with
data protection law
The results of PNR systems

A profile has been established in order to anticipate the arrival of
                  g                                   (
individuals seeking to abuse the transit without visa (TWOV)  )

One such passenger was intercepted at the point of transit. A
           p      g               p          p
fraudulently obtained British passport was found in the lining of her
handbag. The passenger was arrested for possession of a
fraudulently obtained document and her companion was arrested
for aiding and abetting. This intervention and prosecution would
not have been possible without PNR data.

In another case, a baggage search of a passenger fitting the same
profile resulted in the seizure of 2kgs cocaine found in the struts of
a bag.
The results of PNR systems

Using PNR to identify potential offenders:

•   In a recent case, a profile-based alert led to the arrest and
    prosecution of two individuals in possession of £17,641 cash
    plus 3kg of cocaine.

•   In the absence of this kind of rules-based targeting using PNR
    data, it is unlikely that these individuals would have been
    identified at the border for further interventions.
The results of PNR systems

Airline Passenger Information (API) enrichment example
• In November 2007, two suspected people-trafficking facilitators were
                   2007                  people trafficking
   identified at the border as a result of a watchlist check using API data.
• They produced a copy of an itinerary but it was suspected they had
               y                                  p g
   travelled by a different route and were attempting to conceal their link
   with the individuals they had facilitated.
• Shortly afterwards, four passengers were stopped at border control
   with false documents.
• By checking the PNR data, it was possible to demonstrate that all six
   passengers had in fact travelled together.
• Without the ability to investigate the individuals via their PNR data, we
        ld h     b        bl t           t th         t d f ilit t   ith th
   would have been unable to connect the suspected facilitators with the
   four falsely documented passengers.
The results of PNR systems

Profiling by one of the agencies identified three individuals who had
booked long haul round trip tickets from Heathrow involving only a
two day stay at their destination. The alert resulted in arrests by
police and the confiscation of a credit card machine from one of the

Agency profiling resulted i fi bookings of interest being passed
A            fili     lt d in five b ki     fi t      tb i         d
to the Border & Immigration Agency relating to passengers
travelling on documents of a different nationality to their own. Each
       fi e              as
of the five passengers was denied boarding to the UKUK.
The results of PNR systems

Instances when PNR has been used to eliminate subject from

PNR profiling identified a potential suspect; however further
      i ti    f hi b ki      d t il       l d th t th
examination of his booking details revealed that the passenger was
suffering from a spinal injury and was being escorted by a nurse. In
this way the PNR information enabled the passenger to be
eliminated from the profile match

Similar eliminations are made based on comments in the remarks
section such as: “Please treat passenger with sensitivity – death in
family” or “Wheelchair requested – broken leg”

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