Docstoc

PowerPoint Presentation - 湖南女子职业大学

Document Sample
PowerPoint Presentation - 湖南女子职业大学 Powered By Docstoc
					Text A    Joke

         Riddles

Text B
Part A Listening & Speaking
Communicative Function
         Offering & Seeking Help
Task 1 Listen and Repeat
Directions: Listen to the sample dialogue. Repeat
what you have heard. Please pay special attention to
the underlined parts about how to offer and seek help.

Task 2 Listen and Respond
Directions: Listen to the dialogue twice and then
answer the following questions, first for main ideas
and then for more details.
Task 3 Listen and Simulate
 Directions: Listen to the sample dialogues and
 complete the missing words. Then, make similar
 dialogues according to the given situations.


  Sample 1

  Sample 2
Task 4 Create Your Own Dialogues
Directions: Practice with your
partner on how to offer and seek
help over the situations below or
think of a situation of your own. If
you need help, you may use the
expressions and sentence patterns
in the Useful Expressions chart.
Video Watching


At Yamamoto’s Fruit and
Vegetable Market
Basic Listening Techniques
           Question & Response (2)(问答题)
1. 捕捉关键词 (Key Words)
      在听力时,要学会抓住关键词来判断交际情景 ,在
PRETCO听力理解的问答题型中,疑问词常是关键词。首先要
注意问题的类型,是特殊疑问句还是一般疑问句。特殊疑问句
通常要直接回答提问的内容。例如:
【例1】(2007年 6 月B级)
Are you going to buy a house?
A. I’m sorry.   B. It’s my pleasure.   C. Yes, I am.   D. Yes, I do.
【解析】C是正确选项。“Are you going to buy a house?”是一
般疑问句,其回答是先用“yes”或“No”来表明说话者的态度。
肯定回答是“Yes, I am.”否定回答是“No, I’m not.” D没听清助
动词,误以为是问“Do you…”A和B应是对特殊疑问句的回答。
【例2】(2007年 12 月B级)
How often do you go on line?
     A. Yes, please.           B. For two months.
     C. Every day.             D. Yes, I will.
【解析】C符合题意。“How often do you go on line?” 是特殊疑
问句,应直接回答问题。B没听清疑问词,误以为在询问“For
how long have you been on line?” A 和D应是对一般疑问句的回
答。
        有些学生注意了问题的类型和问题的交际情景,如是发
生在商店、饭馆、旅馆、机场等,但忽略了具体的疑问词。例
如:
【例3】(2005年 6 月B级)
Excuse me. How much are these shoes?
A. They are too big.           B. They are the same size.
C. They are thirty dollars.    D. They are in fashion.
【解析】C最符合题意。四个选项都与句子的中心词shoes有关,
很明确问题的交际情景是在商店。询问的是价格how much,A
和B误以为在询问鞋子的尺寸;D误以为在谈论鞋子的式样。
2.注意英语习惯表达法 (Idiomatic Expressions)
【例4】(2006年 12 月B级)
I’m terribly sorry we are late.
     A. It’s possible.    B. That’s all right.
    C. No way.           D. My pleasure.
【解析】B是正确选项。本题考查如何应答他人的歉意或遗憾。
如果对方说 “I’m sorry/terribly sorry/very sorry that … ”, 人们
通常回答 “That’s all right./It doesn’t matter.” A, C和D都不合英
语表达习惯。
【例5】(2006年 12 月B级)
Thank you very much for your help.
     A. Yes, of course.     B. Is it true?
    C. You’re welcome.       D. No, thanks.
【解析】C是正确选项。本题考查如何应答他人的谢意。英语对
感 激 他 人 做 某 事 的 习 惯 回 答 有 : You’re welcome./It’s my
pleasure./Don’t mention it./Not at all. 等。A, B和D都不合英语
表达习惯。D和B可能是受了中文习惯表达法的影响。
【例6】(2002年 6 月B级)
Could I speak to Doctor Johnson?
    A. Yes, you do.           B. Yes, he is in.
   C. Hold the line please.   D. Go ahead, please.
【解析】C是正确答案,“请不要挂断电话”。本题考查如何接
电话。按英语的习惯表达法,如果接电话的人不是要找的人,
人们通常说对不起,然后简单解释原因 “Sorry, he … ”,或者
说 “Hold the line please.” 然后去叫人。如果接电话的人正是要
找的人,人们通常说“Speaking.”/“This is … speaking.” A, B和
D都不合地道的电话答复表达习惯。
Part B Reading & Writing
Text A

Warm-up Discussion
1.As you are learning a new language, what are
some difficulties that you are finding?


2.What are the values and pleasures of knowing
another language?
Background References
1. Tips for Reading
Try to read at the right level. Read something that you can
more or less understand. If you need to stop every three words
to look in a dictionary, it is not interesting for you and you will
soon be discouraged.
Make a note of new vocabulary. If there are four or five new
words on a page, write them in your vocabulary book. But you
don’t have to write them while you read. Instead, try to guess
their meaning as you read; mark them with a pen; then come
back when you have finished reading to check in a dictionary
and add them to your vocabulary book.
Try to read regularly. For example, read for a short time once
a day. Fifteen minutes every day is better than two hours
every Sunday. Fix a time to read and keep to it. For example,
you could read for fifteen minutes when you go to bed, or
when you get up, or at lunchtime.
Be organised. Have everything ready: something to read; a
marker to highlight difficult words; a dictionary; your
vocabulary book; a pen to write down the new words.
Read what interests YOU. Choose a magazine or book about a
subject that you like.
                                Source: www.EnglishClub.com
2. How to Hear English Everywhere
So how can you hear a lot of English when you’re not in an
English-speaking country or family? Fortunately, there are
many ways of hearing English in almost all countries of the
world.
Radio
You can receive English language radio in most countries. Two
of the best international networks are the BBC World Service
and Voice of America. Both of them have special programs for
learners of English. You can find information about times and
frequencies for your country on their web sites.
Television
TV is an excellent resource for hearing and listening to
English. The pictures help you understand what is being said.
If you don’t have access to English-language TV, you may be
able to watch TV on Internet.
Internet
It is now a lot easier to hear English by Internet. If you’re
reading this at your computer, you can probably listen to some
English-language radio news right now, without even moving!
To be able to listen to radio on the Internet, you’ll need to
have special software called a “player” installed in your
computer. Most sites work with two players — the
RealPlayer from RealNetworks and the Windows Media
Player from Microsoft. Don’t worry. Both these players are
free and you may already have them installed on your
computer.
Songs
Songs in English are everywhere, even on foreign language
radio and TV stations. Listen to them often. Buy some
cassettes or CDs, or make recordings, and try to write the
words for an entire song. But choose one that is not too
difficult. That means it should be reasonably slow, and with
real words sung clearly. Some pop songs are very unclear and
are difficult even for native English speakers to understand
fully!
Video
Video has one really great advantage. You can play it again
and again. You can use video to watch film cassettes that you
buy or borrow. And you can use video to record programmes
from television and then watch them several times to improve
your understanding.
Friends
Try to make friends with English-speaking people so that you
can practise your English through conversation. Of course,
this will practise your speaking as well as your listening. And
if you don’t have a lot of time to go out and meet people, at
least you can chat a little by telephone.
Finally, don’t worry if you don’t understand everything you
hear. Hearing comes first! Understanding comes next!
                                            By Josef Essberger
              Success Starts with Language
                                                Author Unknown

 ⑴ Knowing how to go about learning a language can make
all the difference to how successful you are. There is, however,
no single “correct” way of learning; everyone is different.
Trust your instincts but at the same time don’t close your
mind to new ideas. T

          成功始于语言
  人生成功与否可能取决于你是否知道如何着手学习语
言。然而,世上并不存在唯一“正确”的学习方式,各人
的学习方式不尽相同。相信你的本能,但同时不要排斥新
观念和新方法。
success
reaching of a desired goal 成功,胜利
He earned great success in Europe as a musician.
A public opinion study showed that ninety-seven percent of
the public considered the talks a success.
The study shows that early childhood education improves
the educational success of poor children.
【谚语】
Failure is the mother of success. 失败是成功之母。
Nothing succeeds like success. 一旦功成名就,则事事容易成
功。
【构词】
1) succeed v. achieve the desired goal 取得成功
The road safety campaign succeeded in cutting road deaths
down by 10 percent.
2) successful a. having success 成功的
His interview was very successful.

【全真题】 2003年6月B级
I’m afraid my attempt to make a cake wasn’t very
(success)_________ .
根据题意需用形容词successful。
go about
make a start at 着手做, 忙于
Let’s go about our business now or we will be behind our
schedule.
How do we go about filling out this new application?
I want him back, but I just don’t know how to go about it.
make a/the difference
have an important effect or influence on 有影响,起作用
It makes all the difference whether you go today or
tomorrow.

He says salt does not make all the difference in controlling
blood pressure when people eat the right foods.
make some difference to 对„„有些关系
make no difference to 对„„没有关系
make a great deal of difference 有很大差别
【全真题】 2006年12月A级

I’m afraid there is not much (differ)_________ in their
points of view.
根据题意需用名词difference。
trust
1) v. have confidence in 信任,信赖

How can I trust you if you keep lying to me?
A good friend is someone you can trust.
When Helen says she will work hard, you can trust her.

2) n. 信任,信赖
They talked about ways to reduce violence and build trust.
They want to increase public trust in the safety of
genetically-engineered crops.
【构词】 distrust v. , n. 不信任

The two nations have distrusted each other for years.
He seemed to look on us with distrust.
at the same time

at the same moment 同时
Don’t all speak at the same time. I can’t hear you clearly.
We are going on a vacation and will be visiting friends at
the same time.
⑵ Make time on a regular basis for your language learning.
Little and often is best — ten minutes every day tends to be
more effective than a marathon session once a week. But
don’t limit yourself to ten minutes! T


    腾出固定时间学习语
 言。少而频是最佳方式—
 —每天10分钟往往比一星
 期一次的马拉松式学习更
 有效。但别仅限于只学习
 10分钟!
regular
a. happening very often 经常的,定期的

 The shirt is on sale today for $40.00. The regular price is
 $60.00.
【词组】on a regular basis 经常地
He exercises on a regular basis.
You should change the battery in your smoke alarm on a
regular basis.
How much money do you plan to keep in your account on
a regular basis?
tend
v. is likely to happen 倾向,往往是
The report says that when women fall in love, they tend to
eat more.
Many cultures allow their plans to change as necessary,
unlike Americans who tend to keep their plans fixed.
effective
a. successful 有效的,有力的
Mr. Knipling developed effective ways to control insects
without using harmful chemicals.
They must make sure that every village and town can get
effective medicines to treat malaria.
 【全真题】 2005年1月B级
It is reported that his medicine is ______ against lung cancer.
A. economic B. easy C. expensive D. effective
答案是D。
limit … to
限定在„„范围
They limited their travel expenses to 1,000 dollars.
I was told to limit my speech to half an hour.
 ⑶ Be realistic and don’t expect miracles. Language
learning takes time and commitment — don’t expect to be
fluent overnight and don’t be hard on yourself when you
can’t remember everything you’ve learnt. T



  面对现实,别期待奇迹出现。学
习语言是需要时间与投入——不要期
望一夜之间就能说一口流利的语言。
当自己无法记住所学的东西时,也不
要太苛求自己。
overnight
 1) ad. suddenly or surprisingly quickly一晚上,突然
Be patient. These solutions cannot be found overnight!
These places seem to become wealthy and famous overnight.
2) ad. for or during the night 整夜,一晚上
They stayed overnight in New York after watching the play at
the theatre.
 3) a. 晚上的,夜里的
 For most children, overnight camp is the only time during the
 year when they are away from their parents.
be hard on oneself/somebody

criticize oneself/someone in an unfair way 过分严厉对待自
己/某人
Don’t be too hard on him. He’s new to the job.
The new boss seems to be hard on his employees. He
demands too much.
Many times people are hard on themselves. They want to
accomplish more and more.
 ⑷    Don’t worry too much about mistakes. It’s a normal
part of the learning process, and you’ll learn much more
quickly by having a go at speaking than by saying nothing
until you’re word perfect. Generally, people are only too
pleased to hear you trying to speak their language and make
allowances if you don’t get it exactly right. T

  别太担心犯错,犯错是学习过程中的正常部分。比起
闭口不语直至你已伶牙俐齿,尝试大胆开口说话能使你更快
学会语言。通常,人们很乐意听到你尝试说他们的语言,如
果你说得不很准确,他们也会宽宏大量。
normal
 a. usual, expected 正常的,正规的
 It is normal to have typhoons during our rainy season.
 The treatment will be considered successful if patients are
 able to take part in daily activities of normal living.

 【构词】
normally ad. 正常地,通常地
Normally, I would go fishing at weekend, but the weather is
bad.
process
n. a series of actions bringing about a result 过程,程序
The decision making process is slow.
The following guidelines may help you better manage the
process.
have a go at
try 尝试,努力

While you are still young, have a go at finishing your
schooling.
The company decided they will have a go at developing their
new product line.
My coach said that I should have a go at trying to compete
for the Olympics.
perfect
a. the best possible   完美的,理想的
This car is in perfect condition.
It is the perfect job for him.

【习语】

Practice makes perfect. 熟能生巧。
make allowance 体谅,原谅

Make allowance for the heavy traffic by leaving early.
Many teachers make allowance for students who work part
time.
I am hoping to find a company where the boss makes
allowance for the inexperience of new employees.
⑸ Improve your accent and your confidence by listening to
speakers on the audio and video clips over and over and
imitating them closely — out loud. The more you do this, the
more you’ll find yourself becoming comfortable with the
sounds of the language. T

   反复听音频视频剪辑,并极
力模仿其说话——大声地模仿—
—能改善你的语音并增强你的自
信。聆听模仿得越多,你越会发
觉自己对这种语言的发音感到顺
畅。
confidence
n. believe in one’s ability 信心
An earlier study found consumer confidence is on the rise.
They said the situation will not change until Israeli and
Palestinian leaders take steps to end the violence, re-build
confidence, and re-open negotiations.
【构词】
confident a.   确信的,有信心的
He was a confident young man.
He felt confident that he will get the job.
imitate
v. act the same way as others 模仿,仿造
He who imitates has no imagination.
It was so funny that the monkey was able to imitate our boss.

【构词】

imitation n.   模仿,效法

Imitation is the most sincere form of flattery.
the more …, the more …
越„„, 越 „„
The longer I live, the more I realize the influence of attitude
on life.
The more I thought about it, the more I like the project.
comfortable
a. enough to be happy 舒适的
Our new house is comfortable, but we hear planes go over
our house at all hours.
The thick heavy quilt was comfortable to sleep in during
those cold nights.
A guest room is expected to be appealing to guests; yet, it is
more important that the guests feel comfortable.
【构词】

1) comfort n. , v. 安慰,舒适

Nurses give comfort to sick people.
I tried to comfort her but it was no use.

2) uncomfortable a.    不舒服的,不安的,不合意的

Well, I’ll admit the room is uncomfortable. But the rent is
low.
⑹ Make a point of finding out about the people and the
culture of the country where the language is spoken. Search
the web for information but don’t expect to understand
everything since these are written for native speakers. T

  一定要花工夫去了解熟悉说
此语言国家的人们及其文化。
可以在网上搜索信息,但别期
望看懂所有的东西,因为那是
写给说母语的人们。
make a point of doing 特别注意, 重视

He made a point of reading a new book every month.
Whoever you are, and whatever you do, make a point of
relaxing and enjoying life.
search
1)【词组】search for             look for 搜索,寻找

Students often search the site for information.
They will search for ways to help solve this problem.

2) n. 搜索,寻找

After a long search, they found the lost car.
native
a. born in a certain place 本国的,出生地的
He speaks English so well that I thought he was a native
speaker.
Native American Indians believe that the land has a spirit of
its own.
 ⑺ Make a point of looking up and using at least one new
word every day. When you’re learning words and phrases,
use any method which works for you and don’t be afraid of
trying out different approaches: write them on post-it notes
and stick them around the house, record them on cassette,
write lists, and get friends to test you — they don’t
necessarily have to be able to speak the language. T

  每天确保至少查阅并使用一个新词。学习单词及词组
时,你可以使用任何对你有效的方法,大胆地尝试不同的
方法:写便条贴在室内;录入磁带;罗列清单;找朋友测
试自己——他们并不一定要会说这门语言。
at least

the smallest amount or degree     至少

This nursing position requires at least two years of nursing
experience.
We should get to the theater at least half an hour earlier
because there’ll be a big line.
I would like to live somewhere near the university or at least
on a bus line.
【反义词】

 at most    至多

A book contains at most a thousand pages. But a CD-ROM
can store at least 250,000 pages of text.
be afraid of
be worried about     担忧

Many parents tell their children not to be afraid of the
sound of thunder.
People would not be afraid of the future if they knew how
to prepare for it.
The child is afraid of dogs and cries every time one comes
close by.
try out
试验,考验
Sometimes the only way you’ll know if you like something is
to try (it) out.
Let’s go and try out the new menu at Kentucky Fried
Chicken.
Try out the dumplings, they’re good.
approach
1) n. way of handling a situation 方法,步骤
She took a friendly approach in talking with her neighbor
about the problem.
He presented a new approach to teaching language.
2) v. move toward向„„靠近
Time is approaching when we should start preparing for the
exams.
Here’s what you should do when a stray (迷路的) dog
approaches you.
necessarily
ad. as must be 必然地,必定地
The overtime scheduled for this weekend isn’t necessarily
approved yet.
We don’t necessarily need a new car, but we bought one
anyway.
Traveling in that country isn’t necessarily expensive. You can
find low-priced hotels.
【构词】

1) necessary a. 必须的, 必不可少的

Do you have the skill necessary for the job?

2) necessity n.   需要, 必需

I would like you to come with me, but it is not a necessity.
 ⑻ If your ambition is to speak the language, you need to
train yourself to listen without always seeing it written down.
You might find this hard at first but it pays off when you
come to speak it.
  ⑼ And last, but by no means least, never underestimate the
value and the pleasure of knowing another language. It
breaks down barriers between cultures, and knowing even a
little can make all the difference to the attitudes of the people
you meet in other countries. It can also develop your
communication skills in general, making you more confident
and helping you to let go of your inhibitions. It’s well worth
the effort! T
 如果你的目标是说这门语言,你需要通过听来锻炼自己,
不要边听边看文字稿。起先你也许会感到很难,但当你开口说
时就会有回报。
 最后,但并非是最不重要的,永远不要低估掌握一门语言
的价值与乐趣。它能破除各种文化之间的障碍。即便知之甚少
也会改变你在异国他乡遇到的人对你的态度。它还能全面发展
你的交流技能,使你更自信,帮助你驱除压抑感。学习语言物
有所值!
pay off
还清 (债务等)

If you have a debt, you must pay it off.
Pay it off before you receive penalties(处罚).
by no means

never      决不
He will by no means lend you his new car.
By no means should you expect to pass this course without
studying.
By no means did we suggest that we would sell our house so
cheaply.
break down

使倒下, 损坏

The wind was getting so strong, we were afraid it would
break down the house.
The firemen had to break down the door to rescue the people
inside the building.
This old car breaks down all the time. I need to get a new one.
 【全真题】 2001年12月B级
The manager’s health has _________ from overwork in
recent months.
    A. broken down       B. broken through
    C. broken out        D. broken up
选 项 A. broken down“ 损 坏 ” , 符 合 题 意 。 B. broken
through意为“突围”;C. broken out“爆发”;D. broken
up“打碎”。
【全真题】 2006年12月B级

If the machine should _______, call this number immediately.
A. break down     B. set out     C. put on     D. go up
选项A. broken down“损坏”,符合题意。set out意为“出
发, 开始”;put on“穿上,把„„放在上面”;go up“上升,
增长”。
attitude

n. feeling or ideas about 态度,看法

I was really puzzled by Harriet’s attitude yesterday.
I thought maybe you should change your attitude.
in general

通常,大体上

In general, he prefers dogs as pets.
In general, I really don’t care what promises they make.
In general, boys like to play computer games more than girls.
confident
a. with strong belief 自信的,确信的
She walked onto the stage in a confident way.
I’m confident of his ability as a manager.
Our team is confident of winning the game.
【构词】
 confidence n.      信心
He has a lot of confidence in his ability.
【全真题】 2005年 6月 B级
Although John was not experienced in business, he did it
with (confident) __________.
考查词性转换。介词with后面跟名词,因此confident要转换
为名词confidence。
【全真题】 2005年 6月 B级
He is (confidence)________ even though he has failed several
times.
考查词性转换。本句需要填入主语补语,因此名词
confidence要转换为形容词confident。
let go of

释放,放手

Many people cannot let go of the past.
It’s hard to let go of bad habits that you enjoy.
worth

1) a. good enough for 值得„„的

This month there will be a sight in the evening sky worth
seeing.
But you will find people who think these collections represent
memories that are worth sharing.
2) a. equal in value to   有某种价值
The destruction has caused more than thirty million dollars
worth of damage.
He has a five-year agreement with the Nike Company worth
forty-million dollars.
 【习语】
 A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. 一鸟在手,胜于
 二鸟在林。
effort
1) n. 努力
His effort in his scientific studies earned him a scholarship.
The agreement helps China in its effort to join the World
Trade Organization.
2)【词组】make an effort 做出努力
Humans should make an effort to live together with other life
forms on Earth.
If we all make an effort to keep the room clean it will help.
 ⑩ Enjoy your learning. Don’t let it become a chore and
never compare yourself with other people because everyone
learns differently. T
                                              (459 words)
    Article source:http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/languages/index.
shtml

享受你的学习过程。别让它成为一件琐事,决不要把自己与
别人比较,因为每个人都学得不尽相同。
compare

v. look for similarities or differences 比较

Scientists compared genetic structures to find genes that
might be linked to aging.
Before exams, Helen likes to study with a friend, compare
notes, quiz each other and predict exam questions.
 【词组】
 1) compare … with 比较,相比
Instant coffee can’t be compared with freshly ground coffee.
Do not compare yourself with others, because you are unique.
  2) compare … to 比作
Shakespeare compared the world to a stage.
He compared his lover to a rose in his poem.
Grammar Review

                 Verb Tenses (2)(时态)

1. 一般将来时 (The Future Indefinite Tense)
1) 表示将要发生的动作或情况,常由助动词 will 加动词原形
构成。 当主语为第一人称时,也可用助动词 shall 代替 will。
例如:
I’m sure you will do well on the test.
The weather will be hot in two months.
2) 一般将来时的其他用法还有:be going to + 动词原形和 be
to + 动词原形等。例如:
I’m going to paint my room this Sunday.
We are to start our exam if you are ready.
2. 一般过去将来时 (The Past Indefinite Future Tense)
1) 一般过去将来时表示从过去时间点看将要发生的动作或情
况,常由助动词would/should加动词原形构成, 常常用在宾
语从句中。例如:
He decided to tell his friends about it. They would help him to
solve the problem.
John said he would be at the airport to meet me.
2) 一般过去将来时也常用来表示过去习惯性的动作。例如:
Whenever they had time, the old couple would take a walk
together along the country road.
As a little boy, he would ask his mom for advice when he met
difficulties.
3. 过去进行时         (The Past Progressive Tense)
1) 表示过去某一时刻正在发生的动作。例如:
I was watching a TV talk show at 8:00 last night.
Last year at this time I was preparing for the college entrance
exam.
2) 表示两个动作同时发生或表示一个动作发生时另一个动作
正在进行。例如:
While I was studying in one room of our apartment, my
roommate was having a party in the other room.
I was walking down the street when it began to rain.
4. 过去完成时 (The Past Perfect Tense)
1) 表示过去某时刻前已完成的动作。例如:
Sam had already left by the time I got there.
The play had already started when we got to the theater.
2) 在很多情况下没有明显的时间状语,时间由上下文表示
出来, 这时过去完成时表示的动作发生在另一动作之前。
The thief simply walked in as someone had forgotten to lock
the door.
They showed us the new machine they had made.
5. 将来完成时 (The Future Perfect Tense)
将来完成时用来表示在将来某一时间以前已经完成或一直持
续的动作。经常与before +将来时间或by + 将来时间连用,
也可与 before 或 by the time 引导的现在时的从句连用。
例如:
I will have finished all the work by the time you are back this
evening.
I hope we will have solved the problem before you come
tomorrow.
PRETCO 全真题要点解析
过去完成时
1. 过去完成时通常与表示“过去的过去”时间状语连用。
【例1】(2002年12月B级)
He said, “I __________ a lot of new words by the end of last
year.”
A. had already learnt        B. would have already learnt
C. have already learnt       D. already learnt
【解析】例1 的答案是A。by the end of last year是明确的表示
“过去的过去” 时间状语。当句子中有介词by引导的时间状
语,谓语动词用完成时,by引导的时间状语中有明确表示过
去时间点的状语如last year,谓语动词要用过去完成时。

2. before和 ago的区别
【例2】(2003年12月A级)
Jim told me he (join) _____________ the army two years before.
【解析】例2 的答案是 had joined。“时间段 + before”,表
示从过去某时起若干时间以前,与过去完成时连用。“时间
段 + ago”,表示从说话时刻算起的若干时间以前,常用于一
般过去时。
3. 主从复合句前后时态一致
【例3】(2005年6月A级)
Though he _____________ well prepared before the job
interview, he failed to answer some important questions.
A. will be B. would be       C. has been    D. had been
【例4】(2002年12月B级)
On his way home he suddenly remembered that he (not lock)
________ the door of the office.
【解析】 例3 的答案是D。Had been。例4 的答案是had not
locked。例3主句的谓语动词failed是过去时,在其前发生的
状语从句中的动作应该用过去完成时。例4主句的谓语动词
remembered是过去时, 在其前发生的宾语从句中的动作应该
用过去完成时 “had not locked”。
4. 将来完成时通常与表示到将来某个时间点为止的时间状语
连用
【例5】(2006年12月B级)
By this time next year my family (live) _____________ in this
small town for 20 years.
【例6】(2006年12月A级)
By the end of next month, we (find) __________a good
solution to the technical problem.
【解析】例5 的正确答案是 will have lived。例6 的正确答
案是 will have found。by the time + 将来时间点和 by the
end of + 将来时间点引导的时间状语表示到将来某个时间
点为止已被完成的事情,因此谓语动词通常用将来完成时。
Section A
Directions: Fill in each blank with the proper form of the verb
given in brackets.
1. It (rain) _______________. You’d better take an umbrella
              is going to rain
with you.
                                    would not be
2. I was afraid that you (not be) _______________ able to find
the place.
3. It was a beautiful day yesterday when we went for a walk
                               was shining
in the park. The sun (shine) ______________ and a cool wind
        was blowing
(blow) ______________.
4. While she (read) ______________ the little boy a story, he
                     was reading
fell asleep.
5. It was raining hard. But by the time class was over, the rain
         had stopped
(stop) ______________.
                                          had already given
6. I was late. The teacher (already give) _______________ a
quiz when I got to class.
                                           will have finished
7. By the end of this month, we (finish) ___________________
this chapter.
                      will have lasted
8. The meeting (last) ______________ a full week by the time
it ends.
9. Hardly had we gathered in the square when it (begin)
  began
_________ to rain.
                                     was playing
10. When I found Linda, she (play) ______________ table
tennis with her friend Jean.
Text B
Background References
1. Slang
What is slang?
Slang is a subset of a language used by one particular group.
It consists of words and expressions which will not be found in
the dictionary, and can be distortions(失真)of existing
words or entirely invented terms. It is used in informal
situations. It is not appropriate in formal situations.
Who uses slang?
Slang is used by all kinds of
groups of people who share
situations or interests. The group
which uses these words is always
in the minority, and often use
slang to set themselves apart or
make it difficult for ordinary
people to understand them.
When      a     particular     new
expressions is known and used
by a large majority of the
population, it is no longer slang,
but part of the regular language
or usage.
Why does slang exist?
Slang fulfills at least two different functions, depending on
whose point of view you take. For the groups that use slang, it
is a way to set themselves apart, to express themselves in a
distinct and individual way, and sometimes to keep secrets
from being known by others. But for the society in general and
the development of the language, slang performs another role.
For the language, slang is like a linguistic(语言学上的)
laboratory, where new words and forms can be tested out,
applied to a variety of situations, and then either abandoned
or incorporated(合成一体) into the regular language.
        What happens to slang words and expressions?
After a period of between a few months and many years, slang
is used by limited groups with something in common. The far
majority never reach the popularity and level of use to become
regular words, and are soon forgotten and not used. A few
reach widespread usage and can be found in each new edition
of the popular dictionaries. Many of the words we use everyday
and can find in the dictionary began life as slang. Even
Shakespeare used slang.
                    Source: http://www. bu.edu/mfeldman/Slang/
2. Idioms
The English language is full of idioms
(over 15,000). Native speakers of
English use idioms all the time, often
without realising that they are doing so.
This means that communication with
native speakers of English can be quite
a confusing experience.
 What is an idiom?
 An idiom is a group of words which, when
 used together, has a different meaning
 from the one which the individual words
 have. For example:
 — How do you know about John’s illness?
— Oh, I heard it on the grapevine. Of course, the second
speaker does not mean he heard the news about John by
putting his ear to a grapevine! He is conveying the idea of
information spreading around a widespread network,
visually similar to a grapevine. We use idioms to express
something that other words do not express as clearly or as
cleverly. We often use an image or symbol to describe
something as clearly as possible and thus make our point as
effectively as possible. For example, “in a nutshell” suggests
the idea of having all the information contained within very
few words. Idioms tend to be informal and are best used in
spoken rather than written English.
How can people learn idioms?

It is best to learn idioms as you do vocabulary. In other words,
select and actively learn idioms which will be useful to you.
Write the idiom in a relevant and practical sentence so that
you will be able to remember its meaning easily. If you can,
record the idioms in your file and on a card along with other
words and idioms which have similar meanings.

                                  Source: www.linguarama.com
3. Website for idioms

If you are interested in idiom, here is a good site where you
can     find     the     meaning      of    many      idioms:
http://www.idiomsite.com
4. Difference in Vocabulary between American English and
British English
American English        British English   Chinese Meaning
   apartment                 flat                公寓
bathroom/restroom            toilet             洗手间
     can                      tin                罐头
American English       British English   Chinese Meaning
   candy                   sweets             糖果
    chips                   crisps           洋芋片
    cookie                  biscuit           饼干
     corn                   maize             玉米
collect call reverse      charge call      对方付费电话
   elevator                  lift              电梯
   eraser                  rubber             橡皮擦
  first floor            ground floor          一楼
American English   British English    Chinese Meaning
   flashlight          torch               手电筒
  French fries          chips               薯条
  garbage can          dustbin             垃圾桶
     gas            gasoline petrol          汽油
     jelly               jam                 果酱
     mad                angry                生气
    math                maths                数学
   napkin              serviette             餐巾
American English    British English   Chinese Meaning
  potato chips          crisp               薯片
 purse/pocketbook      handbag              手提包
    soccer             football             足球
  roundtrip             return              来回票
   sidewalk           pavement              人行道
    stove               cooker               炉子
   sweater              jumper               毛衣
    truck                lorry               卡车
American English   British English    Chinese Meaning
     trunk             boot           汽车后面的行李
箱
    vacation          holiday                假期
    catalog          catalogue               目录
  civilization      civilisation              文明
     color            colour                  颜色
    favorite         favourite               最爱
     honor            honour                  荣誉
  organization     organisation               组织
    practice         practise                 练习
                        Source: http://www. wwenglish.com
                   Informal English
                                            Author Unknown
⑴ Ever go jogging in a business suit? What about going to a
job interview in pajamas? Dressing appropriately is a lot like
using a foreign language in the right way. It all depends on
the situation. People in America use formal English for
making speeches and writing business letters. But they prefer
informal language when they talk to friends. Americans are
fairly relaxed, both in styles of dress and in language. So to
understand their culture, it pays to know something about
informal language — in other words, English in blue jeans
and a T-shirt. T
       美语中的非正式用语
  你曾经身穿西装慢跑吗?或者穿睡衣去参加工作
应聘吗?得体的穿着就像正确使用外语,都得视情况
而定。美国人使用正式的英语作演讲和写商务信件。
但是和朋友谈话时,他们则喜欢使用非正式用语。在穿
着和语言风格上,美国人都是相当轻松自在的。因此
要了解美国文化,就得了解他们的非正式用语,换言
之,身穿牛仔裤和T恤的英语。
go jogging
run at a slow speed 慢跑

It’s too hot to go jogging this afternoon.
He said he feels better after he goes jogging.
I only like to go jogging in the morning when it’s cool, and
not in the afternoon.
what about …
„„怎么样

What about your days in college? Did you enjoy school, or
not?
What about Tom? He had signed up for the meeting, but he
never did attend.
a lot
much 大量的,许多的

He had a lot to say at today’s meeting.
You must save a lot of money to buy a house nowadays.
in the right way
用正确的方式

You must follow procedures in the right way, or you’ll make
mistakes.
Parents try to teach their children how to live in the right
way.
depend on
trust, need for support   依靠,依赖

You can depend on him.
Do not depend on other people to look after your money.
formal
a. made or done officially or publicly 正式的,形式上的
This is a formal dinner party. Be sure to wear your best
clothes.
I received a formal invitation to the wedding party.
【构词】
informal    a. 不正式的,不拘礼节的
Sports games between universities and colleges, formal or
informal, often happen.
At an informal party, you are allowed to wear jeans and a T-
shirt.
prefer
v. like more 更喜欢,宁愿
It is a matter of what you prefer, to go to a college or to look
for a job.
I don’t understand this modern music. I prefer Beethoven.
They serve very good Chinese food here in this restaurant.
Which style do you prefer?
【词组】prefer … to 更喜欢,宁愿
If you can arrange it, I’d prefer tomorrow to the day after
tomorrow.
If I have a choice, I would prefer to go to Tibet rather than
Beijing.
For testing, I prefer writing a paper to taking an exam.

 【构词】
 1) preference n. 偏爱,优先选择
 Here are photos of the apartments available that fit your
 preference.
 2) preferable a. 更可取的,更好的
 Do you think a master’s degree is preferable to a bachelor’s
 degree in the job market?
in other words
put differently   换言之

We can not afford it. In other words, we are broke.
In other words, he told us bluntly, we are not invited.
 ⑵ English, like every language, is always changing. New
slang terms are created all the time. Often they’re here
today, gone tomorrow. For instance, if you wanted to call
something exciting in the 1960s, you would say it was
groovy or far out. Today you might describe it as cool or
even bad. Each small group of American society — from
teenagers to thieves to cultural groups — has its own slang.
People who aren’t a part of the “in-group” can’t
understand the meaning, even though the words are
“English”. So it’s not easy for outsiders to use slang
correctly. T
像每一种语言一样, 英语也是一直在
变。新的俚语不断出现,往往今天还
在使用,明天就被淘汰。例如,在20
世纪60年代你若要描述一件令人激动
事,你会说 “groovy” 很帅的,或
“far out” 走在时代前沿的。而今天
你 会 形 容 为 “ cool” 很 酷 , 甚 至
“bad” 好赖喔。美国社会中每一个
附属小团体 —— 从青少年、小偷,
到少数民族,都有自己的俚语。尽管
他们用的词是英语,但是不属于那个
团体的人却无法明白其意思。因此局
外人要正确使用俚语实在不容易。
all the time
always    一直,始终

During winter time, it seems to rain all the time.
All the time she would come home complaining how bad
her job is.
for instance
for example 例如

Several of his friends came to see him, Bill, Mike and John,
for instance.
For instance, why would you prefer Beijing over Shanghai?
⑶ Like many languages, American English has numerous
idioms that paint word pictures. Idioms, for example, are
combined words that would not normally make sense if
taken literally. These colorful expressions come from
everyday life and add interest to language. And here are
some examples: When Americans want to make a good first
impression on someone, they try to put their “best foot
forward” (best impression). That way, they won’t get off on
the “wrong foot” (a bad start) in their relationship.
Learning about idioms in a language and culture can be difficult,
but don’t get “cold feet” (be afraid). Just be careful when using
these expressions. Otherwise, you might put your “foot in your
mouth” (embarrass yourself by saying something foolish). T
就像许多语言一样,美语中也有许多能描绘出文字图像的
成语。比如, 成语是由固定的词组成, 按照字面意思通常
是很难明白其含义。这些丰富多彩的表达方式来自日常生
活,为语言增添了许多趣味。现举几个例子:当美国人想
要给他人留下良好的第一印象时,他们会先 “伸出最好
的那只脚”(表现出最好的一面);这样,他们就不会在
人际关系上 “下错脚”(一开始就搞砸)了。学习某种
语言中的成语和文化可能会相当难,但是也不要 “让脚
遭凉了”(临阵畏缩),只要在使用成语时小心一点就行
了。不然的话你可能会“把脚放进嘴巴里去了”(说错
话)。
make sense
sound reasonable 讲得通,有意义

Quite a lot of us can’t make sense of what she said in class
today.
My boss doesn’t talk much, but what he says makes sense.
It doesn’t make sense to buy that expensive hat when you
have so many hats at home.
come from
来自

The students in our class came from different parts of the
country.
If you come from the northern part of the city, just follow
the map to get to our university.
I cannot understand that guy. I do not know where he is
coming from.
add
1) v. increase the size or amount of 增加,添加
Beat the butter and sugar together and slowly add the eggs.
Please add one more example to illustrate the usage of the word.

2) v. say more 补充说
However, they add that trading is never completely without risk.
The weather experts add that thirteen of the past sixteen spring
seasons in the United States have been warmer than normal.
make a good first impression on
留下良好的第一印象
Make a good first impression on your teacher by arriving on
time.
The new teacher made a good first impression on the students.
Most everyone agrees that you only have one chance to make
a good first impression on someone.
put one’s best foot forward
伸出最好的那只脚(表现出最好的一面)

During the Olympics, the Chinese plan to put their best foot
forward.
While meeting his future wife’s family, he wanted to put his
best foot forward.
Many people always want to put their best foot forward
during an interview.
get off on the wrong foot
下错脚 (不顺利的开端)
If we got off on the wrong foot, I apologize.
Let’s not get off on the wrong foot by criticizing each other.
In business, you don’t want to get off on the wrong foot with a
complaining customer.
get cold feet
临阵畏缩,害怕起来
If you get cold feet before the interview, you’ll do poorly.
After she thought about it, she started getting cold feet in
marrying him.
otherwise
1)   ad.     if not, or else   否则,不然
I’m not feeling very well today. Otherwise I would go to the
party with you.
You must pay your bill on time; otherwise, you will be in
trouble.
2) ad.     in every other way 除此以外
The house is far from the school, but otherwise it is nice.
Their plane was late, but otherwise they had a wonderful trip.
④ Americans enjoy making things easy on themselves. Even
their pronunciation is relaxed. Sounds that are not stressed are
shortened or combined with other sounds. As a result, “What do
you want to do?” becomes “Whaddaya wanna do?” And “I
don’t know” sounds like “I dunno.” School teachers probably
cringe at this kind of pronunciation. But the fact is, that’s how
Americans often talk in real-life situations. T
美国人喜欢把事情简单化,甚至连他们的发音也很轻松自
在,不是重音的发音通常会被缩短或和其它的音相连。结
果,“What do you want to do?” 变成了“Whaddaya wanna
do?”。而“I don’t know.” 听起来就像“I dunno.”学校的老
师们对这样的发音恐怕是不敢恭维。然而事实是,美国人
在现实生活中通常就是这么说话的。
shorten
v. make short     缩短,(使)变短
On the first day of summer, the days begin to shorten.
His speech lasted for hours; he should have shortened it.
We stood in line for hours waiting for the line to shorten.

【全真题】2006年12月B级
We have to find new ways to (short) __________ the process of
production.
根据题意需用动词shorten。
combine…with
join together   (使) 联合,(使) 结合

Bad hotel service combined with terrible weather ruined our
trip.
If we combine our resources with theirs, we’ll meet the
deadline.
When you combine smoke with fog, you get smog.
as a result
therefore     结果
As a result of his invention of dynamite, Alfred Nobel became
a very wealthy man.
Many people realize they weigh too much. As a result, they
are changing the way they eat in order to lose weight.
It is not unusual for her to sit up studying until 1 or 2 in the
morning. As a result, she has a hard time getting up for work.
⑤ Americans enjoy being informal. They like making
themselves comfortable, whether it’s wearing blue jeans and
a T-shirt or using informal language. T
                                                  (416 words)
                   Article source: http://www.ywhc.net/article

     美国人喜欢非正式的感觉。不论是穿牛仔裤、
     T恤衫还是使用非正式语言,他们都喜欢让自
     己轻松自在。
Video Watching

                   Eye Idioms
  Watch and Respond
  Directions: Watch the video and complete the idiom,
  then match the idiom with its meaning.

  Directions: Watch the video again and fill in the
  missing words.
Practical Writing


         Letter of Thanks (感谢信)

感谢信用于感谢他人的馈赠、款待、帮助等。其形式和内
容根据你所受惠的程度以及你与收信人之间关系的密切程
度而定。简便随和的感谢信用一句话就可以。例如:
【例1】

John,
    Thank you for your kindness during my visit.
Helen

较正式的感谢信常用格式如下:

【例2】
Dear Mrs. Dallas:
   I was so grateful to you and Mr. Dallas for your kindness
and attention to me during my stay in. Your dinner and
hospitality made us feel welcome in this. It seemed as if I were
your own son. It was unforgettable.
   You told me recently that you would come to. I am looking
forward to seeing you both as soon as possible.
Sincerely,
Li Ming
【例3】
                                                 January 29, 2010
Dear President of :
    I am writing this letter to thank you for your warm hospitality
during our visit to your university. I would also like to thank you
for your discussion with me, which I have found very interesting
and useful.
    During our visit, my delegation and I were deeply touched by
the enthusiasm from your teachers and students. I believe our
future discussions will lead to possible ways to expand our
exchange programs.
    I am looking forward to your early visit to when I will be able
to pay back some of the hospitality I received during my stay in
your beautiful university. With kind personal regards.
Faithfully yours,
Wang Ling
Vice President of University
                   Useful Expressions
1. Thank you so much for your valuable present.
2. Many thanks for your kind and warm letter.
3. Never can I forget your hospitality during our visit to New
York.
4. Please accept my sincere appreciation for your kind
inquiry about my health.
5. I’m forever grateful for all your past kindness.
6. Thank you very much/most sincerely/indeed/from the
bottom of my heart for …
7. I hope something will bring you to New York soon so that I
can reciprocate (报答) your kindness.
8. You must give me the chance to return your kindness
when you visit here.
9. If I can in any way return your kindness, it will give me
much pleasure to do so.
10. I shall be most happy to return the favor, should the
opportunity arise.
Directions: Write a letter to thank a friend or a business
partner for:
1. his or her hospitality during your visit.
2. a present he or she gave you on your birthday.
3. his concern for your health.
 Practical Reading
Directions: Read the following article on how to write an
appreciation letter. After reading decide whether the following
statements in the chart are right (R) or wrong (W) according to the
article.
             How to Write an Appreciation Letter
    People like others who show kindness. Employees work
harder when they feel appreciated(赏识). With a sincere,
well-written appreciation letter you can improve relations and
open doors to future opportunities.
    ● Write your appreciation letter within a few days of
whatever happened to inspire(使生灵感)your gratitude.
    ●Handwrite a personal appreciation letter on a sheet of
paper.
    ●Use customized letter head for business correspondence.
    ●Address your appreciation letter to a specific person, if
possible, not just to the company or to the organization in
general.
    ●Specifically state what you appreciate.
    ●Be sincere — most people can sense when you are not
being honest.
    ●Write clearly and concisely; this is no time to be
longwinded (说话慢而长的) or flowery.
    ●Be brief.
     ●Avoid thanking the person beforehand — for example:
“Thanking you in advance for your help in this matter.” To do
so is presumptuous (专横的) and suggests you do not feel the
need to write a follow-up letter.
     ●Close with warm regards or best wishes for continued
success.
                               Source: WriteExpress Corporation
 Task Read and Check

                       Statement                       R or W
  Write your appreciation letter within a few days of
1                                                         R
  whatever happened.
  Use customized letter head for business and personal
2                                                         W
  correspondence.
3 Address your appreciation letter to a specific person.   R
  Address your appreciation letter to the company or to
4                                                          W
  the organization in general.
5 Be specific about what you appreciate.                   R
  If possible, write a long and flowery appreciation
6                                                          W
  letter to show your sincereness.
7 Thank the person beforehand if possible.                 W
Part C         Fun Time
Joke
On a crowded bus, one man
noticed that another man had
his eyes closed.
“What’s the matter? Are you
sick?” he asked.
“No, I’m okay. It’s just that I
hate to see old ladies standing
beside me.”
 Riddles
1. What is the longest word in
the English language?
2. What has a neck, but no head?

   1. smiles. Because there is a mile between the
   first and the last letter.

   2. A bottle. Neck 1) 颈 2) 颈状物
Sing Along

 Thank You

             Dido

             W
Work book
Listening Comprehension
Section A
Directions: Listen to the following questions and complete
the responses.
Section B
 Directions: Listen to the following short conversations and
choose the best answer.
Section C

 Directions: Listen to the following short passage and then
fill in the blanks with the missing words or phrases.


Directions: Listen to the passage again and then answer the
questions in no more than three words.
Text Related Tasks


Reading Comprehension


Practical Reading and Writing
PRETCO-Simulated Test
Part I       Listening Comprehension(15 minutes)

 Section A
 Directions: Listen to the questions and choose the best answer.
 The questions will be spoken twice.
 Section B
 Directions: Listen to the dialogues and choose the best
 answer. Both the dialogues and questions will be spoken
 twice.
Section C


Directions: Listen to the short passage and fill in the blanks
with the missing words or phrases. The passage will be read
three times.
Part II Vocabulary & Structure (15 minutes)

Part III Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

Part IV Translation — English into Chinese
(25 minutes)
Part V Writing(25 minutes)

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:6/28/2011
language:English
pages:158