Norwegian Advanced Instrumentation

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					Advanced instrumentation 2006-2011

  Outline of talk:
   Introduction (groups, competences, projects underway,
    infrastructure, related projects)

   Four sub-projects:
      1.   R&D for future silicon systems
      2.   The Norwegian technical student program at CERN
      3.   Support for an Industry Liaison with extended responsibilities
           related to Technology Transfer and recruitment
      4.   Participation in the CLIC accelerator R&D at CERN

   Summary

                            Instrumentation for the future                  1
  Advanced instrumentation 2006-2011
Background :
 Traditionally around half of the students in the Norwegian program are
   instrumentation students – true also during LEP running due to the RDn programs at

 Group competences and infrastructure; see next slides
 International projects underway (SLHC, CMB at FAIR, ILC, medical imaging); also in
  next slides

 In additon to having a very solid scientific program at LHC; to have more Norwegian
  CERN users at all levels must be the main goal for next period (this is also to be kept
  in mind for the ”physics” projects)
 The following subprojects are essential for our CERN exploitation:
     We now have around 10 technical students at CERN – program led by Jens Vigen with
      financial contributions from the Norwegian Research Council, with additional contributions
      from the Universities and University Collegues sending the students (Bergen, NTNU, Sør-
      Trøndelag mostly)
     We have temporarily an ILO (ex technical student from NTNU with one year background in
      the Technology Transfer area at CERN) covering several areas of interest for the general
      Norwegian CERN exploitation
     A student is interested in carrying out a ph.d projects in accelerator physics (CERN has
      asked for in-kind contributions to CLIC R&D) .... this person is finishing his Fellowship in
      ATLAS (Toroid system)

                                      Instrumentation for the future                            2
    Recent/on-going activities relevant for the future
Five major technology activities related to CERN :
   Construction of silicon modules for ATLAS (UiB - Stugu, UiO – Stapnes/Dorholt, SINTEF earlier - Avseth, HiG at
    some level - Wroldsen). Key effort from the electronics and mechanical workshops in Oslo, partly true also for
    workshops at UiB
         Completed successfully
   PHOS detector for ALICE (UiB - Klovning, UiO - Skaali, AME earlier - Hansen) – note that AME and their
    technology development was strongly linked to CERN in 1980’ies for LEP
         Ongoing
   High Level Trigger development for ALICE (UiB-Rohrich and Ullaland, HiB-Helstrup, UiO-Skaali and Tveter) – high
    rates and high data-flow into readout and primary ”analysis” stage
         Ongoing
   Construction of cryogenics tanks for ATLAS (NTNU-Owren, SB-verksted-Hansen, UiO partly-Stapnes) –
    technology transfer NTNU/SINTEF to SB-verksted, and reference contract with CERN
         Completed succesfully
   RD50 (UiO – Svensson and SINTEF) – important and interesting R&D work for the future linked to new facilities
    in Gaustadbekkdalen
         Onging and very important

Here you find all skills needed to construct any detector system, including readout and datahandling ...

Important note – worth mentioning in other talks (for a different audience) than this:
This overview does not include ”the other half” of the Norwegian CERN activities related to physics studies, simulation
of physics processes and detectors, pattern recognition, data-analysis, GRID, computing methods, statistical methods
etc, etc ..... I refer to the talks earlier today

                                               Instrumentation for the future                                     3
RD50 - Radiation hard semiconductor devices for very
high luminosity colliders

                                                   57 institutes
                                                   (43 from EU)
                                                   >250 scientists

        Particle Detectors – research lines @ UiO/PE
        • Defect and impurity engineering of high-resistivity Si
        • New materials; primarily silicon carbide (SiC)
        • Three-dimensional detector structures
MRL (Oslo, Aug-2003) – 5000 m2
                                           •   Characterization laboratories, etc
                                           •   Electrical measurements; Probe station, C-V, DLTS,
                                               ADSPEC/TSCAP (20- 106 Hz) (cryostats 10-700 K,
                                               uniaxial stress), Laplace-&O-DLTS
                                           •   Optical measurements; PL, interferometry, inverse
                                           •   Scanning Nanoprobe -scopy (AFM, SSRM, TUNA,
                                               SCM); Foparken
                                           •   SIMS & surface profilometer
                                           •   MEMS-lab; etching, optical microscopes, etc

                                                MeV ion accelerator at UiO/MRL
                                                Ion implantation and RBS-analysis

                     instrument at

                                               National Electrostatics Corporation, 1 MV terminal voltage
                                 Instrumentation for the future                                     5
                                         Electron microscope for e-beam lithography
Equipment – Status                                         at UiO
Clean Room (Synthesis,
processing and
o Processing equipment (RTP, furnaces,
  evaporation, bonder, ....);
o ALCVD-lab
o Electron beam lithography (JEOL
  6400F+ Raith-kit)       (FUN-
o MeV implanter & Rutherford
  Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)
o Equipment from old SINTEF-lab is
  expected in late 2004 (early 2005)


                                            JEOL model: JSM-6400F + ELPHI Quantum (Raith)

                                    Instrumentation for the future                 6
SINTEF R&D for CERN projects:

 Partner (important) in infrastructure buildup in Gaustadbekkdalen – their
  sensor lab has been moved to same facilities
 RD-20, CERN 1992-1994
     Dev.of High Resolution Si Strip Detectors for High Luminosity at the
 RD-48 (ROSE), CERN 1996-2000
     Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors
 RD-50, CERN 2002 -        Collaboration with UiO
     Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High
      Luminosity Colliders

 SINTEF very interested in 3D sensors (Andreas Werner) and this
  project; preparing a SFI application where 3D sensors is one sub-project.

                                Instrumentation for the future                      7
    Advanced instrumentation – projects underway

   New R&D period underway internationally (traditionally the periods where the CERN technology
    exchange is the most interesting for us):
      For LHC upgrades (CMS and ATLAS have now R&D SG for upgrades with timescale 2014 ± 2 years
      The detector technology close to the interaction point needs new development (in fact, the IDs will be
       completely replaced).
      The ATLAS B-layer is foreseen to be replaced in 2012 and new sensors, more integrated approached,
       ”deeper” sub-micron, new power schemes will need to be developed.

               Driven by this plot, but also
               by lifetime of IR quads 700 fb-1

      For linear collider detectors several R&D projects are ongoing and a conseptual design reports are foreseen
       by end 06-07 for accelerators and detectors:
      Increased CERN R&D for medical systems over the next decade (EU projects), and Norwegian activities at
       CERN related to Technology Transfer agreements and medical instrumentations
      For heavy ions see later

                                            Instrumentation for the future                                      8
     LHC detector changes
      ID changes

 In the current ATLAS/CMS trackers a factor ten
  luminosity increase would imply that the detectors
  die within months, and/or become useless due to
  increased occupancy creating problems for the
  tracking, and/or going beyond the acceptable
  readout rates.
 This applies to both PIXEL and Strip systems in
  ATLAS and CMS. The TRT in ATLAS will have an
  occupancy which approaches 100% and cannot be
 An other way of saying this is that the current
  technologies, with important new developments
  could work at a factor 3 higher radius.
 So we are looking at a full silicon tracker (the
  best current example is CMS)

                                                          TRT barrel           TRT endcap A+B   TRT endcap C

                                                           SCT barrel            SCT endcap


                                              Instrumentation for the future                            9
                LHC detector upgrade
                 Elements of new IDs ?

                                 Cost comparison for fixed volume

                   (65 $/chip)

                                                                                              Electronics in DSM work well, parts already tested to 100 MRad (and

          20.00                                                               025              more but not powered), ie 0.13um or 0.09um processes can do the job
                                                                              013 unscaled     (CMOS or SiGe) - and costs are quite reasonable

                                                                                                   The lowest layers need special attention – even more true for
          15.00                                                               013 1/2
                                                                              013 1/4
          10.00                                                               013 1/8
                                                                                                    sensors (make replaceable?)
           5.00                                                                                    Yield/costs; ATLAS PIXEL chip has around 80% yield, production
                                                                                                    costs promising (but prototyping costs large – one iteration
                                                                                                    assumed in plot on the left)
                  10,000         50,000       100,000   200,000     500,000
                                          Volume required

                                                                                              Sensors: main issues are :
                                                                                                   Reverse currents rise.
                                                                                                   Trapping increases.
                                                                                                   Bulk type inverts to effectively p-type – depletion voltage increase.
                                                                                              Consider to use p type bulk material to operate more effectively under-
                                                                                               depleted, collection electrons (less trapping)
                                                                                                   For example: A conservative target for SLHC short strips would be
                                                                                                    survival of ~2 ×1015 cm-2 1MeV neutron equivalent, with S/N > 10
                                   10,000e                                                         For PIXEL area more difficult, replaceable or 3D type (see RD50
                                                                                                    studies for 1016 cm-2 1MeV neutron equivalent sensors)
                                                                                              Both CMS and ATLAS have very good experience with sensor production
                                                        5000e                                  and quality in current experiments
                                                                                              For the innermost layer(s) special measures or replaceable system need
                                                                                               to be considered – most significant R&D area

Important R&D area: Very significant improvements in power distribution (serial powering or rad hard
DC/DC) needed                          Instrumentation for the future                         10
    Advanced instrumentation – projects underway

   For ALICE running after 2012, there are a number of running options, the relative importance of
    which will depend on the initial results. Most probably this program will focus on rare probes and
    thus require higher luminosity and/or faster detectors and readout chains.
      A high-granularity silicon pixel detector, which is radiation hard and can be read out at high rates, is

   QCD matter at large baryon densities is not sufficiently explored, neither experimentally nor
    theoretically. Nuclear reaction experiments at FAIR, the future facility at GSI (e.g. Compressed
    Baryonic Matter - CBM experiment) aim at a detailed and comprehensive investigation of super-
    dense baryonic matter. The research program includes the measurement of penetrating probes,
    which escape essentially undistorted from the compressed nuclear collision zone. The planned
    Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at GSI is a natural follow-up of the ALICE program.
    Important physics questions would include the production of heavy quarks in nuclear matter.
      Due to the low energies involved the rate would be low, and successful measurements would require high rate
       collisions and triggers, and corresponding high-speed detectors and readout chains

So in both cases the following technologies/research fields are interesting:
 3D silicon pixel detectors have electrodes that go all the way through the bulk of the material.
    This allows the electrodes to be positioned much closer together without the need to reduce the
    thickness of the detector, and thus the active volume. The close positioning of the electrodes is
    beneficial for both the full depletion voltage and charge collection efficiency. 3d detectors are
    expected to be radiation tolerant.
 However, reading out the fine-granular pixels with high-speed requires the integration of
    electronics component on the detector and the development of a new high-speed readout and on-
    chip processing scheme in order to handle the huge data rate The DAQ concept will use self-
    triggered front-end electronics, where each particle hit is autonomously detected and the
    measured hit parameters are stored with precise timestamps in large buffer pools.

                                             Instrumentation for the future                                       11
    Advanced instrumentation – CBM studies

Vertex tracker (possible example of specs) :
 700 μm material budget tolerable
 about 35 μm x 35 μm pixel size needed
 only a small part (50 cm2) is exposed to very
    high doses replacing this part after a major D
    run is feasible
 required dose and also interaction rate
    depends on D0 efficiency thin detectors (100
    μm) require significantly less than thick (700
    μm) ones
 fast readout allowing clear event association
    very valuable (at least)

 thin (<700 μm)
 high resolution (σ ~ 10 μm)
 fast (best <100 ns)
 radiation tolerant (30, better >100 Mrad)
 self-triggered, high bandwidth FEE

                                                     Instrumentation for the future   12
International Research Training Group = Forskerskole

                                  ”Graduiertenkolleg” –
                                  Starting date: 1.10.2004
                                  Successful meeting at UiB in April
                                   with 30-40 participants, follow up now
                                   in September in Heidelberg, next
                                   meeting in Oslo in April

                                  Duration: 4.5 years –
                                        extendable by 4.5 years
                                  Funding
                                          DFG: 12 stipends + running costs
                                          UiB, UiO, HiB:
                                              a few stipends + 700 kNOK + ?

                     Instrumentation for the future                           13
IRTG - participants

                      Instrumentation for the future   14
 IRTG – research program

Development and Application of Intelligent Detectors
• physics simulation
• detector simulation
• detector construction, system integration
• readout design, development and operation
• trigger design, development and operation             Applies to
• data handling and data management                     • Nuclear Physics
• online data analysis                                  • High Energy Physics
• offline data analysis                                 • Space Physics
• GRID computing                                        • Detector Physics
                                                        • Sensoric
                                                        • Microelectronics and Electronics
                                                        • Computer Engineering
                                                        • Computer Science

                              Instrumentation for the future                          15
Looming in the background: Prototype cardiology CdZnTe camera (IDEAS),
and an X-ray camera (INTERON goal) – medical instrumentation

                           Instrumentation for the future            16
  Advanced instrumentation – proposed strategy

Given the points discussed above the four sub-projects on page 1 have six main
 Join forces to develop challenging new silicon technology taking advantage
     of knowledge base and new infrastructure in Norway
 Focus on basic technology development the first three years, related to
     3D silicon sensors and new integration methods for sensors and
 Include a large number of students, in silicon detector system research
     using fully the link to “Forskerskole” students.
 Establish a new ILO and TT system where the focus is longer term and on
     technology transfer and knowledge, via projects and human resources
     spending time on CERN, in addition to the traditional CERN contract
     follow up.
 Strengthen the technical students program, and co-ordinate training of
     Norwegian students to provide an overall consistent environment for them
     where there is increased contact between the students, Norwegian CERN
     staff and researchers, and Norwegian Industries being involved in CERN
 Participate in CLIC accelerator research to have a minimal activity in
     accelerator research, and also to answers CERN request for voluntary
     contributions to CLIC.

                               Instrumentation for the future              17
Advanced instrumentation – R&D for future silicon systems

As mentioned the overall research objective is to produce and characterize 3D silicon sensors – and
to integrate transistors on the surface of these sensors.
The production and characterization of the 3D detector itself will be done in collaboration with the
MiNaLab in Oslo.

The key steps are:
 Formation of 3D structures
 Annealing and passivation of process induced defects in 3D structures
 Formation of p-n junctions in the 3D detector structures
 Characterisation of detector

The integrated electronics has to be added as a second processing round with an appropriate CMOS process.
 The main goals of the project are therefore (one iteration):

    Design and processing of 3D sensors                   In 2006
    Design of electronics and evaluation                  First half 2006
    Integrate electronics readout, transistor structures  During 2006/early 2007
    Evaluate in lab (3D sensors with test-electronics and During 2006, first half
    integrated devices)                                   2007
    Irradiation tests and evaluation of results           Towards end 2006 and
                                                          during 2007
    Evaluation of results                                 Mid 2007

                                               Instrumentation for the future                               18
Schematics of 3D- and ordinary detector structures

 Proposed by S.I. Parker, C.J. Kenney and J. Segal (NIM A 395 (1997) 328)
 Called 3-D because, in contrast to silicon planar technology, have three
dimensional (3-D) electrodes penetrating the silicon substrate
 Important researches are now under investigation by a collaboration (not in
RD50) within Brunel Univ., Hawaii Univ., Stanford Univ. and CERN

    depletion thickness depends on p+ and n+ electrode distance,
    not on the substrate thickness  (1) can operate at very low
    voltages or (2) can have a high doping for ultra-high radiation
                             Instrumentation for the future                  19
Charge collection in 3D sensors

   lower collection length than planar technology
   lower charge collection time than planar technology
   higher charge collection efficiency

                                   computer simulations of the charge
                                   collection dynamics for planar and
                                   3D detectors

                        Instrumentation for the future                  20
    Real 3D devices

        a 3D detector structure:                       a 3D structure grown at SINTEF:
15 m

                   200 m
                                                                    4 m

                                   Instrumentation for the future                        21
Semi-conductor systems
Trends to be noted – deep sub micron

                                                              8192 pixel cells/die
                                                              13 millions transistors/die
                                                              5 dies /detector
                                                              Differential preamp
                                                              Pixel size:50 x 450 m
                                                              All processing functions on cell
                                                              ENC = 100 e- rms @ Cdet=0.1pF
                                                              Threshold mismatch:150 e- rms
                                                              Filtering: 2 conjugate complex poles

             Beyond DSM processes (from CERN academic training) :
                  1.    Is there an end to CMOS
                  2.    Ultimate CMOS nanoscale technology
                  3.    Introduction to mesoscopic physics
                  4.    Quantum confinement, and electronic transport in nanowires
                  5.    Quantum dots and Single Electron Tunneling (SET) Transistor
                  6.    Nanoelectronic systems

                             Instrumentation for the future                                     22
CERN and semi-conductor systems
Trends to be noted – monolithic systems

 Motivation to develop a new pixel
     Radiation hardness improvement
      (leakage, reverse annealing issues)
     Decrease fabrication cost of pixel
     Develop a thin pixel detector
     Easy fabrication of large area                             Hybrid pixel
     Overcome readout limitation of
      Imaging architecture DEPFET MAPS
 Concepts of silicon pixel detectors in
  HEP(CCD excluded)
     1st Hybrid silicon pixel
     2nd DEPFET Monolithic on high
      resistivity substrate, bulk or SOI
     3rd MAPS Monolithic on CMOS wafer                                  DEPFET pixel
     4th concept not yet exploited
      deposition of detector material film
      on ASIC

                                Instrumentation for the future                          23
Semi-conductor systems
Next steps

   Start 3D sensor development – can start now – will join forces/collaborate with US
    groups through ATLAS R&D projects

   Evaluate electronics/readout components to integrate, methods to do it, and partner
    for carrying out the electronics development – this project is less developed than the

   Support and readout electronics, preparation for irradiations, etc can start right
    away too

   So basically this project can start immediately as soon as we have a funding base

                                  Instrumentation for the future                             24
  Advanced instrumentation – Technical Students
                                                    Name                 Start      Institutio   Support   CERN
 The Norwegian Technical student                                                         n
  program is currently very successful              Rune Andresen        16.01.05   NTNU         4         8
  and we wish to continue it. The
  ambitions are to keep it at the level of          Håvard Bjerke        01.01.05   NTNU         4         3
  10-12 students yearly. From an initial
  investment of support for 3-4 months
                                                    Andreas Braathen     16.01.05   NTNU         4         8

  the students are typically extended by            Martin      Bugge    01.03.05   NTNU         3         9
  CERN to 12 months, and even 14                         Jensen
  months in some cases. The monthly                 Magnus Lieng         16.01.05   NTNU         4         8
  cost is 3414 CHF, i.e 17750 NOK.
                                                    Thomas Johansen      16.04.05   HiB          3         9

 The two Norwegian CERN staff                      Øyvind Østlund       01.05.05   HiB          0         12
  members who have been doing most of
  the work have been Jens Vigen and                 Stian Erlend Førde   16.06.05   HiB          4         8

  Nils Høimyr, and they are willing to              Camilla Stenersen    01.05.05   HiB          3         5
  continue to promote the program. Jens
  Vigen will lead the sub-project.                  Christian Bråten     01.01.05   HiST         4         4

                                                    Thomas Rognmo        01.01.05   HiST         3         3
 Contract signed in 2005 on the right
                                                    Edel Roedsjøsæther   01.01.05   HiST         3         9

                                                    Theodor Torgersen    01.07.05   HiST         0         12

                                                    Martin Handzus       16.01.05   HiM          3         9

                                  Instrumentation for the future                                           25
   Advanced instrumentation – ILO
Based on the experiences from 2005 and a project study carried out by the Norwegian Research Council the following
job-description seems appropriate to covers these tasks:

Work as the Norwegian Industry Liaison Officer (ILO)
 Identify tenders at CERN that can be relevant for Norwegian companies and contact these companies
 Give support to the companies which want to receive an invitation to tender
 Participate in the negotiation between CERN and companies when this is needed
 Keep an active relationship with the technical department and the Norwegian staff at CERN to get Norwegian
   companies involved in the requirement specification process in forthcoming projects
 Attend to Norwegian technology and trade shows to promote CERN as a potential buyer of products and services

Work as the Norwegian Technology Transfer Officer (TTO)
 Identify technologies developed at CERN which can be interesting for Norwegian companies
 Carry through marked researches for Norway on these technologies and contact the relevant companies
 Attempt to get Norwegian companies, research institutions and university into relevant pre-competitive R&D
   collaborations at CERN
 Attend to Norwegian technology and trade shows to promote CERN technology

Work as an employment contact
 Function as a contact person for Norwegian CERN job applicants and for the Norwegian employment service
 Contribute in the recruitment and promotion work of CERN at Norwegian universities and university colleges with
   the purpose of increasing the number of students and scientist at CERN and increase the interest for in general

Establish, maintain and update a Norwegian webpage about CERN
 Collect information from all the scattering webpages concerning CERN and streamline the information
 Information should be focused towards job applicants, students, researchers and the industry.
 Establish a transparent PTT (Project Tracking WEB system used at CERN) follow up of all parts of this project.

This work will be carried out as a contract placed by this project. The contract will be annual, renewable up to 3 years

                                               Instrumentation for the future                                      26
    Advanced instrumentation – accelerator physics
   The specific goal of this sub-project is to support a Norwegian activity, specifically a Ph.D grant,
    with the goal of setting up a test beam line to prove the feasibility of the CLIC drive beam RF
    power generation.
   The compact linear collider study at CERN aims to develop the technology for an electron-
    positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass beam collision energy in the multi-TeV range. The
    concept is based on a two-beam scheme in which the RF power to accelerate the main beam is not
    produced by klystrons but rather by a low-energy, high-current drive beam. This drive beam is
    generated centrally and transported to the main linacs. Here, it is sent through a sequence of
    Power Extraction and Transfer Structures (PETS) in which the beam generates the RF power for
    the main beam. This process leads to a strong deceleration of the drive beam, which in
    conjunction with the high current and low energy could affect the beam stability and the power
    production efficiency.
   In order to test the feasibility of the drive-beam generation and RF power production, the CLIC
    Test Facility 3 (CTF3) is under construction at CERN. It will also be used to benchmark the drive
    beam stability in the decelerator and compare experimental results with theoretical simulations.
    To this end, a Test Beam Line (TBL), which consists of a number of PETS, will be installed and
    tested with beam to produce up to 5 TWatts of RF power.
   The student will play a key role in the design of the TBL. He or she will model the beam conditions
    for different options of the PETS and TBL lattice. This study should lead to a choice of a specific
    PETS and lattice that allows to verify the predictions of the beam stability simulations. The work
    therefore includes the specification of the instrumentation. It is planned to build and test a
    prototype TBL PETS during the duration of the PhD project. CTF3 will run each year and provides
    the opportunity of participation in the test program allowing the student to gain experience in
    machine operation and the actual performance of the different hardware components.
   The student needs to work in close collaboration with experts in different fields, in particular
    accelerator operation, accelerator physics, beam diagnostics and RF.

                                        Instrumentation for the future                            27

 This project will be run as four independent subprojects with the following
     Silicon part: UoO centrally: Ole Dorholt, MiNilab: Bengt Svensson, UoB: Kjetil
     Techncial students: Jens Vigen.
     ILO: Steinar Stapnes executes the contracts in close co-operation with the
      Norwegian Research Council (for detailed mandate, budget framework and
     CLIC: Steinar Stapnes supervises Erik Adli.
     For the International Research Team: Dieter Roehrich and Bernhard Skaali will
      act as main contacts at UoB and UoO, respectively.
 The people mentioned above, including the ILO and specific resource
  persons as needed connected to the project, will formally meet at least
  twice a year to review the status, plans and progress, and to co-ordinate
  the efforts. In this process we will draw in people involved in the CERN
  technology transfer program in order to support Norwegians activities and
  industries taking part. One way to do this is steer a few technical students
  at CERN into such project. All together aim of this project is create a
  common meeting place for University researchers, and industry partners
  involved in CERN related technologies and instrumentation projects.
 The project will be lead by Prof. Steinar Stapnes, UoO, and have as deputy
  leader Prof. Kjetil Ullaland, UiB.

                                 Instrumentation for the future                   28

Not a closed
project: Welcome
and expert other
people to participate

                        Instrumentation for the future   29

 The overall project is well based given experience, expertise and
 The timing is good for R&D with respect to a number of future
 We integrate all the technical CERN related projects to improve
  communication and collaboration – something new in the Norwegian
 The resources are currently too small to do enough concerning
  integration of electronics – need to work with partners abroad and
  plan this in more detail next
 Would benefit the project very significantly if we could find decent
  support for Norwegian “Forskerskole” grants

                           Instrumentation for the future          30

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