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Abcess Root (Polemonium reptans): It is used almost exclusively in the treatment of
pulmonary diseases. Even in moderate doses, it is a powerful diaphoretic and will cause
profuse sweating in the patient. The herb is also an astringent and antiseptic and will soothe
an inflamed bronchial mucosa and promote the rapid healing of an ulcerated throat. The
most valuable aspect is its use as an expectorant. It will quickly remove mucous from the
lungs and bronchi, and as the herb also produces a slight vasodilative action, it makes
breathing easier and reduces coughing.

Acacia Bark (Acacia decurrens) Strongly astringent, babul is used to contract and toughen
membranes throughout the body in much the same way as witch hazel or oak bark does.
Babul may be made into a variety of preparations: for instance, a lotion for bleeding gums, a
gargle for sore throats, a wash for eczema, an eyewash for conjunctivitis and other eye
problems, and a douche for excessive vaginal discharge. The herb is taken internally to treat
diarrhea, mainly in the form of a decoction. In Ayurvedic medicine, babul is considered a
remedy              that           is             helpful              for             treating
premature ejaculation. .

Acacia, Catsclaw (Acacia greggii) The pod is powdered and applied moistened as a
poultice for muscle pain, bruises or sprains. It also is used for the same purposes as
Mesquite. Gather the pods when still green and dry the leaves and branches over a paper as
the leaves often fall off while hanging. The longer distal roots, chopped into small segments
while moist. The gum is gathered the same way as mesquite gum and the flowers are dried.
The green leaves, stems, and pods are powdered for tea (standard infusion) or for topical
application; the roots are best used as a cold standard infusion, warmed for drinking and
           Pods are used for conjunctivitis in the same manner as mesquite pods and the
gum, although catsclaw is harder to harvest it is used in the same way as mesquite gum. The
powdered pods and leaves make an excellent infused tea (2-4 ounces of the standard
infusion every three hours) for diarrhea and dysentery, as well as a strongly astringent
hemostatic and antimicrobial wash. The straight powder will stop superficial bleeding and can
also be dusted into moist, chafed body folds and dusted on infants for diaper rash. The
flowers and leaves as a simple tea are good anti-inflammatory for the stomach and
esophagus in nausea, vomiting, and hangovers. It is distinctly sedative. The root is thick and
mucilaginous as a tea and is good for sore throat and mouth inflammations as well as dry
raspy coughing.

Acacia, Sweet (Acacia farnesiana ) Colombians bathe in the bark decoction as a treatment
for typhoid. The gummy roots have been chewed as a treatment for sore throat. A decoction
of the gum from the trunk has been used in the treatment of diarrhea. An infusion of the
flowers has been used as a stomachic. It is also used in the treatment of dyspepsia and
neuroses. The flowers are added to ointment, which is rubbed on the forehead to treat
headaches. The powdered dried leaves have been applied externally as a treatment for
wounds. The green pods have been decocted and used in the treatment of dysentery and
inflammations of the skin and raucous membranes. An infusion of the pod has been used in
the treatment of sore throats, diarrhea, leucorrhoea, conjunctivitis, and uterorrhagia.

Acacia, Umbrella Thorn (Acacia tortilis) Leaves, bark, seeds, and a red gum are used in
many local medicines. Two pharmacologically active compounds for treating asthma have
been isolated from the bark. The stem of the tree is also used to treat diarrhea. The gum is
used like that of gum arabics in folk remedies. The dried, powdered bark is used as a
disinfectant in healing wounds; in Senegal it serves as an anthelmintic. In Somalia the stem is
used to treat asthma. Seeds are taken to treat diarrhea. In French Guinea, the bark is used as
a vermifuge and dusted onto skin ailments.
Aconite (Aconitum napellus): Aconite is poisonous in all but the smallest doses and is
rarely prescribed for internal use. More commonly , it is applied to unbroken skin to relieve
pain from bruises or neurological conditions. In Ayurvedic medicine, aconite is used to treat
neuralgia, asthma, and heart weakness. Aconite has been added to salves because of its
painkilling action on neuralgia, lumbago, and rheumatism. The tincture has been given in
one-drop doses for heart failure, high fevers, pneumonia, pleurisy and tonsillitis. Use only
under                      a                   professional‘s                     supervision.

Adam and Eve Root (Aplectrum hyemale): It has been used in folk remedies but is too rare
to harvest. Admire it and leave it alone. The corm has been used to treat bronchial illness.

Adder’s Tongue (Erythronium americanum): Generally used as a poultice for ulcers and
skin troubles. An infusion of the leaves is taken for the relief of skin problems and for
enlarged glands. Various oil infusions and ointments made from the leaf and spike have been
used to treat wounds, and poultices of the fresh leaves have been applied to soothe and heal
bruises. The bulbs of the plant have been recorded as emetic and as a substitute for
Colchicium in the treatment of gout. In the fresh state it has been reported to be a remedy for
scurvy. It is often used to treat scrofulous skin arising from tubercular infection. Can mix the
expressed juice with cider for internal use. Must be used fresh.

Adder's Tongue, English (Ophioglossum vulgatum(: the fresh leaves make a most
effective and comforting poultice for ulcers and tumors. The expressed juice of the leaves is
drunk as a treatment for internal bleeding and bruising.

Adenophora, (Adenophora verticillata): This is a commonly used medicinal plant in China.
It is used in the treatment of women's diseases, chronic bronchitis with dry cough, pulmonary
infections with cough and thick yellow sputum, dry throat. The root of the Adenophora
physcically resembles that of ginseng and has some of its virtues as well. Adenophora root is
considered a restorative of body vigor and, to some extent, a sexual reparative. It is also
employed by the Chinese as a tonic and for the treatment of pulmonary ailments.

Adonis (Adonis vernalis): The leaves and tops contain a number of biologically active
compounds, including cardioactive glycosides that benefit the heart. It dilates the coronary
vessels. They are similar to those found in foxglove but gentler. These substances increase
the heart‘s efficiency by increasing its output while slowing its rate. Unlike foxglove, however,
false hellebore‘s effect on the heart is slightly sedative, and it is generally prescribed for
patients with hearts that are beating too fast or irregularly. It is also used for mitral stenosis
and edema due to heart failure. False hellebore is recommended as a treatment for certain
cases of low blood pressure. False hellebore is strongly diuretic and can be used to counter
water retention, particularly if this condition can be attributed to poor circulatory function. It is
an ingredient of several commercial German preparations for heart complaints and low blood
pressure. It is also found in Bechterew‘s Mixture, a Russian formulation for heart conditions
of nervous origin.

Adrue (Cyperus articulatus) The aromatic properties of the drug cause a feeling of warmth
to be diffused throughout the whole system and it acts as a sedative in dyspeptic
disorders. Adrue is used in traditional African and Asian medicine to control nausea, vomiting,
stomach pain, and gas. It is also used for headaches and epilepsy; for blood in the urine, and
for some female disorders such as menstrual irregularity, breast pain, and vaginal discharge.

Aerva (Aerva lanata): The roots are diuretic and demulcent. They are credited with tonic
properties and given to pregnant women. The roots and flowers are used to cure headaches.
The flowers are used for the removal of kidney stones and in gonorrhea. Roots used in
headache and also as emulcent. Decoction of the root is given as tonic to pregnant
women. Also used for the treatment of gonorrhea and kidney disorders, cutaneous affections
and sugar in urine. This herb is described as "one of the best known remedies for bladder and
kidney stones." Ayurvedic practitioners recommend a decoction of the plant to be taken
internally for a few days to dissolves the stone and to clear the urinary path. As a tea it is
used as a flushing-out treatment using more than 2 liters per day, sometimes combined with a
medication for inflammations of the genitourinary tract (cystitis, urethritis), urinary gravel and
nonobstructive stones, to prevent relapsing urinary infections, gravel and stones and for
inflammations of the upper respiratory tract (bronchitis, phyarngitis, etc; coughs due to
thickened bronchial section, and gastrointestinal tract. Externally it is used as a poultice for
minor skin inflammations. It is useful to treat boils cephalgia, Cough, and lithiasis. For
fever: Crush the leaves in cold water and bathe.

Agar (Gelidium amansii ) Like most seaweeds and their derivatives, agar is nutritious and
contains large amounts of mucilage. Its chief medicinal use is as a bulk laxative. In the
intestines, agar absorbs water and swells, stimulating bowel activity and the subsequent
elimination of feces. It is principally used in scientific cultures and commerce

Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria): Agrimony has long been used since Saxon times to heal
wounds because it staunches bleeding and encourages clot formation. In the 15 century, it
was the prime ingredient of ―arquebusade water,‖ a battlefield remedy for gunshot wounds. In
France, the eau de arquebusade is still applied for sprains and bruises. A cooling astringent
and mildly bitter, the aerial parts can be used for ―hot‖ conditions like diarrhea, bronchitis and
a gentle tonic for the digestion as a whole. Combined with other herbs such as corn silk, it is a
valuable remedy for cystitis and urinary incontinence, and has also been used for kidney
stones, sore throats, rheumatism, and arthritis. It can be used as a suppository combining the
extract with cocoa butter and inserting into the rectum for hemorrhoids, tapeworms and
diarrhea. The healing power is attributed to the herb‘s high silica content. Agrimony is
indicated for chronic cholecystopathies with gastric sub-acidity. Real success will be
achieved only if the plant is used consistently for some time. European herbalists suggest a
few cups of agrimony tea daily to heal peptic ulcers and colitis, to gently control diarrhea, to
tone the digestive tract lining, and to improve food assimilation. One glycoside it contains has
been shown to reduce excessive bile production in the gallbladder.

Ai Ye (Artemisia argyi): The leaves have been found to have an antibacterial action,
effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus typhi, B. dysenteriae, E. coli, B. subtilis,
Pseudomonas etc. A volatile oil extracted from the plant is particularly effective in the
treatment of bronchitis and asthma - the oil is sprayed into the throat and takes effect within
one minute. The leaves are used to treat excessive bleeding during menstruation, bleeding
during pregnancy or after labor, bleeding of the nose, vomiting of blood, blood in stools,
diarrhea. They are also used in the treatment of sterility, dysmenorrhea, coughs, asthma and
in moxibustion. The leaf stalks used to treat chronic dysentery, eye disease. Seeds are used
to treat sweating at night, excessive gas in the system, tuberculosis, indigestion

Air Potato (Dioscorea bulbifera): In folk medicine it has been used to ease the pain on
sprained ankles, and certain other uses that is in combination with other plants. In healing the
sprained angle, the fruit of the vine, which is brownish in color is cut in have and the insides
are scraped out and put into a cloth or something that will easily let the fluid out of it we
massaging the sprained ankle with it. Always massage down toward the ground and
outwardly of the foot. TCM: Indications: rid of toxin, relieves swelling, reduces phlegm, cools
blood, stops bleeding.

Ajowan (Carum ajowan): In the Middle East, ajowan water is often used for diarrhoea and
wind and in India the seeds are a home remedy for indigestion and asthma. For reasons of
both flavor and practicality its natural affinity is with starchy foods and legumes. Because of
its thymol content, it is a strong germicide, anti-spasmodic, fungicide, and anthelmintic.
Regular use of Ajwain leaves seems to prevent kidney stone formation. It also has
aphrodisiac properties and the Ananga Ranga prescribes it for increasing the enjoyment of a
husband in the flower of his life
        Ajwain is very useful in alleviating spasmodic pains of the stomach and intestines, in
adults as well as children. Any colicky pain due to flatulence (gas), indigestion and infections
in the intestines can easily be relieved by taking one teaspoonful of ajwain along with 2-3
pinches of common salt in warm water. Use half the dose in children. Mixed with buttermilk it
is a good anti-acidic agent
       For chronic bronchitis and asthma, mix ajwain with jaggery (gur). Heat the mixture to
make a paste and take 2 teaspoonsful twice a day. However, diabetics should not take this
preparation because of the sugar content. It helps to bring out the mucus easily. It also helps
in chronic cold.
     In an acute attack of common cold or migraine headache, put ajwain powder in a thin
cloth and smell this frequently. It gives tremendous symptomatic relief according to some
Ayurvedic experts.
      If people who consume excessive alcohol develop discomfort in the stomach, taking
ajwain twice a day, will be very useful. It will also reduce the craving and desire for alcohol.

Akebia (Akebia trifoliata): A pungent, bitter herb that controls bacterial and fungal
infections and stimulates the circulatory and urinary systems and female organs. It is a potent
diuretic due to the high content of potassium salts. Internally for urinary tract infections,
rheumatoid arthritis, absence of menstruation, and insufficient lactation. Taken internally, it
controls gram-positive bacterial and fungal infections.

Alder Buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula (Frangula alnus)): Alder buckthorn is a laxative and a
cathartic, and is most commonly taken as a treatment for chronic constipation. Once dried
and stored, it is significantly milder than senna or common buckthorn and may be safely used
over the long term to treat constipation and to encourage the return of regular bowel
movements. Alder buckthorn is a particularly beneficial remedy if the muscles of the colon are
weak and if there is poor bile flow. However, the plant should not be used to treat
constipation resulting from excessive tension in the colon wall. The berries also act as a
milder purgative. Fresh bark, powdered and mixed with vinegar, is used to topically treat
fungal diseases of the skin and acne.

Alexanders (Smyrnium olusatrum): The plant was used in ancient days to relieve dropsy.
The seeds were often soaked in wine to create a tonic for scurvy when other sources of
vitamin C were not available and also to promote menstruation. The root is a diuretic. The
crushed leaves or their juice was a soothing and healing treatment for cuts and minor
abrasions. It was also used for asthma. These uses are now obsolete

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa ) The whole herb is used medicinally to help stop bleeding to
benefit the kidneys and as a general tonic. It is a good laxative and a natural diuretic. It is a
folk remedy for arthritis and is reputed to be an excellent appetite stimulant. Alfalfa
possesses extremely high nutritional value. An excellent source of vitamins A and D, alfalfa
leaf is used in the infants‘ cereal pablum. Also rich in vitamin K, alfalfa leaf has been used in
medicine to encourage blood clotting. Alfalfa also lowers blood cholesterol. Other
recommended uses for alfalfa are for asthma and hayfever. It has also been found to retard
the development of streptozotocin diabetes in mice. It is a traditional European and Russian
tea for wasting diseases and is used in some German clinics as a dietary aid in Celiac
Disease, together with traditional treatment and diet. A safe and appropriate tea for
pregnancy, along with raspberry leaves; also good to drink when sulfa or antibiotic drugs are

Alkali Heath (Frankenia salina): Used both internally and by injection or spray, for catarrhal
diseases and other discharges from the mucous membranes, diarrhea, vaginal leucorrhea,
gonorrhea, and gleet, and the different types of catarrh. The tea is a reliable astringent to
reduce inflammation of the alimentary tract, from mouth sores to the intestines, relieving
diarrhea and soothing piles and hemorrhoids. It is an effective douche for vaginal

Alkali Heath (Sphaeralcea coccinea): This plant‘s Navajo name came from the sticky
mixture that occurs when the roots and leaves are pounded and soaked in water. The
resulting sticky infusion is put on sores to stop bleeding and is used as a lotion for skin
disease. The dried powdered plant is used as dusting powder. It is one of the life medicines
and is used as a tonic to improve the appetite, and to cure colds, coughs and flu. The roots
were used to stop bleeding, and they were also chewed to reduce hunger when food was
scarce. The leaves are slimy and mucilaginous when crushed, and they were chewed or
mashed and used as poultices or plasters on inflamed skin, sores, wounds and sore or
blistered feet. Leaves were also used in lotions to relieve skin diseases, or they were dried,
ground and dusted on sores. Fresh leaves and flowers were chewed to relieve hoarse or
sore throats and upset stomachs. Whole plants were used to make a sweet-tasting tea that
made distasteful medicines more palatable. It was also said to reduce swellings, improve
appetite, relieve upset stomachs, and strengthen voices. The Dakota heyoka chewed the
plants to a paste and rubbed it on their skin as protection from scalding. The tea is very
effective for a raspy, dry, sore throat; and, like its relative Malva, it will soothe the urinary tract
when urination is painful. The tea is used for bathing infants to prevent or retard thrush, and
to soothe chafing. It is soothing to almost any skin rash in adults and children. Strong
decoction, 4-6 fluid ounces up to 4 times a day for internal use, as needed externally.

Allspice (Pimenta dioica): Allspice was included in the British Codex from 1721-1914. It
was principally an aromatic stimulant and carminative, good for flatulence, indigestion and
hysterical paroxyms. Aqua pimentae was an ingredient in stomach and purgative medicines,
and also played a part in the treatment of rheumatism and neuralgia. The powdered berries
have been used for dyspepsia and also to disguise the taste of disagreeable medicines.

Almond (Prunus communis):                Bitter almonds when distilled yield an essential oil
containing about 5% of prussic acid. Almonds are usually processed to extract almond oil for
cosmetic purposes. It is helpful for alleviating itchy skin conditions, such as eczema. The oil
is popular with masseuses and aromatherapists as it is light, easily absorbed, and makes an
excellent carrier oil for essential oils. Little is used for medicinal purposes, but almond flour is
sometimes used as sustaining food for diabetics. Almond milk is still drunk as a kidney tonic
and to ease heartburn. The oil derived from a bitter variety of almond has sedative properties
and is sometimes used in cough remedies. As well as being a tasty addition to the diet,
almonds are also beneficial to the overall health of the body, being used especially in the
treatment of kidney stones, gallstones and constipation. Externally, the oil is applied to dry
skins and is also often used as a carrier oil in aromatherapy. The seed is demulcent, emollient,
laxative, nutritive and pectoral. When used medicinally, the fixed oil from the seed is normally
employed. The seed contains 'laetrile', a substance that has also been called vitamin B17.
This has been claimed to have a positive effect in the treatment of cancer, but there does not
at present seem to be much evidence to support this. The pure substance is almost harmless,
but on hydrolysis it yields hydrocyanic acid, a very rapidly acting poison - it should thus be
treated with caution. In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates
respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being. The leaves are used in the
treatment of diabetes. The plant contains the antitumor compound taxifolin.

Almond, Indian (Terminalia catappa) Extracts from the leaves and bark of the plant have
proven anticarcinogenic, anti-HIV and hepatoprotective properties (liver regenerating effects),
including anti-diabetic effects. The leaves and bark have been used traditionally in the South
Pacific, for fungal related conditions. It may be potentially beneficial for overall immune
support, liver detoxification and antioxidant support. The leaves contain agents for chemo-
prevention of cancer and probably have anticarciogenic potential. They also have a
anticlastogenic effect (a process which causes breaks in chromosomes) due to their
antioxidant properties. The kernel of Indian almond has shown aphrodisiac activity; it can
probably be used in treatment of some forms of sexual inadequacies (premature ejaculation).
Ethanol extract of the leaves shown potential in the treatment of sickle cell disorders. It
appears as an anti-sickling agent for those that suffer from sickle cell. It has been shown to
be of benefit for microbial balancing.; as an aid to lowering high blood pressure and stress; as
a treatment for some forms of liver disorders; as an aid in reducing the effect of several heart
conditions . In Asia it has long been known that the leaves of contain a toxic, secondary
metabolite,              which              has              antibacterial            properties.
       From other countries: the leaves, bark and fruits are used for dysentery in Southeast
Asia; dressing for rheumatic joints in Indonesia and India; the fruits and bark are a remedy for
coughs in Samoa) and asthma in Mexico; the fruits treat leprosy and headaches in India and
motion sickness in Mexico; the leaves eliminate intestinal parasites in the Philippines and
treat eye problems, rheumatism and wounds in Samoa while they‘re used to stop bleeding
during teeth extraction in Mexico; fallen leaves are used to treat liver diseases in Taiwan, and
young leaves for colic in South America; the juice of the leaves is used for scabies, skin
diseases and leprosy in India and Pakistan; the bark is a remedy for throat and mouth
problems, stomach upsets and diarrhea in Samoa and for fever and dysentery in Brazil.

Aloe (Aloe barbadensis) Commercial aloe juice is made from the inner leaf, which is
blended and strained, with a preservative added. To make aloe ―gel‖, the juice is thickened
with seaweed to mimic the leaf‘s original thick consistency. The crystalline part called aloin, a
brownish gel found alongside the leaf blade, is powdered and used in some commercial
laxatives. It is so strong that it must be combined with other herbs to prevent intestinal griping.
The commercial juice and gel remove this part of the leaf, so both the juice and the gel are
soothing to digestive tract irritations, such as peptic ulcers and colitis. In one study, the
stomach lesions of twelve peptic ulcer patients were all completely healed. A popular
ingredient in commercial drug store products, aloe is commonly used to soothe burns,
including sunburn and radiation burns. Aloe is also applied to wounds, eczema, ringworm
and poison oak and poison ivy rashes. There is evidence that it effectively regenerated
injured nerves. One study reports aloe to be successful in healing leg ulcerations and severe
acne and even finds that it promotes hair growth. When 56 frostbit patients were treated with
a product containing 70% aloe, only 7% developed infections, compared to 98 frostbitten
patients not treated with aloe, 33 of whom eventually needed amputation. It has also proved
helpful in treating periodontosis. One study injected aloe extracts into the diseased areas of
128 patients with varying degrees of gum disease. Within a week, the development of
symptoms stopped, pain decreased and marked improvement followed in all patients.
Aloe is wide used in folk medicine, both as a liniment and as a drink, to reduce the swelling
and pain of arthritis and rheumatism. Diabetics in the Arabian peninsula eat aloe to control
their blood sugar levels. A clinical study did find that when volunteers who were not insulin
dependent took half a teaspoon daily for 4-14 weeks, their fasting blood sugar levels were
reduced by half, with no change in body weight.
Another preparation from aloe, carrisyn, is a polysaccharide. It has been claimed that
carrisyn directly kills various types of viruses, including herpes and measles, and possibly HIV.
However, research is still in the preliminary stages.

Aloe, Cape (Aloe ferox) The bitter yellow juice found just below the skin has been harvested
for centuries for its laxative properties, the treatment of arthritis, for its healing properties and
for use in cosmetics. The hard, black, resinous product is known as Cape aloes or aloe lump
and is used mainly for its laxative properties but is also taken for arthritis. Cape Aloe contains
aloin, principally used as a purgative, particularly for sedentary or phlegmatic types. Aloe
tincture or extract is very gentle and slow-acting although too frequent use is said to induce
piles. Taken in large doses, it can have a drastic effect, even causing abortion, so it should
never be taken by pregnant women. It is also made into an ointment for mild skin rashes and
a decoction of its juice acts as a mosquito repellent. Cape aloe is sometimes blended with
other bitter ingredients to flavor alcoholic drinks.

 Aloewood (Aquilaria malaccensis) : Internally for digestive and bronchial complaints,
fevers, and rheumatism (bark, wood). Because of its astringent nature, the powdered wood
of the aloe tree provide an effective skin tonic and is recommended by Ayurvedic physicians
as an application for restoring pigment in leucoderma. Powdered aloeswood provides an
antiseptic so gentle it is used for ear and eye infections as well as on open wounds.

Alstonia (Alstonia scolaris, A constricta) There are 43 species of alstonia trees. The bark
of the tree is used medicinally in the Pacific Rim and India. Constricta, which is native to
Australia, is used extensively as an Aboriginal folk remedy for fever, chronic diarrhea,
dysentery and rheumatism. Scholaris, found growing mostly in India, Pakistan and the
Philippines, is used for the same purposes, but may also be employed as a treatment for
malaria, and is thought to have aphrodisiac qualities. In all cases the bark is powdered and
made into a tea. The inner bark of Alstonia constricta is said to possess marked antiperiodic
properties, while the outer bark is stated to have been efficacious in curing certain forms of
rheumatism. Further trials are needed, however, before it can be ranked as a substitute for
quinine, or other of the cinchona alkaloids, yet it has proved as efficient in intermittents.
Scientific investigation has failed to show why it is of such service in malaria, but herbalists
consider it superior to quinine and of great use in convalescence . It lowers fever, relaxes
spasms, stimulates lactation and expels intestinal worms. Used for chronic diarrhea,
dysentery and in intermittent fever; also as an anthelmintic. It is also much used by

Alumroot (Heuchera americana) The root of this plant may contain as much as 20% of its
weight in tannins, acid compounds that serve to shrink swollen, moist tissues. Alumroot‘s
strong astringency is likely to have earned the plant its common name. Its overall effect is
less than irritating than Cranesbill, Oak Bark or Canaigre. Dried and powdered alumroot was
used by Northwest Indians as a general digestive tonic, and herbalists still use it to stop minor
bleeding and reduce inflammation. It was listed in the US pharmacopoeia for similar
purposes until 1882. An infusion of the root was used to treat diarrhea, and a leaf poultice for
skin abrasions. A teaspoon of the chopped root, boiled in water for 20 minutes, can be used
for gastroenteritis, particularly with symptoms of diarrhea and dry, bilious vomiting. The tea
makes an excellent gargle for sore throats, especially when combined with one-fourth
teaspoon of golden seal root; a half cup drunk an hour before every meal will stimulate the
healing of regenerating ulcers of the esophagus and stomach, but of little use for duodenal
ulcers. The root is an old folk remedy for dysentery, a cup drunk every two hours for at least
a day. Since most astringents are precipitated before reaching the colon, obstinate dysentery
should be treated by an enema; a teaspoon of the chopped root boiled for twenty minutes in a
pint of water,. The same quantity can be used as a douche for vaginitis or mild cervicitis. The
finely ground root is a good first aid for treating cuts and abrasions, promoting almost instant
clotting; if combined with equal parts golden seal root and Echinacea angustifolia root, the
mixture makes an excellent antiseptic powder.

Amadou (Fomes fomentarius): Amadou has been used for arresting hemorrhages, being
applied with pressure to the affected part; and for treating ingrown toenails, by inserting
between the nail and flesh. Way back in history someone discovered that the upper sterile
part of the basidiocarps could be used both as a blood-stopping agent and as a leather
substitute. If the sterile part of the basidiocarp is removed and shredded properly it will make
a brown cottony like material. If this material is placed over bleeding wounds the blood is
immediately soaked up and rapidly coagulates in contact with oxygen over a large surface,
and the bleeding successively terminates.

Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) Medicinally, amaranth gained favor in the 17
century when the Doctrine of Signature prevailed. To adherents of this doctrine, the bright
crimson of the flowers signified blood—a clear indication that the plant would stop any kind of
bleeding. The herb does in fact possess astringent properties and herbalists have
recommended an amaranth infusion for diarrhea and as a mouthwash for ulcers, to soothe
inflammation of the pharynx and to heal canker sores. Amaranth has also been employed to
reduce blood loss and to treat diarrhea and dysentery.. A decoction is used to check
excessive menstrual flow, excessive vaginal discharge.. Also used for sponging sores and
ulcers. It is a nutritional supplement and nutritive tonic.

Ambrette Seed (Abelmoschus moschatus (syn Hibiscus abelmoschus) ): Internally as a
digestive and breath-freshener (seeds). Externally for cramps, poor circulation, and aching
joints, and in aromatherapy for anxiety and depression (oil)

Ammoniacum (Dorema ammoniacum) Ammoniacum has been used in Western herbal
medicine for thousands of years. Chiefly used for respiratory troubles. Excellent for the relief
of catarrh, asthma or bronchitis. Also highly regarded as an energy stimulant. Externally
used for swollen joints and indolent tumors. Still listed in the British Pharmacopoeia as an
antispasmodic and an expectorant that stimulates the coughing up of thick mucus.
Occasionally used to induce sweating or menstruation.

An Lu (Artemisia keiskeana): The seeds have a reputation for correcting sexual impotence
in men and amenorrhea in women. An infusion of the seeds also is used for post-partum pain

Anemone, Alpine (Anemone alpina): The whole, dried flowering plant was formerly used in
the treatment of toothache and rheumatic pain, but due to its toxicity is has fallen into disuse
Anemone, Chinese (Pulsatilla chinensis)... In Traditional Chinese Medicine, pulsatilla is
used as an anti-inflammatory and is considered specific for amoebic and bacterial dysentery
with bloody stool, abdominal pain and tenesmus and is often used with phellodendron bark,
coptis rhizome and ash bark, known as Pulsatilla Decoction (Baitouweng Tang). It is most
commonly taken as a decoction to counter infection within the gastrointestinal tract. The root
is also used to treat malarial fever. In addition, this herb can be used with flavescent sophora
to prepare a lotion for the treatment of trichomoniasis vaginalis. The root contains the lactone
protoanemonin which has an irritant and antibacterial action. Protoanemonin is destroyed
when the root is dried. The fresh herb is a cardiac and nervous sedative, producing a
hypnotic state with a diminution of the senses followed by a paralyzing action. A constituent
similar to digitalis can be extracted from the whole herb with the roots removed. This is

Angelica (Angelica archangelica): An old remedy for flatulence directed that the stalks e
slowly chewed until the condition was relieved which may have been good advice, as it has
been found that one of angelica‘s constituents is pectin, an enzyme which acts on digesting
food. This herb is a useful expectorant for coughs, bronchitis and pleurisy, especially when
they are accompanied by fever, colds or influenza. The leaf can be used as a compress in
inflammations of the chest. Its content of carminative essential oil explains its use in easing
intestinal colic and flatulence. As a digestive agent it stimulates appetite and may be used in
anorexia nervosa. It has been shown to help ease rheumatic inflammations. In cystitis it acts
as a urinary antiseptic. Angelica has proved itself to relieve muscle spasms of asthma and
it‘s been used to regulate a woman‘s menstrual cycle, especially after extended use of birth
control pills or an intrauterine device.     Combine with coltsfoot and white horehound for
bronchial problems and with chamomile for indigestion, flatulence and loss of appetite. The
leaves are used in the bath to stimulate the skin. Angelica salve is helpful in cases of chronic
rhinitis and sinusitis because it dissolves mucus and warms. Apply it twice daily to the area of
the paranasal sinuses, forehead, root of the nose, nose, cheeks and angle of the jaw.
Angelica contains at least 14 anti-arrhythmic compounds, one of which is said to be as active
as verapamil (Calan, Isoptin), a popular calcium channel blocker. Because of its aromatic
bitter properties, this plant is much used in bitters and liqueurs such as Benedictine and
Chartreuse. The volatile oil has carminative properties, counteracting flatulence, so that the
action of this plant comes close to that of wormwood in this respect, a plant mainly used to
treat gallbladder disease.

Angelica, Japanese (Angelica keiskei): In traditional medicine, the plant is seen to be a
strengthening tonic. Similar to western angelica, Ashitaba has a bitter taste and contains
bitter principles and is used to increase appetite, improve digestion, speed elimination of
waste and generally act as a digestive tonic. When you break the stems and roots of
Ashitaba, a sticky yellow juice gushes out. In fact, this is one of the unusual characteristics of
the plant. The juice is used topically to treat a host of skin conditions. The juice of the plant is
applied to boils, cysts, and pustules to speed healing. It is used to clear athletes foot fungal
infections. It is applied to repel insects and to speed healing and prevent infection in insect
bites. Indeed, applying the juice of the plant is said to cure most skin conditions and to
prevent infection in wounds. It is used both in chronic and acute skin complaints.

Angelica, Wild (Angelica sylvestris): As angelica increases the output or urine and relieves
flatulence, as well as inducing sweating, its applications are: a tea prepared from leaves,
seeds and roots, is recommended for indigestion or stomach pains. ½ glass of tea 3 times a
day improves digestion. Powdered root is used in cases of catarrh of the respiratory tract, as
well as in cases of severe indigestion. It may be used as a gargle and as an additive to bath-
water. Water-extract mixed with white vinegar, is used for rubbing down in cases of gout and
rheumatics, as well as backache. A decoction is sometimes used in the treatment of bronchial
catarrh, coughs and dyspepsia. It is used as a substitute for Angelica archangelica, but is
less rich in active principles and so is much less used medicinally than that species.

Angostura (Galipea officinalis) A strong bitter with tonic properties, angostura stimulates
the stomach and digestive tract as a whole. It is antispasmodic and is reported to act on the
spinal nerves, helping in paralytic conditions. Angostura is typically given for weak digestion,
and is considered valuable as a remedy for diarrhea and dysentery. In South America, it is
sometimes used as a substitute for cinchona to control fevers.

Anise (Pimpenella anisum): Anise is a carminative and an expectorant. It is also a good
source of iron. One tablespoon of anise seeds sprinkled on cookies, bread or cake provides
16% of the RDA for a woman and 24% of the RDA for a man. A 1990 study tested the effect
of certain beverage extracts on the absorption of iron. The results showed that anise was the
most effective of the extracts tested in promoting iron absorption. The authors recommended
offering this as a preventive agent to iron deficiency anemia. To make a carminative tea that
may relieve intestinal gas, crush 1 teaspoon of anise seeds per cup of boiling water. Steep for
10-20 minutes and strain. Drink up to 3 cups a day. In a tincture, take ½ to 1 teaspoon up to
three times a day. Diluted anise infusions may be given cautiously to infants to treat colic. For
older children and people over 65, begin with low-strength preparations and increase strength
if necessary. Some people simply chew the anise seeds. Early English herbalist Gerard
suggested anise for hiccups. It has also been prescribed as a milk promoter for nursing
mothers and as a treatment for water retention, headache, asthma, bronchitis, insomnia,
nausea, lice, infant colic, cholera and even cancer. America‘s 19 century Eclectic physicians
recommended anise primarily as a stomach soother for nausea, gas, and infant colic.
Modern uses: Science has supported anise‘s traditional use as a treatment for coughs,
bronchitis, and asthma. According to several studies the herb contains chemicals (creosol
and alpha-pinene) that loosen bronchial secretions and make them easier to cough up.
Another chemical (anethole) acts as a digestive aid. Anise also contains chemicals
(dianethole and photoanethole) similar to the female sex hormone estrogen. Scientists
suggest their presence probably accounts for the herb‘s traditional use as a milk promoter
and may help relieve menopausal discomfort. One report shows that anise spurs the
regeneration of liver cells in laboratory rats, suggesting a possible value in treating hepatitis
and cirrhosis. While there are no studies that support using anise to treat liver disease in
humans, anise looks promising in this area.

Anise Hyssop: The root of anise hyssop was an ingredient in North American Chippewa
Indian lung formulas, and the Cree sometimes carried the flowers in their medicine bundles.
The Cheyenne employed an infusion of the leaves for colds, chest pains from coughing and a
weak heart. The leaves in a steambath were used to induce sweating; and powdered leaves
on the body for high fevers.

Annatto: In the Caribbean, annatto leaves and roots are used to make an astringent infusion
that is taken to treat fever, epilepsy, and dysentery. The infusion is also taken as an
aphrodisiac. The leaves alone make an infusion that is used as a gargle. The seed pulp
reduces blistering when applied immediately to burns. Taken internally, the seed pulp acts as
an antidote for poisoning. Used as a coloring agent for medical preparations such as
ointments and plasters.

Antelope Horn (Asclepias viridis) Used to relieve fever, it was drunk as a decoction of the
root in cold water. To relieve palpitation, the powdered root is rubbed over the heart area. A
poultice of the powdered root is used to treat neck and rib pains and a tea made from it is
used to alleviate asthma and shortness of breath.

Apache Plume (Fallugia paradoxa ) The roots dug in the fall are boiled in water for coughs,
drunk morning and evening, and the tea used as a hair rinse after shampooing. Reports are
that the root and bark tea are a good growth stimulant and tonic for the hair. The powdered
root (with tobacco) or the flowers (with Horehound and flour) are used for painful joints or soft
tissue swellings, applied locally as a poultice or fomentation. The spring twigs bay be boiled
and drunk for indigestion and ―spring‖ fevers.

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca ) : Apricot fruit is nutritious, cleansing, and mildly laxative. They
are a valuable addition to the diet working gently to improve overall health. A decoction of the
astringent bark soothes inflamed and irritated skin. Although the kernels contain highly toxic
prussic acid, they are prescribed in small amounts in the Chinese tradition as a treatment for
coughs, asthma, and wheezing, and for excessive mucus and constipation. An extract from
the kernels, laetrile, has been used in Western medicine as a highly controversial treatment
for cancer. The kernels also yield a fixed oil, similar to almond oil that is often used in the
formulation of cosmetics. Chinese trials show that apricot kernel paste helps combat vaginal
infection. The flowers are tonic, promoting fecundity in women. The inner bark and/or the root
are used for treating poisoning caused by eating bitter almond and apricot seeds (which
contain hydrogen cyanide). Another report says that a decoction of the outer bark is used to
neutralize the effects of hydrogen cyanide. The decoction is also used to soothe inflamed and
irritated skin conditions. It is used in the treatment of asthma, coughs, acute or chronic
bronchitis and constipation. The seed contains 'laetrile', a substance that has also been called
vitamin B17. This has been claimed to have a positive effect in the treatment of cancer, but
there does not at present seem to be much evidence to support this.

Aquatic Apple Moss (Philonotis fontana): Used by Gasuite Indians of Utah to alleviate pain
of burns; crushed into paste and applied as poultice; covering for bruises and wounds or as
padding under splints in setting broken bones. Indians in the Himalayas use burned ash of
mosses mixed with fat and honey and prepared in ointment for cuts, burns, and wounds. This
mixture provides both healing and soothing

Arbutus, Trailing (Epigaea repens ) Regarded as one of the most effective palliatives for
urinary disorders. Especially recommended for the aged. It is of special value when the urine
contains blood or pus, and when there is irritation. It is one of the most effective remedies for
cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis, bladder stones and particularly acute catarrhal cystitis. A good
remedy in cases where there is an excess of uric acid. In extreme and nauseating backache,
result of the crystalline constituents of the urine not being properly dissolved and washed out
of the tubules. We think of it when the urine is heavy and dark, brick dust sediment, irritation
and congestion of the kidneys, renal sand and gravel in bladder. In hemorrhage or cystitis,
result of irritation of the solids in the bladder it is an excellent remedy. Must be drunk freely,
preferably well diluted in hot water. Infusion is a good form to take it in; but the tincture may
be given in 5 to 10 drop doses in 1/2 a cup of hot water. May also be taken in cold water
when desirable. Use in the same way as uva-ursi and buchu.

Areca Nut (Areca catechu ) Mainly used in veterinary medicine to expel tapeworms.
Internally, used in traditional Chinese medicine, to destroy intestinal parasites, and for
dysentery and malaria (seeds); as a laxative in constipation with flatulence and bloating, and
a diuretic in edema rind). The nut is chewed as a mild intoxicant. The dried areca nut is
powdered and used as a dentifrice, forming the basis of many tooth powders in India and
China. Ayurveda recommends burning the areca nut to charcoal and mixing this with a
quarter part of powdered cinnamon to produce an excellent tooth powder. It also suggests a
decoction made from the areca root as a cure for sore lips. It moves chi downward and
removes food stagnation, helps digestion. It has mild toxic properties and should be taken
with a purgative such as castor oil.

Arnica (Arnica montana): Used externally, Arnica promotes the healing of wounds
contracted through blows, punctures, falls and cuts. It is anti-inflammatory and antiseptic,
relieves pain from injuries and promotes tissue regeneration. One can clean wounds,
abscesses, boils and ulcers with diluted Arnica tinctures and dress them with a compress
soaked in the same solution. For contusions, sprains, bruises, bursitis, arthritis and
inflammation of the lymphatic vessels, apply packs of diluted Arnica tincture. To relieve
headaches and visual disturbances due to concussion, apply such compresses around the
head and neck. To prepare packs and washes, dilute one tablespoon of Arnica tincture in a
cup of boiled water (or where sensitivity is suspected, double the water). The tincture made
from the flowers is only used externally, whereas the tincture made from the roots is used
internally for cases of hematoma and inflammation of the veins. Arnica also improves the
circulation. Arnica flowers are sometimes adulterated with other composite flowers, especially
Calendula officinalis, Inula brittanica, Kragapogon pratensis, and Scorzonera humilis. For
tender feet a foot-bath of hot water containing 1/2 oz. of the tincture has brought great relief.
Arnica has been shown to be an immuno-stimulant, as both the sesquiterpene lactone
helenalin and the polysaccharide fraction stimulate phagocytosis. Sesquiterpene lactones are
known to have anti-inflammatory activity and their biological effects appear to be mediated
through immunological processes. As helenalin is one of the most active, this might help
account for the use of Arnica for pain and inflammation.
Arnica has been used for heart problems (as it contains a cardiotonic substance), to improve
circulation, to reduce cholesterol and to stimulate the central nervous system. But the internal
use should only be done under supervision. It displays astonishing stimulating, decongesting
and relaxing properties. The heart is both stimulated in deficient conditions and relieved in
excess            ones,       depending           on         the        case          presented.
For sprains and strains, arnica promotes healing and has an antibacterial action; causes
reabsorption of internal bleeding in bruises and sprains. Apply as a cream to the affected
area, or soak a pad in diluted tincture and use as a compress. Take homeopathic Arnica 6x
every 1-2 hours. Do not use on broken skin; use only homeopathic Arnica internally.
Clearing heat in the sense of both deficiency heat and fire toxin is one of its strengths. In Yin
deficiency syndromes with either low fever or hot flushes, it matches up well with the likes of
hawthorn, rehmannia, mistletoe and valerian.

Arrach (Chenopodium olidum) An infusion of the dried leaves is used in the treatment of
hysteria and nervous troubles connected with women's ailments.

Arrowhead Grass (Viola japonica): Helps reduce inflammation and detoxifies, cools the
blood and alleviates pain. The conditions that can be treated with this plant are boils, ulcers,
abscesses, acute conjunctivitis, laryngitis, acute jaundice and hepatitis and various kinds of
poisonings such as by Tripterygium wilfordii. This special preparation of the whole plant can
be administer to treat lung and chest troubles as an expectorant and specifically for the
treatment of chronic catarrhal accumulations.

Arrowleaf Balsamroot (Balsamorrhiza sagittata) The root of the plant is sometimes used
as an expectorant and mild immunostimulant. Native Americans used the sticky sap as a
topical antiseptic for minor wounds. Medicinally, the Indians used the large coarse
Balsamroot leaves as a poultice for burns. The roots were boiled and the solution was applied
as a poultice for wounds, cuts and bruises. Indians also drank a tea from the roots for
tuberculosis and whooping cough. As an antibacterial the tincture may be applied to
infections and hard to heal wounds. The tincture of the root and bark may be used internally
or externally for bacterial problems. Perhaps the most common use for arrowleaf balsamroot
is as an immune system enhancer. Use the tincture as you would Echinacea, taking 1 tsp.
twice daily to strengthen the immune system.

Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) Hospitals formerly employed arrow root in barium meals
given prior to X-raying the gastro-intestinal system. When mixed with hot water, the root
starch of this plant becomes gelatinous and serves as an effective demulcent to soothe
irritated mucous membranes. Used in much the same way as slippery elm. It helps to relieve
acidity, indigestion, and colic, and it exerts a mildly laxative action on the large bowel.

Artichoke (Cynara scolymus)             Studies have shown that blood cholesterol levels dropped
after eating artichoke. An anticholesterol drug called cynara is derived from this plant. In
1940, a study in Japan showed that artichoke not only reduced cholesterol but it also
increased bile production by the liver and worked as a good diuretic. This make artichoke
useful for gallbladder problems, nausea, indigestion, and abdominal distension. It has been
found that globe artichoke contains the extract cymarin, which is similar to silymarin.
Researchers discovered that this extract promotes liver regeneration and causes hyperaemia.
It was also found that an artichoke extract caused dyspeptic symptoms to disappear. The
researchers interpreted the reduction in cholinesterase levels to mean that the extract
effected fatty degeneration of the liver. In 1969 a team of French researchers patented an
artichoke extract as a treatment for kidney and liver ailments. Although the leaves are
particularly effective, all parts of the plant are bitter. A Mediterranean home recipe uses fresh
artichoke leaf juice mixed with wine or water as a liver tonic. It is also taken during the early
stages of late-onset diabetes. It is a good food for diabetics, since it significantly lowers blood
sugar. In France it has been used to treat rheumatic conditions.
Asafetida (Ferula assa-foetida): Asafetida is said to have antispasmodic properties. It has
been used in the past to treat hysteria and was sometimes taken as a sedative. In India it is
prescribed to treat flatulence and bronchitis. It also has carminative, expectorant, laxative
and sedative properties. Asafetida acts as a local stimulant to mucous membrane,
particularly that of the alimentary canal and therefore is a remedy of great value as a
carminative in flatulent colic and a useful addition to laxative medicine. There is evidence that
the volatile oil is eliminated through the lungs which has been found useful for whooping
cough, asthma, and bronchitis, as well as for croup and flatulent colic in infants. It was
formerly used as a sedative for hysteria, infantile convulsions, and spasmodic nervous
conditions. Some researchers have suggested that asafetida may help lower blood pressure
and increase the amount of time it takes for blood to clot. Like garlic, asafetida has been
hung around the neck to ward off colds and other infectious diseases, but its only real effect
seems to be its ability to keep other people and their colds at arm‘ length. Owing to its vile
taste it is usually taken in pill form, but is often given to infants per rectum in the form of an
emulsion. The powdered gum resin is not advocated as a medicine, the volatile oil being
quickly dissipated. Asafetida is admittedly the most adulterated drug on the market. Besides
being largely admixed with inferior qualities of Asafetida, it has often red clay, sand, stones
and gypsum added to it to increase the weight.

Asarabacca (Asarum europaeum ) : a strong emetic. It has been substituted for Ipecac to
produce vomiting. The French use it for this purpose after drinking too much wine. A little
sniffed up the nostrils induces violent sneezing and a heavy flow of mucus. This has caused it
to be used to remedy headache, drowsiness, giddiness, catarrhs, and other conditions
caused by congestion. Asarabacca has been a component in many popular commercial
medicinal snuffs.
Asarabacca has been extensively investigated, both chemically and pharmacologically. It is
rich in flavonoids. The leaves contain a highly aromatic essential oil that contains
constituents that verify the value of extracts as an errhine (for promotion of nasal secretion).
Based on human experiments, the expectorant properties of both the roots and the leaves are
quite good.      In Rumania, human experiments where infusions of asarabacca were
administered to people suffering pulmonary insufficiency, the preparations were said to have
a beneficial effect on the heart condition, including a diuretic effect. From the types of irritant
chemical compound known to be present in this plant, one would expect that catharsis would
result from ingestion of extracts prepared from asarabacca. However, it is violent in its action.

Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) decoctions made from the bark and leaves are a gentle laxative.
Taken regularly, the ash is said to prevent the recurrence of bouts of malaria and is a
substitute for quinine. It is also said to be excellent for treatment of arthritic conditions. The
seeds, including their wings, have been used as a carminative.

Ash, Mountain (Sorbus scopulina) An infusion of the branches has been given to young
children with bed-wetting problems. The bark is febrifuge and tonic and has been used in the
treatment of general sickness.

Ashwagandha: Practitioners of Ayurveduc medicine, the traditional medicine of India, regard
this root as the Indian answer to ginseng for the male libido. Some reference do not
recommend on a daily basis but others do. It is considered to reduce vata and kapha. It is
mainly used in the West as a restorative for the elderly and the chronically ill. For such
regenerative purposes, it can be taken as a milk decoction to which may be added raw sugar,
honey, pippali and basmati rice. As such, it inhibits aging and catalyzes the anabolic
processes of the body. It is a good food for weak pregnant women, it helps to stabilize the
fetus. It also regenerates the hormonal system, promotes healing of tissues, and can be used
externally on wounds, sores, etc. Five grams of the powder can be taken twice a day in warm
milk           or         water,         sweetened           with         raw         sugar.
        By reducing overactivity and encouraging rest and relaxation, withania is useful in
countering the debility that accompanies long-term stress. Its high iron content makes it
useful for anemia. Withania has been widely researched in India. Studies in 1965 indicated
that the alkaloids are sedative, reduce blood pressure, and lower the heartbeat rate.
Research in 1970 showed that withanolides, which are similar to the body‘s own steroid
hormones, are anti-inflammatory. They also inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The herb may
be of use in chronic inflammatory diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis and as a
cancer preventative. Trials in 1980 indicated that withania increases hemoglobin levels,
reduces graying of hair, and improves sexual performance. It also helps recovery from
chronic                                                                                 illness.
         Traditional use: acne, adrenal disorders, age spots, anemia, anorexia, arteriosclerosis,
atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, chronic inflammatory diseases, convalescence,
debility, depression, diabetes mellitus, diarrhea, edema, endometriosis, failing memory,
fatigue, frigidity, hyperlipemia, hypertension, immunodeficiency, impotence, indigestion,
insomnia, multiple sclerosis, poor attention span, ulcer

Asmatica (Tylophora asmatica) Considered a specific remedy for asthma, asmatica may
relieve symptoms for up to 3 months. It is also beneficial in cases of hay fever, and is
prescribed for acute allergic problems such as eczema and nettle rash. The plant holds
potential as a treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome and other immune system disorders.
Asmatica may relieve rheumatoid arthritis and may also be of value in the treatment of cancer.
Extensive laboratory and clinical research in India has established that asmatica is an
effective remedy for asthma. In the 1970s, a number of clinical trials showed that a majority
of asthmatic patients taking the herb for just 6 days gained relief from asthma for up to a
further 12 weeks. However, the leaves do produce side effects The plant‘s alternative name,
Indian lobelia, alludes not only to its value in treating asthma but also to its irritating effect on
the digestive tract.

Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) An excellent diuretic, asparagus is also very nutritious.
It is high in folic acid, which is essential for the production of new red blood cells. Many
herbalists recommend asparagus root for rheumatism, due to the anti-inflammatory action of
the steroidal glycosides. Powdered seed from the asparagus plant is good for calming an
upset stomach. It is used as a gentle but effective laxative where an irritating cathartic would
be inappropriate, while a tea brewed from the mature fern has been used for rheumatic and
urinary disorders, and by Shakers to treat dropsy. It is used for a variety of urinary problems,
including cystitis. The root treats dryness of the lungs and throat, consumptive diseases,
tuberculosis and blood-tinged sputum. It also counteracts thirst and treats kidney yin deficient
lower back pains. Asparagus root is said to increase love, devotion, and compassion. The
most adept Chinese herbal pharmacists will taste a new shipment of asparagus root, testing it
for sweetness. They might then reserve the sweetest roots for themselves, since these are
believed to foster the deepest feelings of spiritual compassion. The roots are deeply
nourishing to the yin quality.

Asparagus, Chinese (Asparagus cochinchinensis): This species has been used in
traditional Chinese medicine for over 2,000 years. . Internally used for fevers, debility, sore
throats, coughs, rhinitis, diphtheria, tuberculosis and bronchitis. Asparagus root is used
mostly for its diuretic qualities. It may be helpful in treating cystitis and other urinary-tract
infections. It is taken internally in the treatment of fevers, debility, sore throats, coughs etc. It
is often decocted with other herbs and used in the treatment of a wide range of ailments
including diabetes mellitus. Prolonged usage is recommended for the treatment of impotence.
The plant has a folk history for the treatment of cancer, modern research has detected
antitumor activity and it is now being studied for the treatment of lung cancer. It is also known
as a woman‘s tonic, and is good for the female reproductive system. Chinese herbalists
consider it a valuable tonic that enhances love and compassion. The best way to use
asparagus root is by juicing the rot, or making a tea from the dried root.

Asphodelus (Asphodelus albus): The tubers are antidermatosic, detergent, emollient and
vulnerary. They are mainly used externally in the treatment of skin conditions and for
lightening freckles. They have also been employed internally as a cough remedy. Use
internally with caution, especially if you are suffering from nephritis or gastritis.

Aspidistra (Aspidistra elatior): Strengthens bones and muscles. A decoction of the root,
stems or leaves is used in the treatment of abdominal cramps, amenorrhea, diarrhea, myalgia,
traumatic injuries and urinary stones.
Aster, New England (Aster novae-angliae): A poultice of the root has been used in the
treatment of pain, fevers and diarrhea. The ooze of the roots has been sniffed in the treatment
of catarrh. A decoction of the whole plant has been used in the treatment of all kinds of fevers
and in the treatment of weak skin. Aster novae-angliae is deployed in decoction internally,
with a strong decoction externally, in many eruptive diseases of the skin; it removes also the
poisonous state of the skin caused by Rhus or Shumach.

Astragalus (Astragalus membranaceous ) : Strengthens digestion, raises metabolism,
strengthens the immune system, and promotes the healing of wounds and injuries. It treats
chronic weakness of the lungs with shortness of breath, collapse of energy, prolapse of
internal organs, spontaneous sweating, chronic lesions, and deficiency edema. It is very
effective     in      cases   of   nephritis   that     do    not    respond     to    diuretics.
        In China astragalus enjoyed a long history of use in traditional medicine to strengthen
the Wei Ch'i or "defensive energy" or as we call it, the immune system. Regarded as a potent
tonic for increasing energy levels and stimulating the immune system, astragalus has also
been employed effectively as a diuretic, a vasodilator and as a treatment for respiratory
         Antibacterial; used with the ginsengs; helpful for young adults for energy production
and respiratory endurance; warming energy; helpful for hypoglycemia; used for "outer energy"
as ginseng is used for "inner energy"; American Cancer Society publication reports it restored
immune functions in 90% of the cancer patients studied; use to bolster the white blood cell
count; strengthens the body's resistance; use for debilitating conditions; helps to promote the
effects of other herbs; helps to improve digestion. Astragalus is of the most popular herbs
used in the Orient; the Chinese name for astragalus is Huang Ch'i. It is a tonic producing
warm energy and specifically tonifying for the lungs, spleen, and triple warmer via meridians.
         In studies performed at the Nation Cancer Institute and 5 other leading American
Cancer Institutes over the past 10 years, it has been positively shown that astragalus
strengthens a cancer patient's immune system. Researchers believed on the basis of cell
studies that astragalus augments those white blood cells that fight disease and removes
some to those that make the body more vulnerable to it. There is clinical evidence that cancer
patients given astragalus during chemotherapy and radiation, both of which reduce the body's
natural immunity while attacking the cancer, recover significantly faster and live longer. It is
evident that astragalus does not directly attack cancers themselves, but instead strengthens
the body's immune system. In these same studies, both in the laboratory and with 572
patients, it also has been found that Astragalus promotes adrenal cortical function, which also
is             critically        diminished             in          cancer            patients.
        Astragalus also ameliorates bone marrow pression and gastointestinal toxicity caused
by chemotherapy and radiation. Astragalus is presently being looked upon as a possible
treatment for people living with AIDS and for its potentials to prolong life.
          Scientists have isolated a number of active ingredients contained in astragalus,
including bioflavanoids, choline, and a polysaccharide called astragalan B. Animal studies
have shown that astragalan B is effective at controlling bacterial infections, stimulating the
immune system, and protecting the body against a number of toxins.
         Astragalan B seems to work by binding to cholesterol on the outer membranes of
viruses, destabilizing their defenses and allowing for the body's immune system to attack the
weakened invader. Astragalus also increases interferon production and enhances NK and T
cell function, increasing resistance to viral conditions such as hepatitis, AIDS and cancer.
Astragalus shows support for peripheral vascular diseases and peripheral circulation.

Avens: Avens is an astringent herb, used principally for problems affecting the mouth, throat
and gastrointestinal tract. It tightens up soft gums, heals canker sores, makes a good gargle
for infections for the pharynx and larynx, and reduces irritation of the stomach and gut. It may
be taken for peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea, and dysentery. Avens has
been used in a lotion or ointment as a soothing remedy for hemorrhoids. The herb may also
be used as a douche for treating excessive vaginal discharge. Avens reputedly has a mild
quinine-type action in lowering fever.

Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata): The flowers are astringent, cardiac and stimulant.
The seeds are used as a stimulant in the treatment of coughs. The expressed oil from the
seeds is used in the treatment of pulmonary affections. The fruit of many members of this
genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E,
flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty
acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of
reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of

Azisai (Hydrangea macrophylla): An extract of the leaves, roots and flowers are said to be
a more potent antimalarial than quinine, due to one of its alkaloids.

Aztec Sweet Herb (Phyla scaberrima) In Belize, this is a favorite remedy for bronchitis and
dry, hacking coughs. Fresh plant material is boiled, and the patient holds his head over the
pot. The warm mixture is then strained and sipped slowly. For toothaches, the flowers are
chewed or placed directly on the gum. The drug is used as a stimulating expectorant, the
tincture, in doses of ½ to 1 fluid drachm, is given as a respiratory sedative in coughs. It acts
as an alterative on the mucous membrane. Lippiol, in doses of 4 1/2 grains, causes warmth,
flushing, diaphoresis and drowsiness. Indications: Persistent dry hard resonant or ringing
bronchial cough. Useful in chronic bronchitis, having a soothing and sedative effect to the
mucous surface of the post-nasal region and bronchial tubes, soothing and relieving irritability,
of these surfaces, and is a valuable expectorant in these conditions. Its action is limited to the
air passages.


Ba Ji Tian (Morinda officinalis) The pungent, sweet-tasting ba ji tian is an important
Chinese herb. It is a kidney tonic, and therefore strengthens the yang. It is also used as a
sexual tonic, treating impotence and premature ejaculation in men, infertility in both men and
women, and a range of conditions, such as an irregular menstrual cycle. Ba ji tian is also
prescribed for conditions affecting the lower back or pelvic region, including pain, cold, and
urinary weakness—especially frequent urination or incontinence.

Baby's Tears (Phyllanthus liebmannianus): Boil an entire plant in 3 cups water for 2
minutes; strain and drink for stomatitis, internal infections, kidney stones, and stoppage of
urine. Use same preparation to bathe infants who are ill.

Badrang (Zanthoxylum limonella): The bark and fruit are attributed with stomachic
properties. Mullilam oil, an orange-scented, steam-distilled extract from the fruits, is reported
to have a variety of medical applications. The methanolic extract of the Zanthoxylum rhetsa
Roxb. stem bark, given by oral route to mice at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, significantly
reduced the abdominal contraction induced by acetic acid and the diarrheal episodes induced
by castor oil in mice.

Baeckea (Baeckea frutescens): Tea of the leaves is used to treat sunstroke,
fever. Indonesians consider the decoction to be diuretic, emmenagogue, refrigerant and
tonic. It is also used for dysmenorrheal, parturition and as a tonic. Leaves and flowers are
also used in Indochina for catarrh, headache and rheumatism. Packets of leaves are burned
under the bed of colic sufferers.

Bael (Aegle marmelos ) The astringent half-ripe bael fruit reduces irritation in the digestive
tract and is excellent for diarrhea and dysentery. The ripe fruit is a demulcent and laxative,
with a significant vitamin C content. It eases stomach pain and supports the healthy function
of this organ. Pulped, the flesh of Bael is an excellent curative for dysentery, while the
fragrant juice is used as an appetizer, for curing stomach disorders, and for purifying the
blood. Bael‘s astringent leaves are taken to treat peptic ulcers. A decoction of leaves is a
favorite remedy for ailments that often occur during seasonal changes—fevers, influenza,
fatigue. The tree‘s most unusual application is for earache. A piece of dried root is dipped in
the oil of the neem tree an set on fire. Oil from the burning end is dripped into the ear (not
recommended to try)
Bai Lian (Ampelopsis japonica): Roots are used to expel phlegm; treat inflammation of the
skin, burns, boils, ulcers, acne, swellings, vaginal and uterine discharges. A decoction of the
roots is used in the treatment of tuberculous cervical nodes, bleeding from hemorrhoids and
burn injuries.

Bai Mao Xia Ku Cao (Ajuga decumbens) The leaf decoction is used for bladder ailments,
diarrhea, eye trouble, fever; juice for bugbites, burns, cuts, and tumors. Fresh leaves are
pounded with boiled rice and poulticed onto carcinoma. A shoot decoction is bathed onto
neuralgic and rheumatic parts. A hot decoction of the seed is used for diarrhea, stomach
ache. The plant is used for abscesses, boils, bronchitis, burns, cancer, cold, colic, epistaxis,
fever, fungoid diseases, hemorrhage, hypertension, inflammation, pneumonia, snakebite,
sore throat and tonsillitis. The whole plant promotes tissue regeneration. A decoction of the
stem is bathed onto neuralgic and rheumatic parts.

Bai Qian (Cynanchum stauntonii): Decoctions of all parts are used as a febrifuge and for
treating internal fever. The roots are used medicinally for pulmonary tuberculosis, infantile
malnutrition due to intestinal parasites, influenza, cough, and chronic bronchitis.

Bai Wei (Cynanchum atratum): The roots are used to treat fever, coughs, blood in urine,
inflammation of the urethra. Cardiac tonic ingredients of bai wei stimulate the heart muscle
and improve contraction and slow down heart rate. Bai wei can inhibit pneumococcus. Toxic
amount: 30-40 grams. Koreans use the root to treat women in pregnancy and parturition, for
fever and micturition, and to apply externally to rounds.

Bai Zhi (Angelica anomala): The plant is used to lower arterial pressure, increase diuresis
and stimulate contraction of the smooth muscles, especially the uterus, but without causing
abortion. It is also used in the treatment of colds and headaches, coryza, leucorrhoea, boils
and abscesses. Small quantities of angelicotoxin, one of the active ingredients in the root,
have an excitatory effect on the respiratory center, central nervous system and vasculomotor
center. It increases the rate of respiration, increases blood pressure, decreases the pulse,
increases the secretion of saliva and induces vomiting. In large doses it can cause
convulsions and generalized paralysis.

Bai Zhi (Angelica dahurica ) Bai Zhi has been used for thousands of years in Chinese
herbal medicine where it is used as a sweat-inducing herb to counter harmful external
influences. The pungent, bitter bai zhi is used for frontal headaches and aching eyes, nasal
congestion, and toothache. Like its cousins angelica and Chinese angelica, it is warming and
tonic, and it is still given for problems attributed to ―damp and cold‖ conditions, such as sores,
boils, and ulcers affecting the skin. Bzi zhi also appears to be valuable in treating the facial
pain of trigeminal neuralgia. Small quantities of angelicotoxin, one of the active ingredients in
the root, have an excitatory effect on the respiratory center, central nervous system and
vasculomotor centre. It increases the rate of respiration, increases blood pressure, decreases
the pulse, increases the secretion of saliva and induces vomiting. In large doses it can cause
convulsions and generalized paralysis.

Bai Zhu (Atractylodes macrocephala ) Bai Zhu is widely used in traditional Chinese
medicine. It has traditionally been used as a tonic for the digestive system, building qi and
strengthening the spleen. The rhizome has a sweet, pungent taste, and is used to relieve
fluid retention, excessive sweating, and digestive problems such as diarrhea and vomiting. It
is also used in the treatment of poor appetite, dyspepsia, abdominal distension, and edema. It
is often used in conjunction with other herbs such as Codonopsis tangshen and Glycyrrhiza
uralensis. Combined with Baical skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) it is used to prevent

Baical Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) The root is used. Indications: ailments of ―full‖
and ―hot‖ excess: oppression in chest, thirst with no desire for water, dysentery and diarrhea,
jaundice, body heat, irritability, blood in stool and sputum, nosebleeds. Clinical tests in China
found it improved symptoms in over 70% of patients with chronic hepatitis, increasing appetite,
improving liver function and reducing swelling. Other studies show it reduces inflammation
and allergic reactions. These effects are due to the flavonoids. It is also likely that Baical
skullcap may help venous problems and fragile capillaries. The herb may be useful for
problems arising from diabetes, including cataracts. In Chinese medicine it is prescribed for
hot and thirsty conditions such as high fevers, coughs with thick yellow phlegm, and
gastrointestinal infections that cause diarrhea, such as dysentery. It is also given to people
suffering from painful urinary conditions. It is now used for allergic conditions such as asthma,
hay fever, eczema, and nettle rash, although its anti-inflammatory action is most useful for
digestive infections. It is a valuable remedy for the circulation. In combination with other
herbs, it is used to treat high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, varicose veins and easy
bruising. Applied to the skin, it treats sores, swelling and boils. It appears to be useful for
circulatory problems that arise from diabetes. The seed is used to cleanse the bowels of
blood and pus.

Bailahuen (Haplopappus baylahuen): The medicinal properties lie principally in its resin and
volatile oil, the resin acting chiefly on the bowels and urinary passages, and the volatile oil on
the lungs. It does not cause disorder to the stomach and bowels, it is a valuable remedy in
dysentery, chronic diarrhea specially of tuberculous nature and in chronic cystitis. Internally is
it used as a tea for loss of appetite and non-ulcer dyspepsia with fullness, flatulence, change
of bowel habits, etc. associated with minor disorders of the hepatobiliary tract (chronic
cholecycstitis, nonobstructive gallstones, chronic hepatitis and for inflammations of the upper
respiratory tract. Also as a diaphoretic hot tea for the common cold and to enhance the
effects in problems of the genitourinary tract, the fluid intake should be more than 2 liters per
day. Externally it is used as a wet compress or poultice for minor skin inflammations and

Bakula (Mimusops elengi): The bakula also produces a berrylike fruit, which turns yellow
when ripe. The pulp is given to patients suffering from stomach upsets, but the unripe berry is
considered a useful masticatory, and is also used as an infusion to provide a general health
tonic. The flowers, fruit, and bark of the bakula are all astringent, and they are used as
elements in an Ayurvedic lotion for wounds and ulcers. The bark, which is powdered and
made into a gargle for infected mouth and gums, is one of the main ingredients in an
Ayurvedic tooth powder recommended for patients with spongy gums. Traditional remedies
are: A decoction of the astringent bark or flower is taken to treat fever and diarrhea. The
leaves pounded with Nigella seeds are applied as a hot compress or burned and smoke
inhaled to alleviate the discomfort of an ulceration nose. The juice of the leaves is dropped
into sore eyes to treat eye ache. A decoction of the bark with tamarind bark is used as a lotion
to treat skin affections. An infusion of the bark is used as a nasal wash against mucous
discharge. The bark is used as a component in a poultice to treat leucorrhoea and pimples.
The leaves are burned and smoke inhaled to treat asthma, affection of the nose and mouth. A
decoction of the bark is gargled as a dental strengthener to fix teeth loosened. It also to treat
sore throat or relaxed uvula to strengthen the gums. A tincture of the bark is employed as an
embrocation to treat rheumatism and distended abdomen. A decoction of the bark is used to
treat blennorrhea, sprue, gonorrhea and itch. Fruit of Bakula is made into a paste by grinding
it with alcohol. It will stop menstruation, if taken during the period of menstruation.

Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) It loosens phlegm, stops cough in both hot and
cold conditions, aids the elimination of pus in the upper parts of the body, is effective for sore
throat, lung abscess, and loss of voice. It has an ascending energy and is sometimes added
in small amounts to formulas to direct the therapeutic action of other herbs to the upper parts
of the body.

Balloon Vine (Cardiospermum halicacabum) In Indian herbal medicine, balloon vine root
is used to bring on delayed menstruation and to relieve backache and arthritis. The leaves
stimulate local circulation and are applied to painful joints to help speed the cleaning of toxins.
The seeds are also thought to help in the treatment of arthritis. The plant as a whole has
sedative properties. It has been prescribed for years by European skin specialists and family
doctors. In a study of 833 patients with eczema, better than 4 out of 5 subjects reported
improvement or remission of symptoms (inflammation, swelling, scaling, blisters/vesicles, dry
skin, itching, burning and pain). This small and delicate wiry climber can be used to treat
piles, rheumatism, nervous disorders and chronic bronchitis. A paste of the leaves is a
dressing for sores and wounds. Crushed leaves can also be inhaled to relieve headaches and
the seeds used to relieve fever and body aches. A tea made from the leaves is used in the
treatment of itchy skin. Salted leaves are used as a poultice on swellings. The leaf juice has
been used as a treatment for earache.

Balmony (Chelone glabra) It is believed to be an appetite stimulant, and some herbalists
prescribe the dried plant in an infusion to treat anorexia. Balmony is a very bitter herb with a
tea-like flavor that acts mainly as a tonic for the liver and digestive system. It also has anti-
depressant and laxative effects. It is used internally in the treatment of consumption, debility,
diseases of the liver, gallbladder problems, gallstones etc. It is also used to relieve nausea
and vomiting, intestinal colic and to expel worms. Externally, it is applied as an ointment to
inflamed tumors, irritable ulcers, inflamed breasts etc. It Is beneficial for a weak stomach and
indigestion, general debility, constipation, and torpid liver, it also stimulates the appetite, and
in small doses is a good tonic during convalescence. In addition, balmony is an effective
antheimintic. Externally, it is used for sores and eczema. The ointment is valuable to relieve
the               itching              and              irritation             of             piles.
          Balmony is an excellent agent for liver problems. It acts as a tonic on the whole
digestive and absorptive system. It has a stimulating effect on the secretion of digestive juices,
and in this most natural way its laxative properties are produced. Balmony is used in gall
stones, inflammation of the gall-bladder and in jaundice. It stimulates the appetite, eases colic,
dyspepsia and biliousness and is helpful in debility. Externally it has been used on inflamed
breasts, painful ulcers and piles. It is considered a specific in gall stones that lead to
congestive                                                                                jaundice.
          Herbalists consider this herb a useful remedy for gastro-intestinal debility with hepatic
torpor or jaundice. Dyspeptic conditions attending convalescence from prostrating fevers are
often aided by it, and should be studied particularly for vague and shifting pain in the region of
the                                         ascending                                        colon.
         Kings Dispensatory describes it as being tonic, cathartic, and anthelmintic. Especially
valuable in jaundice and hepatic diseases, likewise for the removal of worms, for which it may
be used in powder or decoction, internally and also in injection. Used as a tonic in small
doses, in dyspepsia, debility of the digestive organs, particularly when associated with hepatic
inactivity, and during convalescence from febrile and inflammatory diseases. It is valuable
after malarial fevers as a tonic and to unlock the secretions when checked by quinine.
Recommended in form of ointment as an application to painful and inflamed tumors, irritable
and painful ulcers, inflamed breasts, piles, etc. Kings gives the following specific indications:
Gastro-intestinal debility, with hepatic torpor or jaundice; worms.

Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea) The resin obtained from the balsam fir has been used
throughout the world and is a very effective antiseptic and healing agent. It is used as a
healing and analgesic protective covering for burns, bruises, wounds and sores. It is also
used to treat sore nipples and is said to be one of the best curatives for a sore throat. Tea
made from the needles has been used to treat colds and asthma. Canada balsam, an
oleoresin gathered from blisters in the bark, has been used to relieve the pain of hemorrhoids,
burns and sores and venereal disease. Balsam fir is an antiseptic and stimulant, and has
been used for congestion, chest infections, such as bronchitis, and urinary tract conditions
such as cystitis and frequent urination. It has been used in commercial mixtures to treat
coughs and diarrhea. Externally, balsam fir was rubbed on the chest or applied as a plaster
for respiratory infections. It is also used in bath extracts for rheumatic pain, and as a
mouthwash. The oil is used in ointments and creams, especially in the treatment of
hemorrhoids. The buds, resin, and/or sap are used in folk remedies for treating cancers,
corns, and warts. The resin is used internally in propriety mixtures to treat coughs and
diarrhea, though taken in excess it is purgative. A warm liquid of the gummy sap was drunk
as a treatment for gonorrhea. A tea made from the leaves is antiscorbutic. It is used in the
treatment of coughs, colds and fevers.

Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera): Balsam poplar has a long history of medicinal use. It
was valued by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of
complaints, but especially to treat skin problems and lung ailments. In modern herbalism it is
valued as an expectorant and antiseptic tonic. The buds are used as a stimulating
expectorant for all conditions affecting the respiratory functions when congested. In tincture
they have been beneficially employed in affections of the stomach and kidneys and in scurvy
and              rheumatism,            also           for          chest          complaints.
         The leaf buds are covered with a resinous sap that has a strong turpentine odor and a
bitter taste. They are boiled in order to separate the resin and the resin is then dissolved in
alcohol. The resin is a folk remedy, used as a salve and wash for sores, rheumatism, wounds
etc. It is made into a tea and used as a wash for sprains, inflammation, muscle pains etc.
        The bark is cathartic and tonic. Although no specific mention has been seen for this
species, the bark of most, if not all members of the genus contain salicin, a glycoside that
probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark is therefore anodyne,
anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and
also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. A tea made from the inner bark is used as an
eye            wash         and        in        the         treatment        of        scurvy.
         It is an excellent hemorrhoid treatment. For burns it lessens pain, keeps the surface
antiseptic and also stimulates skin regeneration. The tincture is a very effective therapy for
chest colds, increasing protective mucus secretions in the beginning, when the tissues are hot,
dry and painful. Later, it increases te softening expectorant secretions when the mucus is
hard and impacted on the bronchial walls, and coughing is painful. Are aromatics are secreted
as volatile gases in expiration. This helps to inhibit microorganisms and lessen the likelihood
of secondary, often more serious, infections.

Bamboo Brier (Smilax rotundifolia): The stem prickles have been rubbed on the skin as a
counter-irritant to relieve localized pains, muscle cramps and twitching. A tea made from the
leaves and stems has been used in the treatment of rheumatism and stomach problems. The
parched and powdered leaves have been used as a dressing on burns and scalds. The wilted
leaves have been used as a poultice on boils. A tea made from the roots is used to help the
expelling of afterbirth.

Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa): There has been much research done on Banaba leaves
and their ability to reduce blood sugar, and its "insulin-like principle." In the Philippines,
Banaba is a popular medicine plant and is used in treatment of diabetes mellitus. It is high in
corosolic acid which is used in many treatments for diabetes. It is a natural plant insulin, can
be taken orally, and has no side effects, according to Japanese research. The effect of
banaba resembles that of insulin as it transports sugar into the cells, but the method is not
identical and, contrary to insulin, banaba does not stimulate the body's cells into storing fat. It
rather     seems       to     be     able     to     counteract     the    storing     of     fat.
          Numerous studies have been done on this herb, much of it in Japan. One study
mixed banaba dried leaf powder with chicken feeds, and then analyzed the yolk of the
chicken egg. When the banaba enriched egg yolk was fed to diabetic mice, their blood sugar
level was normalized. In another study, the alcohol extract of banaba leaves was sprayed into
the air of a room at night while the patient was sleeping via a mist generating device. It was
found that as the person slept, their lungs received trace amounts of corosolic acid which
helped                  regulate                blood                sugar                 levels.
        Recent studies have shown that the entire herb is useful in lowering blood sugar, and
that corosolic acid is probably not the only active ingredient in banaba leaves. . The roots are
used                         for                       stomach                         problems.

Baneberry (Actaea arguta): Internally, the root has the same uses as Black Cohosh, with
the exception of the estrogenic ones. The roots have been considered laxative and capable
of causing vomiting. They have been ground, mixed with tobacco or grease, and rubbed on
the body to treat rheumatism. The powdered root is a good counterirritant, the powder mixed
with hot water, applied where appropriate, and covered with hot towels. A pinch of the dried
ground seeds added to a dish of food was once a treatment for diarrhea. Ground seeds
mixed with pine pitch were applied as a poultice for neuralgia. The dried root is made into a
strong tea, a little bit of which is drunk and the rest used as a pain-relieving wash for acute
arthritis and swollen joints. Sometimes powdered wild tobacco is moistened with the
baneberry for a poultice and the mixture covered with cheesecloth or muslin to hold it in place.

Baneberry, White (Actaea pachypoda): Baneberry root tea is sometimes used as an
appetite stimulant, but is also used to treat stomach pains, coughs, colds, menstrual
irregularities, and postpartum pains. It works well in increasing milk flow in nursing women
and is used as a purgative after childbirth. White Baneberry has been used as a remedy for
snake-bite, especially rattlesnake bite.

Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis): Ayurvedic doctors noted that medicines derived from
the banyan assisted in blood clotting, contained major antiseptic and astringent properties,
and an infusion from banyan bark alleviated diabetes. The astringent leaves and bark of the
tree are employed to relieve diarrhea and dysentery and to reduce bleeding. As with other
Ficus species, the latex is applied to hemorrhoids, warts, and aching joints. The fruit is
laxative and the roots are chewed to prevent gum disease.

Baobab (Adansonia digitata): The bark of this tree has been used traditionally to fight
fevers. The leaves may be an excellent source of mineral salts, especially calcium, phosphor
and iron, amino acids and provitamin A. There are aspects of considerable interest which
require further trials on man, in order to confirm the properties extolled by traditional
medicine. Baobab products do not pretend to be a miraculous panacea, but can simply
contribute to rebalancing and restoring the main functions of the organism and the epidermis,
offering well-being and energy. Only 5 g a day are beneficial to maintain the state of well-
being of the organism, since it increases the resistance to viruses (such as flu and herpes),
regularizes the intestine, glycemia and the blood cholesterol values, gives strength, energy
and resistance, rebalances mood swings, alleviates menstrual pains, and is anti-anemic,
febrifugal and anti-inflammatory. Its beneficial properties may also be applied to obtain a
healthy skin and to tackle the effects of premature ageing by virtue of the antioxidant,
softening,               smoothing            and            elasticizing           properties.
                  The bark, which contains several flavonols, has been sold commercially in
Europe under the name ‗cortex cael cedra‘, as a fever treatment, and substitute for cinchona
          The off-white, powdery substance inside the fruit shell is apparently rich in ascorbic
acid. It is this white powdery substance which is soaked in water to provide a refreshing drink
somewhat reminiscent of lemonade. This drink is also used to treat fevers and other
          Medicinally, it has many applications. The pulp is consumed to treat fever, diarrhea,
malaria, hemoptysis and scorbutic complaints (vitamin C deficiency). The bark and leaves are
also useful in the treatment of fever, and are reported to have anti-inflammatory and
diaphoretic properties. The seed is either pulped and applied externally, or drink in water, to
cure gastric, kidney and joint diseases. In the Kalahari, San bushmen use the seeds as an
antidote to Strophanthin, a common plant-derived arrow poison.

Barberry (Berberis vulgaris): Barberry acts on the gallbladder to improve bile flow and
ameliorate conditions such as gallbladder pain, gallstones, and jaundice. Barberry‘s strongly
antiseptic property is of value in cases of amebic dysentery, cholera and other similar
gastrointestinal infections. Barberry is one of the mildest and best liver tonics known, good
for jaundice, hepatitis and diabetes.
The berberine in barberry has remarkable infection-fighting properties. Studies around the
world show it kills microorganisms that cause wound infections (Staphylococci, Streptococci),
diarrhea (Salmonella, Shigella), dysentery (Endamoeba histolytica), cholera (Vibrio cholerae),
giardiasis Giardia lamblia), urinary tract infections (Escherichia coli) and vaginal yeast
infections (Candida albicans). Berberine may also fight infection by stimulating the immune
system. Studies show that it activates the macrophages, white blood cells that devour
harmful microorganisms. In Germany, a berberine preparation, Ophthiole, is used to treat
sensitive eyes, inflamed lids, and pinkeye (conjunctivitis). Barberry contains chemicals that
may help reduce elevated blood pressure by enlarging blood vessels.
The bark is astringent, antidiarrheal, and healing to the intestinal wall—in short, barberry has
a strong, highly beneficial effect on the digestive system as a whole. It helps in the treatment
of chronic skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. The decoction makes a gentle and
effective wash for the eyes, although it must be diluted sufficiently before use. Liquid of the
chewed root was placed on injuries and on wounds, while cuts and bruises were washed with
a root decoction. A preparation of the bark or berries will be useful as a gargle for sore mouth
and chronic opthalmia.       It has been successfully used to treat Leishmaniasis (infections
transmitted by sandflies). It has the ability to reduce an enlarged spleen and acts against

Barberry, Japanese (Mahonia bealei): A decoction of the root and root bark is used in the
treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, recurring fever and cough in rundown body systems,
rheumatoid arthritis, backache, weak knees, dysentery and enteritis. Berberine, universally
present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a
bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment
of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with
Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine
has also shown antitumor activity. The taste is bitter. The plant detoxifies, reduces
inflammations and breaks fevers. Anti-influenza effect of alkaloids from roots of Mahonia
bealei. was studied in vitro. The experiment in embryo indicated that the alkaloids at
concentration of 0.25 mg/ml obviously inhibited the proliferation of influenza virus Al, and at
concentration of 20 mg/ml showed no side-effect on embryo.

Barley (Hordeum distichon): An excellent food for convalescence in the form of porridge or
barley water, barley is soothing to the throat and provides easily assimilated nutrients. It can
also be taken to clear mucus. Its demulcent quality also soothes inflammation of the gut and
urinary tract. Barley aids in the digestion of milk and is given to babies to prevent the
development of curds within the stomach. It is commonly given to children suffering from
minor infections or diarrhea, and it is particularly recommended for treatment for fever. Made
into a poultice, barley seed is a useful remedy for soothing and reducing inflammation in
sores and swellings. Chinese research suggests that barley may be of aid in the treatment of
hepatitis. Trials undertaken elsewhere in the early 1990‘s indicate that barley may help
control diabetes, and that barley bran may have the effect of lowering cholesterol and
preventing bowel cancer.

Barley, Foxtail (Hordeum jubatum) The dry root can be wrapped, then moistened and used
as a compress for styes in the eyes or on swollen eyelids.

Barnyard Grass (Echinochloa crus-galli): Reported to be preventative and tonic, barnyard
grass is a folk remedy for treating carbuncles, hemorrhages, sores, spleen trouble, cancer
and wounds. The shoots and/or the roots are applied as a styptic to wounds. The plant is a
tonic, acting on the spleen.

Basil (Ocimum basilicum) The Chinese used it to treat stomach, kidney and blood ailments.
During the 11 century, Hildegard of Bingen used basil in a complicated mixture to treat
cancerous tumors. By the 17 century, basil was widely used in Europe to treat colds, warts,
and intestinal worms. In Ayurvedic medicine, the juice is recommended for snakebites, as a
general tonic, for chills, coughs, skin problems and earaches. It is called tulsi. The oil kill
intestinal parasites confirming its traditional use in Malaya and as a stomach soother and
treatment for a broad range of intestinal ailments. Indian researchers have reported that basil
kills bacteria when applied to the skin and have used basil oil successfully to treat acne. One
animal study shows basil stimulates the immune system by increasing production of disease-
fighting antibodies by up to 20%. In the West it is considered a cooling herb and is used for
rheumatic pain, irritable skin conditions and for those of a nervous disposition. Basil is one of
many healing herbs containing both pro-and anti-cancer substances. On the prevention side,
it contains Vitamin A & C, anti-oxidants that help prevent cell damage. But basil also contains
a chemical, estragole, that produced liver tumors in mice, according to a report published in
the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. However, the cancer risk, if any, remains unclear.
It‘s on the FDA list of GRAS herbs.

Basil-Leaved Parietaria (Parietaria judaica): Basil-leaved parietaria has been valued for
over 2,000 years for its diuretic action, as a soother of chronic coughs and as a balm for
wounds and burns. In European herbal medicine it is regarded as having a restorative action
on the kidneys, supporting and strengthening their function. The whole herb, gathered when
in flower is an efficacious remedy for kidney and bladder stones and other complaints of the
urinary system such as cystitis and nephritis. It should not be prescribed to people with hay
fever or other allergic conditions. The leaves can be usefully employed externally as a
poultice on wounds etc. They have a soothing effect on simple burns and scalds. A tea made
from this plant will ease upset stomachs and make one feel better when one has a cold. It
also helps the liver and relieves fever.

Basil Thyme (Acinos arvensis): A stimulant, diuretic herb that benefits the digestive system
and irritates the tissues, causing a temporary improvement in local blood supply. Basil thyme
was a great favorite of the ancient herbalists, though it is little used medicinally at present.
The essential oil has been applied externally as a rubefacient, whilst one drop of it put into a
decayed tooth is said to alleviate the pain. The plant has also been added to bath water,
especially for children, and is said to be a strengthener and nerve soother. Internally used for
shortness of breath, melancholy, and improving the digestion. Externally, oil was once
distilled to treat bruises, toothache, sciatica, and neuralgia.

Bay (Laurus nobilis): The Romans used bay leaves and berries for the treatment of liver
disorders. The French at one time used bay as an antiseptic. Now the Lebanese steep the
berries and leaves in brandy in the sun for a few days and drink it to calm queasy stomachs.
Bay oil from the berries and leaves can be used in salves and liniments for rheumatism,
bruises and skin problems. Both fruit and leaves also stimulate the digestion. A decoction of
fruit or leaves made into a paste with honey or syrup can be applied to the chest for colds and
other chest problems. The oil contains a powerful bacteria killing chemical that is used in
some dentifrices. For frequent migraines add bay leaves to feverfew. Bay leaves have
demonstrated to help the body used insulin more efficiently at levels as low at half-teaspoon.
          An experimental convalescent home in Russia encourages patients to smell bay
leaves to sharpen the memory. Ancient Romans and Greeks placed a rolled bay leaf in the
nose or stuck a leaf on the forehead when troubled by headaches.
A tea of bay leaves is excellent for the digestion and is somewhat astringent as well. A facial
steam bath, for cleansing and clearing the skin, is made in the same way as the tea, with the
addition of chamomile flowers, rosemary leaves, and rose petals. For hysteria: to calm the
patient, have them drink tea made from a bay leaf. Pour 1 cup boiling water over 2 bay
leaves. Remove the leaves after steeping 10 minutes and sweeten with honey. In one study,
laboratory animals were given a fatal dose of strychnine, then promptly treated with a bay oil
preparation. They all lived, but researchers weren't sure why.

Bay, Red (Persia borbonia): Red bay was widely employed medicinally by the Seminole
Indians who used it to treat a variety of complaints, but especially as an emetic and body
cleanser. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. An infusion of the leaves can be used
to abort a fetus up to the age of four months. An infusion is also used in treating fevers,
headaches, diarrhea, thirst, constipation, appetite loss and blocked urination. A strong
decoction is emetic and was used as a body purification when treating a wide range of
complaints. A decoction of the leaves is used externally as a wash on rheumatic joints and
painful limbs.

Bayberry (Myrica cerifera) A key herb in the Thomsonian system of medicine, being the
main astringent used for ―any stomach or bowel derangement, particularly after fevers.‖
Internally used for fevers, colds, influenza, excess mucus, diarrhea, colitis, excessive
menstruation, and vaginal discharge. Externally for sore throat, ulcers, sores, itching skin
conditions, dandruff and hair loss. Bayberry is commonly used to increase circulation,
stimulate perspiration, and keep bacterial infections in check. Colds, flu, coughs, and sore
throats benefit from treatment with this herb as a hot decoction. It helps to strengthen local
resistance to infection and to tighten and dry mucous membranes. An infusion is helpful for
strengthening spongy gums, and a gargle is used for sore throat. Bayberry‘s astringency
helps intestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and mucous colitis. It increases
circulation to the area while acting to tone tissues involved. An infusion can also help treat
excess vaginal discharge. A paste of the powdered root bark may be applied onto ulcers and
sores. The powdered bark has been used as a snuff for congested nasal passages. It has
been used to treat post-partum hemorrhage and taken internally and used as a douche is
recommended for excessive menstruation and leucorrhea. It is used as a poultice to soothe
varicose veins. Myricadiol has a mild effect on potassium and sodium levels. Myricitrin is
antibacterial and encourages the flow of bile. The powder is strongly sternutatory and excites
coughing. Water in which the wax has been 'tried,' when boiled to an extract, is regarded as a
certain cure for dysentery, and the wax itself, being astringent and slightly narcotic, is
valuable in severe dysentery and internal ulcerations. The leaves have provided vitamin C for
curing scurvy.

Beach Pea (Lathyrus japonicus): Chinese used this Pacific Rim wild food as a tonic for the
urinary organs and intestinal tract. Eskimo considered the peas poisonous...Iroquois treated
rheumatism with cooked whole young plant.

Beak Willow (Salix bebbiana): A poultice of the chewed root inner bark has been applied to
a deep cut. The shredded inner bark has been used as sanitary napkins to 'heal a woman's
insides'. A poultice of the damp inner bark has been applied to the skin over a broken bone. A
decoction of the branches has been taken by women for several months after childbirth to
increase the blood flow. A poultice of the bark and sap has been applied as a wad to
bleeding wounds. The fresh bark of all members of this genus contains salicin, which
probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is
used as an anodyne and febrifuge.

Beardtongue, Large (Penstemon grandiflorus): The Dakota used a decoction of roots to
treat chest pains and the Kiowa to treat stomachaches. The Pawnee used a tea made of the
leaves to treat fever and chills. The roots were chewed to a pulp and placed it in a cavity to
relieve toothache pain.

Bearsfoot (Polymnia uvedalia) Regarded as a valuable aid for quick pain relief. It is also a
gentle laxative, especially good for the aged, and a stimulant. The root is taken internally as a
treatment for non-malignant swollen glands and especially for mastitis. The root is thought to
have a beneficial effect on the stomach, liver, and spleen, and may be taken to relieve
indigestion and liver malfunction.

Beargrass (Xerophyllum tenax): The roots are styptic. A poultice of the chewed root has
been applied to wounds. A decoction of the grated root has been used as a wash on bleeding
wounds, sprains and broken limbs. The washed roots have been rubbed to make a lather and
then used to wash sore eyes.

Bear's Breeches (Acanthus mollis): The herb‘s appreciable quantities of mucilage and
tannin substantiate its traditional use as a treatment for dislocated joints and burns. These
constituents are found in many wound-healing plants. Acanthus paste applied to a dislocated
joint tends to normalize the affected muscles and ligaments, alternately the relaxing and
tightening them to encourage the joint back into its proper place and to precipitate the healing
process. The plant‘s soothing, emollient properties are also useful in the treatment of irritated
mucous membranes within the digestive and urinary tracts. Acanthus is similar to marsh
mallow in that it can be used externally to ease irritation, and internally to heal and
protect. The juices of the fresh plant, or an infusion of the leaves and flowers, stimulate the
appetite, cleanse the liver and improve the digestion.

Beaumont's Root (Veronicastrum virginicum): Native Americans used this plant as a
remedy for several ailments including as a laxative, treatment for fainting and treating kidney
stones. The root was used as a blood cleanser. It was used for ceremonial purification to
cleanse the body by inducing vomiting by drinking tea made from the plant's dried root. The
fresh root is a violent cathartic and possibly emetic, the dried root is milder in its action, but
less certain. The root also gently excites the liver and increases the flow of bile. An infusion
has been used in the treatment of diarrhea, coughs, chills and fevers, and also to ease the
pain of backaches. A tea made from the roots is strongly laxative.

Beavertail (Opuntia basilaris): The older pads served as medicine. Their pulp provided a
wet dressing for bruises and sores, bites and lacerations, an application said to deaden pain
and hasten healing.
Beech (Fagus grandifolia): A concoction made of fresh or dried leaves was applied by the
pioneers to burns, scalds, and frostbite, Indians steeped a handful of fresh bark in a cup or
two of water and used it for skin rashes, particularly those caused by poison ivy. In Kentucky,
beech sap was one ingredient of a syrup compounded to treat tuberculosis. Decoctions of
either the leaves or the bark were administered internally, as a treatment for bladder, kidney,
and liver ailments.. A decoction of the root or leaves was believed to cure intermittent fevers,
dysentery, and diabetes, while the oil from the nut was given for intestinal worms.

Beebeeru Bark (Nectandra rodioei): The alkaloids are strong tonics, promoting digestion,
sustaining the circulation, and mildly stimulating the nervous system. Many persons compare
it to quinine; but it is not such an intense nerve stimulant as that article, and is more distinctly
favorable to digestion, and to the improvement of the general tone of the system. It has been
used in agues. In cases where the nervous system is sensitive, and quinine is likely to cause
excitement, bebeerin is a preferable agent. As a tonic in periodical neuralgia, atonic prolapsus
and dyspepsia, and low forms of periodical hysteria, it can be used to much advantage. It
relieves passive menorrhagia and has been used in some cases of exhaustive discharges, as
colliquative diarrhea, and hectic from excessive suppuration. Rarely used now.

Beechdrops (Epifagus virginiana): It has been used especially for asthma and is valuable
in the treatment of obstinate ulcers of the mouth or stomach and diarrhea. A strong, cooled
decoction was applied as an external application in skin disorders, ulcers, and erysipelas, and
is said to arrest gangrene. It was called cancer root because of its folk use as a local
application to cancerous ulcers. As for its internal application, its use is indicated for its
astringent-healing properties. The decoction (one part to three pars warm water) has been
employed as a quickly binding action in diarrhea. But more important, teas of the herb have
been taken for bleeding internal ulcers with astonishingly lasting results. The roots and tops
are powdered and sprinkled on the place to be treated. A tea may be made and used as a
wash. A combination of beech drops and cherry bark can be used to treat hemorrhages of
the bowels. This combination also makes an excellent gargle for ulcers of the mouth.

Beggers Tick (Bidens frondosa): Used in palpitation of the heart, cough, and uterine
derangement. Roots or seeds are also used as an expectorant in throat irritation. Bidens
frondosa in infusion has cured several cases of croup, even where they have been
considered beyond aid. A strong infusion of the plant, sweetened with honey, was
administered to the children, warm, in doses of a tablespoonful or more every 10 or 15
minutes, until it vomited. A quantity of mucous and membranous shreds were ejected,
followed by immediate relief; the children passed into a sleep, from which they awakened
perfectly well. In a few hours after the emetic operation of the warm infusion, it acted as a
cathartic. The leaves from which the infusion was made, were, at the same time placed in a
piece of flannel with some brandy added to them, and laid over the chest and throat. This plan
is also beneficial in colds, acute bronchial and laryngeal attach from exposure to cold, etc. An
infusion of the seeds formed into a syrup with honey, is useful in whooping-cough.
          For urethritis and cystitis that has had several closely spaced occurrences, with
antibiotics helping briefly but with the irritation returning shortly after the finish of the regimen
try several days of the tea or tincture. If the pain goes away, continue the tea for a few more
days to finish up the membrane healing. Bidens is also an excellent herb for benign prostatic
hypertrophy, usually decreasing the membrane irritability both in the urinary tract and the
rectum, and often, over a few weeks of use, noticeably shrinking the prostate and giving its
connective tissue better tone. For this purpose, it combines well with equal parts of white
         For elevated uric acid in the blood and a history of gout or urate kidney gravel, Bidens
will increase the efficiency of the kidney‘s excretion of uric acid from the blood; it will also act
as a diuretic to dilute the urine. It has no effect on the production of uric acid by the
body. Since the mechanism for stimulating the excretion is different from that of Shepherd‘s
Purse, the two can be combined for increased effects. The herb is active against staph
infections, and can be used as a wash, sitz bath, and eyewash. Its astringency helps take
away the inflammation and pain as well. Its astringency and anti-inflammatory effects on the
mucus membranes help act as a tonic and preventative for gastritis and ulcers, and diarrhea
and ulcerative colitis. For respiratory infections or irritated membranes due to shouting,
smoking, or dust, the tea or tincture acts to soothe the membranes, increase mucus
secretions and expectoration, and decrease edema and swelling. For some asthma
aggravated or induced by infection, it may be enough to turn the problem around. The tea will
often help hay fever and sinus headaches from allergies, infections or pollution. For mucus
discharges, use the tea two or three times a day for a week. This includes cloudy urine,
vaginal discharges, mucus colitis, mucoid conjunctivitis, and chronic throat and nasal

Bei Sha Shen (Glehnia littoralis): This supplement is used in traditional Chinese medicine
as an expectorant and to treat bronchitis and whooping cough. Its mechanism of action is
unknown, but animal models reveal analgesic properties. It is reported that glehnia root can
hemolyze blood cells, stimulate myocardial contractility, and exert antibacterial effects.
Various extracts from glehnia root display analgesic effects in a mouse study utilizing acetic
acid-induced writhing tests. Concentrations of 10-50 mg/kg polyacetylene and 80-100 mg/kg
coumarin fractions are necessary to elicit analgesia. The roots improve functioning of the liver
and kidneys; treat lung diseases, coughs including hacking cough, fever, chest pain. It is
especially effective in treating joint pain and muscle pain, both of acute injuries and in chronic
conditions like rheumatoid or osteo arthritis. It can be topically applied and taken
internally. In Japan, Hamaboufuu is an important plant in traditional folk medicine. One
ancient use is as an annual tonic. On the day of the Japanese New Year, Japanese people
drink a medicinal alcoholic beverage called Toso. The drink contains several medicinal herbs
of which Hamaboufuu is one. Drinking it on the New Year‘s day is said to insure health in the
coming year. It is registered in the Japanese Herbal Medicines Codex.

Beleric Myrobalan (Terminalia belerica): Beleric myrobalan fruit is astringent, tonic, and
laxative. It is principally employed as a treatment for digestive and respiratory problems. In
Ayurvedic medicine, the ripe fruit is taken for diarrhea and indigestion, and the unripe fruit is
used as a laxative for chronic constipation. Beleric myrobalan is also often used to treat
upper respiratory tract infections that cause symptoms of sore throats, hoarseness, and
coughs. Externally, the fruit is applied as a lotion for sore eyes. Alcoholic extract of the fruit
shows a marked bile- stimulant activity, and increases the total solid content in the bile
secreted in anaesthetised dogs but aqueous extract has poor activity; 30 mg/kg alcoholic
extract shows increase in bile secretion; blood pressure and respiration do not get affected.
But a higher dose 60 mg/kg produces a fall in blood pressure and a dose of 100 mg/kg is fatal.
The cold water extracts possess antibacterial activity. 'Triphala' and each of its three
constituents- Haritaki, Bibhitaka and Amalaki are well known Rasayana drugs (rejuvenating
agents). They prevent aging and impart longevity, immunity, enhance body resistance against
disease and improve mental faculties. The beneficial effects are studied on all seven dhatus.
Unripe fruit is purgative. Dried ripe fruit is astringent and employed in dropsy, piles and
diarrhea. It is also used in fever, applied to the eyes, and is useful in sore throat and
bronchitis. Bibitaki is the best single herb for generally controlling Kapha. It is a powerful
rejuvenative herb that nourishes the lungs, throat, voice, eyes and hair. It excels at removing
stones and accumulations of toxins (mucus, cholesterol, mineral deposits) in the digestive,
urinary, and respiratory tracts. It is unique in being both laxative and astringent, so it purges
the bowels, while simultaneously toning the tissues of the digestive tract. Bibitaki has been
shown in recent studies to protect the liver from damage.

Belladonna (Atropa belladonna) A belladonna derivative, atropine is used to dilate eyes
prior to eye operations and for some eye exams. It has been official in the U.S.
Pharmacopoeia since 1820. The tropane alkaloids inhibit the parasympathetic nervous
system, which controls involuntary body activities. This reduces saliva; gastric, intestinal and
bronchial secretions as well as the activity of the urinary tubules, bladder, and intestines. It is
the tropane alkaloids that increase the heart rate and dilate the pupils. It is prescribed to relax
distended organs, especially the stomach and intestines, relieving intestinal colic and pain. It
helps peptic ulcers and it relaxes spasms of the urinary tubules. The herb can also be used
to treat the symptoms of Parkinson‘s disease, reducing tremors and rigidity, and improving
speech and mobility. The smooth muscle relaxant properties of deadly nightshade make it
useful in conventional medicine as an anesthetic, particularly when digestive or bronchial
secretions need to be kept to a minimum.
Ivan Raeff, a lay practitioner in Schipka, a village in Bulgaria, discovered that a total extract of
belladonna root was successful in treating encephalitis. And the whole extract was better
tolerated than the pure alkaloid atropine. A proprietary preparation resulting from this
research is Tremoforat.         Belladonna leaves applied externally are used as a treatment
and possible cure for cancer by both Western herbalists and in Chinese folk medicine.

Bellflower (Campanula trachelium): For pains in the ear, the blossoms of bellflower were
gathered, boiling in a covered pan and after steeping the liquid, used to wash the ears. If one
had pain in the stomach, the root of this plant was cooked and spirits added. After steeping
for three hours, a small drink helped ease the pain. In the smaller villages of Poland, children
suffering from consumption were bathed in this herb: if the child‘s skin darkened after such a
bath, it was a sign that he/she would live. If it didn‘t, the disease would take them.

Bellwort (Uvularia perfoliata): The root is used as a poultice or salve in the treatment of
boils, wounds and ulcers. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of coughs, sore
mouths and throats, inflamed gums and snakebites. It is suitable for use by children. An
infusion of the crushed roots has been used as a wash to treat sore eyes.

Benzoin (Styrax benzoin): When taken internally, benzoin gum acts to settle cramps, to
stimulate coughing, and to disinfect the urinary tract. Infusions help to clear matter from the
bronchial tubes. It is one of the best expectorants, and is an ingredient of Friars Balsam, an
antiseptic and expectorant steam inhalation for sore throats, head and chest colds, asthma,
and bronchitis. For croup, the child inhales vapors from a small amount of boiled water to
which a teaspoon of a benzoin tincture has been added. It is also an antiseptic and an
astringent for healing small cuts. The resin is a common ingredient in skin-protective
products, where it aids the healing of chapped or blistered skin. It tightens and disinfects the
affected tissue. It also has stimulant properties. Medicinally it was used to relieve shingles,
ringworm and a number of other skin disorders. In other parts of southern Asia, benzoin was
employed to mend sores on the feet and was traditionally applied to heal the wound made by

Bergamot (Bergamot didyma) Bergamot tea is soothing and relaxing and makes a good
night-time drink. Add a handful of fresh leaves to your bath to sooth tired and aching limbs (in
a net bag). Native Americans used the leaves of monarda as a poultice and compress on
skin eruptions, as a tea for colds and flus and inhaled as a steam to relieve sinus and lung
congestion. Scientific evidence shows that bergamot may inhibit the herpes simplex and the
related chicken pox viruses. It is also combined with other herbs to treat urinary tract
infections and indigestion.

Bergamot Fruit (Citrus bergamia): Bergamot is not used much in herbal medicine, but it can
be used to relieve tension, relax muscle spasms, and improve digestion. It is used internally
for colic in babies as orange blossom water and externally in douches and baths for vaginal
infections as an oil.

Betel (Piper betle): Betel leaves are chiefly used as a gently stimulant, apparently inducing a
mild sensation of well-being. They also affect the digestive system, stimulating salivary
secretions, relieving gas, and preventing worm infestation. In many Asian traditions, including
Ayurvedic medicine, betel leaves are thought to have aphrodisiac and nerve tonic
properties. In Chinese herbal medicine, betel root, leaves, and fruit are sometimes used as a
mild tonic and stomach-settling herb. The root has been used with black pepper or jequirity to
produce sterility in women.

Bethroot (Trillium erectum ) Is said to have been in use among the aborigines and early
settlers of North America. It is a plant that contains a natural precursor of the female sex
hormones, which the body may use if it needs to or otherwise leaves unused, an example of
the normalizing power of some herbs. It is antiseptic, astringent and tonic expectorant, being
used principally in hemorrhages, to promote parturition, and externally, usually in the form of
a poultice, as a local irritant in skin diseases, or to restrain gangrene. The leaves, boiled in
lard, are sometimes applied to ulcers and tumors. The roots may be boiled in milk, when they
are helpful in diarrhea and dysentery. Bethroot is a valuable remedy for heavy menstrual or
intermenstrual bleeding, helping to reduce blood flow. It is also used to treat bleeding
associated with uterine fibroids. Bethroot may also be taken for bleeding within the urinary
tubules and, less often, for the coughing up of blood. It remains a valuable herb in facilitating
childbirth. A douche of bethroot is useful for excessive vaginal discharge and yeast
infections. The acrid species are useful in fevers and chronic affections of the air-passages.
Merely smelling the freshly-exposed surface of the red Beth roots will check bleeding from the

Betony (Stachys officinalis) The drug is largely concentrated in the leaves, though the root
is regarded as specific for the liver with a gentle laxative action. Betony‘s real value is as a
remedy for headaches and facial pain. The plant is also mildly sedative, relieving nervous
stress and tension. In herbal medicine, betony is thought to improve nervous function and to
counter overactivity. It is taken to treat ―frayed nerves,‖ premenstrual complaints, poor
memory, and tension. Taken daily with boiled warm milk, it is good remedy for chronic
headaches. The plant has astringent properties and in combination with other herbs such as
comfrey and linden flowers, it is effective against sinus headaches and congestion. Betony
may be taken alone or with yarrow to help staunch nosebleeds. If applied externally, it stops
bleeding, promotes healing and draws out boils and splinters. It is also mildly bitter. The
French recommended the leaves for lung, liver, gallbladder and spleen problems. It
stimulates the digestive system and the liver, and has an overall tonic effect on the body.
Trigonelline, one of its constituents has been shown to lower blood sugar levels.

Bigroot (Marah fabaceus) Used to treat rheumatism and venereal disease. Sometimes the
raw root was rubbed directly over the ailing parts. It was roasted, a paste made of its ashes,
and applied in a plaster or a poultice to the patient‘s flesh, there to remain until blisters formed
as a certain sign that a cure was underway.

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus): Medicinal Uses: A drink of the fruit and roots steeped in gin
is an old remedy to stop diarrhea and relieve nausea and indigestion though large amounts of
the whole berries eaten with their seeds and skin provide a laxative bulk. Normally the dried
fruit is markedly binding and has an antibacterial action. They can decrease intestinal
inflammation and help protect the digestive tract lining. The berries are also said to be a
refrigerant that lowers body heat. Studies show an effect on heart contractions and blood
vessels that is thought to be caused by the berries stimulating the production of
prostaglandins. There is evidence that they also help prevent blood clots. Bilberry‘s high
anthocyanin content makes it a potentially valuable treatment for varicose veins, hemorrhoids,
and capillary fragility. Bilberries are incorporated into European pharmaceuticals that are used
to improve circulation. Several scientific studies support this use. In Russia, berries and
leaves are used to treat colitis, stomach problems and sugar diabetes. The leaves are also
found in folk remedies of other countries to treat diabetes. The glucoquinine in the leaves
does show a weak ability to lower blood sugar. Clinical studies have been proposed to back
the hypoglycemic effects found in animals. German researchers have also suggested that
the quinic acid produced from a tea of dried bilberry leaves is a potential treatment for
rheumatism and gout. A decoction of the fruit is used as a mouthwash.
Modern research shows that the fruit contains compounds known as anthocyanosides which
contribute to visual acuity. Italian researchers shows that a mixture of anthocyanosides from
bilberry plus vitamin E halted the progression of lens clouding in 97% of people with early-
stage cataracts. Regular use of the fruit results in quicker adjustment to darkness and glare
and improved visual acuity both at night and in bright light during the day. It may be useful in
the prevention and treatment of glaucoma since it strengths connective tissue and prevents
free radical damage.

Bindweed (Convolvulus sepium): The dried rhizomes, roots, and leaves are used in the
preparation of laxatives and remedies for gallbladder problems. It was also used in folk
medicine for jaundice. Women drank this tea to help stomach cramps or to guard against a
miscarriage. The fresh leaves, made into a poultice, helped to bring a boil to a head.
American Indians were said to have rubbed the leaves of the plant over their bodies and then
handled rattlesnakes without dancer. The fresh sap of the plant when crushed is an effective
treatment for fevers relating to infections such as tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis, etc. Take 1 Tbsp
juice, 3 times a day for it. A mother tincture made from the root is used primarily to treat
hepatic constipation.

Birch, Water (Betula occidentalis) The bark is antirheumatic, astringent, lithontripic, salve
and sedative. A decoction of the flowers and leaves has been used as an abortifacient.

Bird Cherry (Prunus padus): The bark from young twigs is the medicinally active part. An
infusion of the bark is used in the treatment of colds, feverish conditions, rheumatic and
arthritic pain. Bird Cherry should be used internally only under strict medical supervision. It is
also used in homeopathy

Bird in the Bush (Bulbous corydalis): Bulbous Carydalis has been used as a vermifuge in
the past. The tubers are used medicinally. When dried they have a strong aroma and bitter
taste. They contain alkaloids, the most important being corydaline and
bulbocapnine. Bulbocpnine has antispasmodic, sedative and hallucinogenic properties. It
lowers the blood pressure and inhibits the contractions of striated muscles. In some countries
it is used in preparations to treat Parkinson‘s disease and other serious neurological disorders,
vertigo and muscular tremors. Bulbocapnine is also beneficial before and after treatment with
anesthetics. The root has traditionally been used to lower pain and strengthen the circulation.

Bird of Paradise (Caesalpinia pulcherrima): Traditionally the seed has been used as a liver
tonic. In Latin America: for ‗irritacion‖, an infantile disease characterized by fever, swollen
belly, cold hands and feet, perspiration, and diarrhea—squeeze a large double handful of
leaves in 1 gallon of hot water and allow to soak in sun all day; bathe infant with this warm
sun tea for 3 nights and give ¼ cup to drink after each bath. For both children and adults
suffering from ―tristesa‖—sadness and grief—bathe in this mixture. A methyl alchohol extract
of the dried bark of Bird of Paradise flower was shown to have in vitro activity against
Staphylococcus aureus and a water extract of the fresh leaves was shown to have strong in
vitro antifungal activity against Ustilago maydis and Ustilago nuda, both plant pathogens. A
methanol extract of dried root bark was shown to have in vitro activity against Staphylococcus
aueus and Escherichia coli. An ethanol-chloroform extract of fresh seed pods was shown to
have tumor promoting effect (94% enhancement of sarcoma HS1 tumor) in mice.

Bird's Foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus): Recommended for the treatment of heart
palpitations, nervousness, depression and insomnia

Birdsfoot Violet (Viola pedata): A poultice of the leaves has been used to allay the pain of a
headache. An infusion of the plant has been used in the treatment of dysentery, coughs and
colds. A poultice of the crushed root has been applied to boils. The seeds have been
recommended in uric acid gravel. The plant parts and roots have been used as a mild
laxative and to induce vomiting. A decoction of the above ground parts has been used to
loosen phlegm in the chest, and for other pulmonary problems.

Birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis ) Used to treat: abdominal complaints, cancer, cancer
(nose), depurative, leg ulcers, menstrual troubles, polyps (nose), tumor, wounds. Not used
much today, birthwort was formerly used to treat wounds, sores, and snake bite. It has been
taken after childbirth to prevent infection and is also a potent menstruation-inducing herbs and
a (very dangerous) abortifacient. A decoction was taken to encourage healing of ulcers.
Birthwort      has        also      been      used       for     asthma       and      bronchitis.
Chinese research into aristolochic acid has shown it to be an effective wound healer.
Aristolochia species are used in China, but the medicinal use has been banned in Germany
because of the toxicity of aristolochic acid. Chinese herbalists use the fruit when there is lung
heat and inflammation, with or without deficiency, but with the presence of phlegm. For these
conditions, it stops coughing and wheezing. It is also used internally to treat bleeding

Birthwort, Frail (Aristolochia debilis ) Internally used for arthritis, purulent wounds,
hypertension, snake and insect bites, and gastric disorders involving bloating (roots); for
asthma, wet coughs, bronchitis, hypertension and hemorrhoids (fruits). Indications: heat in the
lungs manifested as cough with profuse yellow sputum and asthma. The fruit (Madouling) is
used with Loquat Leaf, Peucedanum root, Mulberry bark and Scutellaria root. Deficiency of
the lungs manifested as cough with scanty sputum or with bloody sputum and shortness of
breath. Fruit is used with Glehnia root, Ophiopogon root, Aster root and Donkey hide gelatin.

Biscuit Root (Lomatium dissectum): Both Lomatium and Ligusticum were used by Native
Americans and early American medical practitioners for a variety of chronic or severe
infectious disease states, particularly those of viral origin. Modern research is rather limited,
but clinical trials have supported the inclusion of these botanicals for viral infections including
HIV and condyloma. Traditionally it‘s demonstrated efficacy against a variety of bacterial
infections including tuberculosis. Lomatium contains an oleoresin rich in terpenes. It acts as
a stimulating expectorant, enhancing the liquification and consequent elimination of mucus
from the lungs. It also appears to exert a strong antibacterial activity, interfering with bacterial
replication and inducing increased phagocytosis. The resin also contains a number of
furanocoumarins including nodakenetin, columbianin and pyranocoumarin. These resins may
be responsible for the plant's antiviral effect. They may also be partly responsible for the
phagocytic                       action                     lomatium                        causes.
          Based on empirical evidence and discussions with clinical herbalists, lomatium can
be used as an antimicrobial, especially in the lungs and upper respiratory tract. It provides
quick-acting relief in cases of viral or bacterial infection, particularly when there is a large
amount of thick or sticky mucus and infection is deep-seated and persistent. Consider taking
lomatium          for     pneumonia,        infective      bronchitis        and       tuberculosis.
           As an immunostimulant, this herb is traditionally used to treat colds and flus. Many
cases during the 1920s U.S. influenza epidemic were successfully treated with lomatium by
the professional herbalists of the time, and it has been used for this purpose by Native
Americans since the introduction of influenza to the Americas. Its infection-fighting ability
makes lomatium valuable as a mouthwash and gargle for oral and throat infections, as a
douche for bacterial and viral infections or candida, as a skin wash for infected cuts or
wounds, and in many other first- aid situations. Both tea and tincture forms are commonly
used. For acute bacterial or viral infections, 2.5 ml of the tincture diluted in water can be used
three to four times daily. A painful, itchy full-body rash that can persist for days occurs
frequently when the crude tincture is used. It seems to occur more commonly with the strong,
fresh-root preparation and disappears when treatment stops.

Biscuit Root (Cymopterus bulbosus): The plant has been eaten as a stomach medicine.

Bishop’s Weed (Ammi majur) The seeds in an infusion or as a tincture, calm the digestive
system. They are also diuretic and, like visnaga, have been used to treat asthma and angina.
Bishops‘ weed reputedly helps treat patchy skin pigmentation in vitiligo. It has also been used
for psoriasis. The seeds in an infusion or as a tincture, calm the digestive system. They are
also diuretic and, like visnaga, have been used to treat asthma and angina. Bishops‘ weed
reputedly helps treat patchy skin pigmentation in vitiligo. It has also been used for psoriasis.

Bistort (Polygonum bistorta or Persicaria bistorta) Roots and leaves were used to
counteract poisons and to treat malaria and intermittent fevers. Dried and powdered it was
applied to cuts and wounds to staunch bleeding, and a decoction in wine was taken for
internal bleeding and diarrhea (especially in babies). It was also given to cause sweating and
drive out the plague, smallpox, measles and other infectious diseases. Bistort is rich in
tannins and one of the best astringents. Taken internally, it is excellent for bleeding, such as
from nosebleeds, heavy periods and wounds, and for diarrhea and dysentery. Since it
reduces inflammation and mucous secretions it makes a good remedy for colitis and for
catarrhal congestion. It was originally recommended in 1917 as a treatment for debility with a
tendency towards tuberculosis. It has also been used externally for pharyngitis, stomatitis,
vaginal discharge, anal fissure, purulent wounds, hemorrhoids, mouth ulcers and gum
disease. Comes well with Geranium maculatum.

Biting Stonecrop (Sedum acre): The bruised leaves, fresh or in ointments, are soothing for
wounds, abcesses, bruises and minor burns. Taken internally, the plant, or its expressed
juice, has an emeto-cathartic action, and was recommended in scrofulous affections, malarial
fevers, and even in epilepsy; however, it is rarely employed at the present day, except,
occasionally, as a local application to glandular enlargements, to scrofulous ulcers, and to
some chronic cutaneous maladies—the fresh leaves only (bruised) being used—thus applied
to warts, corns, or similar growths, it is said to ultimately effect their removal. It is said to
relieve "the extreme sensitiveness associated with disorders of the reproductive function"
(Scudder, Spec. Med., p. 238). It has been considered useful in intermittent fever and in
dropsy. In large doses it is emetic and cathartic, and applied externally will sometimes
produce blisters. Traditionally known as an abortive. In Scotland, this plant was used in the
past as a vermifuge, as a cure for scurvy and scrofula (tuberculosis of the lymph glands in
the neck). The plant contains an acrid juice, and this has been used in the treatment of
cancer, acts as an emetic, and has been used to cure dropsy. An old recipe against dropsy
proposes boiling an ounce of the plant in twelve ounces of ale, the resultant infusion to be
taken over the period of a day in four doses. In Poland, as a treatment for a sore throat, it was
scalded and applied to the throat. The juice from the leaves, crushed and applied to
cancerous ulcers as a poultice, brought relief and healing if changed frequently. Rinsing the
mouth with a decoction of the herb strengthened the gums and decreased the damage
caused by scurvy. Fried with an equal amount of thyme in unsalted fat, it made a salve for

Bitter Apple (Citrullus colocynthis): Dried pulp of unripe fruit is used medicinally for its
drastic purgative and hydragogue cathartic action on the intestinal tract. When the fruit is ripe
its pulp dries to form a powder used as a bitter medicine and drastic purgative. So strong that
it is mostly used only in combination with other herbs. The pulp or leaves is a folk remedy for
cancerous tumors. A decoction of the whole plant, made in juice of fennel, is said to help
indurations of the liver. Roots may also be used as purgative against ascites, for jaundice,
urinary diseases, rheumatism, and for snake-poison. The colocynth is also used for
amenorrhea, ascites, bilious disorders, cancer, fever, jaundice, leukemia, rheumatism,
snakebite, tumors (especially of the abdomen), and urogenital disorders. The plant figures
into remedies for cancer, carcinoma, endothelioma, leukemia, corns, tumors of the liver and
spleen, even the eye.

Bitter Ash (Picrasma excelsa): Quassia is an excellent remedy in dyspeptic conditions due
to lack of tone. As with all bitters, it stimulates the production of saliva and digestive juices
and so increases the appetite. It may safely be used in all cases of lack of appetite such as
anorexia nervosa and digestive sluggishness. The wood has been used to prepare
―qQuassia cups.‖ A Quassia cup is filled with hot water and the wqater is allowed to cool
somewhat before being drunk. This results in a liquid that is very bitter and thus acts to
stimulate the appetitie. Quassia cups can be used in this way for a number of years and will
retain an ability to produce a bitter water extract.. It is used in the expulsion of threadworms
and other parasites, both as an enema and an infusion. The herb‘s bitterness has led to its
being used as a treatment for malaria and other fevers, and in the Caribbean it is given for
dysentery. Externally as a lotion it may be used against lice infestations.

Bitter Cress (Cardamine amara): Used medicinally since early times as a stomachic

Bitter Dock (Rumex obtusifolius): Studies have validated the traditional prescription of bitter
dock tea as a laxative. The root was steeped and applied to skin eruptions, especially for
children. The root contains tannin and is astringent and blood purifier. A tea made from the
roots has been used in the treatment of jaundice, whooping cough, boils and bleeding. An
infusion of the root has been used as a wash, especially for children, to treat skin eruptions.
One report says that the root has been used as a contraceptive to stop menstruation.

Bitter Milkwort (Polygala amara): The plant is used primarily as a discharging agent, the
effect being attributed to the saponines as well as the galtherin and its aglycon. Due to its
bitter constituents it is used as an appetite stimulant and a stomachic. The Greek name
Polygala means ―plenty of milk‖ and explains its use as a galactogogue. This effect is said to
be caused by the saponines. The flowering stems, sometimes with the roots, are used
medicinally. When dry they have a distinctive bitter taste (the specific epithet amara means
bitter). It is used in the form of a decoction or powder to treat coughs, bronchitis and other
infections of the upper respiratory tract, and digestive disorders. It is also included in
proprietary expectorant medicines. In folk medicine it is still recommended for nursing
mothers but it has not been established whether the plant really is a galactagogue. An
infusion is used to treat stomach upsets, bladder and kidney disorders etc.

Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium ssp aurantium): The strongly acidic fruit of the bitter
orange stimulates the digestion and relieves flatulence. Synephrine, found in bitter orange, is
structurally related to the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine. These
neurotransmitters are suggested to have an antidepressant effect as well as a stimulatory
effect on the heart even in small doses. The amino acid found in foods called l-phenylalanine
is a precursor to tyrosine. As such, it is involved in brain biochemical processes involving
neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine thereby promoting elevated
mood,           mental           alertness,          and        appetite          suppression.
         An infusion of the fruit is thought to soothe headaches, calm palpitations and lower
fevers. The juice helps the body eliminate waste products, and, being rich in vitamin C, helps
the immune system ward off infection. If taken to excess, however, its acid content can
exacerbate arthritis. In Chinese herbal medicine, the unripe fruit, known as zhi shi, is thought
to ―regulate the qi‖ helping to relieve flatulence and abdominal bloating, and to open the
bowels. The seeds are used to treat pimples and freckles. The distilled flower water is
antispasmodic and sedative.

Bitter Orange (Poncirus trifoliate): The thorns are used in the treatment of toothache. The
stem bark is used in the treatment of colds. The fruit, with the endocarp and seeds removed,
is carminative, deobstruent and expectorant. It is used in the treatment of dyspepsia,
constipation and abdominal distension, stuffy sensation in the chest, prolapse of the uterus,
rectum and stomach. It is milder in effect than the immature fruit and is better used for
removing stagnancy of food and vital energy in the spleen and stomach.

Bitter Root (Apocynum androsaemifolium ) Famous as a safe cathartic and heart tonic; it
is also a powerful emetic and diuretic. Bitter root was a popular remedy among the Indians
for syphilis. Small doses act as a vasoconstrictor, slowing and strengthening the heartbeat
and raising the blood pressure. It is a strong diuretic, useful in cardiac dropsy and the like,
but authorities differ as to whether it increases urine by irritation of the kidneys or dilation of
the renal artery, or both. One of the reasons preventing its more frequent use in medicine is
the variability of absorption, metabolization, effects and pharmacology. It is used today when
the hepatic organs are sluggish. Its influence is slow but persistent and extends through the
gall ducts, gall cyst, liver tubuli and also the muscular and mucous membranes of the bowels
and kidneys. It is quite stimulating to the gall ducts, influencing the excretion of bile, and
especially valuable when the stools are clay-colored, indicating a lack of bile. In jaundice,
take 3-5 drops of the fluid extract every 2 or 3 hours and, if caused by occlusion, add
American mandrake. If the pulse is below par, add a little capsicum. If using large doses for
gall stones, add some ginger or aniseed. Because it influences a discharge of bile and the
bowels in the way it does, a soft stool will result in about 6-8 hours. This is quite in order
where torpid conditions are found, but is not good in irritated and sensitive conditions.      The
green fruit was boiled and used for a heart and kidney treatment.

Bitter Root (Lewisia rediviva): An infusion of the root has been used to increase the milk
flow in nursing mothers, to relieve heart pain and the pain of pleurisy and also as a blood
purifier. The root has been eaten raw to counteract the effects of poison ivy rash and as a
treatment for diabetes. The pounded dry root has been chewed in the treatment of sore
throats. A poultice of the raw roots has been applied to sores.

Bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara ) It is used mainly as an alterative internally for eruptic
skin diseases and ulcers including eczema, itchiness, psoriasis and warts. Externally a
decoction of the twigs, applied as a wash, may also help to lessen the severity of these
conditions. It has a very cool energy and is useful for most inflammatory conditions, including
ulcerative colitis and inflammatory rheumatic diseases. It also is used for severe high fevers
with extreme excitability and acts as a cooling sedative for hysteria and anxiety as well as
chronic jaundice. It was also used for felons (inflammations of finger-end joints), hence the
common name ―felonwort‖ The herb may also be taken to relieve asthma, chronic bronchitis
and rheumatic conditions, including gout. Recent research indicates that bittersweet contains
a tumor-inhibiting agent, beta-solamarine, which may have some promise in treating cancer.

Bitterweed (Heleniuim autumnale): The flowers and leaves have been snuffed to cause
sneezing and clear nasal passages, and to treat colds. The plant parts and flowers have
been used to treat intestinal worms. They have been thought to be poisonous to fish and
insects. The powdered leaves are sternutatory. An infusion of the leaves is laxative and
alterative. An infusion of the stems has been used as a wash in the treatment of fevers. The
plant contains helenalin, a compound that has shown significant anti-tumor activity.

Black Catechu (Acacia catechu) Black Catechu is a powerful astringent used in chronic
diarrhea, dysentery and mucous colitis. It is also a clotting agent. It helps reduce excess
mucus in the nose, the large bowel, or vagina. It also treats eczema and hemorrhages. As a
douche it is used in leucorrhea. As a mouthwash or gargle it is used in gingivitis, stomatitis,
pharyngitis and laryngitis. It may be used as an infusion, tincture, powder or ointment. A
small piece of cutch dissolved in the mouth is an excellent remedy for bleeding gums and
canker sores. The power and tincture are also applied to infected gums and have been used
to clean the teeth. In Ayurvedic medicine, decoctions of the bark and heartwood are used for
sore throat. Research is that cutch has been shown to lower blood pressure, its mechanism
of action is thought to be bradykinin related and due to vasodilation.

Black Cherry (Prunus serotina): Figuring in official pharmacopoeias and much used in the
Anglo-American tradition, black cherry bark effectively counters chronic dry and irritable
cough. Due to its powerful sedative action on the cough reflex, Wild Cherry bark also finds its
use in the treatment of bronchitis and whooping cough. It can be used with other herbs in the
control of asthma. It must be remembered, however, that the inhibition of a cough does not
equate with the healing of a chest infection, which will still need to be treated. It may also be
used as a bitter where digestion is sluggish. It is an outstanding remedy for weakness of the
stomach with irritation, such as ulcers, gastritis, colitis, diarrhea and dysentery. It is helpful
combined in digestive tonics with such herbs as licorice, ginseng, cyperus, anise and
tangerine peel. These herbs are macerated for two weeks to six months in rice wine. They
are then strained and the resulting tincture is taken in teaspoonful doses before meals. The
cold infusion of the bark may be helpful as a wash in cases of inflammation of the eyes. The
astringent bark also eases indigestion and the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome,
especially when these conditions are of nervous origin. The medicinal properties of this plant
are destroyed by boiling, so the plant should only be allowed to steep in warm water. The
root bark and the aromatic inner bark have expectorant and mild sedative properties and a
tea made from either of them has been used to ease pain in the early stages of labor. The tea
is also used in the treatment of fevers, colds, sore throats, diarrhea etc. A decoction of the
inner bark has been used in the treatment of laryngitis. The root bark has been used as a
wash on old sores and ulcers. The fruit has been used in the treatment of dysentery.

Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa): Black cohosh root improves blood circulation and
lowers blood pressure and body temperature by dilating blood vessels and increasing
peripheral circulation. The constituents responsible for these actions are so resinous, the
traditional virtues of this herb are best extracted by using hot water and preferably alcohol on
the fresh root. A central nervous system depressant, black cohosh directly inhibits vasomotor
centers that are involved with inner ear balance and hearing. One of the uses for black
cohosh recognized by doctors is for relief of ringing in the ears. The Native Americans knew
that it encouraged uterine contractions and used it to facilitate labor. It is also used to reduce
the inflammation and muscular pain of rheumatism and inflammatory arthritis, especially when
it is associated with menopause and to treat problems of the respiratory system. Chinese
physicians use several related plants to treat headache, to ripen and bring out skin rashes
such as measles, diarrhea, bleeding gums and some gynecological problems.
Black cohosh has estrogenic effects, meaning it acts like the female sex hormone estrogen.
This may lend support to its traditional use for menstrual complaints. It is thought to reduce
levels of pituitary luteinizing hormone, thereby decreasing the ovaries‘ production of
progesterone. A German trial published in 1995, revealed that black cohosh in combination
with St. John‘s wort was 78% effective at treating hot flashes and other menopausal problems.
Black cohosh is used to optimize estrogen levels perhaps by competing with estrogen
receptor sites when estrogen is overabundant but may promote estrogen production when
estrogen is low. It is the prime women‘s tonic for any uterine condition involving inflammation,
pain, or low estrogen. It promotes fertility and softens the impact of menopause. Using black
cohosh during menopause can reduce intensity and frequency of hot flashes, support and
ease the body‘s changes, helps counteract menopausal prolapses, improves digestion,
relieves menstrual pain and irregularity, relieves headaches, relieves menopausal arthritis
and rheumatism.
Cimicifugin, the ranunculoside in black cohosh, exhibits antispasmodic and sedative
properties in the fresh root. When the root is cut or bruised, an enzyme is released which
reacts with cimicifugin to produce protoanemonine, which is unstable in water but, when dried,
is readily oxidized to an anemonic acid which has no physiological activity.               The
antispasmodic and sedative properties of black cohosh are only present in the whole, fresh
root. The dried, powdered black cohosh in common use today contains only the irritating

Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa): The gum from the buds was used in
preparations for baldness, sore throats, whooping cough and tuberculosis. Some tribes
placed the gum that exudes from the burls of cottonwood directly on cuts and wounds.
Western balsam poplar has a long history of herbal use. It was commonly used by many
native North American Indian tribes who valued it especially for its antiseptic and expectorant
properties, using it to treat lung complaints, wounds, skin conditions etc. It is still commonly
employed         in     modern       herbalism       with     much         the    same      uses.
        The leaf buds are covered with a resinous sap that has a strong turpentine odor and a
bitter taste. They also contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid
(aspirin) in the body. The buds are antiscorbutic, antiseptic, balsamic, diuretic, expectorant,
stimulant and tonic. They are taken internally in the treatment of bronchitis and upper
respiratory tract infections. They should not be prescribed to patients who are sensitive to
aspirin. Externally, the buds are used to treat colds, sinusitis, arthritis, rheumatism, muscular
pain and dry skin conditions. They can be put in hot water and used as an inhalant to relieve
congested nasal passages. The buds are harvested in the spring before they open and are
dried                            for                           later                         use.
          Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the bark of most, if not
all members of the genus contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic
acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is
used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual

Black Haw: (Viburnum prunifolium): Black Haw has a very similar use to Crampbark to
which it is closely related. It is a powerful relaxant of the uterus and is used for dysmenorrhea
and false labor pains. It may be used in threatened miscarriage as well (often in combination
with false unicorn root). Its relaxant and sedative actions explain its power in reducing blood
pressure, which happens through a relaxation of the peripheral blood vessels. It may be used
as an anti-spasmodic in the treatment of asthma. It improves circulation to the uterus and
ovaries, and thereby promotes nutrition to the pelvic area.
It treats all nervous complaints, including convulsions, hysteria and spasms. It also is used to
treat palpitations and hysterical fits. It is good for all painful affections including arthritic and
rheumatic complaints.
If taken in the latter part of pregnancy, it helps promote normal uterine contractions and
antagonizes irregular ones. It prevents afterpains, post partum hemorrhage and helps ensure
normal involution of the uterus. Other benefits include relief of morning sickness and lowering
of arterial blood pressure.

Hellebore, Black (Helleborus niger ) The active constituents have an action similar to that
of those found in foxglove. Toxic when taken in all but the smallest doses, the acrid black
hellebore is purgative and cardiotonic, expels worms, and promotes menstrual flow. In the
20 century, the cardiac glycosides in the leaves came into use as a heart stimulant for the
elderly. The herb has also been taken to stimulate delayed menstruation. Now considered
too strong to be safely used.
Black Horehound (Ballota nigra): Black horehound has a long history of herbal use, though
is not widely employed in modern herbalism because of its unpleasant flavor. An excellent
remedy for the settling of nausea and vomiting where the cause lies within the nervous
system rather than in the stomach. It may be used with safety in motion sickness, where the
nausea is triggered through the inner ear and the central nervous system. This herb will also
be of value in helping the vomiting of pregnancy, or nausea and vomiting due to
nervousness. This remedy has a reputation as a normalizer of menstrual function and also as
a mild expectorant. Long been considered a remedy for convulsions and low spirits. Black
horehound is thought to be mildly sedative and antispasmodic and is occasionally taken for
arthritis and gout. It may be substituted for white horehound, but its medicinal effect is inferior.
The fresh herb is sometimes used to make a syrup.

Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia): The flowers are antispasmodic, aromatic, diuretic,
emollient and laxative. They are cooked and eaten for the treatment of eye ailments. A tea
made from the flowers was tried for headaches, stomach pains, and nausea, and locust
blossoms steeped in wine were used to treat anemia. An infusion of the flowers and leaves is
recommended for pyrosis, esophagitis, and gastro-duodenal ulcer. Then taken in gargles,
they alleviate throat irritation. The inner bark and the root bark are emetic, purgative and
tonic. The root bark has been chewed to induce vomiting, or held in the mouth to allay
toothache. The fruit is narcotic. This probably refers to the seedpod. The leaves are
cholagogue and emetic. The leaf juice inhibits viruses.

Black Medick (Medicago lupulina): Aqueous extracts of the plant have antibacterial
properties against micro-organisms. The plant has agents that are capable of easing pain or
discomfort. Legume isoflavones seem to be estrogenic and are believed by some NCI
scientists to prevent cancer.

Black Nightshade (Solanum nigrum): Used to produce vomiting, and purging, black
nightshade was felt to purify the blood of toxins. In North America the Comanches, Houmas,
and Rappahannock employed the plant internally as a treatment for tuberculosis, to expel
worms, induce sleep and as an eye wash. The external application of the leaves in skin
problems has been recorded since the ancient Greek Dioscorides. Arabic physicians utilized
the bruised leaves as an application for burns. A poultice of freshly crushed leaves or a
compress soaked in concentrated decoction was applied as an analgesic in cases of itching,
hemorrhoids and arthritis. It can be used to tighten the gums when teeth are loose. It can
be an appropriate remedy for epilepsy, spasms and cramps of the extremities. The leaves
have been freely used in cancer, scurvy and scrofulous affection, in the form of an
ointment. For home use it is best to use the plant in the ointment preparation, as in internal,
large amounts it will produce sickness and vertigo, and in most cases should be prescribed by
persons knowing both patient and medication.
      The berries are used in fever, diarrhea and heart disease. Also used to dilate the
pupil. The plant juice in doses of 6-7 oz in chronic enlargement of the liver, chronic skin
diseases, spitting of blood and hemorrhoids. The leaf juice for inflammation of the kidneys
and bladder, gonorrhea, chronic enlargement of the liver and spleen. A hot infusion is a
strong diaphoretic, 1-2 grains only. As a diuretic and depurative a decoction of the leaves is
used for dropsy, chronic enlargement of liver and jaundice. Syrup of the herb is used as
expectorant, diaphoretic, in cooling drinks for fevers.
         Externally a paste of the plant is a useful application for corroding ulcers, chancre,
sever burns, herpes and rheumatic joints. The hot leaves applied in poultice form will relieve
swollen and painful scrotum and testicles, also rheumatic gout, eruptions of the skin,
corroding ulcers, tumors, whitlow and burns. A decoction of the leaves is used for bathing
tumors, inflamed, irritated and painful parts of the body. This diluted decoction is effectively
added to the syringe for vaginal discomfort.

Black Oak (Quercus velutina): The inner bark contains quercitannic acid and is used
medicinally, mainly as a mild astringent. It is inferior to the bark of white oaks because it
contains large amounts of tannin. The bark is used in the treatment of chronic dysentery,
intermittent fevers, indigestion, asthma and lost voice. An infusion has been used as a gargle
for sore throats, hoarseness colds etc. The bark can be chewed as a treatment for mouth
sores. An infusion of the bark has been used as a wash for sore and chapped skin. A
decoction of the crushed bark has been used as a wash for sore eyes. Any galls produced on
the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of hemorrhages, chronic
diarrhea, dysentery etc.

Black Spruce (Picea mariana): A poultice of the inner bark has been applied to
inflammations. A tea made from the inner bark is a folk remedy for kidney stones, stomach
problems and rheumatism. An infusion of the roots and bark has been used in the treatment
of stomach pains, trembling and fits. A resin from the trunk is used as a poultice and salve on
sores to promote healing. The resin can be mixed with oil and used as a dressing on purulent
wounds, bad burns, skin rashes, scabies and persistent scabs. The resin can be chewed as
an aid to digestion. A decoction of the gum or leaves has been used in treating respiratory
infections and kidney problems. An infusion of the leaves has been used as a bath or a rub in
treating dry skin or sores. A decoction of the young twigs has been used in the treatment of
coughs. A decoction of the cones has been drunk in the treatment of diarrhea. A decoction
has been used externally as a gargle to treat sore throats. The cones have been chewed to
treat a sore mouth and toothaches.

Black Walnut (Juglans nigra): The fruit, leaves, and bark of this tree offer many
benefits. The inner bark of the tree is a mild laxative, and was used commonly during the
American Revolution. The peel of the fruit is reputed to be useful for treating ulcers and
syphilis. Taken internally, black walnut helps relieve constipation and is also useful against
fungal and parasitic infections. It may also help eliminate warts. Rubbed on the skin, black
walnut extract is reputed to be beneficial for eczema, herpes, psoriasis, and skin
parasites. The juice of the fruit is considered useful for treating tapeworms, as a laxative, and
as a gargle in treating diphtheria. A leaf infusion is used against bedbugs. An infusion of the
bark is used to treat diarrhea and also to stop the production of milk, though a strong infusion
can be emetic. The bark is chewed to allay the pain of toothache and it is also used as a
poultice to reduce the pain of headaches. The juice from the fruit husk is applied externally
as a treatment for ringworm. The husk is chewed in the treatment of colic and applied as a
poultice to inflammations. The burnt kernels, taken in red wine, are said to prevent falling hair,
making it fair. Green husks are supposed to ease the pain of toothache. A tea made from
the leaves is astringent. An infusion has been used to lower high blood pressure. It can be
used as a cleansing wash. The pulverized leaves have been rubbed on the affected parts of
the body to destroy ringworm. The oil from the ripe seeds has been used externally in the
treatment of gangrene, leprosy, and wounds. The sap has been used to treat inflammations.

Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus): The root-bark and the leaves are strongly astringent,
depurative, diuretic, tonic and vulnerary. Blackberry-leaf tea is a domestic remedy for sore
throats, diarrhea, and hemorrhoids. It is reputed to clean the kidneys and urinary tract of
stones and gravel. Chewing the fresh leaves is an ancient cure for bleeding or spongy gums.
The leaves can also be used as a gargle to treat sore throats, mouth ulcers and gum
inflammations. A decoction of the leaves is useful as a gargle in treating thrush and also
makes a good general mouthwash. The fresh, lightly boiled leaves were applied to piles, and
blackberry vinegar is a home remedy of long standing for feverish colds. The berries make a
pleasant gargle for swallowing.

Blackcap (Rubus leucordermis): An infusion of the root or the leaves has been used in the
treatment of diarrhea and upset stomachs. A mild infusion of the roots has been used in the
treatment of influenza. A poultice of the powdered stems has been used to treat cuts and

Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum): Blackcurrant fruits are a good source of minerals and vitamins,
especially vitamin C. They have diuretic and diaphoretic actions, help to increase bodily
resistance to infections and are a valuable remedy for treating colds and flu. The juice,
especially when fresh or vacuum-sealed, helps to stem diarrhea and calms indigestion.
         The leaves are cleansing, diaphoretic and diuretic. By encouraging the elimination of
fluids they help to reduce blood volume and thereby lower blood pressure. An infusion is used
in the treatment of dropsy, rheumatic pain and whooping cough, and can also be used
externally on slow-healing cuts and abscesses. It can be used as a gargle for sore throats
and mouth ulcers. The leaves are harvested during the growing season and can be used
fresh or dried. French research has shown that blackcurrant leaves increase the secretion of
cortisol by the adrenal glands, and thus stimulate the activity of the sympathetic nervous
system. This action may prove useful in the treatment of stress-related conditions.
      An infusion of the young roots is useful in the treatment of eruptive fevers. A decoction
of the bark has been found of use in the treatment of calculus, dropsy and hemorrhoidal
tumors. The seed is a source of gamma-linolenic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid which
assists the production of hormone-like substances. This process is commonly blocked in the
body, causing disorders that affect the uterine muscles, nervous system and metabolism.
There are no records of the oil from this species being used medicinally, though it is used in
cosmetic preparations.

Blackroot (Leptandra virginica): Native Americans used it to clear bile and to aid
digestion. Contains a volatile oil and when dried is used in the treatment of dysentery,
enteritis and allied complaints. When fresh the root itself is an emetic. It is still used in small
doses today as a laxative and a remedy for liver and gallbladder disorders. Leptandrin excites
the liver gently and promotes the secretion of bile without irritating the bowels or purging. As it
is also a tonic for the stomach, it is very useful in diarrhea, chronic dysentery, cholera
infantum, and torpidity of the liver. The accounts of its use are conflicting, perhaps owing to
the difference in the action of the root in its dry and fresh states. There appears to be a risk of
the fresh root producing bloody stools and possibly abortion, though a decoction may be
useful in intermittent fever. It has been stated that the dried root has been employed with
success in leprosy and cachetic diseases, and in combination with cream of tartar, in
dropsy. When jaundice is due to liver congestion, use Black Root, as it will help whenever
there is any sign of liver problems. The herb also treats flatulence and bloating, and eases
the discomfort of hemorrhoids and rectal prolapse. It is occasionally given for skin problems if
poor liver function is a factor.

Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa): The syrup from sloes is an astringent medicine and used to
stem nose-bleeding. It is massaged into the gums causing firmness and so preventing the
teeth from becoming loose. And rubbed onto the teeth, it can remove tartar and improve their
whiteness, giving them a sparkle. An infusion of the leave in warm water and used as a
mouthwash has much the same effect. A tea from the flowers serves as a purgative. It is
also recommended for stomach complaints and to stimulate the urinary and intestinal
processes. It is also used to clean the skin and remove blemishes. The stone-free fruit is
used to make jam to aid the functions of the stomach and stop diarrhea. The crushed fruit
(with stones) is used as a base for vaginal rinses and to arrest brewing. A decoction from the
bark is used to reduce fever. Although no specific mention has been seen for this species,
all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in
water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly
poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-

Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) Bathe in a bark infusion for rheumatism.

Bladder Campion (Silene vulgaris): The plant is said to be emollient and is used in baths or
as a fumigant. The juice of the plant is used in the treatment of ophthalmia.

Bladder Senna (Colutea arborescens): The leaves are diuretic and purgative. The leaves
are sometimes used as a substitute for senna as a laxative, though they are much milder in
their action. The seeds are emetic but also toxic. Taken in the form of an infusion, 1 or 2
drachms of the seeds will excite vomiting.

Bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris): The whole plant is mildly astringent, diuretic and
vulnerary. It is used as a poultice on wounds.

Blanket Flower (Gaillardia pinnatifida): The plant is used as a diuretic, taken to give relief
from painful urination. An infusion of the leaves is taken internally, and a poultice applied
externally, in the treatment of gout. For sinus or indigestion headaches, the plant is mashed
and steeped in water or vinegar, and the resulting solution is applied to the head. One strong
cup a day of the tea, taken for 7 days, is said to help infertility in women. The hot tea, taken
for several days is used for bladder pain and infections in the cold winter months. A simple
tea is brewed from the flowers for a blood tonic; it also is taken for anemia. The powdered
flowers can be inhaled for headaches, but some people are allergic to them

Blazing Star (Mentzelia albicaulis): A poultice of the crushed, soaked seeds has been
applied to burns and also to relieve the pain of toothache. Used as a poultice and hot herb
bath for arthritis and sprained or inflamed joints. Also used as a diuretic. Simple tea as
needed or for bathing

Bleeding Heart (Dicentra formosa): The early Eclectics seemed to have used Corydalis
primarily as an alterative-tonic remedy, with reference to dermatological conditions. An
alterative of great value where indicated. Increases the vitality and influences metabolism.
Especially indicated in all glandular derangement with general depraved condition of the
system, where the nutritive forces are impaired. It increases waste and improves nutrition.
More especially indicated in above conditions where there is an enlarged abdomen, the result
of atony, or where there is a persistently coated tongue and fetid breath. In diarrhea and
dysentery where tongue is coated, breath fetid and digestion poor, it is a good remedy. In
amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea and leucorrhea where there is a relaxed condition of the uterine
supports it is a valuable adjunct to other indicated remedies. In eczema and other skin
diseases with relaxed conditions it is curative. It is an antisyphilitic and can be used in all
stages of syphilis, strumous conditions, nodular swelling, enlarged glands, with good
results. Dicentra is used primarily for its analgesic and anodyne properties in western
herbalism today. In Asian medicine however, it is also used as a cardiac remedy for
arrythmias and hypertension as well as a hypnotic for insomnia.

Blessed Thistle (Cnicus benedictus) Blessed thistle has been used as a treatment for liver
disorders, as well as menstrual problems. It seems to detoxify the liver. In many European
countries blessed thistle tablets are prescribed along with acetaminophen or aspirin to
counterbalance the potential liver damage these drugs can cause. Many women take blessed
thistle to regulate their periods. It seems to stimulate the appetite and many herbalists
prescribe it to their anorexic patients. It is often combined with other herbs that are beneficial
to the liver, such as milk thistle, artichoke or red clover. The leaves are considered one of the
best herbs for increasing mother‘s milk. Blessed thistle is antibiotic, destroying staph and
other infections, although it has not proved very effective against harmful intestinal bacteria.
Externally used as a healing balm for wounds and ulcers. Combines well with turtlehead and
cola for anorexia and with meadowsweet, agrimony and cinquefoil for diarrhea.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis): Bloodroot has been used as a diuretic, emetic,
emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, stimulant, and tonic. Bloodroot has been used
historically in numerous topical preparations for the treatment of various skin cancers, and
also for sores, warts, eczema, and other dermal & epidermal problems. It has also been used
internally in herbal preparations for congestive lung conditions such as emphysema and
chronic bronchitis. Studies find that sanguinarine, a compound found in bloodroot, kills
bacteria, stops them from converting carbohydrates into gum tissue-eating acid, and blocks
enzymes that destroy collagen in gum tissue. Some studies have shown small amounts to be
even more effective in reducing dental plaque than chlorhexidine, the active ingredient in
mouthwashes and the effects can last up to 4 hours. Some companies are now making
toothpaste and mouthwash using it as an active ingredient. The root in a vinegar extract
makes a very good antifungal wash for athlete‘s foot. Prepared as a powder, bloodroot may
be sniffed to treat nasal polyps.
The paste of the root has been recommended to remove warts and the powder is used in a
number of cancer salves (a process too complicated for this monograph). Carcinomas of the
human nose and ear have responded to topical treatment with a preparation containing
bloodroot extract.
Blue Camas (Camassia quamash): A decoction of the roots has been used to induce labor.
An infusion of the leaves has been used to treat vaginal bleeding after birth and to help expel
the placenta.

Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) : The Eclectic doctors used blue cohosh to
reduce labor pains, painful menstruation, stomach cramps, as an abortifacient and for joints
stiff from arthritis or rheumatism. Herbalists also use it to help with irregular menstruation or a
weak uterus. Researchers in India have discovered evidence that the American Indians may
have been correct in using blue cohosh as a contraceptive. In animals, the herb inhibits
ovulation. There has been some comparison to goldenseal in its effect and it has been used
as an effective control for chronic yeast infections. The bitter principles in blue cohosh
(notably methylcytistine) constrict peripheral blood vessels, stimulates the small intestine and
respiration and produces hyperglycemia in a manner similar to nicotine but only about one-
fortieth as toxic. They are also antifungal. It is a relatively complicated herb to use. It
appears that the dose required for balancing the menstrual cycle changes throughout the
cycle. If too much is taken intestinal cramping and headaches often occur. It can either
stimulate a uterus to contract or inhibit contractions. It is used for amenorrhea in women
whose cycles are blocked by physical congestion or nervous or hormonal imbalance. It is
used in early pregnancy to prevent miscarriages, though for this use it is usually taken in
small doses combined with other antispasmodics such as cramp bark. Its other important use
is as a hormonal and tissue toner. Blue cohosh is given along with uterine astringent tonics
for tears or surgical damage to the reproductive system during, but especially after, chronic
reproductive infections; it also helps shrink fibroids or growths and promotes fertility.
Tinctures are more effective than water-based tea since the active ingredients are not fully
water soluble.

Blue Curls (Trichostema lanceolatum): An infusion of its leaves was an external wash for
treating headaches, and when combined with those of Turkey Mullein, a lotion applied to
victims of typhoid To the Chumash it was important to mothers in labor used to help expel the

Blue-Eyed Grass (Sisyrinchium bellum) The Coast Miwok have used tea made from blue-
eyed grass to treat stomach-aches. Coastanoans and Hispanic Californians have used the
tea to reduce fever. The Ohlone used an infusion of the roots and leaves as a cure for
indigestion and stomach pain, and similar uses are recorded from other Native American
peoples. The roots were used as a purgative.

Blue False Wild Indigo (Baptisia australis): The root is antiemetic, emetic and purgative. A
poultice of the root is anti-inflammatory and is held in the mouth to treat toothaches. A hot tea
was used as a purgative and a cold tea to prevent vomiting. The plant is under investigation
as a potential stimulant of the immune system.

B       lueEyed Grass (Sisyrinchium angustifolium): The root is astringent. An infusion is
used to treat diarrhea in adults and children. The leaves are eaten as a cooked green to
regulate the bowels. An infusion of the plant has been used to treat stomach complaints and
stomach worms.

         Blue Flag(Iris versicolor):Blue flag is currently used mainly to detoxify the body. It
increases urination and bile production and has a mild laxative effect. It is used to treat liver
diseases, jaundice and hepatitis. This combination of cleansing actions makes it a useful
herb for chronic skin diseases such as acne and eczema, especially where gallbladder
problems or constipation contribute to the condition. Blue flag is also given for biliousness
and indigestion. The fresh root is quite acrid and when taken internally causes nausea,
vomiting, colic and purging. The dried root is much less acrid. Taken internally as a tea, the
root has been used as a strong laxative or emetic that also acts strongly on the liver and
promotes the excretion of excess body fluids. It is also a stimulant for the circulatory and
lymphatic system. Its detoxifying effect make it useful in the treatment of psoriasis, acne,
herpes, arthritis, swollen glands, pelvic inflammatory disease etc. The traditional use of blue
flag for gland problems persists. It is also believed by some to aid weight loss. Only small
doses are used for clearing the liver, usually in combination with other alterative
herbs. Externally, it is applied to skin diseases, wounds and rheumatic joints. The roots are
harvested in late summer and early autumn and are usually dried for later use. The roots
were boiled in water and then mashed to make a poultice which was used to relieve the pain
and swelling associated with sores and bruises.

Blue Gentian (Gentiana parryi): The bitter root is one of the best stomach tonics. Take the
tincture ½ hour before meals to relieve chronic indigestion, acid stomach, and to stimulate
HCI secretion.

Blue Lettuce (Lactuca pulchella): A tea of the roots and stems has been used by the
Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia in the treatment of diarrhea in children.
Hemorrhoids have been treated by applying a moist, usually warm or hot mass of plant
material. The whole plant is rich in a milky sap, containing 'lactucarium', which is used in
medicine for its mildly pain-relieving, antispasmodic, digestive, urination-inducing, hypnotic,
narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has mild narcotic effects. It has been taken
internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs,
whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. The sap has also been applied externally in the
treatment of warts. An infusion of the roots and stems has been given to children in the
treatment of diarrhea. The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts.

Blue Morning Glory (Ipomoea nil): The seed is used in the treatment of edema, oliguria,
ascariasis and constipation. The seed contains small quantities of the hallucinogen LSD. This
has been used medicinally in the treatment of various mental disorders. Therapeutic benefits
are somewhat enhanced when used in combination with costus and ginger. Simply add 1-2
grams of each to the above decoction.

B      lueVervain (Verbena macdougali): Treats painful or nervous stomach. This upright
mountain relative of Moradilla is used for the same purposes

Bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata ) Bogbean is a most useful herb for the treatment of
rheumatism, osteo-arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It has a stimulating effect upon the walls
of the colon which will act as an aperient, but it should not be used to help rheumatism where
there is any colitis or diarrhea. It has a marked stimulating action on the digestive juices and
on bile-flow and so will aid in debilitated states that are due to sluggish digestion, indigestion
and problems of the liver and gall-bladder. Bogbean is a strongly bitter herb that encourages
the appetite and stimulates digestive secretions. It is commonly taken to improve an
underactive or weak digestion, particularly if there is abdominal discomfort. Used for anorexia.
This herb is tonic, cathartic, deobstruent and febrifuge. Other uses are for muscular weakness
in myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic infections with debility and exhaustion. May be
combined with black cohosh and celery seed to relieve joint and muscular pain. An extract is
made from the leaves, which possesses strong tonic properties, and which renders great
service in rheumatism, scurvy, and skin diseases. An infusion of 1 oz. of the dried leaves to 1
pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses, frequently repeated. It has also been
recommended as an external application for dissolving glandular swellings. Finely powdered
Bogbean leaves have been employed as a remedy for ague, being said to effect a cure when
other means fail. In large doses, the powder is also purgative. It is used also as an herb
tobacco. Buckbean tea, taken alone or mixed with wormwood, centaury or sage, is said to
cure dyspepsia and a torpid liver.

Boldo Leaf (Peumus boldus): Boldo is one of the best liver tonics in the world and also has
an affinity for kidneys and bladder. Boldo activates the secretion of saliva and stimulates
liver activity and bile flow and is chiefly valued as a remedy for gallstones and liver or
gallbladder pain. Boldine, one of its constituents, induces the flow of bile as well as the total
amount of solids that it excretes. Its protective action over the hepatic cells has been
demonstrated "in vitro" and "in vivo". It is normally taken for a few weeks at a time, either as a
tincture or infusion. Boldo is also a mild urinary antiseptic and demulcent, and may be taken
for infections such as cystitis. In the Anglo-American tradition, boldo is combined with
barberry and fringe tree in the treatment of gallstones. It makes a drinkable tea and
combined with goldenseal is excellent for kidney and bladder infections.
         Boldo leaves are the subject of a German therapeutic monograph which allows the
use for mild gastrointestinal spasms and dyspeptic disorders as well as a subject of a US
monograph which shows that boldo causes clinically significant diuresis. The plant is used in
homeopathy in the treatment of digestive disorders, as a laxative, choleretic, diuretic, and for
hepatic disturbances. The leaves have been used for worms, and Dr. James Duke reports its
traditional use for urogenital inflammations like gonorrhea and syphilis, as well as for gout,
jaundice, dyspepsia, rheumatism, head colds and earaches. Boldo is rich in phytochemicals
including at least 17 known alkaloids. A total of at least 38 phytochemical compounds have
been identified. Antioxidant properties of the leaves has also been documented. A recent
human study demonstrated that Boldo relaxes smooth muscle and prolongs intestinal transit
which validated again its traditional medicinal uses. The average therapeutic dose is reported
to be 2-3 grams daily.

Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum): : Parts used: tops and leaves. European studies show
this herb helps treat minor viral and bacterial infections by stimulating white blood cells to
destroy disease-causing microorganisms more effectively. In Germany, physicians currently
use boneset to treat viral infections, such as colds and flu. One study shows boneset is mildly
anti-inflammatory, lending some support to its traditional use in treating arthritis.
Taken in small doses it often gives relief very quickly. It reduces fever and clears up mucous
build-up in the lungs. It gently empties any toxins which may be stored in the colon. It
relaxes the joints and eases the terrible pain which often accompanies the flu. Some people
have found it to be very useful for their rheumatism. Boneset is dual in action, depending on
how it is administered, when cold a tonic, when warm emetic diaphoretic. It is extremely bitter
to the taste and is disliked by children, but in these cases a thick syrup of boneset, ginger and
anise is used by some for coughs of children, with good results.
The flavonoids and the sesquiterpene lactones in the essential oil appear to work together in
an as yet undetermined fashion to produce the antipyretic and diaphoretic effect. The
essential oil also irritates mucous membranes resulting in its expectorant effect. The irritation
may also stimulate peristalsis.
Besides the bitter and aromatic components of the herb, it contains the mucilaginous
polysaccharride inulin which could mitigate the harshness of the herb. Tannins are also
present which tone inflamed tissue. One study also mentions the presence of pyrrolizidine
alkaloids. These are apparently of the same chemical class as the hepatoxic alkaloids found
in comfrey. Flavonoids have even shown some antitumor properties.

Borage (Borago officinalis): Medicinal: Poultices from the leaves are used to cool and
soothe inflammations. In Latin America, a borage tea is drunk for lung problems. With its
high mucilage content, borage is a demulcent and soothes respiratory problems. Its emollient
qualities make it helpful for sore and inflamed skin—prepared either as freshly squeezed juice,
in a poultice, or as an infusion. The flowers encourage sweating, and the leaves are diuretic.
The seed oil is particularly rich in polyunsaturated fats and is superior in this respect to
evening primrose oil. Borage seed oil is used to treat premenstrual complaints, rheumatic
problems, eczema, and other chronic skin conditions. Gamma linoleic acid (GLA) which is
found in borage seed oil (also evening primrose and black currant oils) is used to reduce
inflammation, boost immunity and help maintain cell membranes in painful inflammatory
disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Research has also shown that GLA supplements can
help recovering alcoholics stay sober and slow down the damage that alcohol is known to
cause to brain and liver cells. To help with Raynaud massage the oil into the fingers.

Borneol       (Dryobalanops     aromatica):      Used     internally    as   sedative    and
antispasmodic. Externally it is employed as antiphlogistic in stomatitis, nasal mucositis,
conjunctivitis. The drug‘s analgesic and antipyretic properties make it an excellent external
remedy for abscesses, boils, sores, sore throat and other external heat excess symptoms.

Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum): The young shoots are diuretic, refrigerant and vermifuge.
The young shoots have been eaten as a treatment for cancer. The leaves have been used in
a steam bath as a treatment for arthritis. A decoction of the plant as been used in the
treatment of tuberculosis. A poultice of the pounded fronds and leaves has been used to treat
sores of any type and also to bind broken bones in place. The root is antiemetic, antiseptic,
appetizer and tonic. A tincture of the root in wine is used in the treatment of rheumatism. A
tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of stomach cramps, chest pains, internal
bleeding, diarrhea, colds and also to expel worms. The poulticed root is applied to sores,
burns and caked breasts. An infusion of the plant has been used to expel intestinal worms
and treat diarrhea. Native Americans used it to increase urine flow and to relieve stomach
cramps. Medicine was made from the roots for Turkey Illness, symptoms of which are toes
and fingers permanently bent. The plant was chosen because of its resemblance to turkey

Bricklebush (Brickellia grandiflora): It assists in lowering high blood sugar levels in type II
diabetics who are insulin-resistant. In addition, it helps improve the stomach lining and
digestion because it increases not only the quality, but the quantity of hydrochloric acid that
secretes in the stomach. This is important because foods that take a long time to digest often
cause acid indigestion. The brickellia plant also helps to stimulate fat digestion in the
gallbladder by evacuating bile from the gallbladder and bile synthesis in the liver. A medium-
strong cup of tea is taken in mid-afternoon and mid-morning. Diet control and little or no
alcohol intake supplement this treatment. Sometimes Maturique is used to start the treatment,
followed by maintenance on bricklebush. A patent medicine herb tea called Hamula is made
in Mexico and widely used in the Southwest, but its main herb is bricklebush.        In Mexico it
has been known to be used in baths for acute arthritis. It can also be helpful to treat diarrhea
and other digestive problems. It may also have the potential to prevent or help cataracts in
certain cases.

Bristly Crowfoot (Ranunculus pennsylvanicus): It is used to raise blisters.

Brittlebush (Encelia farinose): The dried herb is chewed, or the tea used, as a mouthwash
to alleviate toothache, sore gums or a sore mouth. The powdered herb is mixed with water
for a hot poultice, and the tea taken for acute arthritis episodes. The bright yellow resin is
burned for an aromatic incense and chewed as an expectorant. A simple tea of leaves for
mouthwash and gargle. Powdered leaves for poultice.

Broad Bean (Vicia faba): The ground dried beans have bee used to treat mouth sores. In
New Mexico, a paste made of ground beans and hot water is applied to the chest and back as
a treatment for pneumonia.

Brooklime (Veronica beccabunga): The plant is rich in vitamin C. Before citrus fruits were
imported into England, it was sold in London‘s streets for sailors to take to sea to prevent
scurvy. Aucubin has been reported to stimulate the uric acid secretion of the kidneys and
break up and pass kidney stones and to treat anemia and fevers. It seems to have a mild
laxative effect in animals. The fresh leaves can be used, mashed, as a poultice for burns,
itching, and wounds. The juice of the fresh plants, being high in vitamin C, is used in spring
tonics. It brings on menstruation and helps expel a dead fetus. The herb is heated with oil
and vinegar and applied to tumors and swellings.

Broom Corn (Sorghum bicolor): Sorghum is a folk remedy for cancer, epilepsy, flux, and
stomachache. The root is used for malaria in southern Rhodesia; the seed has been used for
breast disease and diarrhea; the stem for tubercular swellings. In India, the plant is
considered anthelminthic and insecticidal, and in South Africa, in combination with Erigeron
canadense., it is used for eczema. In China, where the seeds are used to make alcohol, the
seed husk is braised in brown sugar with a little water and applied to the chest of measles
patients. The stomachic seeds are considered beneficial in fluxes. Curacao natives drink the
leaf decoction for measles, grinding the seeds with those of the calabash tree (Cresentia) for
lung ailments. Venezuelans toast and pulverize the seeds for diarrhea. Brazilians decoct the
seed for bronchitis, cough and other chest ailments, possibly using the ash for goiter. Arubans
poultice hot oil packs of the seeds on the back of those suffering pulmonary congestion.
According to Grieve's Herbal, a decoction of ca 50 g seed to a liter of water is boiled down to
ca 1/2 liter as a folk medication for kidney and urinary complaints. The inflorescence is
astringent and hemostatic. Sorghum contains such hard-to-find nutrients as iron, calcium and
potassium. Before the invention of the daily vitamins, many doctors prescribed sorghum as a
daily supplement for those low in these nutrients.

Broom Moss (Dicranum scoparium): The CH2Cl2 extract of Dicranum scoparium was
found to possess pronounced antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus
stearothermophilus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli.

Broom, Scotch (Sarothamnus scoparius) The ingredient sparteine reduces the heart rate
and the isoflavones are estrogenic. Broom is used mainly as a remedy for an irregular, fast
heartbeat and to treat cardiac edema. The plant acts on the electrical conductivity of the
heart, slowing and regulating the transmission of the impulses. Broom is also strongly diuretic,
stimulating urine production and thus countering fluid retention, often in combination with uva
ursi or dandelion. Since broom causes the muscles of the uterus to contract, it has been
used to prevent blood loss after childbirth. Both tips are seeds are soluble in water and
alcohol. It is also used for acute constipation.

Broom, Spanish (Spartium junceum): The Spanish Broom in its medicinal properties
closely resembles the common Broom, but is from five to six times more active. The
symptoms produced by overdoses are vomiting and purging, with renal irritation. The plant is
an efficacious and potent diuretic The seeds have been used to a considerable extent in
dropsy, in the form of a tincture. An alkaloid found in this plant is used as a purgative, emetic
or diuretic. Diosorides declares, ―The seed of this, & ye flowers being drank with Melicrat in
quantity of 5 Oboli (about 2 drams) doth purge upward with violence.‖

Broom Snakeroot (Gutierrezia sarothrae): Broom snakeroot was used by western Indians
in poultices for treating insect bites. Preparations of the plant have also been used to treat
rheumatism and malaria. A decoction of the roots has been used in the treatment of painful
urination, diarrhea and stomach aches. The roots have been placed in boiling water and the
steam inhaled in the treatment of respiratory complaints. The flowers are laxative. A
decoction of the fresh flowers has been used in the treatment of diarrhea. The leaves are
cathartic, febrifuge and sedative. An infusion has been used in the treatment of coughs and
colds. It has also been used as a bath to treat fevers and sores, including those caused by
venereal diseases. A poultice of the moistened leaves has been used to treat bruises,
wounds, sprains, nose bleeds and insect stings. A strong, black infusion of the plant has been
used as a rub on rheumatic joints. An infusion of the leaves has been used as a pleasant and
refreshing bath for arthritis. To reduce uterine swelling after childbirth, a little of the tea is
taken as a beverage, and a cloth moistened with the tea is applied as a poultice. This
treatment is repeated frequently, accompanied by massage of the abdomen. A weak tea is
used as a douche or sitz bath to treat vaginitis.

Broomrape (Cistanche salsa): This herb has long been renowned in China as a potent
sexual tonic for both men and women. Yang Kui-gei (Precious Concubine), the pampered and
notoriously seductive consort to the elegant Tang dynasty emperor Ming Huang, is said to
have used this herb daily as a sexual tonic. Most women use it primarily to promote healthy
ovulation and enhance fertility, while men enjoy it mainly to strengthen their sexual organs
and increase sexual vitality. It is particularly recommended as a cure and preventive for
excess loss of semen due to involuntary ejaculation, a condition that Chinese physicians
regard as a grave threat to male health and longevity. Ancient Chinese almanacs sometimes
refer to it as the Magic Medicine of Eternal Youth and Immortality.
       The stems of cistanche are sliced to produce the pharmacy materials. Modern use of
cistanche in Chinese herbalism is to treat yang deficiency that contributes to fertility problems
(including impotence and female infertility) and reproductive system disorders such as
profuse menstrual bleeding or leukorrhea. Additionally, it is used for coldness of the lower
back and legs that leads to pain (e.g., lumbago) or weakness (e.g., muscle flaccidity). As a
secondary      property,       cistanche     is     a     mild    laxative   for    dry     stool.
        The fleshy stem is prepared for medicine by cleaning it and then soaking it in wine,
after which the central fingers are removed. It is then salted and dried in the sun.
        Cistanche is salty. It mainly treats the five taxations and seven damages, supplements
the center, eliminates cold and heat and pain in the penis, nourishes the five viscera,
strengthens yin, and boosts essence qi. In females, it makes pregnancy possible and treats
concretions and conglomerations. Protracted taking may make the body light.

Broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus): A decoction of the roots is used in the treatment of
backaches. A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of diarrhea. Externally, it is
used as a wash for frostbite, sores, itching, piles and poison ivy rash.

Bryony (Bryonia dioica and Bryonia alba): The cooked root was effective in healing
wounds on a horse‘s hoof. It treats connective tissue pain anywhere in the body and
rheumatic pains in the chest caused by fluid accumulation and chronic cough. It is good for
pleurisy, bronchitis, pneumonia, blood-streaked expectoration and glandular enlargements
with chronic inflammations. It is the remedy for inflammation of the serous tissues and is also
useful for peritonitis and synovial inflammations. It will help to control the cough and pain
associated with influenza. It is particularly useful for conditions that are caused by cold. It is
also given for other inflammatory conditions such as duodenal ulcers and may be used to
reduce high blood pressure. Externally, it is used as a rubefacient, in muscular and joint
pains and pleurisy, acting as a counterirritant, causing swelling and increased blood flow to
the area. A powerful cathartic and purgative. The whole herb has an antiviral effect.

Bryony, Black (Tamus communis): It used to be freely used, when rubbed on flesh, to
relieve rheumatic and arthritic pains and gout. It is also an effective diuretic. The expressed
juice of the fresh root, mixed with a little white wine, has been used as a remedy for gravel,
being a powerful diuretic, but it is not given internally now, and is not included in the British
Pharmacopoeia. The expressed juice of the root, with honey, has also been used as a
remedy for asthmatic complaints, but other remedies that are safer should be preferred.
        As an external irritant, Black Bryony has been helpful, and it was formerly much
employed. The macerated root was applied as a stimulating plaster, and in gout, rheumatism
and paralysis has been found helpful in many instances. This should not be done without
expert advice since it can cause painful blisters. A tincture made from the root proves a most
useful application to unbroken chilblains, and also the fruits, steeped in gin, are used for the
same remedy. Black Bryony is a popular remedy for removing discoloration caused by
bruises and black eyes, etc. The fresh root is scraped to a pulp and applied in the form of a

Bu Gu Zhi (Psoralea corylifolia): Valued as a yang tonic, bu gu zhi is taken in China to treat
impotence and premature ejaculation and to improve vitality. The one-seeded fruits (or the
seed plus the seedpod) are highly regarded as an aphrodisiac and tonic to the genital
organs. It is used in the treatment of debility and other problems reflecting ―kidney yang
deficiency‖, such as febrile diseases, premature ejaculation, impotence, lower back pains,
frequent urination, incontinence, bed wetting etc. It is also used externally to treat various skin
ailments including leprosy, leucoderma and hair loss. The seed and fruit contain psoralen.
This causes the skin to produce new pigment when exposed to sunlight and is used for
treating vitiligo and psoriasis. This has been supported by Chinese studies. In Vietnam, a
tincture of the seeds is used to treat rheumatism. It is antifungal and for most skin diseases
should be taken internally and externally. For the latter, the seeds are crushed and topically
applied in a poultice. Research has been done on using the seeds for alopecia. An injection
of psoralea extracts and exposure to ultraviolet light were used in 45 cases. Within six months
hair was completely resored in 36% of the cases and there was a significant restoration in
another 30%. In Ayurveda it is used as an anti-pitta herb, for skin diseases and hair
loss. The antibacterial action of the fruit inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculos. The
plant yields a useful medicinal oleoresin, it treats kidney disorders, impotence, premature
ejaculation, lumbago etc.

Buchu (Agathosma betulina and A. crenulata) The leaves are used locally for antiseptic
purposes and to ward off insects. In western herbalism, the leaves are used for infections of
the genito-urinary system, such as cystitis, urethritis and prostates. Internally used for urinary
tract infections (especially prostates and cystitis), digestive problems, gout, rheumatism,
coughs, and colds, often combined with Althaea officinalis. Externally used in traditional
African medicine as a powder to deter insects and in a vinegar-based lotion for bruises and

Buckeye, California (Aesculus californica) The crushed fruit is applied as a salve on
hemorrhoids. The Pomo Indians used the fruit to expel worms from the bowels of their horses
and the bark of the tree to cure toothaches. Small fragments were placed in the cavity of the
patient‘s tooth and kept firmly in place until the pain receded.

Buckler Fern, Broad (Dryopteris dilatata) The root contains 'filicin', a substance that
paralyses tapeworms and other internal parasites and has been used as a worm expellent. It
is one of the most effective treatments known for tapeworms. Its use should be immediately
followed by a non-oily purgative such as magnesium sulphate in order to expel the worms
from the body. An oily purge, such as caster oil, increases the absorption of the fern root and
can be dangerous. The root is harvested in the autumn and can be dried for later use, it
should not be stored for longer than 12 months. This remedy should be used with caution and
only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The root is toxic and the dosage is
critical. The root is also used in the treatment of dandruff.

Buckthorn (Rhamnus catharticus (R. frangula) ) Buckthorn bark treats stubborn
constipation, liver congestion, dropsy, hemorrhoids, colic and obesity. It is milder than its near
relative cascara. It has a generally calming effect on the gastrointestinal tract and may be
used for an extended period of time for chronic constipation. It also is good for treating
ulcerative colitis and acute appendicitis. Taken hot, it will induce perspiration and lower
fevers. It is used with alterative formulas in small amounts, since its mild laxative effect helps
eliminate toxins and treat conditions such as gallstones, itching, lead poisoning, parasites,
skin diseases and worms. In ointment form it is very effective in treating warts and various
skin problems.

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum): Buckwheat is a bitter but pleasant tasting herb that is
frequently used medicinally because the leaves are a good source of rutin. Rutin is useful in
the treatment of a wide range of circulatory problems, it dilates the blood vessels, reduces
capillary permeability and lowers blood pressure. Buckwheat is used to treat a wide range of
circulatory problems. It is best taken as a tea or tablet, accompanied by vitamin C or lemon
juice to aid absorption. Buckwheat is used particularly to treat fragile capillaries, but also
helps strengthen varicose veins and heal chilblains. Often combined with linden flowers,
buckwheat is a specific treatment for hemorrhage into the retina. The leaves and shoots of
flowering plants are acrid, astringent and vasodilator. It is used internally in the treatment of
high blood pressure, gout, varicose veins, chilblains, radiation damage etc. A poultice made
from the seeds has been used for restoring the flow of milk in nursing mothers. An infusion of
the herb has been used in the treatment of erysipelas (an acute infectious skin disease).

Buffalo Gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima): Several plant parts of buffalo gourd have medicinal
attributes that tribes implement into their culture. The Isleta-Pueblo Indian boiled the roots
applying the infusion to chest pains. The Tewa grind the root into a powder drinking it with
cold water for laxative effects (not safe: can cause diarrhea and irritation of the digestive tract).
Cahuilla Indians used to chew the pulp of the gourd and apply the pithy mass to open sores,
or boil the dried root and drink the decoction as either an emetic or a physic. A poultice of the
mashed plant has been used to treat skin sores, ulcers etc. The complete seed, together with
the husk, is used as a vermifuge. This is ground into a fine flour, then made into an emulsion
with water and eaten. It is then necessary to take a purgative afterwards in order to expel the
tapeworms or other parasites from the body. As a remedy for internal parasites, the seeds are
less potent than the root of Dryopteris felix-mas, but they are safer for pregnant women,
debilitated patients and children. The juice of the root is also disinfecting and remedies
toothache. The baked fruit rubbed over rheumatic areas will relieve pain. The seeds and
flowers help control swelling. The seed also acts as an effective vermicide (kills worms--
Grind seed into a fine flour; mix with water and drink). The poultice of the smashed plant will
remedy skin sores and ulcers. Mix root with olive oil; apply to infected area. The pulp of the
gourd was mixed with soap and applied to sores and ulcers that other poultices and plasters
had failed to cure. The supperating parts were liberally dusted with a quantity of pulverized
dried seeds. The root was used to cure a bad case of piles or kill a mass of maggots infesting
an open wound.

Bugle (Ajuga reptans): Bugle has a long history of use as a wound herb and, although little
used today, it is still considered very useful in arresting hemorrhages and is also used in the
treatment of coughs and spitting of blood in incipient consumption. It has mild analgesic
properties and it is still used occasionally as a wound healer. It is used to treat bleeding from
cuts and other wounds. The leaves are simmered to make an infusion. It is also mildly
laxative and traditionally has been thought to help cleanse the liver. In the past it was
recommended for coughs, ulcers, rheumatism, and to prevent hallucinations after excessive
alcohol consumption. Externally used for bruises and tumors. It is thought to possess heart
tonic properties. The plant is usually applied externally. It is also commonly used fresh in
ointments and medicated oils.

Bugleweed (Lycopus virginicus): Bugleweed is principally prescribed to treat an overactive
thyroid gland and the racing heartbeat that often accompanies this condition. It is also
considered an aromatic and tonic astringent that reduces the production of mucus. It should
be used only in its fresh state (or freshly tinctured), not dried. For treating traumatic bruises
and injuries, it is combined with other herbs in a liniment, and also taken internally. Good for
cardiac problems. Studies indicate that bugleweed reduces the activity of the thyroid gland by
slowing the release of the hormone thyroxine in the thyroid. It should help ease abnormal
excitability, relieve acute hyperventilation, slow a rapid heart rate and relieve spastic coughing
from those suffering from spontaneous hyperthyroidism. Bugleweed is also useful in many
heart and vascular system disorders. It is believed to work in the cardiovascular system in a
way that is similar to the drug digitalis—by strengthening the heartbeat while slowing a rapid
pulse.       But     it     is    virtually    free   of     the    dangerous      side     effects.
         Bugleweed is a good hemostatic or coagulant for home use, nearly as specific as
shepherd‘s purse without the latter‘s diuretic or hypertensive effects. The fresh tincture is
preferable, but the dried herb is adequate; one-fourth to one-half teaspoon of the tincture or a
rounded teaspoon to tablespoon of the herb in tea. Treatment should be continued one dose
after the bleeding has stopped to allow firm clotting or sealing. It can be used for nosebleeds,
excess menstruation, bleeding piles and the like. Particularly useful for two or three days
after labor, exerting little effect on colostrums or milk production.

Bugloss (Echium vulgare): Viper's bugloss was once considered to be a preventative and
remedy for viper bites. It is related to borage, Borago officinalis, and has many similar actions,
especially in its sweat-inducing and diuretic effects. In recent times, however, it has fallen out
of use, partly due to lack of interest in its medicinal potential and partly to its content of
pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are toxic in isolation. An infusion of the plant is taken internally
as a diuretic and in the treatment of fevers, headaches, chest conditions etc. The juice of the
plant is an effective emollient for reddened and delicate skins, it is used as a poultice or
plaster to treat boils and carbuncles. The roots contain the healing agent allantoin. Excellent
for evacuating the bowels without griping effect. It is also taken to clear phlegm from the
bronchial tubes. The significant mucilage content has also proved helpful in treating skin
conditions. The flowers are mildly tonic and antiseptic. The plant is said to be efficacious in
the treatment of snake bites. When chopped up finely, the fresh flowering heads can be
made into a poultice for treating whitlows and boils.

Bulbous Buttercup (Ranunculus bulbosus): The root has been placed in a tooth cavity to
act as a painkiller. A decoction of the plant has been used in the treatment of venereal
disease. It is directly applied to remove warts. The juice is topically applied to rheumatic and
gouty joints to relieve these conditions. A tincture may be both externally applied and taken
internally to treat shingles and sciatica

Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis): The flavonoids have earned this plant a reputation as an
anti-inflammatory and general analgesic among contemporary herbalists, and researchers are
investigating its properties as an anti-cancer agent. Modern interest in bunchberry‘s
pharmaceutical qualities may have stemmed from its Native American reputation as an
antidote to a variety of poisons. The leaves have been known to be burned and powdered,
then applied to topical sores. A mild tea made from the roots has been used to treat colic in
infants. The leaves and stems are analgesic, cathartic and febrifuge. A tea has been used in
the treatment of aches and pains, kidney and lung ailments, coughs, fevers etc. The fruits
are rich in pectin which is a capillary tonic, antioedemic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and
hypotensive. Pectin also inhibits carcinogenesis and protects against radiation. The mashed
roots have been strained through a clean cloth and the liquid used as an eyewash for sore
eyes and to remove foreign objects from the eyes.

Bupleurum (Bupleurum falcatum): Internally used for malaria, blackwater fever, uterine and
rectal prolapse, herpes simplex, hemorrhoids, sluggish liver associated with mood instability,
menstrual disorders and abdominal bloating. Often used raw with wine for feverish illnesses,
with vinegar as a circulatory stimulant, and mixed with tortoise blood for malaria. First
mentioned in Chinese medical texts around AD200, it is one of the most important Chinese
herbs for treating the liver because it acts on diseases of a mixed conformation, both internal
and chronic and both external and acute, both hot and cold, both deficient and excess. It is
one of the major chi regulating or carminative herbs that help regulate moodiness. It has a
strong ascending energy, so that it is also added in small amounts to tonic formulas to raise
the yang-vitality, treat organ prolapse and raise sagging spirits. It is used for hepatitis and all
liver disorders and to help resolve and bring out eruptic diseases. One of the peculiarities of
Bupleurum is its capacity to ‗dredge‘ out old emotions of sadness and anger that may be
stored        in        the       organs       and        tissues        of       the        body.
         The root contains saikosides. These saponin-like substances have been shown to
protect the liver from toxicity whilst also strengthening its function, even in people with
immune system disorders. These saikosides also stimulate the body's production of
corticosteroids and increase their anti-inflammatory affect. The plant is often used in
preparations with other herbs to treat the side effects of steroids. Promising new research out
of China and Japan has shown Bupleurum's ability to protect the adrenal glands from steroid-
induced                                                                                   atrophy.
         In Ayurvedic medicine it would be considered to be anti-kapha and anti-pitta but pro-
vata. Ayurvedic doctors do not normally used this herb but a combination of turmeric and
barberry root.

Burdock (Arctium lappa): Western herbalists have long used burdock for its demulcent
action, both externally and internally, and for its alterative effects on the blood and urinary
system. During the Middle Ages, remedies for kidney stones contained burdock in the belief
that a stony character in a medicine would cure the stony ailment.
         The Chinese find it more valuable as a healer of hot (yang) conditions. It enters the
liver meridian and benefits spleen deficiency. Its diaphoretic and diuretic properties make it
valuable for eliminating excess nervous energy, sweating out toxins, and cooling the heat of
infections. They also use it for colds, flus, measles, and constipation. The Chinese also
consider burdock to be a strengthening aphrodisiac.
The most popular western use of burdock root is as a primary herb in blood purifier formulas.
It is also used to cleanse the body of uric acid and other residues that accumulate from
rheumatism, arthritis, and gout. Seeds are sometimes used for skin problems. The shredded
leaves have also been folded into egg whites and applied as a skin dressing to accelerate
healing. Tests confirm that it kills both bacterial and fungal infections.    French herbalists
have used the fresh root to lower blood sugar levels in diabetics because it contains the easily
digestible starch ―inulin‖. It is also believed, but not proven, that the root regenerates liver
cells and stimulates the gallbladder. Burdock is used in many parts of the world in herbal
cancer treatments, was an ingredient in the Hoxsey formula, and is one of the four ingredients
in the Essiac formula. If you want to try burdock in conjunction with other cancer therapy, a
suggested use is to make a decoction by boiling 1 teaspoon of root in 3 cups of water for 30
minutes. Cool. Drink up to 3 cups a day. Has a sweet taste, similar to celery root. Or as a
tincture, take ½ to 1 teaspoon up to three times a day.

Burnet, Greater (Sanguisorba officinalis): Great burnet is employed mainly for its
astringent action, being used to slow or arrest blood flow. In both the Chinese and European
traditions, it is taken internally to treat heavy periods and hemorrhage. Externally a lotion or
ointment may be used for hemorrhoids, burns, wounds, and eczema. Modern research in
China has shown that the whole herb heals burns more effectively than the extracted tannins
(the astringent component of the plant). Patients suffering from eczema showed marked
improvement when treated with an ointment made from the root and petroleum jelly. The
leaves are used in the treatment of fevers and bleeding. Externally, Greater burnet is a
valuable astringent and is employed for a variety of gastro-intestinal problems, including
diarrhea, dysentery, and ulcerative colitis, particularly if accompanied by bleeding. The root is
used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, hematuria, menorrhagia, bloody stool, dysentery,
diarrhea, hemorrhoids and burns. All parts of the plant are astringent, but the root is most
active. Great burnet is an excellent internal treatment for all sorts of abnormal discharges
including diarrhea, dysentery and leucorrhea. It is used externally in the treatment of burns,
scalds, sores and skin diseases. This species was ranked 19th in a Chinese survey of 250
potential anti-fertility plants.

Burr Marigold (Bidens tripartite (Bidens tripartita) Valuable astringent used for
hemorrhage wherever it occurs including uterine hemorrhage and conditions producing blood
in the urine. It may be used for fevers and water retention when this is due to a problem in
the kidneys. Used to relieve disorders of the respiratory system. The astringency helps
counteract peptic ulceration, diarrhea, and ulcerative tract ailments. Externally in Russia used
for alopecia. Often combined with comfrey, agrimony, calamus or ginger when treating
digestive tract ailments.

Bush Honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera): The leaves are diuretic. A compound decoction has
been used in the treatment of stomach aches. The plant is used as a gargle in catarrhal
angina. The root is diuretic, galactogogue, laxative and ophthalmic. A cooled infusion has
been used as an eyewash for sore eyes. The bark is laxative and ophthalmic. An infusion
has been used to increase milk flow in a nursing mother and as an eyewash for sore eyes.

Bush Tea (Cyclopia genistoides): Often dried and drunk as tea in South Africa. Also of
great value to sufferers from kidney and liver disorders. To make the tea the stems and
leaves are chopped into small pieces, wet and then left in heaps where they ferment
spontaneously, They may be heated in an oven to about 60C - 70 C to enhance the process.
After sufficient fermentation, the tea is spread out in the sun to dry. After sifting, it is ready for
use. Honeybush tea, with its own distinct sweet taste and aroma, is made like ordinary tea,
except that simmering enhances the flavor. Drinking honeybush tea is said to promote good
health, stimulate the appetite, and the milk flow of lactating mothers.
        Honeybush tea is a herbal infusion and many health properties are associated with the
regular consumption of the tea. It has very low tannin content and contains no caffeine. It is
therefore especially valuable for children and patients with digestive and heart problems
where           stimulants         and         tannins         should          be             avoided.
       Research on Honeybush tea has only started recently in the 90‘s and already great
progress was made on testing and researching the medicinal values of this tea. De Nysschen
et al found 1995 three major phenolic compounds in honeybush tealeaves: a xanthone c-
glycoside, mangiferin and O-glycosides of hesperitin and isosakuranetin, two flavanones.
        Honeybush tea is normally consumed with milk and sugar, but to appreciate the
delicate sweet taste and flavor, no milk or sugar should be added. Descriptions of the flavor
vary from that of hot apricot jam, floral, honey-like and dried fruit mix with the overall
impression of sweetness. The tea has the added advantage that the cold infusion can also be
used as iced tea and that it blends well with fruit juices. Honeybush tea is prepared by boiling
about 4-6 g of the dried material (approximately 2-3 tablespoonfuls) per liter for 20 minutes.

Butcher's Broom (Ruscus aculeatus ) Butcher‘s Broom is a popular treatment for leg
cramps and arthritis. The plant contains steroidlike compounds that can reduce inflammation.
It is also a mild diuretic and can help reduce swollen hemorrhoids. For venous insufficiency.
It is available in capsule and tincture form, as well as an ointment for hemorrhoids. Butcher's
broom can be taken before surgery to prevent thrombosis

Butter Tree (Madhuca longifolia): The expectorant flowers are used to treat chest problems
such as bronchitis. They are also taken to increase production of breast milk. The leaves are
applied as a poultice to relieve eczema. In Indian folk medicine, the leaf ash is mixed with
ghee (clarified butter) to make a dressing for wounds and burns. The seed oil is laxative, and
is taken for constipation and to loosen the stool of hemorrhoid sufferers. The oil is also
applied to itchy skin. Mahua preparations are used for removing intestinal worms, in
respiratory infections, and in cases of debility and emaciation. The astringent bark extract is
used for dental-related problems, rheumatism, and diabetes, while the seed oil is efficacious
in treating skin ailments. The distilled juice of the flowers is considered a tonic, both
nutritional and cooling.

Butterbur (Petasites hybridus) It has been used mainly to treat chest problems such as
bronchitis, asthma, and whooping cough. Butterbur helps to strengthen digestion, in
particular where indigestion results from obstructed bile flow. It not only eases spasms in
muscles, but has a pain-relieving effect too. It can also be used for fevers. This herb has also
been given for inflammation of the urinary tract, and the fresh leaves can be used externally
as a poultice to treat wounds and skin eruptions.

Buttercup, Celery-Leaved (Ranunculus sceleratus) The celery-leafed buttercup is one of
the most virulent of plants. When bruised and applied to the skin it raises a blister and
creates a sore that is not easy to heal. If chewed it inflames the tongue and produces violent
effects. The herb should be used fresh since it loses its effects when dried. The leaves and
the root are used externally as an antirheumatic. The seed is tonic and is used in the
treatment of colds, general debility, rheumatism and spermatorrhea. When made into a
tincture, given in small diluted doses, it proves curative of stitch in the side and neuralgic
pains between the ribs. Mostly used homeopathically.

Butternut (Juglans cinerea): The inner bark is the medical portion and that of the root is
considered the best. It has a feeble odor and a peculiarly bitter, somewhat acrid taste. Its
medicinal virtues are extracted by boiling water, except its astringency, which it yields to
alcohol. Butternut is a mild cathartic, operating without pain or irritation and resembling
rhubarb in evacuating without debilitating, the alimentary canal. It was highly esteemed and
much employed as a laxative by the Army during the Revolutionary War. The liquid extract is
very valuable in chronic constipation, especially combined with a carminative herb such as
ginger or angelica. It will tone the entire alvine membrane, being particularly tonic to the
lower bowels, influencing peristalsis. It is moderately slow, operating in 4-8 hours, but very
reliable. It relieves the portal circulation, especially where the liver is engorged. It will bring
about the ejection of bile and the cleansing of the hepatic and alvine accumulations, but it will
not bring about water evacuations. It is considered excellent for other bowel affections,
particularly dysentery, in which it has acquired considerable reputation. A simple syrup of
butternut can be made as follows: Fl X butternut ½ oz, 4 oz sugar, and 10 oz boiling
water. Mix and bottle. Dose is 1 Tbsp twice daily, children in proportion. This syrup is
excellent for hemorrhoids and rectal hemorrhage, FE stone root may be added. For
tapeworm, it is considered a reliable remedy, especially for children. The oil may be applied
to irritated sores. Butternut also lowers cholesterol levels and promotes the clearance of
waste products by the liver. It has a positive reputation in treating intestinal worms. An
infusion of the dried outer bark is used in the treatment of toothache.

Butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris): Although the plant is protected in Europe, a Swiss medical
laboratory used to carry on a profitable traffic, illegally importing hundreds of pounds of
butterwort leaves from France, which it used to manufacture a cough syrup. Whole stations
of this uncommon plant were destroyed in the process. Butterwort is rarely employed in
European herbal medicine today. Its main use is as a cough remedy, with properties similar
to those of sundew, another insect-eating plant. Butterwort may be used to treat chronic and
convulsive coughs. The thick plantain-shaped leaves were used for application to sores and
chapped hands.

Button's Snakeroot Eryngo (Eryngium aquaticum): Indians used this plant to prevent
poisoning, reduce fever, and increase urine flow. They pounded the root, mixed it with water,
and drank the potion as a cure for kidney trouble, neuralgia and arthritis, and as a blood
purifier. They also chewed the stems and leaves as a nosebleed remedy, and used a tea of
the plants to cure severe dysentery. A decoction of the plant was drunk at some Indian
ceremonials to induce vomiting. It is used now mainly in the treatment of disorders of the
kidneys and sexual organs. It has been used as an antidote to snake poison. The pounded
roots are used as a diuretic. An infusion of them is used to reduce fevers. The plant is used
as an antidote to snakebites. The roots are chewed and applied to the bite. A homeopathic
remedy is made from the fresh or dried root.

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea): Cabbage‘s best known medicinal use is as a poultice—the
leaves of the wild or cultivated plant are blanched, crushed, or chopped, and applied to
swellings, tumors and painful joints. Wild cabbage leaves eaten raw or cooked aid digestion
and the breakdown of toxins in the liver, so the Romans‘ eating it to ease a hangover was
quite sensible. The leaves can be used as a poultice to cleanse infected wounds - the mid-rib
is removed and the leaf ironed then placed on the affected area whilst still hot. The seeds are
anthelmintic, diuretic, laxative and stomachic. Cabbage is also detoxifying and helpful in the
long term treatment of arthritis. The high vitamin C content of cabbage has made it useful in
the prevention of scurvy.

Cabbage Tree (Andira inermis): Cabbage tree produces a smooth grey bark which has
been used in herbal medicine systems as a strong purgative to expel intestinal worms. It is
treated with much respect by the rainforest shamans and herbal healers as a very powerful
medicine since too large of a dose causes vomiting, fever, delirium, and even death. Some
Indian tribes in the Amazon prepare a bark decoction to use for ring worm and other fungal
infections on the skin. Usually taken as an infusion

Calabar Bean (Physostigma venenosum): Chiefly used for diseases of the eye (especially
for glaucoma as it reduces pressure on the eyeball); it causes rapid contraction of the pupil
and disturbed vision. Also used as a stimulant to the unstriped muscles of the intestines in
chronic constipation. Its action on the circulation is to slow the pulse and raise blood-
pressure; As a physostigmine, it is used internally for neuromuscular diseases (notably
myasthenia gravis), and postoperative constipation. It depresses the central nervous system,
causing muscular weakness; it has been employed internally for its depressant action in
epilepsy, cholera, etc., and given hypodermically in acute tetanus. Formerly used in the
treatment of tetanus, epilepsy, and rheumatism.

Calabash Tree (Crescentia cujete): Uses include the seed as an abortive and the roasted
fruit pulp was eaten to force menses, birth, and afterbirth. Consequently, it is best not to
consume this plant while pregnant. The pulp was also used as a purgative and in Barbados
for abortions when boiled with leaves of Swietenia spp. and Petiveria alliacea. The mixture,
however, causes nausea, diarrhea and poisoning. Dried bark shows in vitro antibacterial
activity against Bacillus subtilis, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcos aureus and
Escherichia coli. In Suriname's traditional medicine, the fruit pulp is used for respiratory
problems (asthma).

Calamint (Calamintha officinalis): Diaphoretic, expectorant, aromatic. The whole herb has a
sweet, aromatic odor and an infusion of the dried leaves, collected about July, when in their
best condition and dried in the same way as Catmint tops, makes a pleasant cordial tea,
which was formerly often taken for weaknesses of the stomach and flatulent colic. It is used in
hysterical complaints, and a conserve made of the young fresh tops has been used, for this
         Culpepper says that it 'is very efficacious in all afflictions of the brain,' that it 'relieves
convulsions and cramps, shortness of breath or choleric pains in the stomach or bowels,' and
that 'it cures the yellow jaundice.' He also recommends it, taken with salt and honey, for killing

Calamint, Trailing (Calamintha cretica) A minty scented tea is used in Cretan ethno-

Calamus (Acorus americanus) Calamus rhizome is a bitter tonic that stimulates the
digestive juices and is combined with gentian in the tonic Stockton bitters. It counters
overacidity, heartburn, and intestinal gas. Herbalists report it useful to help reduce severe
loss of appetite due to cancer or other illness or the eating disorder anorexia nervosa.
Traditional Islamic medicine employs calamus for stomach and liver inflammation and
rheumatism, as well as a calamus-rose oil-vinegar mix to treat burns. Egyptians used sweet
flag for scrofula, but it should be combined with supporting, more effective herbs for this
chronic                            condition.
          Chinese studies show that calamus extracts kill bacteria, lower blood pressure by
dilating the blood vessels, stop coughing, and eliminate lung congestion. Traditional Chinese
medicine uses it to open the orifices, vaporize phlegm and quiet the spirit; for phlegm veiling
and clocking the sensory orifices with such symptoms as deafness, dizziness, forgetfulness,
and dulled sensorium, as well as seizures or stupor. It harmonizes the middle burner and
transforms turbid dampness: for such symptoms as chest and epigastric fullness and
abdominal pain due to dampness distressing the Spleen and Stomach. Also used both
internally and topically for wind-cold-damp painful obstruction, trauma and sores. Use with
caution in cases of yin deficiency with heat signs or where there is irritability and excessive
sweating or vomiting blood. According to some traditional sources, this herb antagonizes ma
          The Regional Research Institute in India found that calamus reduces epileptic fits and
even eases some emotional problems. It is also used in India to treat asthma. The Native
Americans for the Great Plains chewed it when they had a fever, cough, cold, or toothache.
The American species is especially sedative to the central nervous system and stops muscle
spasms. In India the burnt root mixed with some bland oil is used as a poultice for flatulence
and colic as well as for paralyzed limbs and indolent ulcers and wounds. Its solvents are
alcohol and partially in hot water.

Calea (Calea zacatechichi): Calea zacatechichi is a plant used by the Chontal Indians of
Mexico to obtain divinatory messages during dreaming. At human doses, organic extracts of
the plant produce the EEG and behavioral signs of somnolence and induce light sleep in cats.
Large doses elicit salivation, ataxia, retching and occasional vomiting. The effects of the plant
upon cingulum discharge frequency were significantly different from hallucinogenic-
dissociative drugs (ketamine. quipazine, phencyclidine and SKF-10017). In human healthy
volunteers, low doses of the extracts administered in a double-blind design against placebo
increased reaction time end time-lapse estimation. A controlled nap sleep study in the same
volunteers showed that Calea extracts increased the superficial stages of sleep and the
number of spontaneous awakenings. The subjective reports of dreams were significantly
higher than both placebo and diazepam, indicating an increase in hypnagogic imagery
occurring during superficial sleep stages. Sources: Crimson Sage

Calendula (Calendula officinalis): : Throughout the ages, tinctures made from calendula
blossoms have been used to treat headaches, toothaches and even tuberculosis. The
ancient Romans used calendula to treat scorpion bites and soldiers in the American Civil War
found it helped stop wounds from bleeding. There is nothing better for sore or inflamed eyes
than to bathe them in marigold water. Calendula is a popular salve and cream ingredient
because it decreases the inflammation of sprains, stings, varicose veins and other swellings
and soothes burns, sunburn, rashes and skin irritations. Laboratory studies show it kills
bacteria and fungus such as ringworm, athlete's foot. It is gentle enough to be applied as a
tea             to             thrush               in             children's             mouths.
        Taken internally, it has been used traditionally to promote the draining of swollen
lymph glands, such as in tonsillitis and as part of the therapy for uterine or breast cancer, both
as a poultice and as a tea. Herbalists report success in using a swab of calendula
preparation or calendula boluses to treat abnormal cervical cells. Some antitumor activities
have been observed in scientific studies. The infusion or tincture helps inflammatory
problems of the digestive system such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, regional ileitis and colitis.
Calendula has long been considered a detoxifying herb, and helps to treat the toxicity that
underlies many fevers and infections and systemic skin disorders such as eczema and acne.
The herb is also considered cleansing for the liver (promotes bile production) and gallbladder
and can be used to treat problems affecting these organs. Makes a healing mouthwash for
gums                         after                         tooth                        extraction.
        Calendula has a mild estrogenic action and is often used to help reduce menstrual
pain and regulate menstrual bleeding. The infusion makes an effective douche for yeast
California False Hellebore (Veratrum californicum): Although a very poisonous plant,
California false hellebore was often employed medicinally by a number of native North
American Indian tribes who used it mainly as an external application to treat wounds etc. It is
little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. Any use of this plant, especially internal use, should
be carried out with great care and preferably only under the supervision of a qualified
practitioner. A decoction of the root has been used in the treatment of venereal disease. The
roots have been grated then chewed and the juice swallowed as a treatment for colds. A
poultice of the mashed raw root has been used as a treatment for rheumatism, boils, sores,
cuts, swellings and burns. The dried and ground up root has been used as a dressing on
bruises and sores. A poultice of the chewed root has been applied to rattlesnake bites to draw
out the poison. The powdered root has been rubbed on the face to allay the pain of
toothache. A decoction of the root has been taken orally by both men and women as a
contraceptive. A dose of one teaspoon of this decoction three times a day for three weeks is
said to ensure permanent sterility in women.

California Laurel (Umbellularia californica)... The plant is still used a pain reliever for
headaches and rheumatism. A tea from the leaves is one method of administration. For
rheumatism, early settlers used a hot bath in which they had steeped laurel leaves. Others
blended the oil from the leaves with lard and rubbed the mixture on the body. The crushed
leaves are an excellent herbal ―smelling salt,‖ held briefly under the nose of a person who is
faint or has fainted. Prolonged breathing of the crushed leaves can cause a short-term frontal
headache which can be cured, oddly enough, by a tea of the leaves. The crushed leaves
make an excellent tea for all headaches and neuralgia, possessing substantial anodyne
effects and they further have value as a treatment for the tenesmus or cramps from diarrhea,
food poisoning, and gastroenteritis in general—two to four leaves crushed and steeped for tea,
repeated as needed. California laurel was employed medicinally by some native North
American Indian tribes who used it particularly as an analgesic to treat a variety of complaints.
It has a beneficial effect upon the digestive system. An infusion has been used by women to
ease the pains of afterbirth. Externally, an infusion has been used as a bath in the treatment
of rheumatism. A decoction of the leaves has been used as a wash on sores and to remove
vermin from the head. They are harvested as required and can be used fresh or dried. A
poultice of the ground seeds has been used to treat sores. The seeds have been eaten as a

California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica)..... West Coast Indians used the California
poppy chiefly as a pain reliever for toothache. The plant was also prescribed as a sedative
for headache and insomnia, and it is still mentioned today as a gentle sedative and analgesic.
California poppy is not a narcotic like its relative the opium poppy. It tends to normalize
psychological function. It‘s gently antispasmodic, sedative, and analgesic effects make it a
valuable herbal medicine fore treating physical and psychological problems in children. It
may also prove beneficial in attempts to overcome bedwetting, difficulty in sleeping, and
nervous tension and anxiety. May be useful in the treatment of gall-bladder colic.

Calliopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria): Native Americans chewed the leaves for toothache, and
applied a poultice of them to skin sores and bruises. The powdered root in warm water was
used as a wash for sore eyes. A tea made of the root was used for stomachache, diarrhea,
and fever. This plant is an effective astringent and hemostatic, with its effects lasting the
length of the intestinal tract and therefore of use in dysentery and general intestinal
inflammations. It may be used as a systemic hemostatic; when drunk after a sprain or major
bruise or hematoma will help stabilize the injury and facilitate quicker healing. The tea will
also lessen menstrual flow. A few leaves in a little water or a weak tea is a soothing eyewash.

Calotrope (Calotropis procera): Has been used in India as a remedy for dysentery, diarrhea
and other conditions, and topically for eczema. It has also long been used in India for
abortive and suicidal purposes. Mudar root-bark is very largely used there as a treatment for
elephantiasis and leprosy, and is efficacious in cases of chronic eczema.
Caltrop (Kallstroemia grandiflora)....Native Americans chewed the leaves for toothache,
and applied a poultice of them to skin sores and bruises. The powdered root in warm water
was used as a wash for sore eyes. A tea made of the root was used for stomachache,
diarrhea, and fever. This plant is an effective astringent and hemostatic, with its effects lasting
the length of the intestinal tract and therefore of use in dysentery and general intestinal
inflammations. It may be used as a systemic hemostatic; when drunk after a sprain or major
bruise or hematoma will help stabilize the injury and facilitate quicker healing. The tea will
also lessen menstrual flow. A few leaves in a little water or a weak tea is a soothing eyewash.

Calumba (Jateorhiza palmata): Calumba is an excellent digestive remedy that tones the
whole tract, stimulating it gently but having no astringent properties. It may be used
whenever debility occurs that is connected with some digestive involvement. Internally used
for morning sickness, atonic dyspepsia with low stomach acid, diarrhea, and dysentery.

Camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora): This native of China is the source of camphor,
which is somewhat antiseptic, acts as a circulatory stimulant, and has a calming effect in
cases of hysteria, general nervousness, and neuralgia. The distilled oil has been used to
treat diarrhea, rheumatism, and muscular pains. It is commonly applied externally as a
counterirritant and analgesic liniment. It may also be applied to skin problems, such as cold
sores and chilblains and used as a chest rub for bronchitis and other chest infections. It is
used for bronchitis and asthma to control hypersecretion, for exhaustion, depression,
stomachache and abdominal pain, to stimulate blood and energy circulation, remove excess
moisture, and kill insects/worms. It is effective externally against parasites, ringworm, scabies
and to stop itch. Camphor is frequently found in oils for external use, as it opens the lungs,
relieves congestion and helps to relieve muscle tension and joint pain. It also is used for
arthritic and rheumatic pains and pains of trauma and injury (although it should not be applied
directly to open wounds). It is used as a smelling salt and given internally in small amounts to
revive a patient from delirium or coma. A piece of camphor attached to children‘s
underclothing will help to protect them from contagious diseases. As an incense it purifies the
air. Small doses act to stimulate respiration; large doses can be toxic by stopping
respiration. Doctors have disagreed as to whether camphor will stop heart fibrillation, and
whether it is a heart stimulant, as is widely believed in Europe. Camphor is used in Ayurveda
locally, to numb the peripheral sensory nerves and as a counterirritant in rheumatisms and
sprains and inflammatory conditions. In Latin America, a solution of camphor in wine used as
a liniment if a folk remedy for tumors. In Mexico, a mix of camphor and olive oil is popular for
treating bruises and neuralgia.

Canada Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis): Canadian hemlock was commonly employed
medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of
complaints. It is still sometimes used in modern herbalism where it is valued for its astringent
and antiseptic properties. A decoction of the bark is used in the treatment of diarrhea, colitis,
diverticulitis and cystitis. Externally, it is used as a poultice to cleanse and tighten bleeding
wounds, as a douche to treat excessive vaginal discharge, thrush and a prolapsed uterus,
and as a mouthwash and gargle for gingivitis and sore throats. The poultice has also been
applied to the armpits to treat itchiness there. The inner bark is diaphoretic and styptic. An
infusion is used in the treatment of colds and abdominal pains. A decoction of the inner bark
has been applied externally in the treatment of eczema and other skin conditions. The
pulverized inner bark has been applied to cuts and wounds to stop the bleeding. A tea made
from the leafy twig tips is used in the treatment of dysentery, kidney ailments, colds and
rheumatism. Externally, it is used in steam baths for treating colds, rheumatism and to induce
sweating. A decoction of the branches has been boiled down to a syrup or thick paste and
used as a poultice on arthritic joints. A poultice of the crushed branch tips has been used to
treat infections on an infants navel. Hemlock pitch has been used externally as a counter-
irritant in the treatment of rheumatism.

Canada Violet (Viola canadensis): A tea made from the roots has been used in the
treatment of pain in the bladder region. The roots and leaves have traditionally been used to
induce vomiting, they have also been poulticed and applied to skin abrasions and boils.
Canadian Hemp (Apocynum cannabinum): Indian hemp is an unpleasantly bitter stimulant
irritant herb that acts on the heart, respiratory and urinary systems, and also on the uterus. It
was much employed by various native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a
wide variety of complaints including rheumatism, coughs, pox, whooping cough, asthma,
internal parasites, diarrhea and also to increase milk flow in lactating mothers. The fresh root
is the most active part medicinally. It has been used in the treatment of syphilis and as a tonic.
A weak tea made from the dried root has been used for cardiac diseases. A tea made from
the root has been used as a vermifuge. The milky sap is a folk remedy for venereal warts. It
is favored for the treatment of amenorrhea and leucorrhea. It is also of value for its
diaphoretic and emetic properties. A half-ounce of crushed root was boiled in a pint of water
and one or two ounces of the decoction administered several times a day as a laxative. The
powered root was used to induce vomiting. The entire plant, steeped in water, was used to
treat intestinal worms, fever, dysentery, asthma, pneumonia, inflammation of the intestines,
and        indigestion.     The      plant      is    considered       a     heart     stimulant.
          This plant causes large and liquid stools, accompanied by but little griping; acts with
more or less freedom upon the kidneys; and in large doses produces much nausea, and
rather copious vomiting. Emesis from its use is followed by rather free perspiration, as is to be
expected from any emetic; though this agent also acts considerably upon the surface. The
pulse becomes softer and fuller under its use; and it is accused of producing drowsiness and
a semi-narcotism. It has been most used for its effects as a hydrogogue cathartic and diuretic
in dropsies; but should be employed only in moderation, and in connection with tonics and
diffusive stimulants. It usually increases the menstrual flow, and some have lately attributed
decided antiperiodic properties to it, but this is not yet satisfactorily confirmed. An ounce of
the root boiled a few minutes in a pint of water, is the better mode of preparing it; and from
one to two fluid ounces of this are a laxative dose. An extract is made, of which the dose is
from three to six grains.

Canadian Sweetgale (Comptonia peregrina): The leaves were boiled by Indians to make a
poultice that was tied to the cheek to relieve toothache. A decoction of the plant was used to
treat diarrhea, rheumatism, colic, and weakness following fever. A tea made from the leaves
and flowering tops is used as a remedy for diarrhea, headache, fevers, catarrh, vomiting of
blood, rheumatism etc. The infusion has also been used to treat ringworm. The leaves have
also been used as a poultice for toothaches, sprains etc. A cold water infusion of the leaves
has been used externally to counter the effect of poison ivy and to bathe stings, minor
hemorrhages etc. The leaves are harvested in early summer and dried for later use.

Canaigre (Rumex hymenosepalus): The use of cañaigre root in folk medicine has been as
an astringent, prepared as a tea for diarrhea and as a garble for sore throat. These uses are
probably effective, owing to the plant‘s high tannin content. Herbalists have traditionally relied
upon cañaigre as an astringent. They used its large tuberous roots to make a tea for treating
diarrhea and a gargle for easing sore throat. One herbal suggests using the boiled root
extract to stop bleeding from minor scrapes and cuts. For sunburn, the root can be grated
fresh on the burned skin, allowed to dry and a poultice of the inner pith of the cactus placed
over or the juice rubbed in. An infusion of the stems and leaves has been used as a wash for
sores, ant bites and infected cuts. The root has been chewed in the treatment of coughs and
colds. The dried, powdered roots have been used as a dusting powder and dressing on burns
and sores. A tea made from this plant is used to treat colds. The dried root combined with
water is used as a mouthwash for pyorrhea and gum inflammations. Sucking on a slice
tightens the teeth. The tea is used as a wash for acne and other moist or greasy skin

Cancer Bush (Sutherlandia frutescens) It was introduced to the colonists in the early days
by the Khoikhoi. It is a long respected and used in medicine. It has been used ever since as a
remedy for a variety of ailments. If one cup of leaves steeped is added in 1 litre of boiling
water, it will be good for washing wounds and 0.25 to 0.5 cup of this brew sipped every half
hour is an old-fashioned remedy used to bring down fevers, treat chicken pox, and to treat
internal cancers. Among the Khoi and the Nama people, the plant is used as a bitter tonic and
a general panacea. They used extracts externally to wash wounds and internally to relieve
fever. Recent studies have identified the presence of high concentrations of amino acids in
this plant, including canavanine. The tea of the dried leaves and twigs has been used for
treating           stomach           problems           and          internal          cancers.
          It was used as an eyewash in the treatment of eye troubles. Many of the farmers in
the Cape say that their workers still use cancer bush to treat eye and ailments today. It can
help in liver ailments, hemorrhoids, bladder, uterus, female complaints, for diarrhea, stomach
ailments and for backache. Many people use cancer bush as a tonic and believe that a little
taken before meals will aid digestion and improve the appetite. The cancer bush is a
traditional remedy for the relief of stomach problems and internal cancers. It is said to be a
useful bitter tonic and a good general medicine. The virtues of the plant also extend to include
relieving the symptoms of colds, influenza, chicken pox, diabetes, varicose veins, piles,
inflammation, liver problems, backache and rheumatism. Source: Crimson Sage

Cancer Bush (Acalypha arvensis) The common name hierba del cancer stems not from
the ability of the plant to fight cancer but rather because of the local use of the word cancer to
mean an open sore. The plant is used as a remedy in Belize for a variety of serious skin
conditions such as fungus, ulcers, ringworm and itching or burning labia in women. It is used
throughout Latin America as a diuretic. The leaves are used in Guatemala not only as a
diuretic but also to treat kidney-related problems. In Haiti it is used to treat diarrhea,
inflammations and dyspepsia. In a study of plants used in Guatemala as a diuretic and for
the treatment of urinary ailments, extracts of the plant were shown to increase urinary output
by 52%. A dried leaf tincture has been shown to be active against Staphylococcus aureus but
inactive                 against                 some                other               bacteria.
          Excellent remedy to wash skin conditions of the worst kind such as chronic rashes,
blisters, peeling skin, deep sores, ulcers, fungus, ringworm, inflammation, itching and burning
of labia in women – boil one entire plant in one quart water for 10 minutes; strain and wash
area with very hot water 3 times daily. Leaves may be dried and toasted and passed through
a screen to make a powder to sprinkle on sores, skin infections, or boils. For stomach
complaints or urinary infections, boil one entire plant in 3 cups water for 5 minutes; drink 3
cups of warm decoction 3 times a day (1 cup before each meal). The local use of the word
―cancer‖ refers to a type of open sore. A dried leaf tincture was shown to have in vitro activity
against Staphylococcus aureus.

Cancerillo (Asclepias curassavica): The plant is used medicinally in the tropics for the
anodyne properties of its roots. It has also been used in scrofula with great success. Used as
a remedy for cancers, warts and similar growths. Extract of the root is used in Suriname‘s
traditional medicine as an emetic and laxative. Other uses employed are against warts, fever,
vomiting and as an expectorant.            Root extracts of cancerillo are widely used in South
America an emetic (induces vomiting) and laxative. The leaves and flowers of the plant are
considered toxic and reports of smaller grazing animals dying from consumption of the leaves
have been reported. In the Suriname rainforest, an extract of the root is used an emetic,
expectorant, and laxative and employed for warts, fever, and to induce vomiting. A decoction
of the entire plant is used as an abortifacient. The roots are commonly known as "pleurisy
root" and used as an expectorant for pneumonia and pleurisy and other lung problems. In
Jamaica, a poultice of the root is used to treat ringworm and to stop bleeding. The Caribs
considered the root to be good medicine to reduce fevers, and in Africa it has been used for
intestinal                  troubles                   with                   children.
         In Western Canada and the USA, the milky sap of the stems have been used to treat
warts and skin parasites, and the roots are prepared in decoctions for constipation, venereal
disease, kidney stones, asthma, and cancer. In the 1880's, Native Americans used the plant
as a contraceptive and snakebite remedy. In Ayurvedic herbal medicine systems the plant is
considered diaphoretic, anthelmintic, purgative, and emetic; it is employed in India for
stomach tumors, piles, gonorrhea, intestinal parasites, fever, and warts.

Candytuft (Iberis amara): All parts of the plant, especially seeds, are used. Considered
effective against gout, rheumatism and often relieves deep water retention or dropsy. Rarely
used in herbal medicine today until recently, it is a bitter-tasting tonic, aiding digestion and
relieving gas and bloating. Now the source of Iberogast® used in digestive formulas.

Cangzhu (Atractylodes lancea) This plant is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine.
The root is a bitter-sweet tonic herb that acts mainly upon the digestive system. The root is
the active part. It is often used in conjunction with other herbs such as Codonopsis tangshen
and Glycyrrhiza uralensis. It is used in the treatment of digestive disorders, rheumatoid
arthritis and night blindness. The Chinese herb cangzhu dominates two formulas widely
prescribed in China for male infertility. One, called hochu-ekki-to, contains 4 grams each of
cangzhu, ginseng; 3 grams of Japanese angelica; 2 grams each of bupleurum root, jujube
fruit, citrus unshiu peel (a Japanese citrus fruit); 1.5 grams of Chinese black cohosh; and 0.5
gram of ginger, licorice. Lowers blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Inhibits cyclo-
oxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase, the enzymes that manufacture inflammatory prostaglandins
and leukotrienes, respectively.

Canker Violet (Viola rostrata): Said to be useful in pectoral and cutaneous diseases; also in

Canker Weed (Nabalus serpentarius): Useful as a mouthwash or gargle. The plant is said
to be an antidote for snake bites. Used in homeopathy.

Cankerroot (Coptis groenlandica or C. greenlandica) The roots and rhizomes of
cankerroot chewed raw or boiled, have been used to treat canker sores, fever blisters, and
other mouth irritations and to treat indigestion and sore throats. A medicinal brew from the
roots has been used as an eyewash. The effectiveness of all these uses is due to the
presence of the alkaloid berberine, a mild sedative, in the plant. A decoction of equal parts of
cankerroot and goldenseal has acquired the reputation of eliminating the craving for alcoholic

Canchalagua (Erythraea chilensis): May be used as an infusion in dyspepsia and digestive

Cancrosa (Maytenus ilicifolia): the leaves of the plant are brewed into a tea for the
treatment of ulcers, indigestion, chronic gastritis, and dyspepsia and is considered to be a
good antacid. The leaf tea is also applied topically to wounds, rashes, and skin cancer.

Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana): In Colombia, the leaf decoction is taken as a
diuretic and antiasthmatic. In South Africa, the heated leaves are applied as poultices on
inflammations and the Zulus administer the leaf infusion as an enema to relieve abdominal
ailments in children.

Capers (Capparis spinosa) The unopened flower buds are laxative and, if prepared
correctly with vinegar, are thought to ease stomach pain. The bark is bitter and diuretic, and
can be taken immediately before meals to increase the appetite. The root bark is purifying
and stops internal bleeding. It is used to treat skin conditions, capillary weakness, and easy
bruising, and is also used in cosmetic preparations. A decoction of the plant is used to treat
yeast and vaginal infections such as candidiasis. Capers are an appetizer and digestive.
Since ancient times, caper poultices have been used to ease swellings and bruises and this
led to the belief that rutin had properties affecting the permeability of the blood capillaries;
such as reducing their fragility though clinical evidence is inconclusive

Caper Spurge (Euphorbia lathyrus) Caper spurge is so violent a purgative that it is rarely if
ever used in contemporary herbal medicine. Caper spurge seeds were commonly employed,
but an oil extracted from them was also used in very small doses (the oil is highly toxic). In
the past, the milky latex of caper spurge was used as a depilatory and to remove corns and
warts,       but     is     too       irritant    to      be       used      safely.

Caraway (Carum carvi): Caraway water is well known for its carminative effect, particularly
for babies. This property of the seeds has been known and used from ancient times until
today. Caraway is also used as a flavoring for children‘s medicines. It is a good digestive
and stomachic. Other properties it is believed to have are: antispasmodic, aphrodisiac,
appetitive, emmenagogic, expectorant and galactagogic (stimulates the secretion of bile). It
was used in cases of dyspepsia, diarrhoea and even hysteria. Dioscorides is quoted as
recommending pallid girls to take a tonic of caraway oil. Modern researchers have
discovered that two chemicals (carvol and carvene) in caraway seeds soothe the smooth
muscle tissue of the digestive tract and help expel gas. Antispasmodic, which appear to be
present in caraway, soothe not only the digestive tract but other smooth muscles, such as the
uterus, as well. Thus, caraway might relax the uterus, not stimulate it. Women may try it for
relief of menstrual cramps. For a pleasant-tasting infusion that might help aid digestion,
relieve gas or menstrual cramping, use 2-3 teaspoons of bruised or crushed seeds per cup of
boiling water. Steep 10-20 minutes. Drink up to 3 cups a day. If you prefer a tincture, take ½-
1 teaspoon up to three times a day. Low-strength caraway infusions may be given to infants
for colic and gas. Source: Crimson Sage

Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum): : Its digestive properties have made it popular as an
after-dinner infusion, and it acts as a breath freshener when chewed. It is used in India for
many conditions, including asthma, bronchitis, kidney stones, anorexia, debility and
weakened Vata. The herb has a long-lasting reputation as an aphrodisiac. Cardamom treats
gastralgia, enuresis (involuntary urination), warming, antimucus stimulant to add to lung tonics.
        Cardamom is very high in cineole, a potent expectorant compound and a central
nervous system stimulant. In cases of emphysema, add a teaspoon or two of powdered
cardamom                  to              fruit            juice            or              tea.
        In Chinese medicine it: 1) increases the Qi and replenishes deficiency; restores the
lungs, spleen and nerve and generates strength; lifts the spirit and rids depression; 2) Warms
and invigorates the stomach and intestines; frees spasms and dries mucous damp; awakens
the appetite, settles the stomach and quells vomiting; 3) Stimulates the lungs, expels phlegm
and clears the head; 4) antidotes poison and resolves contusion. Source: Crimson Sage

Cardamom, Round (Alpinia nutans) In Asian medicinal practices, the cardamom fruit are
used to expel gas, prevent vomiting and stimulate stomach secretions.

Cardinal Flower (Lobelia cardinalis): A tea made from the roots has been used in the
treatment of epilepsy, syphilis, typhoid, stomach aches, cramps, worms etc. A poultice of the
roots has been applied to sores that are hard to heal. The leaves are analgesic and febrifuge.
A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of croup, nosebleeds, colds, fevers,
headaches etc. A poultice of the leaves has been applied to the head to relieve the pain of
headaches. This species is considered to have similar medicinal activity to L. inflata, but in a
milder               form.                  Source:              Crimson                  Sage

Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus): The cardoon has become important as a medicinal herb in
recent years following the discovery of cynarin. This bitter-tasting compound, which is found
in the leaves, improves liver and gall bladder function, stimulates the secretion of digestive
juices, especially bile, and lowers blood cholesterol levels. The leaves are used internally in
the treatment of chronic liver and gall bladder diseases, jaundice, hepatitis, arteriosclerosis
and the early stages of late-onset diabetes.

Carline Thistle (Carlina acaulis ) Internally for fluid retention, liver, gall bladder, and
prostate problems, bronchitis, and skin complaints, such as acne and eczema. It is used in
the form of an infusion to treat stomach and liver disorders, edema and urine retention.
Decoctions are applied externally to bathe skin disorders, fungal infections and wounds and
are used as an antiseptic gargle. The dried and chopped roots, soaked in wine, stimulate
digestion and soothe the nerves. Wine extract of 40-50 g of powdered roots/1 litre wine acts
as a vermifuge. Take a wine glass twice daily. A water extract produces the same effect in
50/50 mixture with vinegar. Swedish bitters contains the root of the carline thistle, which
possesses bacteriostatic properties and acts on the stomach as well. The root is antibiotic,
antispasmodic, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, mildly diuretic, emetic in large doses,
febrifuge and purgative in large doses. The plant was at one time in great demand as an
aphrodisiac, it is used nowadays in the treatment of spasms of the digestive tract, gall bladder
disorders, dropsy etc.

Carob (Ceratonia siliqua): Carob pods are nutritious and, due to their high sugar content,
sweet-tasting and mildly laxative. However, a decoction of the pulp is also antidiarrheal,
gently helping to cleanse and relieve irritation within the gut. It arrests vomiting in infants.
These appear to be contradictory effects, but carob is an example of how the body responds
to herbal medicines in different ways, according to how the herb is prepared and according to
the specific medical problem. The bark is strongly astringent and a decoction of it is taken to
treat diarrhea.

Caroba (Jacaranda procera): Chiefly used by the natives, who prize it highly as a
diaphoretic and diuretic. It is also a safe sedative. The value of the Jacaranda active
principles has been proved in syphilis and venereal diseases, being widely used by the
aborigines of Brazil and other South American countries. The leaves have also been tried in
epilepsy for their soothing influence. It is recommended for those of feeble mentality though
well-nourished in body, with voracious appetite and addicted to masturbation. Carob Syrups
are reputed to relieve stomach pains and constipation

Carolina Allspice (Calycanthus floridus): Cherokee tribes brewed the roots and bark as
teas to soothe a variety of ills, and European settlers later drank similar teas to soothe jangled
nerves. The plant contains an alkaloid that has a powerfully depressant action on the heart. A
fluid extract has been used as an antiperiodic. A tea made from the root or bark has been
used as a strong emetic and diuretic for kidney and bladder ailments. A cold tea has been
used as eye drops in the treatment of failing eyesight. An ooze from the bark has been used
to treat children's sores, whilst an infusion has been used to treat hives.

Carpenter's Square (Scrophularia marilandica): A tea made from the roots has been used
in the treatment of irregular menses, fevers and piles. An infusion of the fresh roots in water
was used in the 1800‘s to treat anxiety, restlessness and insomnia in pregnant women. A
poultice was used to treat skin diseases such as impetigo and cradle cap. The entire plant
was used as a tonic, to break a fever by increasing perspiration, to increase urine flow, and to
cure intestinal worms. The bark of the plant and the roots were used as treatments for
tuberculosis, scabies, and open wounds. The plant was used at various times to increase
menstrual flow and treat hemorrhoids. A poultice made from the roots is a folk remedy for
cancer. Carpenter's square is said to have similar properties to the knotted figwort, S. nodosa:
supports detoxification of the body and it may be used as a treatment for various kinds of skin

Carpet Weed (Mollugo verticillata): In experiments with mice, Nitric oxide (NO) release was
evaluated in mice peritoneal cell cultures treated in vivo using the ethanolic extract of M.
verticillata with and without BCG. The plant extract showed immunostimulatory activity when
peritoneal cells were stimulated in vitro with BCG antigen only. However, mice peritoneal cells
treated with M. verticillata plus BCG showed a drastic reduction in NO production when they
received the additional stimulus in vitro with BCG. Ethanolic extracts of M. verticillata could
directly increase NO release by peritoneal cells, but suppress the immune response of these
cells when treated with BCG antigen and Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole antigen (TB).
Preliminary phytochemical tests allowed the detection of quercetin and triterpenoid glycosides
in the ethanolic extract of M. verticillata, and those compounds are probably responsible for
the effect of this plant material on the immune system.

Carragheen Moss (Gigartina stellata) Because of its mucus forming properties,
carrageenan has been used in lung diseases and to improve bitter drug taste. Carrageenan
has also been used in cases of digestive tract irritations and in diarrhea and dysentery. In
France and Great Britain, carrageenan has been used to treat stomach ulcers due to its
mucous properties. When used against ulcers, the body has no necessity to gastrointestinally
absorb carrageenan, so that carrageenan acts directly on the mucous surface. Codfish liver
oil emulsions have been prepared with carrageenans. Cotton-wood soaked in carrageenan
decoction           has           been              used             as          cataplasm.
         Medicinally it is useful in chest and bronchial infections, as well as in the treatment of
stomach ulcers and diseases of the bladder and kidneys. A syrup to combat coughs and
colds can be made by adding ¼ cup of rinsed carragheen moss and the thinly pared rind and
juice of 2 lemons to 6 cups of water. Boil the mixture for 10 minutes, add a dessertspoonful of
honey and simmer for a further 10 minutes before straining. Serve the syrup hot or cold.

Carrion Flower (Smilax herbacea) Eating the fruit is said to be effective in treating
hoarseness. The parched and powdered leaves havebeen used as a dressing on burns. The
wilted leaves have been used as a dressing on boils. The root is analgesic. A decoction has
been used in the treatment of back pains, stomach complaints, lung disorders and kidney

Carrot, Wild (Daucus carota): This vegetable is a wonderful cleansing medicine. It supports
the liver, and stimulates urine flow and the removal of waste by the kidneys. The juice of
organically grown carrots is a delicious drink and a valuable detoxifier. Carrots are rich in
carotene, which is converted to vitamin A by the liver. This nutrient acts to improve night
blindness as well as vision in general. The raw root, grated or mashed, is a safe treatment for
threadworms, especially in children. Wild carrot leaves are a good diuretic. They have been
used to counter cystitis and kidney stone formation, and to diminish stones that have already
formed. The seeds are also diuretic and carminative. They stimulate menstruation and have
been used in folk medicine as a treatment for hangovers. Both leaves and seeds relieve
flatulence and gassy colic and are a useful remedy for settling the digestion and upsets of the
stomach. Many Pennsylvania Dutch have used wild carrot seed as both an emmenagogue
and a morning-after contraceptive. Indian researchers have confirmed that carrot seed has
anti-implantation activity in laboratory animals. One teaspoonful of the seeds is taken daily
starting at the time of ovulation or immediately after unprotected intercourse during the fertile
time and continued for up to one week to prevent pregnancy. Carrots contain 8 compounds
that lower blood pressure. Scottish studies showed that over a period of three weeks, a daily
snack of two carrots lowered cholesterol levels by 10-20% in study participants. Because the
fiber pectin is the source of most of these benefits, don‘t use a juicer which extracts most of
the fiber.
Scientists in India have discovered that carrots afford significant protection for the liver in
laboratory animals. When liver cell injury was induced experimentally with chemicals,
paralleling the liver damage inflicted by chemical pollutants, experiments showed that lab
animals could recover with the help of carrot extracts which increase the activity of several
enzymes that speed up detoxification of the liver and other organs.

Cascara sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana ) Cascara is a very effective laxative, containing
hydroxymethyl anthraquinones that cause peristalsis of the large intestine, emodin and other
rhamnoid glycosides. It has been used as such by many First Nations groups. For example,
Cascara bark tea was drunk as a laxative by Nuxalk, Coast Salish, Nuu-chah-hulth, and
Kwakwaka‘wakw, and a decoction of the inner bark and water was used as a remedy for
dysentery. The bark is often aged before use so it will be less likely to cause nausea. First
introduced to Europe in 1877, about 3 million pounds of the bark is harvested annually for use
in commercial laxatives. Squaxin used a Cascara infusion to wash sores--sometimes people
chewed the bark and then spit it on sores. The bark has also been used to treat heart strain,
internal strains, and biliousness. Skagit people burn the bark and mix the charcoal with
grease to rub on swellings, and also have employed the bark in a green dye for mountain
goat wool. Makah eat the fresh berries in July and August. Internally used for chronic
constipation, colitis, digestive complaints, hemorrhoids, liver problems, and jaundice. It is a
medium-strength laxative and somewhat weaker than Rhubarb root and Senna leaf.
Externally     used       to     deter    nail   biting.         Source:    Crimson      Sage

Cascarilla (Croton eleuteria): An aromatic, bitter tonic, with possibly narcotic properties. It is
used in dyspepsia, intermittent and low fevers, diarrhea and dysentery. It is a stimulant to
mucous membranes, and in chronic bronchitis is used as an expectorant; while it is valuable
in atonia dyspepsia, flatulence, chronic diarrhea, nocturnal pollutions, debility and
convalescence. Added to cinchona, it will arrest vomiting caused by that drug.

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale): The nut is highly nutritious, containing 45% fat and 20%
protein. The leaves are used in Indian and African herbal medicine for toothache and gum
problems, and in West Africa for malaria. The bark is used in Ayurvedic medicine to detoxify
snake bite. The roots are purgative. The gum is used externally for leprosy, corns, and
fungal conditions. The oil between the outer and inner shells of the nut is caustic and causes
an inflammatory reaction even in small doses. The fruit bark juice and the nut oil are both
said to be folk remedies for calluses, corns, and warts, cancerous ulcers, and even
elephantiasis. Anacardol and anacardic acid have shown some activity against Walker
carcinosarcoma 256. Decoction of the astringent bark is given for severe diarrhea and thrush.
Old leaves are applied to skin afflictions and burns (tannin applied to burns is
liepatocarcinogenic). Oily substance from pericarp is used for cracks on the feet. Cuna
Indians used the bark in herb teas for asthma, colds, and congestion. The seed oil is believed
to be alexeritic and amebicidal; used to treat gingivitis, malaria, and syphilitic ulcers.
Ayurvedic medicine recommends the fruit for anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, ascites, dysentery,
fever, inappetence, leucoderma, piles, tumors, and obstinate ulcers. In the Gold Coast, the
bark and leaves are used for sore gums and toothache. Juice of the fruit is used for
hemoptysis. Sap discutient, fungicidal, repellent. Leaf decoction gargled for sore throat.
Cubans use the resin for cold treatments. The plant exhibits hypoglycemic activity. In Malaya,
the bark decoction is used for diarrhea. In Indonesia, older leaves are poulticed onto burns
and skin diseases. Juice from the apple is used to treat quinsy in Indonesia, dysentery in the
Philippines. In Venezuela, a decoction of the cashew leaf is used to treat diarrhea and is
believed to be a treatment for diabetes. Pulverized cashew tree bark, soaked in water for 24
hours is also reported to be used in Colombia for diabetes. Peruvians have used a tea of the
cashew tree leaf as a treatment for diarrhea, while a tea from the bark has been used as a
vaginal douche. Leaf infusions have been used to treat toothache and sore throat and as a

Cassandra (Chamaedaphne calyculata): A poultice of the leaves has been applied to
inflammations. An infusion of the leaves has been used to treat fevers.

Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia): It is used medicinally in much the same way as Ceylon
cinnamon, mainly for digestive complaints such as flatulent dyspepsia, colic, diarrhea and
nausea, as well as the common cold, rheumatism, kidney and reproductive complaints. In
Chinese medicine it is used particularly for vascular disorders. A great deal of research has
been carried out in recent years regarding the pharmacological actions of cassia. Warms the
Kidneys and fortifies the yang: for a wide variety of problems due to insufficiency of Kidney
yang and waning of the gate of vitality. Usually taken as a powder, pill or tincture. Rarely
decocted because this causes the loss of the volatile oils which carry much of its effect.

Cassia Poda (Cassia fistula): The plants are used in folk remedies for tumors of the
abdomen, glands, liver, stomach, and throat, cancer, carcinomata, and impostumes of the
uterus. Reported to be aperient, astringent, laxative, purgative, and vermifuge, Indian
laburnum is a folk remedy for burns, cancer, constipation, convulsions, delirium, diarrhea,
dysuria, epilepsy, gravel, hematuria, pimples, and glandular tumors. Yunani use the leaves for
inflammation, the flowers for a purgative, the fruit as antiinflammatory, antipyretic,
abortifacient, demulcent, purgative, refrigerant, good for chest complaints, eye ailments, flu,
heart and liver ailments, and rheumatism, though suspected of inducing asthma. Seeds are
considered emetic. Konkanese use the juice to alleviate ringworm and blisters caused by the
marking nut, a relative of poison ivy. Leaf poultices are applied to chilblains and also used in
facial massage for brain afflictions, and applied externally for paralysis and rheumatism, also
for gout. Rhodesians use the pulp for anthrax, blood poisoning, blackwater fever, dysentery,
and malaria. Gold Coast natives use the pulp from around the seed as a safe and useful
purgative. Throughout the Far East, the uncooked pulp of the pods is a popular remedy for
constipation, thought to be good for the kidneys "as those who use it much remain free of
kidney stones. A decoction of the root bark is recommended for cleansing wounds. In the
West Indies, the pulp and/or leaves are poulticed onto inflamed viscera, e.g. the liver. The
bark and leaves are used for skin diseases: flowers used for fever, root as a diuretic,
febrifuge;                 for               gout                 and                rheumatism.
            Ayurvedic medicine describes the fresh sweet pulp enclosing the labornum‘s seed
pods as an effective remedy for colic, while the matured pulp is used to make a gentle
laxative, safe for children and pregnant women. The seed is recognized as antibilious, aperitif,
carminative, and laxative. Externally, the bark and leaves are ground into a paste for chronic
skin infections. Distillations from the flowers, and decoctions made from the powdered root
are given for heart diseases to enlarge the capillaries in the circulatory system. In clinical
tests, its leaves, stem bark, and fruit pulp were all found to have antibacterial properties. The
root showed antifungal activity and used for adenopathy, burning sensations, leprosy, skin
diseases, syphilis, and tubercular glands, The essential oils extracted from various parts of
the tree showed antiviral properties. The leaves were used for erysipelas, malaria,
rheumatism, and ulcers, the buds for biliousness, constipation, fever, leprosy, and skin
disease, the fruit for abdominal pain, constipation, fever, heart disease, and leprosy. It is used
in a gentle, fruit-flavored laxative, usually put up with other laxatives as a compound
         In 1998 researchers in India began to focus on the use of cassia pods to protect the
liver. In a study, rats given an extract of he leaf suffered less liver damage from a dose of
carbon tetrachloride than rats that did not receive the extract. The effect of cassia to reduce
the damage was similar to what was observed I the use of commercially prepared drugs
prescribed to treat liver problems, according to the study.

Castor Oil Plant (Ricinus communis): Regarded as the best of all laxatives (and in higher
doses a purgative) and especially favored for children and the aged. It prompts a bowel
movement about 3-5 hours after ingestion. The oil is so effective that it is regularly used to
clear the digestive tract in cases of poisoning. It should not be used in cases of chronic
constipation, where it might deal with the symptoms but does not treat the cause. The flavor is
somewhat unpleasant, however, and it can cause nausea in some people. It is also used
externally for itch and ringworm. Externally, a castor oil fomentation is rubbed over the liver
and other areas of the abdomen. A thick towel that has been rung out in ginger tea is then
applied over the entire abdomen and a heating pad or hot water bottle is placed over the
liver. This will help draw toxins into and through the liver. This treatment is excellent for liver
disorders, cysts, growths, warts and other excrescenses. The oil has a remarkable
antidandruff effect. The oil is well-tolerated by the skin and so is sometimes used as a vehicle
for medicinal and cosmetic preparations. Castor oil congeals to a gel-mass when the
alcoholic solution is distilled in the presence of sodium salts of higher fatty acids. This gel is
useful in the treatment of dermatosis and is a good protective in cases of occupational
eczemas and dermatitis. It is rubbed on the temple to treat headache and is also powdered
and applied to abscesses and various skin infections. The seed is used in Tibetan medicine,
where it is considered to have an acrid, bitter and sweet taste with a heating potency. It is
used in the treatment of indigestion and as a purgative. A decoction of the leaves and roots is
antitussive, discutient and expectorant. The leaves are used as a poultice to relieve
headaches                             and                        treat                         boils.
        In India, the oil is massaged into the breasts after childbirth to stimulate milk flow. The
leaves of the castor plant are warmed and applied to a woman‘s breast to increase lactation
and the leaf also provides Ayurvedic doctors with one of the ingredients used in a mixture
which is drunk by a woman to increase milk flow. Indian herbalists use a poultice of castor oil
seeds to relieve swollen and tender joints in treating lumbago, sciatica and rheumatism. This
entered the Arab pharmacopoeia, where castor was called ―the sesame of India.‖ The oil is
also used in the treatment of epilepsy, paralysis, insanity and many other nervous system
disorders.     In China the crushed seeds are used to treat facial palsy.
         Boil 5 large leaves in 2 gallons water for 10 minutes to bathe children with measles
(alleviates itching and prevents scarring).

Cat Thyme (Teucrium marum): The plant is supposed to possess very active powers and
has been recommended in the treatment of many diseases, being considered useful in most
nervous complaints. It is used in the treatment of gallbladder and stomach problems, the
leaves being powdered and given in wine. The powdered leaves, either alone, or mixed with
other ingredients of a like nature, when taken as snuff, have been recommended as excellent
for 'disorders of the head,' under the name of compound powder of Assarabacca, but
lavender flowers are now generally substituted for Cat Thyme. The root bark is considerably
astringent and has been used for checking hemorrhages.

Catarrh Root (Alpinia galangal): An aromatic stimulant. Has been used as a snuff in catarrh
and nervous headache. It is used for nonulcer dyspepsia with flatulence and inflammations of
the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory trace. In traditional medicine it is also used as
a tonic for low sexual drive and as an adjuvant for diabetes and hypertension. Somewhat
similar to ginger

Catgut (Tephrosia virginiana): At various times it was used to treat rheumatism, fevers,
pulmonary problems, bladder disorders, coughing, hair loss, and reproductive disorders. The
root of this plant alone, or in combination with other agents, has been reputed a very efficient
remedy in syphilis. The decoction is also much used as a vermifuge, and is said to be as
efficient and powerful as spigelia. The plant is a mild, stimulating tonic, having a slight action
on the bowels, and the secretive organs generally, and applicable in the treatment of many
diseases, especially in a certain stage of typhoid fever, where there is little use of active
medicine. The recommendation was a compound fluid extract of tephrosia: Take of
Tephrosia virginiana (the plant), 8 ounces; Rumex acutus (dock), 2 ounces; water, 4 quarts.
Place the plants in the water, and boil until reduced to 1 quart. Strain, and when intended to
be kept, mix with an equal bulk of brandy or diluted alcohol, and half its weight of sugar,
macerate for several days, and strain through muslin. The dose is from 1/2 to 1 fluid ounce, 2,
3, or 4 times a day A tea made from the roots is said to make children muscular and strong. A
cold tea is used to improve male potency and also to treat TB, bladder problems, coughs,
irregular menstruation and other women's complaints. Experimentally, the root has shown
both anticancer and cancer-causing activity. The leaves have been placed in the shoes in
order to treat fevers and rheumatism.

Catmint (Nepeta sibthorpii): Several species of Nepeta genus are utilized in folk medicine
for treatment of contusions, rheumatic pains, fever, cutaneous eruptions. Some species are
employed for their anti-inflammatory properties.

Catnip (Nepata cataria): Catnip has long been used medicinally as a tea, juice, tincture,
infusion and poultice. Catnip tea is used for headaches, stomachaches, colic and
sleeplessness in children. It has also been used to treat cancer, insanity, nervousness,
nightmare, scurvy and tuberculosis, while a root extract served as a mild stimulant. Drinking
two cups of catnip tea a day could significantly reduce the likelihood of developing cataracts.
Catnip has been employed orally to treat colic, diarrhea, flatulence, hiccups, whooping cough,
the common cold, measles and chicken pox (reduces the eruptions), asthma, yellow fever,
scarlet fever, smallpox, jaundice and to induce parturition and encourage menstruation.
Poultices were used for hives, sore breasts of nursing mothers and to reduce swelling. A
poultice of catnip and other herbs was employed to treat aching teeth in the Ozark Mountains.
A tincture makes a good friction rub for rheumatic and arthritic joints and, as an ointment, to
treats hemorrhoids. Catnip was sometimes smoked to relieve respiratory ailments. The
fresh leaves can also be chewed for headache. It‘s an old home remedy for colds, nervous
tension, fevers and nightmare. It is diaphoretic and antispasmodic. Fresh catnip leaves are
preferred for infusion or tincture. Source: Crimson Sage

Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa): Cat‘s claw has a history of use going back to the time of
the Incas, and it has been continuously used by indigenous peoples of South America for two
thousand years. Cat‘s claw has been used by the Ashaninka Indians of Central Peru to treat
asthma, urinary tract inflammation, arthritis, and rheumatism. It has also been used by
indigenous peoples to treat general inflammations and to treat wounds. In addition, some
Indian peoples in Colombia are reported to use it to treat gonorrhea and
dysentery. Reportedly, cat's claw has also been used as a contraceptive by several different
tribes of Peru (but only in excessive dosages). Dr. Fernando Cabieses, M.D., a noted
authority on Peruvian medicinal plants, explains in his book that the Asháninka boil 5 to 6
kilograms (about 12 pounds!) of the root in water until it is reduced to little more than 1 cup.
This decoction is then taken 1 cup daily during the period of menstruation for three
consecutive months, which supposedly causes sterility for three to four years.
            Worldwide research is being conducted exploring the use of cat‘s claw in the
treatment of cancer and AIDS. The triterpenes in the herb boost T cell activity. Peruvian
doctors have been using it in the treatment of fourteen kinds of cancer, and at least two
compounds have been isolated for use in controlling viruses. It has impressive anti-
inflammatory properties, making it an excellent tonic for arthritis and fibromyalgia. It promotes
colonic health but may give some people diarrhea. It is used for inflammatory and ulcerative
conditions such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, colitis, diverticulitis, hemorrhoids, minor
diarrhea. The alkaloids in the herb appear to target the immune system, the intestinal tract,
and the cardiovascular system most effectively. It is a very powerful antioxidant. Peruvian
women use it to recover from childbirth. Herbal extracts should be blended with the whole
herb for greatest efficacy. It can be combined with Pau d‘Arco and Echinacea.
               In herbal medicine today, cat's claw is employed around the world for many
different conditions including immune disorders, gastritis, ulcers, cancer, arthritis, rheumatism,
rheumatic disorders, neuralgias, chronic inflammation of all kinds, and such viral diseases as
herpes zoster (shingles). Dr. Brent Davis, D.C., refers to cat's claw as the "opener of the way"
for its ability to cleanse the entire intestinal tract and its effectiveness in treating stomach and
bowel disorders (such as Crohn's disease, leaky bowel syndrome, ulcers, gastritis,
diverticulitis, and other inflammatory conditions of the bowel, stomach, and intestines). .

Cattail (Typha angustifolia): In Chinese herbal medicine, the astringent pu huang pollen
has been employed chiefly to stop internal or external bleeding. The dried pollen is said to be
anticoagulant, but when roasted with charcoal it becomes hemostatic. The pollen may be
mixed with honey and applied to wounds and sores, or taken orally to reduce internal
bleeding of almost any kind—for example, nosebleeds, uterine bleeding, or blood in the
urine. The pollen is now also used in the treatment of angina. Pu huang does not appear to
have been used as a medicine in the European herbal tradition. The dregs remaining after
the pollen has been sifted from the stamens and sepals can be browned in an oven or hot
skillet and then used as an internal or external astringent in dysentery and other forms of
bowel hemorrhage. It is used internally in the treatment of kidney stones, internal
hemorrhage of almost any kind, painful menstruation, abnormal uterine bleeding, post-partum
pains, abscesses and cancer of the lymphatic system. It should not be prescribed for
pregnant women. Externally, it is used in the treatment of tapeworms, diarrhea and
injuries. An infusion of the root has been used in the treatment of gravel.

Catauba (Juniperus brasiliensis): The most famous of all Brazilian aphrodisiac plants,
Catuaba has been appreciated by the local population for generations. The Tupi Indians first
discovered the qualities of the plant and composed many songs praising it. The bark
functions as a stimulant of the nervous system, above all when one deals with functional
impotence of the male genital organs. It is reported that after drinking 3-4 cups of tea steadily
over a period of time the first symptoms are usually erotic dreams, and then increased sexual
desire. In the Brazilian state of Minas there is a saying, "Until a father reaches 60, the son is
his; after that, the son is catuaba's!" A bark decoction is commonly used for sexual
impotency, agitation, nervousness, nerve pain and weakness, poor memory or forgetfulness,
and sexual weakness. It is employed for many types of nervous conditions including insomnia,
hypochondria, and pain related to the central nervous system (such as sciatica and neuralgia).
In European herbal medicine catuaba is considered an aphrodisiac and a brain and nerve
stimulant. A bark tea is used for sexual weakness, impotence, nervous debility, and
exhaustion. Herbalists and health practitioners in the United States use catuaba in much the
same way: as a tonic for genital function, as a central nervous system stimulant, for sexual
impotence, general exhaustion and fatigue, insomnia related to hypertension, agitation, and
poor memory.

Cayenne (Capsicum frutescens): Cayenne is the preferred species of Capsicum for
medicinal use. Those in climates that eat more hot peppers have les chronic obstructive lung
disease than those on blander diets. Externally, cayenne makes an excellent liniment for
poor circulation, unbroken chilblains, sprains and painful joints. Internally, small doses of
cayenne stimulate the appetite and act as an internal cleanser. Cayenne brings blood and
body heat to the surface, stimulating sweating and cooling the body. It regulates the blood
flow, equalizing and strengthening the heart, arteries, capillaries and nerves. It is a good
tonic and is specific for the circulatory and digestive system. It may be used in flatulent
dyspepsia and colic. It is used for treating debility and for warding off colds. Eating hot
peppers temporarily boosts the body‘s metabolic rate by about 25%. Cayenne acts as an
energy stimulant, slightly encouraging the adrenals to produce cortisone.
        The dried fruit is a powerful local stimulant with no narcotic effect, it is most useful in
atony of the intestines and stomach. It has proved efficacious in dilating blood vessels and
thus relieving chronic congestion of people addicted to drink. It is sometimes used as a tonic
and is said to be unequalled in warding off disease (probably due to the high vitamin C
content). Used externally, it is a strong rubefacient stimulating the circulation, aiding the
removal of waste products and increasing the flow of nutrients to the tissues. It is applied as a
cataplasm or linament. It has also been powdered and placed inside socks as a traditional
remedy for those prone to cold feet. These pungent fruited peppers are important in the
tropics      as       gastrointestinal      detoxicants       and       food         preservatives.
         Capsicin has been found to reduce ―substance P,‖ a chemical that carries pain
messages from nerve endings to the skin to the central nervous system. Clinical trials
showed that 75% of the people who applied a capsicin cream on their shingles disease
experienced substantial pain relief with only an occasional burning sensation. It is being
investigated for use on other painful skin problems, such as diabetic nerve damage, psoriasis,
and post surgical pain, and has been developed into Zostrix, an over-the-counter cream. A
small mount of cayenne stabilizes blood pressure and reduces excessive bleeding anywhere
in the country. The leaves have been used to treat toothache. Source: Crimson Sage

Cebadilla (Swertia radiata): An infusion of the dried, powdered leaves, or the root, has been
used in the treatment of diarrhea. A cooled decoction of the roots has been used in the
treatment of asthma, colds, digestive complaints etc. An infusion of the plant has been used
as a contraceptive. Primarily a medicine for the digestive tract. Similar to Gentian in its effect,
it is more energetic and irritating. A stimulant to stomach and small intestinal secretions and
contractions, it makes a bitter tonic especially useful for the elderly. The dried root is
powdered, 6-8 tablespoons added to a pint of brandy and it is steeped for at least a week; a
tablespoon is taken before meals. A pinch of the powder in sweetened water has a similar
effect. One-half to one teaspoon of the root powder boiled in water will act as a laxative-
cathartic. More than a teaspoon can act as an irritant to the large intestine, and in any
respect, Cebadilla should be used as a laxative only occasionally. The root can also serve as
a fungicide for athlete‘s foot and the like. Sometimes effective as a tincture for ringworm, but
care should be taken when used on children it can irritate the skin. In New Mexico the
powdered root is melted in lard and applied on the scalp to kill lice or rubbed on the legs to kill

Cedar (Cedrus atlantica (Atlas cedar); Cedrus deodara (Himalayan cedar); Cedrus
libani (cedar of Lebanon); Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)

Cedarwood, Texas (Juniperus ashei) In New Mexico the Native Americans use cedarwood
oil for skin rashes. It is also used for arthritis and rheumatism

Celandine (Chelidonium majus) : Greater celandine acts as a mild sedative, relaxing the
muscles of the bronchial tubes, intestines, and other organs. In both Western and Chinese
herbal traditions, it has been used to treat bronchitis, whooping cough and asthma. The
herb‘s antispasmodic effect also extends to the gallbladder, where it helps to improve bile flow.
This would partly account for its use in treating jaundice, gallstones, and gallbladder pain, as
well as its longstanding reputation as a detoxifying herb. The tincture or infusion of the leaf
will stimulate and clean the liver. In one study, researchers gave tablets containing
chelidonine to 60 people with symptoms of gallstones for six weeks. Doctors reported a
significant reduction in symptoms. Greater celandine‘s sedative action does not, however,
extend to the uterus—it causes the muscles of this organ to contract. Externally the salve has
been used to clear eczema, scrofula and herpes. The juice applied to the eyes will clear the
vision, and applied to wounds will promote healing. The fresh juice is dabbed two or three
times a day on warts, ringworm and corns. (Do not allow it to touch other parts of the skin.)
The fresh juice mixed with milk is used to help remove cataracts and the white spots that form
on the cornea. An ointment of the roots and leaves boiled in oil or lard is an excellent
treatment for hemorrhoids. Only the dried herb should be taken internally. The fluid extract is
made with the fresh herb. Ukrain, a derivate of celandine, is used for solid tumors such as
breast, lung, and colon, as opposed to leukemia and myeloma, It can be beneficial even when
used in combination with Taxol plus supporting the liver function. Source: Crimson Sage

Celandine, Lesser (Ranunculus ficaria) Internally and externally used for hemorrhoids.
Externally also used for perineal damage after childbirth. Combines well with plantain,
marigold for agrimony for the internal treatment of piles.

Celery Seed (Apium graveolens dulce): : Until the 19 century the essential oils was
recommended as a cure for rheumatism. It is believed to be a tonic for asthma and herbalists
use it to treat liver diseases, bronchitis, fever and flatulence. It is also recommended as a
diuretic, tranquilizer, sedative and menstruation promoter and as treatment for gout, arthritis,
obesity, anxiety and lack of appetite. Celery seed tea is said to promote rest and sleep. It is
good for nervous disorders and enjoys aphrodisiac qualities. India's traditional Ayurvedic
physicians have prescribed celery seed as a diuretic and as a treatment for colds, flu,
indigestion, arthritis and diseases of the liver and spleen. Source: Crimson Sage

Centaury (Erythraea centaurium) One of the most useful bitter herbs, centaury
strengthens digestive function, especially within the stomach. It is a useful herb in dyspepsia
and in any condition where a sluggish digestion is involved. By increasing stomach
secretions, it hastens the breakdown of food. It also stimulates the appetite and increases
bile production. Indicated in appetite loss (anorexia) when it is associated with liver
weakness. Centaury needs to be taken over some weeks. The preparation should be slowly
sipped so that the components can stimulate reflex activity throughout the upper digestive
tract. Combines well with Meadowsweet, Marshmallow Root and Chamomile in dyspepsia.
In anorexia it is indicated with burdock root and chamomile. It serves as a blood purifier,
working on the kidneys and liver. Externally the juice applied to the eyes will clear the vision,
and applied to wounds will help promote healing. The decoction applied to the skin regularly
will clear the skin of freckles and spots. A decoction externally applied also will destroy ice
and other parasites in the hair. Source: Crimson Sage

Centuary, American (Sabatia angularis) This herb, which should be gathered when in full
bloom, is an active tonic, of the more stimulating class, with moderate and somewhat diffusive
relaxing qualities, allied to the American gentian, but rather milder. Its chief power is exerted
upon the stomach, gall-ducts, and spleen; and the general circulation and uterus feel it
moderately. A warm infusion gently promotes the menstrual secretion, in cases of
debility. Cold preparations increase appetite and digestion in weak and flaccid conditions of
the stomach, and may be used for chronic dyspepsia and general debility. By maintaining the
portal circulation somewhat vigorously, it proves of eminent service for the intermediate
treatment of agues; and though not a nervine stimulant and antiperiodic as cinchona is, it is of
decided value against intermittents where the cinchona preparations (and similar
antiperiodics) prove too exciting to the nerve centers. In cases of this class, I have several
times arrested ague paroxysms by the fluid extract of this plant alone, with suitable daily
hepatics; yet it is not strong enough to meet the chills of deeply-prostrated or congested
cases. It makes an excellent tonic addendum to such agents as fraxinus, angustura, or
euonymus, in treating chronic biliousness with indigestion; and may be used to advantage
with caulophyllum, convallaria, and similar uterine remedies, in chronic prolapsus, leucorrhea,
hysteria, etc. Its sustaining influence is shown to excellent advantage in the treatment of
night sweats, exhaustion from excessive purulent discharges, recovery from malignant
scarlatina, and other prostrated conditions. Some use it for worms, as a tonic. Usually given
by infusion, made by digesting an ounce of the herb in a pint of hot water; of which a fluid
ounce may be given every two or three hours during the intermission of an ague, or half a
fluid ounce every three hours as a tonic.
Century Plant (Agave americana): leaves used medicinally by Indians of the Southwestern
US. Also a modern source of steroids. A demulcent, laxative and antiseptic, agave sap is a
soothing and restorative remedy for many digestive ailments. It is used to treat ulcers and
inflammatory conditions affecting the stomach and intestines, protecting these parts from
infection and irritation and encouraging healing. Agave has also been employed to treat a
wide range of other conditions, including syphilis, tuberculosis, jaundice, and liver
disease. Agave sap has very soothing properties and can be used interchangeably with aloe
vera on topical wounds and burns. The sisal agave is a source of hecogenin, the substance
that is the starting point in the production of corticosteroids. Water in which agave fiber has
been soaked for a day can be used as a scalp disinfectant and tonic in cases of falling hair.

Cerasee (Momordica charantia): Medicinally, the plant has a long history of uses by the
indigenous people of the Amazon. The fruit juice and/or a leaf tea is employed for diabetes,
colic, sores and wounds, infections, worms and parasites, as an emmenogogue, and for
measles, hepatitis, and fevers. The unripe fruit is used mainly as a treatment for late-onset
diabetes. The ripe fruit is a stomach tonic and induces menstruation. In Turkey, the fruit is
employed to treat ulcers. The fruit is much used in the West Indies as a cure-all for worms,
urinary stones, and fever. The juice of the fruit is used as a purgative. It is also prescribed for
colic and gas. A decoction of the leaves is taken for liver problems and colitis, and may be
applied to eruptive skin conditions. The leaves are also used for fevers. Externally the fruit is
used for hemorrhoids, chapped skin and burns. The seed oil is used on wounds. Cerasee
seeds were investigated in China in the 1980s as a potential contraceptive. Some research
suggests that the plant may be harmful to the liver. The fruit demonstrably lowers sugar
levels in the blood and urine. It is traditionally used by Ayurvedic doctors to treat anorexia,
and to dissolve kidney stones resulting from dehydration during the Indian summer. In the
past, the vegetable was crushed with black pepper and applied around the eyes as an aid to
night blindness. Although this cure is no longer used, the whole plant is still powdered and
used as a highly effective herbal dusting powder for wounds and skin diseases. The gourd is
renowned not just for its antidiabetic action, but for its capacity to lower exaggerated sexual
drive. The ripe fruit of bitter melon has been shown to exhibit some remarkable anticancer
effects, especially leukemia.
         Two proteins, known as alpha- and beta-momorcharin which are present in the seeds,
fruit and leaves have shown to inhibit the AIDS virus in vitro (in the test tube only). In 1996,
scientists performing this research filed patent on a novel protein found and extracted from
the fruit and seeds of Bitter Melon and which they named "MAP 30." The patent states it's
invention, MAP 30, is: "useful for treating tumors and HIV infections... In treating HIV
infections, the protein is administered alone or in conjunction with conventional AIDS
therapies." A clinical study was also published showing MAP 30's antiviral activity also was
relative to the herpes virus in vitro. A novel phytochemical in bitter melon has clinically
demonstrated an ability to inhibit the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which is thought to be linked
to the pathogenesis and replication of not only psoriasis but leukemia and cancer as well.
Over the years other scientists have documented other in vitro antimicrobial benefits of Bitter
Melon against numerous pathogens including Helicobacter pylori, Epstein-Barr virus, and
Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
           The immunosuppressive effect of the plant may be of benefit in the management of
graft rejections and organ transplants and could benefit the management of several common
autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.

Cerbera (Cerbera manghas): Used much like digitalis.

Ceylon Leadwort (Plumbago zeylanica)...Ceylon leadwort root is acrid and stimulates
sweating. In Nigeria, the leaves are used in soup as a remedy against intestinal worms and
fever. In Ghana the root is administered as an enema to treat piles. In the Ivory coast and
Upper Volta, the root is used to treat leprosy. In Nepal, a decoction of the root is used to treat
baldness. In Indian herbal medicine, the leaves and root are used to treat infections and
digestive problems such as dysentery. The root is used as a vesicant, appetizer, used in skin
diseases, diarrhea, dyspepsia, piles and anasarca. A paste of the root made in vinegar, milk
or salt and water is an external application in leprosy and other skin ailments. It is also used in
influenza and black-water fever. The root bark used as a tincture is a sudorific and
antiperiodic. The milky juice of the plant is used in scabies and ulcers. The plumbago root is
an emmenagogue and is used to procure abortion by a piece of the root being introduced to
Cervex Uteri. Externally, a paste of the leaves and root is applied to painful rheumatic areas
or to chronic and itchy skin problems. The paste acts as a counterirritant. By raising blisters
and increasing circulation, it speeds the clearing of toxins from the affected area. It is
stimulant and strengthens the stomach and aids its action. It increases digestive powders and
stimulate appetite.

Cha de Bugre (Cordia salicifolia): It is a great appetite suppressant - but rather than cutting
off appetite all together (then causing intense hunger when it wears off at the wrong time) it
gives one a sense of being full and satiated after eating only a few bites of food. This seems
to promote much smaller meals, more often, which is what many practitioners believe is better
for sustained weight loss and keeping the metabolism going throughout the day. It works best
if taken 30 minutes to one hour prior to a meal. It is a mild diuretic and is useful in relieving
water retention. It also helps to avoid the formation of fatty deposits. It is also considered a
good general heart tonic which can help stimulate circulation and is used in Brazil and Haiti as
a tea to help relieve coughs.

Chamomile, German (Matricaria recutita) German chamomile has been taken for digestive
problems since at least the 1 century AD. Gentle and efficacious, it is very suitable for
children. The herb is valuable for pain, indigestion, acidity, gas, gastritis, bloating, and colic. It
is also used for hiatus hernia, peptic ulcer, Crohn‘s disease and irritable bowel syndrome.
German chamomile, which contains spiroether and bisabolol, very strong antispasmodics,
relax tense, aching muscles and eases menstrual pain. It also appears to have relaxing
action on the smooth muscle lining of the digestive tract. One study shows chamomile
relaxes the digestive tract as well as the opium-based drug papaverine. Chamomile also may
help prevent stomach ulcers and speed their healing. In one experiment, two groups of
animals were fed a chemical known to cause ulcers. Those also given chamomile developed
significantly fewer. Then the animals who developed ulcers were divided into two groups.
Those fed chamomile recovered more quickly. It also relieves irritability and promotes sleep,
especially in children. German chamomile is useful for hay fever and asthma. The
proazulenes in the herb produce chamazulene on steam distillation, which is markedly
antiallergenic. Externally, it can be applied to sore, itchy skin and eczema. It also relieves
eyestrain. A cream made from German chamomile was tested in 1987 for its ability to heal
wounds and produced very good results. Apply it externally for disinfecting and anti-
inflammatory treatments in the form of packs, baths, and compresses using a strong tea,
diluted chamomile tincture or a liquid chamomile extract. In 1993, a trial using German
chamomile and 4 other herbs showed them to be most effective at easing infantile colic.
Historically, chamomile poultices have been placed on cancers, and its sesquiterpene
lactones do show immune system-stimulating and antitumor activity.
Inflamed oral mucosa can also be treated with chamomile tea. For stomatitis, an
uncomfortable inflammation of the mouth‘s mucous membranes, and canker sores, the mouth
is rinsed with the tea or a liquid chamomile extract into one glass of water.
Due to its antispasmodic properties Chamomile is a good remedy for all cramping pains,
especially for abdominal cramping in children. At the same time it has a carminative effect of
relieving flatulence. In pediatric medicine chamomile is used as a tea or syrup. The effect can
be increased by placing a hot chamomile pad on the painful area. To treat cramps, mix equal
parts of chamomile flowers and silverweed to make a tea. Chamomile is a classic remedy for
teething pains in children. For this, use chamomile in its homeopathic form or as teething

Chamomile, Roman (Chamaemelum nobile) A remedy for the digestive system, Roman
chamomile is often used interchangeably with German chamomile. However, an infusion of
Roman chamomile has a more pronounced bitter action than its German namesake. It is an
excellent treatment for nausea, vomiting, indigestion, and loss of appetite. It is also sedative,
antispasmodic and mildly analgesic, and will relieve colic, cramps, and other cramping pains.
By stimulating digestive secretions and relaxing the muscles of the gut, it helps normalize
digestive function. Roman chamomile may also be taken for headaches and migraine, even
by children. Its anti-inflammatory and antiallergenic properties make it helpful for irritated
skin. Source: Crimson Sage

Chang Shan (Dichroa febrifuga): This plant is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where
it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs. The leaves are purgative. They are
used in the treatment of stomach cancer. A decoction of the stem bark is used in the
treatment of fevers. The root is emetic, expectorant, febrifuge and purgative. This plant is 26
times more powerful than quinine in the treatment of malaria but causes vomiting. Substances
in the plant are 100 times more powerful than quinine, but they are poisonous. Internally it is
used              for            malaria           and              feverish             states

Chaparal (Larrea tridentata ): Chaparal is used for treating such ailments as: tuberculosis,
bowel complaints, stomach ulcers and bowel disorders, cancers, and colds and flu. It is found
to be beneficial to the walls of capillaries throughout the body, and so are good to take
regularly in cases of capillary fragility. Chaparal contains N.D.G.A.. It is responsible for
inhibiting several enzyme reactions, including lipo oxyginase, which is responsible for some
unhealthy inflammatory and immune-system responses. It has been shown to reduce
inflammatory histamine responses in the lung, which is good news for asthma sufferers.
N.D.G.A. is one of the most highly anti-oxidant substances known to man. Several types of
tumors, such as those in uterine fibroids and fibrosystic breast disease, can be helped
immensely by a concentrated extract of the plant. Chaparal can improve liver function,
causing the liver metablolism to speed up, clearing toxins, and improving the livers' ability to
synthesize fatty acids into high density lipids (HDLs....the good quality cholesterol). The low
density lipids levels (LDLs....the poor quality cholesterol) decrease. The strong anti-oxident
effects of Larrea t. appear to repair free radical damage caused by drugs such as cocaine and
         External uses of the herb include poultices placed on aching joints, and the tea or a
fomentation (applied several times per day and left on the area) for such things as ringworm,
skin fungi, and athletes' foot. Has also been used for reducing fibroids A study in the Journal
of Dental Research showed chaparral mouthwash reduced cavities by 75%.
         Lipoxygenase and 5-hydroxyeicosatatraenois acid are usually high in the synovial fluid
of arthritis sufferers which means Chapparal‘s ability to inhibit these can help here as well.
Larrea contains active flavonoids and ligans that, in addition to being anti-oxidants, act as
antifungals, antibiotics, and antivirals. It is in this last capacity, as an antiviral that prompted
investigations into its ability to inhibit the spl promoter HIV and as an inhibitor of Herpes
simplex-1 in cell cultures; as well as Kaposi's sarcoma virus. Clinical evaluations consisted
of testimonies from close to 36 persons. Larrea was prepared as an extract in an aloe-based
lotion and was effective in reversing symptoms in nearly all cases of HSV-1 and shingles
within 12-24 hours and in greatly reducing the severity of sores from Kaposi's sarcoma in
people in full-blown AIDS. The lotion proved to work faster and to be more effective than
acyclovir, the main drug for herpes.
When applied to the skin as a tea, tincture, or salve, Chaparral slows down the rate of
bacterial grown and kills it with its antimicrobial activity. Chaparral will also help dry skin,
brittle hair and nails and cracks in the hands or feet.

Chaparro (Castela erecta): Internally it is used as a tea for amebic dysentery, possibly
hepatic amebiasis and for loss of appetite and nonulcer dyspepsia with fullness, flatulence

Chapeu-de-Couro (Echinodorus macraphyllus): An herbal tea is made from the
leaves. The taste is a little strong and honey or stevia can be mixed in to sweeten it.
Influential in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism, poor circulation, blemishes, skin eruptions,
liver ailments, kidney and urinary infections, syphilis, and dermatitis

Chaste Tree (Vitex agnus-castus ) Back in the 17 century, herbalist Gerard wrote that the
seeds and leaves helped with pain and inflammation of the uterus. The hormonelike
substances found in the seeds help to correct female hormonal imbalances, such as those
that can occur during menopause, premenstrual syndrome, or menstruation, and also help
dissolve fibroids and cysts. German researchers suggest the berries increase production of
luteinizing hormone and prolactin. Another study adds the increase of the hormone
progesterone to the list. The seeds do stimulate mother‘s milk flow as shown in a clinical
study when 100 nursing mothers taking chaste seeds were compared to those who were not.
Christopher Hobbs suggests its use during the first 3 months only of pregnancy to help
prevent miscarriage and, with ginger, to allay morning sickness. Chaste berries can help
regulate periods when there is excessive or too frequent bleeding. It also reestablishes
normal ovulation after contraceptive pills have been used. In women without ovaries,
chasteberry appears to lessen extremes of hormonal imbalance, perhaps through indirect
effects on the endocrine system, liver and circulation. Women with PMS with significant
depression should probably steer clear of chasteberry. Some research suggests that PMS
with depression is caused by excess progesterone, and chasteberry is said to raise
progesterone levels. Chasteberry may help some women trying to conceive if infertility is due
to low progesterone levels. Most of the research has been done on a chaste berry extract
called Agnolyt. When 53 women with excessive bleeding and short menstrual cycles were
given this product, 65% showed improvement and about 47% were cured. Those over age
20 experienced the most improvements. Other studies with Agnolyt found the chaste berry
helps control acne in both young women and young men. Source: Crimson Sage

Chaulmoogra (Hydnocarpus kurzii): The oil, and the crushed seed, have long been used in
southeast Asia to treat various skin diseases like scabies, eczema, psoriasis, scrofula,
ringworm, and intestinal worms. And it has been shown that the active principles of the oil
(hydnocarpic and chaulmoogric acids) are strongly antibacterial. For this reason Caulmoogra
is employed in Hindu medicine to treat leprosy. The bark contains principles capable of
reducing fevers. Oil is given as an emulsion or by injection. Seed used externally and
internally. It is usually applied externally as a dressing for skin diseases: combined with
walnut oil and pork lard for ringworm; with calomel and sesame oil for leprosy; and with sulfur
and camphor for scabies. In India the seeds are considered to be an alternative tonic. The
seeds may be taken powdered in the form of pills. Was first mentioned in Chinese medical
literature in 1347, and its use spread worldwide as a treatment for serious skin diseases.

Chebulic Myrobylan (Terminalia chebula)....Laxative and astringent, the fruit gently
improves bowel regularity without excessively irritating the colon. Like Chinese rhubarb,
chebulic myrobalan may be used as a treatment for diarrhea and dysentery. The fruit‘s
tannins protect the gut wall from irritation and infection, and tend to reduce intestinal
secretions. Likewise, the fruit helps to counter acidic indigestion and heartburn. A decoction
of chebulic myrobalan may be used as a gargle and mouthwash, as a lotion for sore and
inflamed eyes, and as a douche for vaginitis and excessive vaginal discharge. The dried
fruits and seeds are prescribed in Ayurvedic medicine for such illnesses as dermatosis,
edema, and urinary infections. It is also considered an excellent blood purifier. Finely
powdered, it is used as a dentifrice, and for bleeding or ulcerated gums. Coarsely powdered
and smoked in a pipe, it is used to relieve asthma. TCM: Indications: Chronic diarrhea and
dysentery; prolapse of rectum; asthma and coughs due to empty lungs; leukorrhea;

Cheken (Eugenia chequen): Most useful in the chronic bronchitis of elderly people and in
chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs.

Cherokee Rose (Rosa laevigata): The leaves are a famous vulnerary. The fruits, root and
leaves stabilize the kidney. A decoction is used in the treatment of chronic dysentery, urinary
tract infections, wet dreams, prolapse of the uterus, menstrual irregularities and traumatic
injuries. The root bark is astringent and used in the treatment of diarrhea and
menorrhagia. The dried fruits are used internally in the treatment of urinary dysfunction,
infertility, seminal emissions, urorrhea, leucorrhea and chronic diarrhea. The root is used in
the treatment of uteral prolapse. The flowers are used in the treatment of dysentery and to
restore hair cover. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins
and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It
is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being
investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a
means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Cherry, Indian (Rhamnus carolinianus): A tea made from the bark is emetic and strongly
laxative. It is used in the treatment of constipation with nervous or muscular atony of the
intestines. An infusion of the wood has been used in the treatment of jaundice.

Cherry Laurel (Prunus lauroceerasus): The fresh leaves are of value in the treatment of
coughs, whooping cough, asthma, dyspepsia and indigestion. Externally, a cold infusion of
the leaves is used as a wash for eye infections. A reliable sedative and frequently the
principal agent in cough medicine. Cherry-laurel water (Aqua Laurocerasi) is produced by
distillation. In homeopathy, a tincture produced from the leaves is used as a sedative. It may
also be used externally in soothing poultices.

Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) A strong infusion of chervil will ease gnat and mosquito
bites, dabbed on the affected area at regular intervals. Pliny thought that hiccups could be
stopped by drinking vinegar containing the seed of chervil and that it was good for stomach
disorders. During the time of the plague, chervil roots were boiled and eaten as a
preventative. Poultices of chervil leaves have been laid on oils, bruises, and other skin
afflictions by the ancient Arabians, Greeks, Romans, and Europeans. It was boiled in wine for
urinary disorders and for use as a speedy diuretic. The juice pressed out of the fresh
flowering herb has been used for scrofula, eczema, gout stones, abscesses, dropsy, and
women‘s abdominal complaints. The infusion is popularly used in Europe to lower blood
pressure. Source: Crimson Sage

Chestnut, American (Castanea dentata): The Indians made a tea from the leaves to treat
whooping cough and the same tea has been used as a sedative and tonic. The bark was
used to treat worms and dysentery.

Chestnut, Chinese (Castanea mollissima): A decoction of the burrs is used in the treatment
of diarrhea, uncontrollable nose bleed, dysentery, regurgitation and profound thirst. The
flowers are used in the treatment of scrofula. The stem bark is used to treat poisoned wounds
whilst the stem sap is used to treat lacquer poisoning.

Chestnut, Malabar (Pachira aquatica): A popular beverage tea to build the blood in old age,
to treat anemia and exhaustion, and for low blood pressure. For kidney pain, cut a seed form
the fruit in quarters; boil in 1 cup of water for 5 minutes and drink before breakfast for 3
consecutive days. Boil a piece of bark 2.5 x 10 cm in 3 cups water for 10 minutes; drink ½
cup 6 times daily as a general tonic to build blood and strength.

Chestnut, Sweet (Castanea sativa)...All parts of the tree are rich in tannin, used medicinally
as an astringent useful in the treatment of bleeding, diarrhea, etc.. An infusion of sweet
chestnut leaves treats whopping cough, bronchitis, and bronchial congestion.                The
preparation tightens the mucous membranes and inhibits racking coughs. A decoction of
leaves or bark is also valuable as a gargle for sore throats and may be taken for diarrhea. The
leaves are also used to treat rheumatic conditions, lower back pain, and stiff joints or muscles.

Chichibe (Sida rhombifolia): The Sida species is one of the most important family of
medicinal plants in India. In Unani medicine, the leaves and roots are used, piles, gonorrhea,
anti-soud, diuretic, aphrodisiac. Root of these herbs are held in great repute in treatment of
rheumatism. Stems abound in mucilage and are employed as demulcents and emollients both
for external and internal use. The herb is also useful in calculous troubles and as a febrifuge
with pepper. Mucilage is used for scorpion sting. The Aborigines used the decocted root for
diarrhea and ate the raw root for indigestion. In India the plant has been used for consumption
and rheumatism and in Europe for tuberculosis.
Chickweed (Stellaria media):          Historically used to treat both internal and external
inflammations. Poultice of stems and leaves used to ease arthritis and pains of the joints,
cuts, and skin irritations. It may soothe severe itchiness and is often used to relieve eczema,
varicose veins and nettle rash. An infusion of the fresh or dried plant may be added to a bath,
where the herb‘s emollient properties will help reduce inflammation, in rheumatic joints for
example, and encourage tissue repair. It may be taken internally to treat chest ailments and
in small quantities, it also aids digestion. The saponins in chickweed are poorly absorbed
through the intestinal walls, but apparently increase the permeability of the mucous
membranes sufficiently to produce expectorant effects on the throat and increase the
absorption of nutrients, especially minerals, from the digestive tract. Homeopathic remedy for
rheumatism. The root of S. dichotoma is used in China as a cooling herb in fevers and to
stop nosebleeds and heavy menstrual bleeding. It is also given as a tonic for malnourished

Chickweed Wintergreen (Trientalis europaea): Rare and not in common use. Where
available the ointment can be made and used as a treatment for wounds. An infusion of the
leaves is taken as a blood purifier and for treating eczema. The root is emetic. During the
Middle Ages chickweed wintergreen was reputed to heal wounds and cure blood poisoning.

Chicory (Cichorium intybus): : Chicory has been an esteemed medical plant ever since the
Roman physician Galen called it ―the friend of the liver‖ some 1,800 years ago. A syrup of
chicory, rhubarb and oats was given to patients with liver ailments. It was also considered
valuable for treating a variety of other ailments. A syrup of the whole plant was prepared with
sugar and taken to cure insomnia. The bruised fresh leaves were applied externally for
healing eye inflammations and boiled in broth for strengthening the digestion of the persons
with weak stomachs. An infusion of the leaves was also used to reduce fever in children. A
distilled water of chicory or the juice pressed from it was good for pregnant women and
especially to soothe nursing breasts that were swollen from too much milk.
          Chicory is an excellent bitter tonic for the liver and digestive tract. Recommended for
loss of appetite and dyspepsia. The root is therapeutically similar to dandelion root,
supporting the action of the stomach and liver and cleansing the urinary tract. Chicory is also
taken for rheumatic conditions and gout, and as milk laxative, one particularly appropriate for
children. An infusion of the leaves and flowers also aids the digestion. A decoction may
alleviate gallstones and kidney stones and aid in the production of bile. Egyptians         treated
rapid heartbeat with chicory root, and scientists have discovered a digitalis-like principle in
both the dried and roasted root that decreases the heart rate and amplitude. Conducted
studies on rats show that inulin from chicory seems very effective in promoting proprionic
fermentation and enhances the calcium content of the large intestines. Experiments with the
isolated toad heart show that chicory extracts reduce cardiac rate in a manner similar to
quinidine. These findings suggest chicory constituents may be effective in treatment of
disorders         involving        tachycardia,           arrhythmias         and      fibrillation.
        It also has been found to significantly lower cholesterol and blood sugar levels. The
sesquiterpene lactones found in roasted root kill bacteria. Internally used for diabetes, dry
coughs, abscesses, childbirth (second stage of labor), and abortion (tubers); bronchial
infections with thick phlegm, chest pain and tightness; dry constipation, and lung and breast
tumors (fruits). Fruits are traditionally prepared as a winter soup to ward off colds and
        Trichosanthin was isolated from the root tuber of a Chinese medicinal herb
Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz and was identified as the active component of Tian Hua
Fen, a Chinese medicine described as early as the 16th century as a treatment for various
kinds of ulcer. Since the discovery of its specific injurious effects on human placental
trophoblasts in the 1970's, trichosanthin has been used clinically in China to induce abortion
and to treat diseases of trophoblastic origin such as hydatiform mole, invasive mole and
choriocarcinoma. Soon after the laboratory finding in 1989 by McGrath et al. that trichosanthin
appeared to inhibit the HIV-1 replication in both acutely infected T-lymphoblastoid cells and in
chronically infected macrophages, and selectively killed HIV-infected cells while leaving
uninfected cells unharmed, clinical trials of trichosanthin as a potential treatment for HIV were
carried out in USA. Trichosanthin attacks the life cycle of the virus at an entirely different point
from AZT and related drugs, and in other words, it has a unique mechanism of action
complementary to other drugs. Present clinical reports showed that trichosanthin has some
curing effects on AIDS patients and suggested it to be a possible treatment that may fill the
gap in the treatment of HIV disease.

Chimaja (Cymopterus fendleri): The leaves and seeds are brewed as a tea for weak
stomach and indigestion with gas. Steeped in whiskey or tequila, a sip serves the same
purpose. Simple tea of leaves and seeds.

China Root (Smilax china): The root is considered useful when taken internally in the
treatment of old syphilitic cases and is also used for certain skin diseases, including psoriasis,
rheumatoid arthritis, gout, enteritis, urinary tract infections, skin ulcers etc. Large doses can
cause nausea and vomiting, which is valuable in weakened and depraved conditions due to a
poisoned state of the blood.

Chinaberry (Melia azedarach): Used externally in the treatment of rheumatism. An aqueous
extract reduces the intensity of asthmatic attacks. A decoction is astringent and stomachic.
The leaves are harvested during the growing season and can be used fresh or dried. The
flowers and leaves are applied as a poultice in the treatment of neuralgia and nervous
headache. The stembark is used as a tonic in India. The fruit pulp is used as a
vermifuge. The seed is antirheumatic. It is used externally. The rootbark is highly effective
against ringworm and other parasitic skin diseases. A gum that exudes from the tree is
considered by some to have aphrodisiac properties. Usually combined with Glycyrrhiza glabra
to reduce toxicity for internal use. Source: Crimson Sage

Chinese Angelica Tree (Aralia chinensis): The stem and root are used as a warming
painkilling herb in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The root is also considered to be
useful in the treatment of diabetes and dysmenorrhoea. Some caution is advised since the
bark is considered to be slightly poisonous. The plant also relieves flatulence. It regulates
body moisture and promotes the health of the circulatory and respiratory systems. The roots
and stems are used in decoctions. Single dose: 31-62g. Studies in vitro showed that the
water extract of herb had cytotoxical effect on esophageal cell line and tests in vivo indicated
that it was effective against SAK, HepS, EAC, s180, and U14 murine tumors.

Chinese Arborvitae (Thuja orientalis): A bitter, astringent, cooling herb that controls
bleeding and coughing, stimulates the uterus, encourages hair growth, and is expectorant and
antibacterial (foliage); a sweet sedative, mildly laxative herb (seeds) Internally used for
coughs, hemorrhage, excessive menstruation, bronchitis, asthma, skin infections, mumps,
bacterial dysentery, arthritic pain, and premature baldness (foliage); and for palpitations,
insomnia, nervous disorders, and constipation in the elderly (seeds). The root bark is used in
the treatment of burns and scalds. The stems are used in the treatment of coughs, colds,
dysentery, rheumatism and parasitic skin diseases.

Chinese Clematis (Clematis chinensis): A decoction of the root is taken internally in the
treatment of rheumatism and arthritis, tetanus and cold-type stomach-ache. The plant has a
history of folk use in the treatment of cancer. The root contains anemonin, this has
antibacterial, analgesic, sedative and antispasmodic actions. It also inhibits the heart and
central nervous system and is rubefacient. 15 g of the drug in decoction with 250g of rice
vinegar dissolves fish bones lodged in the throat

Chinese Goldthread (Coptis chinensis):

Chinese Lantern (Physalis alkekengi):

Chinese Persimmon (Diospyros kaki):
Chinese Pink (Dianthus chinensis):

Chinese Plum Tree (Prunus japonica):

Chinese Raspberry (Rubus coreanus):

Chinese Sumac (Rhus chinensis):

Chinese Violet (Viola yesoensis):

Chinese White Olive (Canarium album): In Chinese medicine the raw fruit is an antidote for
eating poisonous fish. It is used for sore throat, toothache, inebriation, and diarrhea. The ripe
fruit is edible and considered sedative. It is used as a liver tonic and to eliminate
apprehension. The powdered seed has been used to treat earache, inflammation. It is
believed to also dissolve fish bones swallowed accidentally, while juice from the kernel is
reputed to soften bones lodged in the throat.

Chinese Woad (Isatis indigotica):

Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium chinense):

Chinese Wormwood (Artemisia apiacea): Chinese medicinal herb useful against fevers and
malaria. It inhibits the maturation of malaria parasites in the body. Known for its cooling effect
and its ability to clear toxins from the system. Powerful antibiotic, and stops bleeding
especially nose bleeds. The plant can be used interchangeably with Artemisia annua

Chinese Yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia):

Chiretta (Swertia chirata):

Chitra (Berberis aristata): Used in India for intermittent fevers, in a similar manner as golden
seal. The fruits of Berberis aristata are given as a cooling laxative to children. The stem is
said to be diaphoretic and laxative and useful in rheumatism. The dried extract of the roots is
used as an application in ophthalmia. It is also an excellent medication in the case of sun-
blindness. The bark of its root is a valuable medicine in intermittent and remittent fevers. The
root is one of the few really good medicines in India. In its efficacy, it is almost equal to
quinine and Warburg's tincture. It does not produce any bad effects on the stomach, the
bowels, the brain and the organs of hearing. A very valuable preparation called rasaut is
prepared from this plant. For preparing rasaut, the bark of the root and of the lower part of the
stem is boiled in water, strained and evaporated till a semi-solid mass (rasaut) is obtained.
Rasaut is fairly soluble in water. It is mixed with butter and alum, or with opium and lime-juice
and is applied externally to the eyelids to cure ophthalmia and other eye diseases. It is also
reported to be a mild laxative, a tonic and is useful in curing ulcers and fevers.
         It was observed that, in the dose range of 1-3 mg. berberine neutralized, in vitro, the
anticoagulant action of 50 I.U. heparin per ml of blood and had no effect on blood samples
rendered incoagulable by potassium oxalate, sodium citrate and EDTA. Parodoxically, large
dose (10mg/ml) of berberine itself produced anticoagulant effect. These effects resembled
those        produced       by        protamine       sulphate      and       toluidine     blue.
         Berberine protected 50 -75 per cent chick embryos from the lethal effect of trachoma
organisms inoculated into the yolk sac. It also completely inhibited development of the
elementary bodies on the yold sac membrane. In control experiments, 1 mg. per egg dose of
sulphadiazine produced similar effect. Further, berberine was found encouragingly effective in
controlling experimentally - induced trachoma in monkey eyes.

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum): : Chives has been used as a vermifuge. Used as an
antiseptic, diuretic and a stimulant. The oil in chives is used in medicines to help reduce
blood pressure. Suggested in the Orient as a cold, flu and lung congestion remedy.
Chonggak (Codium fragile): In China, used to clear away heat and toxic materials, reduce
tumescence and nourish dampness and driving bug. For edema, difficulty of pisses, driving
lumbricoid and drink.

Chou Wu Tong (Clerodendrum trichotomum):

Chuan Bei Mu (Fritillaria cirrhosa): The bulbs contain fritimine which lowers blood pressure,
diminishes excitability of respiratory centers, paralyses voluntary movement and counters the
effects of opium. The dried bulb is used internally in the treatment of coughs, bronchitis,
pneumonia, asthma, feverish illnesses, abscesses etc. The bulbs also have a folk history of
use against cancer of the breast and lungs in China. This remedy should only be used under
the supervision of a qualified practitioner, excessive doses can cause breathing difficulties
and heart failure. The Kameng and Lohit peoples in Arunachal Pradesh crush a bulk of
Fritillaria cirrhosa to a paste to relieve muscle pains. Research has now confirmed the
presence of a chemical similar to cocaine in a related Fritillaria plant that brings relief to
muscular pain.

Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum): Chinese Medicine: Disperses wind and
clears heat: for wind-heat patterns with fever and headache; Clears the Liver and the eyes:
for either wind-heat in the Liver channel manifested in red, painful, dry eyes or excessive
tearing, or yin deficiency of the Kidneys and Liver with such symptoms as spots in front of the
eyes, blurry vision, or dizziness; Calms the Liver and extinguishes wind: for such symptoms
as dizziness, headache, and deafness due to ascendant Liver yang. The ability of white
chrysanthemum to nourish the Liver and clear the eyes is somewhat superior to the other
varieties. It is also known as sweet chrysanthemum (gan ju hua). This variety is often used
for diminished vision due to Liver and Kidney yin deficiency. Yellow chrysanthemum (huang
ju hua) has a greater wind-heat dispersing capacity than do the other varieties. It is most
often used in treating eye redness and headache due to externally-contracted wind-heat.
Research has demonstrated that it is a valuable remedy for high blood pressure.

Chuan Niu Xi (Cyathula officinalis): Roots are mainly used for pain associated with
menstruation. Increasingly used more generally for abdominal blood stasis. Other uses are to
treat rheumatism, arthritis, and skin infection

Chufa (Cyperus esculentus):

Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum): : Coriander seeds are used in many medicines to improve
taste especially bitter laxatives. They aid digestion, reduce gas and improve the appetite.
Previously coriander water was used to relieve colic. The Chinese use coriander tea to
counter dysentery and measles. East Indians make the seeds into an eyewash to prevent
blindness in smallpox patients. The oil is an antiseptic and was suggested by Dioscorides to
great urinary tract restrictions and inflammations. Add the essential oil to ointments for painful
rheumatic joints and muscles.

Cinchona (Cinchona calisaya ) The indigenous people of Peru have taken cinchona for
many centuries, and it is still a well-used remedy for fevers, digestive problems, and infections.
Cinchona, and in particular quinine, were the principal remedies for malaria until World War I.
From the 1960s on, resistance of the malarial parasite to the synthetic drug chloroquine led to
quinine‘s use once again in preventing and treating malaria. Quinine is also used to treat
other acute feverish conditions. As a bitter tonic, cinchona stimulates saliva, digestive
secretions, and the appetite, and improves weak digestive functions. It is useful as a gargle
for sore, infected throats. The herb is used in herbal medicine for cramps, especially night
cramps. It also relieves arthritis. In India, cinchona is used to treat sciatica and dysentery, as
well as problems associated with an imbalance in kapha. Edgar Cayce primarily
recommended calisaya as a blood purifier and aid to digestion. There is also a distinct action
of quieting the heart, reducing palpitations and normalizing the function.
Cinchona has been thoroughly researched, and its pharmacological actions are well
established. Quinine is both strongly antimalarial and antibacterial. Like the other alkaloids, it
is antispasmodic. The bitter constituents in cinchona, including the alkaloids and quinovin,
produce a reflex stimulation of the digestion as a whole, increasing stomach secretions.
Quinidine is known to reduce heart rate and improve irregularity of heartbeat.

Cinnamon: (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): : It was one of the ingredients in ivory jelly, which
was made from powdered ivory and given at one time to consumptives. It raises vitality,
warms and stimulates all the vital functions of the body, counteracts congestion, is
antirheumatic, stops diarrhea, improves digestion, relieves abdominal spasms, aids the
peripheral circulation of the blood. Cinnamon is the second most widely used warming
stimulant in Chinese medicine, used by Chinese herbalists much as Western herbalists have
used cayenne. In India, it is taken after childbirth as a contraceptive. It has a slight
emmenagogic action—stimulating the uterus and encouraging menstrual bleeding. Japanese
research in the 1980s showed that cinnamaldehyde was sedative and analgesic. It is also
thought to reduce blood pressure and fevers.     One German study showed cinnamon
suppresses completely the cause of most urinary tract infections and the fungus responsible
for vaginal yeast infections.. It helps break down fats in your digestive system, possibly by
boosting the activity of some digestive enzymes. You can dust a bit of cinnamon on cuts and
scrapes (it contains eugenol) which helps relieve the pain of household mishaps.

Cinnamon Fern (Osmunda cinnamonea):

Cinquefoil (Potentilla reptans and P. canadensis) The outer bark of the root has been
used as a remedy for diarrhea and internal hemorrhages. The powder also makes an
astringent for mouth sores and relieves diarrhea. Taken with honey, it relieves sore throats,
coughs and fever. A decoction made by boiling 1 ½ ounces of root in a quart of water until the
liquid is reduced to one pint, or an infusion of one ounce of the dried leafy tops, steeped for
10 or 15 minutes in a pint of water, are both suggested in old herbals.

Clammy Groundcherry (Physalis heterophylla): The seed is considered to be beneficial in
the treatment of difficult urination, fever, inflammation and various urinary disorders. A tea
made from the leaves is used in the treatment of headaches and as a wash for burns and
scalds. A poultice of the leaves and roots is applied to wounds. An infusion of the leaves and
roots is used as a wash on scalds, burns and VD sores. Compounds in the plant are being
investigated for antitumor activity.

Clary Sage (Salvia sclaria) Like its relative sage, clary tea, the leaf juice in ale or beer, was
recommended for many types of women‘s problems, including delayed or painful
menstruation. It was once used to stop night sweating in tuberculosis patients. An astringent
is gargled, douched and poured over skin wounds. It is combined with other herbs for kidney
problems. The clary seeds form a thick mucilage when soaked for a few minutes and placed
in the eye, helps to removed, small irritating particles. A tea of the leaves is also used as an
eyewash. Clary is also used to reduce muscle spasms.
It is used today mainly to treat digestive problems such as gas and indigestion. It is also
regarded as a tonic, calming herb that helps relieve premenstrual problems. Because of its
estrogen-stimulating action, clary sage is most effective when levels of this hormone are low.
The plant can therefore be a valuable remedy for complaints associated with menopause,
particularly hot flashes.

Clausena (Clausena anisata): The pounded roots, with lime and Guinea grains, are applied
to rheumatic and other pains in Nigeria, where also the leaves are considered
anthelmintic. In some parts of Africa it is considered a cough remedy. Recent research has
shown the root methanolic extract indicates that the herb possesses hypoglycaemic activity,
though not as strong as insulin; and thus lends credence to the suggested folkloric use of C.
anisata root in the management and/or control of adult-onset, Type-2 diabetes mellitus in
some communities of South Africa.
Cleavers (Galium aparine): valuable tonic to the lymphatic system. It would be used in
swollen glands anywhere in the body and especially in tonsillitis and in adenoid trouble. It
eliminates excess fluid, counteracts inflammations, and urinary infections, hepatitis and
venereal disease. In the East Indies, the juice of the herb taken in teaspoonful doses is
considered a very effective treatment for gonorrhea. It is a blood purifier as well as an
effective diuretic. Thus it is excellent for inflammations, both taken internally and applied
topically in the form of a poultice.   It has a good reputation as an external application for
cancerous growths and tumors. A decoction sponged on the face with a soft cloth is useful
for sunburn and freckles A tea is considered excellent for the treatment of psoriasis.
According to French research in 1947, an extract of the plant appears to lower blood pressure.

Clematis, Purple (Clematis occidentalis): A poultice of the pounded, dampened leaves of
blue clematis has been applied by the Okanagan-Colville Indians to the feet to treat sweaty
feet. They also made a tea of leaves alone or the stems and leaves and used it as a hair
wash to prevent gray hair. The Navajo Indians used a cold tea of the plant as a lotion on
swollen knees and ankles. The Thompson Indians used the plant as a head wash and to treat
scabs and eczema. Most effective when taken at early onset of migraines. Also for cluster
and                                     general                                   headaches.
        Blackfoot used boiled leaves applied to skin where ‗ghost bullets' had been removed
by shaman; smudge from stem used to revive people who had fainted from being near
'ghosts'; infusion of plant given to horses as a diuretic. The Flathead used a decoction of
entire plant used as wash for sores and itches, or boiled plant rubbed on affected areas;
decoction of stem and leaves used as hair restorer or shampoo, sometimes combined with
Pterospora andromedea. Kootenay-infusion used as hair wash, believed to make the hair
grow longer. Montana Indians used a decoction of leaves as a headache remedy; root used
as a stimulant to revive fallen race horses. Okanagan used the leaves and branch mashed
and steeped or boiled in water to make a hair wash, said to prevent gray hair; if used every
day for a month, said to kill 'germs' in hair roots. Stoney used a wash from stems used as
eye wash; feathery achenes used as swabs to stop bleeding. Thompson used a decoction of
plant used as wash for head and neck scabs.

Cleveland Sage (Salvia clevelandii):

Climbing Bittersweet (Celastrus scandens): Climbing bittersweet was employed
medicinally by a number of native North American Indian tribes, though it is scarcely used in
modern herbalism. The root is a folk remedy for chronic liver and skin ailments, rheumatism,
leukorrhea, dysentery and suppressed menses. A strong compound infusion, usually
combined with raspberry leaf tea, has been used to reduce the pain of childbirth. A poultice of
the boiled root has been used to treat obstinate sores, skin eruptions etc. Externally, the bark
is used as an ointment on burns, scrapes and skin eruptions. The bark of the root has been
taken internally to induce vomiting, to quiet disturbed people, to treat venereal diseases and
to increase urine flow. As an ointment mixed with grease it has been used to treat skin
cancers, tumors, burns and swellings. A decoction of the root bark has been used to induce
menstrual flow and perspiration. Extracts of the bark are thought to be cardioactive. Many
plants in this genus contain compounds of interest for their antitumor activity.

Climbing Hydrangea (Schizophragma integrifolium): The root and the climbing stem are
carminative and refrigerant. Activates blood circulation, strengthens muscles and bones.

Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus):

Clover, Alsike (Trifolium hybridum): A cold infusion of the plant has been used as a wash
on the breasts of a nursing mother in order to increase the milk flow.

Clover, Crimson (Trifolium incarnatum): Leaves are made into a strong infusion to
suspend the spasms of whooping cough or into a salve for indolent sores.
Clover, Suckling (Trifolium dubium): A poultice of the chopped plant has been applied to
cuts to stop the bleeding..

Clover, Tick (Desmodium triflorum): Whole plant used to treat dysentery

Clover, Velvet Prairie (Dalea purpurea): This was one of the favored plants of the Native
Americans of the prairies. A tea made from the leaves was applied to open wounds and a tea
made from the bruised leaves steeped in hot water was used to aid in the healing of wounds
as well. Some tribes pulverized the root and made a tea from that powder that was a very
healthy drink and a preventative medicine. Some tribes used the entire plant as a prophylactic.
Early settlers mixed the bark of the white oak tree and the flowers of this species to make a
medicine for diarrhea. The Chippewa Indians made a decoction of the leaves and blossoms
to be used in the treatment of heart problems. The Meskwaki Indians used it to treat diarrhea,
and they also made an infusion of the roots in the treatment of measles. The Navajo used the
plant to treat pneumonia.

Clover, White (Trifolium repens): The flower heads are the medicinally active parts. When
dry they have a honey-like fragrance and a slightly astringent taste. An infusion is used to
treat gastritis, enteritis, severe diarrhea and rheumatic pains. It is also used as an inhalant for
respiratory infections. Herbal doctors still employ preparations of white clover to ward off
mumps. An old fashioned remedy to cleanse the system. A blood purifier, especially in boils,
ulcers and other skin diseases. A strong tea of white clover blossoms is very healing to sores
when applied externally. Similar to red clover in use. An infusion has been used in the
treatment of coughs, colds, fevers and leucorrhea. A tincture of the leaves is applied as an
ointment to gout. An infusion of the flowers has been used as an eyewash.

Cloves (Syzigium aromaticum or Eugenia Caryophyllata): : Traditional Chinese
physicians have long used the herb to treat indigestion, diarrhea, hernia, and ringworm, as
well as athlete‘s foot and other fungal infections. India‘s traditional Ayurvedic healers have
used clove since ancient times to treat respiratory and digestive ailments. America‘s 19
century Eclectic physicians used clove to treat digestive complaints and added it to bitter
herb-medicine preparations to make them more palatable. The Eclectics were also the first to
extract clove oil from the herbal buds. It has antiseptic, stimulant, stomachic and digestive
properties. As an anti-infectant, cloves are effective against coli bacilli, streptococci,
staphylococci, pneumococci and as an antimycotic. The oil, too, is used in dentistry for its
antiseptic and analgesic properties, and, like the whole cloves and powdered cloves, for local
pain-relieving purposes. Eugenol is a local anesthetic used in dental fillings and cements; a
rubifacient and a carminative. It is also an irritant and an allergic sensitizer.  Besides all
their other uses, cloves can be used to treat acne, skin ulcers, sores, and styes. They also
make a potent mosquito and moth repellent which is where the clove studded orange
pomander comes from.

Cnidium (Cnidium monnieri):

Coastal Wallflower (Erysimum capitatum): A preventative against sun burn, the plant was
ground up then mixed with water and applied to the skin. It relieves the pain caused by
overexposure to heat. A poultice of the whole pounded plant has been applied to open fresh
wounds and rheumatic joints. An infusion of the whole plant has been used as a wash on
aching muscles. The crushed leaves have been sniffed as a treatment for headaches. A
poultice of the warmed root has been applied to treat the pain of toothache. An infusion of the
crushed seed has been drunk and used externally in the treatment of stomach or bowel
cramps. For chest pains or pneumonia, as a tea; or powdered, mixed with Osha and water
and applied to the chest as a poultice. It is sometimes used as a preventative in households
where some members have coughs; for chills from exposure to cold weather; and at the onset
of cold symptoms

Coca (Erythroxylum coca): Chewed with a pinch of lime, the leaf releases a mild dose of
cocaine alkaloid which numbs sensory nerves, dulls hunger and pain and even provides
vitamins otherwise absent in the starch-heavy diet of the highland Indian. When this active
alkaloid is isolated and refined, Cocaine is produced, a drug with an unequalled power to
stimulate the pleasure centers of the human brain.
      Some physicians question the classification of cocaine as a narcotic, because it has
exactly opposite characteristics of opium. Cocaine produces intense euphoria and short-term
hallucinations; there is apparently no true physical addiction or physical withdrawal symptoms
from the milder, standard cocaine, although persons are psychologically addicted and have
intense cravings for the drug. However, the reintroduction of Crack (quicklime added, as in
ancient times), was very dangerous and physically addictive. Cocaine is snorted or sniffed
generally through the nose and is absorbed through the nasal epithelium. This ruins nasal
tissues and causes increases in heart rate and blood pressure as well as a rise in body
temperature. Several synthetic cocaine-like substances are used in medicine and dentistry,
including procaine or Novocaine and Lidocaine.
        Modern medicine has used cocaine to treat eczema, shingles (herpes zoster) and has
been found to be an effective bactericide against Gram-negative bacteria and coccus
bacteria. It was used as a topical anesthetic and a spinal anesthetic, but has been replaced
by synthetic forms such as procaine. Modern herbalists have many uses for coca leaves.
Some of the uses include: relieving altitude illness (hypoxia), treating gastrointestinal
disorders, relieving the discomfort of colds, bruises, sore joint and muscles, swollen and sore
feet and headaches.
       Externally used in preparations for eczema, nettle rash, hemorrhoids, facial neuralgia,
and as a local anesthetic in surgery. Combined with morphone, as a ―Bropton cocktail‖ to
relieve pain in the terminally ill. Effectively used for defective innervation with dizziness,
impaired digestion, occipital and post-cervical pain, and inability to stand for a length of time;
migraine; fatigue; weariness and mental and physical exhaustion; labored and difficult
breathing, with normal temperature; inordinate hunger and thirst.

Cocculus (Anamirta cocculus):

Cocillana (Guarea rusbyi):

Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium): Cocklebur fruits are used to treat arthritis and
rheumatism, to open the nasal passages and sinuses, for allergic rhinitis with headache,
chronic lumbago, leprosy and pruritis (severe itching) of the skin. Three or four pods boiled in
water will stop the most obstinate diarrhea. A teaspoon of the crushed pods boiled for five
minutes has analgesic, diuretic, and antispasmodic effects. This herb is very obnoxious in its
natural state, as the seed pods tend to adhere to animal fur and human clothing. It is,
however, a very valuable therapeutic agent widely used by the Chinese for rheumatic aches
and pains as well as sinus blockage. Extracts of the plant have been shown to control tumor
growth in laboratory animals. The stem and leaves used to treat German measles. A tea of
the leaves is a useful diuretic and is especially useful for chronic cystitis; a rounded teaspoon
of the chopped leaves in tea, morning and afternoon. A tincture of the crushed seeds is both
clotting and antiseptic for skin abrasions, and is a good first aid dressing.

Cock's Foot (Dactylis glomerata): Reported to be estrogenic. The plant is a folk remedy for
treating tumors, kidney and bladder ailments

Cockscomb (Celosia argentea cristata):

Cockspur (Acacia cornigera): Root and bark are used in snakebite remedy. Bushmasters
instruct that the snakebite victim should cut a piece of the bark equal to his forearm and chew
this, swallowing the juices, and applying the leftover fibers as a poultice to the bite; the victim
can then start walking home while chewing on the root and swallowing the juice. The poultice
is said to delay reaction time to the toxin, adding 6-8 hours of time to allow victim to get help.
It has been used as traditional medicine for relief of mucous congestion for infants. Babies are
given water containing the ants (once they've been squeezed and strained). Acne and other
skin conditions can be bathed with water in which the thorns have been boiled. For male
impotency, boil a 2.5 x 15 cm strip of bark in 3 cups water for 10 minutes and take 1 cup
before meals for 7 days. If results are slow, double the strength of the tea for 3 more
days. For infantile catarrh, catch 9 of the small black ants that inhabit the thorns (they protect
the tree from attack from harmful insects); squeeze these into ½ cup boiled water, strain and
give to infant by teaspoon until consumed. For onset of asthma attacks, cough, and lung
congestion, boil 9 thorns (including their ants) in 3 cups of water for 10 minutes. Said to be
useful also for treatment of poisoning and headaches.

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao): Although cacao is most often used as a food, it also has
therapeutic value as a nervous system stimulant. In Central America and the Caribbean, the
seeds are taken as a heart and kidney tonic. The plant may be used to treat angina and as a
diuretic. Cacao butter makes a good lip salve, and is often used as a base for suppositories.
In 1994, Argentinian researchers showed that cacao extracts counter the bacteria responsible
for boils and septicemia.
         Chocolate naturally contains a drug substance, theobromine, which is chemically
similar to caffeine, and has a similar mild habit forming, stimulating effect on humans. Its
action on muscle, the kidneys and the heart is more pronounced. It is used principally for its
diuretic effect due to stimulation of the renal epithelium; it is especially useful when there is an
accumulation of fluid in the body resulting from cardiac failure, when it is often given with
digitalis to relieve dilatation. It is also employed in high blood pressure, as it dilates the blood-
vessels. Many people are "addicted" to this drug and humorously refer to themselves as
"chocoholics". Although chocolate is as mildly addicting as is coffee and other caffeine
containing drinks, its effect is relatively innocuous.
           Central Americans have used cocoa for centuries to treat fever, coughs and
complaints of pregnancy and childbirth. They have also rubbed cocoa butter on burns,
chapped lips, balding heads and the sore nipples of nursing mothers. The Eclectics
recommended cocoa butter externally as a wound dressing and salve. For internal use, they
prescribed hot cocoa for asthma and as a nutritive for invalids and persons convalescing from
acute illness.
          There is no evidence that chocolate causes acne, kidney stones, or infant colic.
However, chocolate does contain chemicals (tyramines) that trigger headaches in some
people, particularly those prone to migraines. Many people find a cup of hot chocolate
soothes their stomachs after meals. The problem is that cocoa and chocolate may cause
heartburn. The herb relaxes the valve between the stomach and the esophagus

Coconut (Cocos nucifera):

Codonopsis (Codonopsis pilosula and Codonopsis tangshen ) Codonopsis has a central
place in Chinese herbal medicine as a gentle tonic that increase energy levels and helps the
body adapt to stress for both sexes. Research has confirmed this use. Codonopsis is thought
to be similar in action to ginseng, but it is milder and has a shorter-lasting effect. It is given to
those who find ginseng too strong a tonic and is used interchangeably with ginseng in
Chinese herbal formulas. In Chinese herbal medicine, codonopsis is considered to tone the
qui, lungs, and spleen. It improves vitality and helps to balance metabolic function. It is a
gentle tonic remedy that helps to revive the system as a whole. Codonopsis is taken in
particular for tired limbs, general fatigue, and for digestive problems such as appetite loss,
vomiting, and diarrhea. It is thought to nourish the yin of the stomach without making it too
―wet,‖ and at the same time to tone the spleen without making it too ―dry.‖ It is beneficial in
any chronic illness where ―spleen qi deficiency‖ is a contributory factor. Codonopsis is given
as a tonic to people who are stressed and have ―false-fire‖ symptoms, including tense neck
muscles, headaches, irritability, and high blood pressure, and who find the tonic action of
ginseng too strong. Codonopsis is reputedly more successful in reducing levels of adrenaline,
and therefore stress, than ginseng. The herb is taken regularly by nursing mothers in China
to increase milk production and as a tonic to ―build strong blood.‖ Codonopsis clears
excessive mucus from the lungs and is useful for respiratory problems, including shortness of
breath and asthma
Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that codonopsis increases hemoglobin and red
blood cell levels, and lowers blood pressure. Other research has confirmed the ability of
codonopsis to help increase endurance to stress and to maintain alertness. Source: Crimson
Coffee (Coffea arabica):

Coffee Berry (Rhamnus californica):

Cola (Cola acuminata) Kola nut stimulates the central nervous system and the body as a
whole. It increases alertness and muscular strength, counters lethargy, and has been used
extensively both in western African and Anglo-American herbal medicine as an
antidepressant, particularly during recovery from chronic illness. Like coffee, kola is used to
treat headaches and migraine. It is diuretic and astringent and may be taken for diarrhea and
dysentery. It will aid in states of depression and may in some people give rise to euphoric
states. Through the stimulation it will be a valuable part of the treatment for anorexia. It can
be viewed as specific in cases of depression associated with weakness and debility.

Coleus (Coleus forskohlii): Coleus contains forskolin. That constituent was researched by
an Indian/German company and shown to be a powerful medicine for heart failure, glaucoma,
and bronchial asthma. Forskolin lowers high blood pressure, relaxes smooth muscle,
increases the release of hormones from the thyroid gland, stimulates digestive secretion, and
reduces pressure within the eye. Coleus has been prescribed to treat congestive heart failure
and poor coronary blood flow. It also improves circulation of blood to the brain. (Take only
under professional supervision.) Forskolin reduces preload and afterload of the heart due to
its vasodilating action and augments myocardial contractility due to its positive inotropic action
without affecting myocardial oxygen consumption. Forskolin relaxed contracted airways in-
vitro and prevented methacholine and acetylcholine induced bronchoconstriction in
asthmatics               and           healthy               subjects                respectively.
Source: Crimson Sage

Colombo (Cocculus palmatus):

Colorado Four-O'Clock (Mirabilis multiflora)

Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara): : Coltsfoot leaves have long been recommended for lung
problems such as laryngitis, bronchitis and asthma and to control spastic coughing. Both
Ayurvedic and Chinese physicians have prescribed it for similar problems. It is a soothing
expectorant and the flavonoids it contains reduce inflammation, especially in the bronchials.
It is also applied as a poultice to sores and ulcerations and as a cream for cold sores. It can
also be inhaled or smoked on its own as a remedy for asthma, bronchitis and various
congestions of the lungs. It may also be taken as a strong tea mixture or as an infusion for the
above conditions. Soluble in both water and diluted alcohol.
A German study showed the herb increases the activity of the microscopic hairs in the
breathing tubes that move mucus out of the respiratory tract. Another experiment shows that
the herb suppresses a substance (platelet activating factor or PAF) in the body that is
involved in triggering asthma attacks. Source: Crimson Sage

Coltsfoot, Sweet (Petasites palmatus): Sweet Coltsfoot has been widely used as a
medicine over the years. It was once the official sign of the French apothecaries. Some native
groups chewed the roots or made them into a tea to treat chest ailments (tuberculosis and
asthma), rheumatism, sore throats, and stomach ulcers. Coltsfoot leaves and flowers were
steeped in hot water to make a tea for people suffering from diarrhea. The white roots of this
plant are boiled to provide a liquid which cures the itch. The roots are demulcent and slightly
tonic. It is used in bronchitis and pulmonary troubles. The pulverized root is smoked in
Germany and Sweden to cure a cough. The roots have been used in treating the first stages
of grippe and consumption. The dried and grated roots have been applied as a dressing on
boils, swellings and running sores. An infusion of the crushed roots has been used as a wash
for sore eyes. A syrup for treating coughs and lung complaints has been made from the roots
of this species combined with mullein (Verbascum sp.) and plum root (Prunus sp.).
Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris):

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale): : Comfrey leaves and especially the root contain allantoin,
a cell proliferant that increases the healing of wounds. It also stops bleeding, is soothing, and
is certainly the most popular ingredient in herbal skin sales for wounds, inflammation, rashes,
varicose veins, hemorrhoids and just about any skin problem. Taken internally, comfrey
repairs the digestive tract lining, helping to heal peptic and duodenal ulcers and colitis.
Studies show it inhibits prostaglandins, which cause inflammation of the stomach lining.
Comfrey has been used to treat a variety of respiratory diseases and is a specific when these
involve coughing of blood. In cases of bleeding of the lungs, stomach or bowels the leaves or
root should be made into a strong decoction, or a strong infusion of the leaves and regular
hourly or two hourly drinks taken until the bleeding ceases. The root is stronger and more
effective than the leaves. In the case of bleeding piles the addition of distilled extract of Witch
Hazel to the infusion or decoction will increase the effectiveness. To aid in the cure of mucous
colitis mix equal parts of comfrey leaves, agrimony herb, cranesbill herb and marshmallow
herb, use one ounce of the mixed herbs, make an infu9sion and take a wineglassful at least
three times daily.
       The leaves moisten the lungs, help dissolve and expel mucus, soothe the throat, lowers
fever, relieves cough and treat asthma. It is applied externally as a poultice and taken
internally to promote healing of injured tissues and bones. The root is used to treat chronic
lung diseases with dry cough and inflammation, sore throat, pulmonary catarrh, stomach
ulcers, and wasting diseases. It is excellent both internally and externally for promoting the
healing of sores, bones, muscles and other tissues, and is as powerful as some of the best
Oriental tonic herbs. Concurrent internal and external application has the most favorable
effect on the healing process. Source: Crimson Sage

Combretum (Combretum sundaicum): The roasted leaves and stalks have been used in
China for the treatment of the opium habit but its action is uncertain

Common Box (Buxus sempervirens):

Common Burdock (Arctium minus):

Common Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis):

Common Catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides):

Common Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris):

Common Skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata):

Common Mallow: (Malva sylvestris): : Though less useful than marsh mallow, common
mallow is an effective demulcent. The flowers and leaves are emollient and good for
sensitive areas of the skin. Mallow is beneficial in the treatment of painful swellings and is
used as a digestive and diuretic herb, as well as in the making of an external lotion for acne.
The leaves have the reputation of easing the pain of a wasp sting if rubbed on the affected
area. A certain cure for a cold was believed to be bathing the feet in a decoction of the leaves,
flowers and roots. Taken internally, the leaves reduce gut irritation, aids recovery from
gastritis and stomach ulcers, laryngitis and pharyngitis, upper respiratory catarrh and
bronchitis and have a laxative effect. When common mallow is combined with eucalyptus, it
makes a good remedy for coughs and other chest ailments. As with marsh mallow, the root
may be given to children to ease teething. The fresh dried leaves are put into decoctions; the
root may be dried, but it is best fresh, if chosen when there are leaves growing from it.

Compass Plant (Silphium laciniatum):

Condurango (Marsdenia condurango) This bitter may be used in a whole range of
digestive and stomach problems. It will relax the nerves of the stomach, making it of use in
the settling of indigestion where this is affected by nervous tension and anxiety. Often used in
South American folk medicine as a bitter and digestive tonic, it is a specific treatment for
nervous indigestion and anorexia nervosa. Its bitterness slowly increases the appetite, as
well as the stomach‘s ability to process increased quantities of food. The herb is also thought
to stimulate the liver and pancreas, and may be taken for liver disorders. It also encourages
menstruation. The caustic white latex is applied to remove warts. Condurangogenins in
condurango may prove beneficial in countering tumors. The whole plant, however, does not
seem to significantly alter cancer development.

Coneflower (Rudbeckia hirta):

Consumption Brake (Botrychium lunaria):

Contrayerva (Dorstenia contrayerva):

Contribo (Aristolochia grandiflora): It has a number of reported uses in Central
America. Contribo can often be seen soaking in a bottle of rum at saloons, since it is taken by
the shot for everything from hangovers and flu to amoebas, flatulence, late menstrual periods,
and irregular heartbeat. The crushed leaves are sometimes applied as a plaster for skin
diseases, as a poultice for snakebite, and as an emmenagogue and treatment for diarrhea.

Coolwort (Mitella diphylla):

Copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii):

Copal (Protium copal): Chickleros who stayed in the bush for months relied on fresh copal
resin to treat painful cavities, a piece of resin was stuffed into the cavity and, in a few days,
the tooth broke apart and was easily expelled. The bark is scraped, powdered, and applied to
wounds, sores, and infections. Cut a piece of bark 2.5 cm x 15 cm; boil in 3 cups of water for
10 minutes and drink 1 cup before meals for stomach complaints and intestinal parasites. It is
also used as a remedy for fright and dizziness.

Copalquin (Hintonia latiflora): For nausea and vomiting; with fever and great weakness; for
water retention and kidney weakness that accompanies lingering illnesses. It is sometimes
used to treat diabetes but it probably inadvisable to use it for this purpose. The bark is used
as a febrifuge and anti-malarial remedy in many parts of Mexico; the bark is harvested from
the Alamos region, made into capsules in Navojoa and sold commercially, and it is like-wise
harvested in many other parts of Mexico. Known as ―Amargo‖ because of the bitter flavor, the
tea is drunk as a purgative for intestinal parasites, as an energy tonic, and to ―restore the
blood‖, and reduce fevers. This tea is often used when the seasons change from hot to cool
weather. The bark is made into a wash to lower fevers. The bark is also added to Suwí-ki as a
fermentation catalyst. Bark is utilized to reduce fevers, malaria, gastro-intestinal problems,
blood purifier. For bile, the bark is boiled and the tea is drunk for diabetes, water is boiled and
a piece of bark is added.

Coppereleaf (Acalypha indica):

Coralbead (Erythrina herbacea):

Corn (Zea mays):

Corn Chamomile (Anthemis arvensis): Employed in fevers, colds, and to produce
perspiration. This species is considered to be one of the best febrifuge species indigenous to
France. The flowers and leaves are used.
Corn Cockle (Agrostemma githago): The seed is diuretic, expectorant and
vermifuge. Minute amounts are used medicinally. It has a folk history of use in the external
treatment of cancer, warts etc. The plant is not used in allopathic medicine, but it has been
found efficacious in the treatment of dropsy and jaundice if used for long enough.

Corn Marigold (Chrysanthemum segetum)

Corn Mint (Mentha arvensis):

Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas)

Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus ) Cornflower is still used in French herbal medicine as a
remedy for the eyes. The strained infusion is used as an eyewash, and the petals applied as
a poultice. But opinions differ as to its efficacy. The petals are also taken as a bitter tonic and
stimulant, improving digestion and possibly supporting the liver as well as improving
resistance to infection. A tea made from the petals is used in diseases of the urinary tract.
The seeds have been used as a mild laxative for children. A decoction of the leaves is used to
treat rheumatic complaints.

Costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita (previous C. majus and Tanacetum balsamita):
Rarely used today, but was included in the British Pharmacopoeia until 1788 for its use
treating dysentery and other digestive problems. Early writers suggested the leaves to relieve
headaches and gout pain, to increase menstruation, and as a diuretic. It was also used for
conditions of ―excessive coldness.‖ Costmary is slightly astringent and antiseptic on wounds
and burns and was also used with other herbs in ointments for dry, itch skin and skin
parasites. Infuse the leaf as a tonic tea for colds, catarrh, upset stomachs and cramps, and to
ease childbirth. Add to a salve for burns and stings. It was at one time employed medicinally
in this country, having somewhat astringent and antiseptic properties, and had a place in our
Pharmacopceia until 1788, chiefly as an aperient, its use in dysentery being especially
indicated. An ointment made by boiling the herb in olive oil with Adder's Tongue and
thickening the strained liquid with wax and resin and turpentine was considered to be very
valuable for application to sores and ulcers.

Costus (Saussurea lappa (S. costus): Kuth is used in the Ayurvedic and Unani Tibb
traditions in India for its tonic, stimulant, and antiseptic properties. The root is commonly
taken, with other herbs, for respiratory system problems such as bronchitis, asthma, and
coughs. It is also used to treat cholera.

Cota (Thelesperma megapotamicum):

Coto (Nectandra coto). It may be given in ten drop doses of the fluid extract, repeated
according to the urgency of the case. Formerly used for catarrh, diarrhea and dysentery, as a
decoction. It has a specific effect on the alimentary canal but is not a suitable remedy where
inflammation exists or is threatened, but rather should be employed in relaxed states, and
where some poisonous element has been taken into the system in the food or drinking water.
It is antiseptic or promotes asepsis. . It is one of the most efficient remedies in the exhaustive
sweats of consumptive patients

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum):

Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum):

Cotton Grass (Eriophorum angustifolium):

Cotton Lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus):
Cottonwood, Valley (Populus wislizeni): The bark of older trees is boiled and drunk warm
to depress fevers, to treat arthritis during acute episodes, and to cure diarrhea. Ashes of the
burned bark are mixed with corn meal and enough hot water to form a poultice that is applied
to boils and abcesses. The spring leaf buds are soaked for a week in 2 or 3 times their
volume of corn or olive oil to make an oil to treat cracked skin and burns from heat, friction,
and wind. A tea brewed from the dried leaves is a diuretic and also lessens the pain of
difficult urination.

Couchgrass (Agropyron repens (Elymus repens) ) A gentle, effective diuretic and
demulcent, couchgrass is used for urinary infections, including cystitis, nephritis and urethritis.
It also is useful for urinary calculi, gall stones and jaundice, as well as gout and rheumatic
complaints. It is a soothing herb that improves excretion from kidneys and bowels, lowers
blood cholesterol levels and even clears infection. It both protects the urinary tubules against
infection and irritants and increases the volume of urine, thereby diluting it. It can be taken,
usually with other herbs, to help treat kidney stones, reducing the irritation and laceration they
cause. Couch grass is also thought to dissolve kidney stones as far as possible, and in any
case will help to prevent their further enlargement. In German herbal medicine, heated
couch grass seeds are used in a hot and moist pack that is applied to the abdomen to sooth
peptic ulcers. Juice from the roots of couch grass has been used to treat jaundice and other
liver complaints. The herb is used in various tea mixtures to stimulate the metabolism and
harmonize its processes. Extracts of couch grass have exhibited antibiotic effects on a variety
of bacteria and molds.

Country Mallow (Sida cordifolia): Roots, leaves, seeds and stems all used with each part
having a different therapeutic value and must be prepared in its own way for the maximum
benefits. Sida cordifolia has been used for over 2,000 years to treat bronchial asthma cold &
flu, chills, lack of perspiration, headache, nasal congestion, aching joints and bones, cough &
wheezing, and edema. In Western terms, Sida cordifolia is considered to have diaphoretic,
diuretic, central nervous system stimulating and anti-asthmatic activity. The stem of this plant
contains a number of active compounds, including small amounts of an essential oil, and
most important, 1-2% alkaloids composed mainly of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, with
ephedrine ranging from 30-90%, depending on the source. A decoction of the root with
ginger is given by Ayurvedic physicians in intermittent fever. It is also administered in fever
accompanied by rigour. The powdered root bark is administered with milk and sugar as
treatment for urinary urgency and leucorrhoea. The seeds are used to treat urinary infections.
They are also believed to be aphrodisiac. The rejuvenating actions of this herb extend to the
nervous, circulatory, urinary and reproductive systems. It is helpful in all types of nervous
system disorders including: paralysis, insanity, hemiplegia, stiff neck, tinnitis, headache,
sciatica, inflammation of nerves, and neuralgia. Bala has the chemical characteristics of
Ephedrine and is therefore a cardiac stimulant and is useful in certain types of heart disease.
Bala has a diuretic effect and is useful in urinary problems including cystitis. Being cooling
and astringent, it is used for inflammations and bleeding disorders. It may be used for
bleeding hemorrhoids, hematuria, chronic dysentery, chronic fevers, and healing of wounds.
Bala is very effective used topically as a medicated oil. Source: Crimson Sage

Cow Parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris): The root is soaked for several days in rice washings
and then cooked with other foods as a tonic for general weakness.

Cowfoot Vine (Bauhinia herrerae): The stem is used as an astringent to staunch diarrhea
and bleeding, to reduce hemorrhage, and to wash wounds. Boil a handful of chopped vine in
3 cups of water for 10 minutes; allow to cool and drink ½ cup 6 times daily for headaches,
internal wounds, and bleeding, or 2 cups in ½ hour for hemorrhage. Use this same decoction
to wash bleeding or infected wounds. For headaches, mash a handful of leaves in 1 quart of
water, place in sun for 1 hour and wash head with this water. The leaves are a component of
some of the traditional bath mixtures used to treat many ailments.
        This is an old remedy for birth control among Maya women, now apparently mostly
forgotten. Prepared from a handful of vine that has been boiled in 3 cups of water for 10
minutes, a cup is consumed before each meal all during the menstrual cycle. It is said that
this dose is effective for up to 6 months. Drinking this decoction during 9 menstrual cycles is
said to produce irreversible infertility in women.
Cowherd (Vaccaria hispanica): The medicinal seeds are round, reddish brown, and look
like mustard seeds. They are bitter and contain saponin. A decoction of the seed is used to
treat skin problems, breast tumors, menstrual problems, deficiency of lactation and sluggish
labor. The sap of the plant is said to be febrifuge and tonic. It is used in the treatment of long-
continued fevers of a low type as well as coughs. The plant is used externally to cure itch.
This herb is used for its astringent properties in a patent formula called Prostate Gland Pills,
for swelling and inflammation of the prostate. The formula is quite effective, but during
treatment the herb causes some men to temporarily lose the capacity to sustain erection, a
side effect that disappears when the herb is withdrawn. In fact, this effect helps support the
therapy, because men are supposed to refrain from sexual intercourse anyway during
treatment for prostate problems.

Cow Parsnip (Heracleum maximum (H lanatum) Used mainly in a poultice for boils and
other skin problems. The dried powdered roots have been used on the gums to relieve
discomfort from loose teeth, and all over the body to treat fever. Mixed with available fats or
oils, the dried powdered roots have been rubbed on affected parts to treat rheumatic pains
and heart palpitations. Sometimes the roots have been boiled and the liquid rubbed on for
these treatments. The root has been taken internally for colic, gas, diarrhea, indigestion, and
for asthma.
Cow parsnip is a remedy for the stomach and nervous system. The root, which loses most of
its acridity upon drying and should not be used fresh is made into a tea (a teaspoon to a cup)
and drunk for nausea that is of a persistent nature but does not progress to vomiting, as well
as for acid indigestion or heartburn. In New Mexico, it is often used for the gas and indigestion
that accompanies a hiatus hernia, particularly in older women. The seeds are equally
effective and if tinctured (fresh or dry), even a few drops on the tongue can settle the most
unsettled stomach. Although not as antiseptic as oil of cloves, the seed tincture is a good
temporary analgesic when applied to a sore tooth and is far less irritating the gums. The root
or seeds act as an antispasmodic to the intestinal tract and will help quiet tenesmus or
cramping of the large intestine and the lower tract and will help quiet tenesmus or cramping of
the large intestine and the lower section of the small intestine. It can sooth a spastic colon
caused by mucous membrane inflammations but is less effective when it is of a distinctly
nervous origin. It may help bronchial spasms and will both increase menstrual flow and relax
uterine cramps. In New Mexico a strong tea is made from the dry or wilted roots and poured
into the bath water of a recently paralyzed person. This is repeated once a day until some
nerve function has returned or the therapy has brought to apparent relief. Also, in northern
New Mexico, a poultice or strong tea is applied to the face for tic douloureux particularly
where there is some motor paralysis, and for aigre: a temporary paralysis of the face, neck, or
arms that is attributed to bad night air or drafts. The powdered root or seeds can be used as
a poultice for sore muscles and joints, having a mild rubifacient effect.

Cowslip (Primula veris (syn Primula officinalis)) Cowslip is an underused but valuable
plant. The root is strongly expectorant, stimulating a more liquid mucus and thus easing the
clearance of phlegm. It is given for chronic coughs, especially those associated with chronic
bronchitis and mucous congestion. The root is also thought to be mildly diuretic and
antirheumatic, and to slow blood clotting. The leaves have similar properties to the root but
are weaker in action. The flowers are believed to be sedative, and are recommended for
overactivity and sleeplessness, particularly in children. Cowslip flowers‘ antispasmodic and
anti-inflammatory properties make them potentially useful in the treatment of asthma and
other allergic conditions. The flowers are also used in salves for sunburn and dry skin.
          The essential oils can soothe the mind and nerves. A tea from Cowslip flowers often
alleviates a tension headache, defeats insomnia and prevents nightmares. The high content
of saponins present in the root and calyx gives cowslip demulcent and expectorant qualities.
This makes it a good cough remedy especially when phlegm is present. The flowers with the
calyx removed are used to treat migraines and kidney and bladder conditions. With the calyx,
they are used as a demulcent and expectorant tea for cough and bronchitis. Cowslip taken as
a tea can influence the metabolism and flush out uric acid accumulations. For rheumatic
pains, nerve pain, and weak muscles cowslip oil can be rubbed on the affected areas. The
finely chopped root can be put through a garlic press and the juice strained out. It promotes
vigorous sneezing, stimulating the mucous membranes and beneficial for chronic rhinitis and
nasal stuffiness. Cowslip leaves are used in wound poultices.

Coyote Brush (Baccharis pilularis): An infusion of the plant has been used as a general
remedy or panacea. Coast Miwok Indians used the heated leaves to reduce swelling

Crab Claw Herb (Peperomia pellucida): In Suriname's traditional medicine, a solution of the
fresh juice of stem and leaves is used against eye inflammation. It is also applied against
coughing, fever, common cold, headache, sore throat, diarrhea, against kidney - and prostate
problems and against high blood pressure. In Northeastern Brazil the plant is used in the
treatment of abscesses, furuncles, and conjunctivitis.
        Infusion and decoction or salad for kidney troubles, gout and rheumatic pains;
pounded plant warm poultice for boils and abscesses. Externally, it is used as a facial rinse
for complexion problems. Leaf juice is used for colic and abdominal pains. Avoid using with
other pain relievers and diuretics. Used as a poultice for sore throats. Suppresses peristalsis
due to the volatile oil present

Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis): A decoction of the plant is used in the treatment of
gonorrhea. A folk remedy for cataracts and debility, it is also said to be emetic.

Cramp Bark (Viburnum opulus): Crampbark is effective at relieving any over-tense muscle,
whether smooth muscle in the intestines, airways, or uterus, or striated muscle in the limbs or
back. It may be taken internally or applied topically to relieve muscle tension. The herb also
treats symptoms arising from excess muscle tension, including breathing difficulties in asthma,
and menstrual pain caused by excessive contraction of the uterus.. For night cramps and
back pain, lobelia is often mixed with crampbark. The herb also relieves constipation, colic,
and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as the physical symptoms of nervous tension. Useful
as a protection against threatened miscarriage. Its astringent action gives it a role in the
treatment of excessive blood loss in periods and especially bleeding associated with the
menopause.         In some cases of arthritis, where joint weakness and pain have caused
muscles to contract until they are almost rigid, crampbark can bring remarkable relief. As the
muscles relax, blood flow to the area improves, waste products such as lactic acid are
removed and normal function can return. Crampbark is commonly used in treatments for high
blood pressure and other circulatory conditions.
It is a specific remedy for pains in the thighs and back and a bearing-down, expulsive pain in
the uterus, whether during pregnancy and childbirth or during menstruation. Crampbark
combines well with bearberry for bladder infections with painful cramping and frequent
urination with little passed.
For the relief of cramp it may be combined with Prickly Ash and Wild Yam. For uterine and
ovarian pains or threatened miscarriage it may be used with Black Haw and Valerian. For
bladder infections with painful cramping combine with bearberry.

Cranesbill, American (Geranium maculatum) : An astringent and clotting agent, American
cranesbill is used today much as in earlier times. The herb is often prescribed for irritable
bowel syndrome and hemorrhoids, and it is used to staunch wounds. It may also be used to
treat heavy menstrual bleeding and excessive vaginal discharge. As a douche it can be used
in leucorrhea. Its powerful astringent action is used in secondary dysentery, diarrhea, and
infantile cholera (Boil with milk to which a little cinnamon has been added and the milk cooked
down to half its liquid volume.). Troublesome bleeding from the nose, wounds or small
vessels, and from the extraction of teeth may be checked effectively by applying the powder
to the bleeding orifice and, if possible, covering with a compress of cotton. For Diabetes and
Brights disease a decoction taken internally has proven effective of Unicorn root and
Cranesbill.     One of the safest and most effective astringent herbs for gastrointestinal

Creeping Fig (Ficus pumila): The leaves are used for carbuncle, dysentery, hematuria,
piles; dried leaves and stems for boils, rheumatism, sore throat. Stem: latex used for skin
disease; stem or fruit peel for backache, cancer, hernia, piles, swellings, and tuberculosis of
the testicles. Decoction of the fruit for hernia. Rot is used for bladder inflammation and
dysuria. The plant is regarded as aphrodisiac, or at least strengthening to the male power,
used for spermatorrhea, as a lactagogue; eating the plant is said to curb heart pain,

Crepe Myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica): The taste is slightly bitter and biting. The plant
promotes diuresis, resolves clots and bruises. It also is an antidote for poisoning. A decoction
of the flowers is used in the treatment of colds. . As a diuretic, boil 2 leaves in 3 cups water for
10 minutes and take in sips all day—not to exceed 6 cups weekly. Boil a slice of bark 7.5 cm
x 2.5 cm in 2 quarts of water for 10 minutes and use to bathe wounds and infections.

Crinkleroot (Dentaria diphylla) The root of this little plant is a diffusive and somewhat
pungent stimulant, when dried; and also possesses a mild tonic power. Its principal influence
is expended upon the nervous peripheries, and moderately upon the capillaries. It is of the
antispasmodic class of nervines; and is useful in hysterical nervousness and spasms of the
more acute form, painful and tardy menstruation, flatulent colic, and similar maladies requiring
a diffusive stimulant. It warms the surface, and secures gentle perspiration. It is agreeable in
taste, but its influence is rather transient. It has been claimed to have used it for many years
with unvarying success in epilepsy. The best method of giving it is a tincture prepared by
macerating four ounces of the roots in a quart of diluted alcohol, straining and pressing; of
which two to three fluid drachms may be given every four or two hours. The peppery root is
used as a folk remedy in the treatment of toothache. It has also been chewed in the treatment
of colds, an infusion drunk to treat gas and other stomach problems. A tea made from the root
is gargled in the treatment of sore throat, hoarseness etc. An infusion of the plant has been
used to treat fevers in children. Combined with Acorus calamus root, it has been used in the
treatment of heart diseases. Toothwort tea can also be used to soothe and calm nerves and
is a mild natural relaxant. The fresh juice can aid in digestion. The crushed root of Toothwort
can be used externally as a plaster for aches, pains, and rheumatism.

Crotalaria (Crotalaria retusa): Occasionally used in folk medicine in tropical regions to treat
stomach disorders and colic. The leaves and flowers are used in Grenada to make a cold-
cure tea, where healers are said to favor parts of the plant that caterpillars are attracted. It is
used in homeopathic medicine.

Croton, Texas (Croton texensis): Doveweed contains croton oil, a cathartic, and was used
as such at Isleta, Acoma, Laguna, and Zuni. Preparations of the plant have been used for
rheumatism, paralysis, earache (seeds placed in ear), and headache (inhalation of smoke
from burning plant). The powdered leaves are mixed with honey, beeswax, or Vaseline and
applied to swollen joints. The leaves, steeped in vinegar or wine, are applied to the temples
for headaches. The whole plant is placed under mattresses to repel bedbugs and is burned
like incense as a fumigant. The herb is still used in small doses as a laxative but it contains
potentially cancer-causing irritants and internal use is not recommended.

Crowfoot, Cursed (Ranunculus sceleratus): When bruised and applied to the skin it raises
a blister and creates a sore that is not easy to heal. If chewed it inflames the tongue and
produces violent effects. The herb should be used fresh since it loses its effects when dried.
The leaves and the root are used externally as an antirheumatic. The seed is tonic and is
used in the treatment of colds, general debility, rheumatism and spermatorrhea.

Crown Imperial Lily (Fritillaria imperialis): Occasionally been used as a cough remedy
(expectorant) and to increase the milk flow in feeding mothers.

Crucifixion Thorn (Castela emoryi): The cold brewed tea is used to treat amoebic and
giardic diarrhea, and any stomach or intestinal flu, particularly in the flat-tasting, early days of
recuperation. Soak the stem pieces in water to make it safer to drink. The tea makes a good
skin wash for scratches and abrasions.
Cuban Oregano (Plectranthus amboinicus): Used traditionally within Ayurvedic and Unani
Tibb herbal medicine to help reduce inflammation and is prescribed for bronchitis and asthma.
It is reputed to very effective as a treatment for coughs. An old gardener told me that it is
often referred to as "pokok asthma". The fresh leaves are pounded and the extracted juice
mixed with water. An alternative method recommended is to boil a sprig in water with honey
thrown in for added measure.

Cubeb (Piper cubeba): Cubeb and its oil are carminative, diuretic, stimulant and antiseptic
and were employed as genito-urinary antiseptics and especially for clearing up gonorrhoea.
Extract of cubeb is also expectorant, being helpful in pulmonary infections such as bronchitis.
The powder from dried and crushed cubebs is added to cigarettes for the relief of asthma. Oil
of cubeb is a constituent of some throat lozenges and is useful for urinary ailments and acts
as an antiseptic against gonorrhea. Used for indigestion, catarrh, bronchitis, coughs, and lung
problems. Cigarettes made of cubeb are said to help with hay fever, asthma, and pharyngitis.
Composite herbal drugs containing P.cubeba as one of the ingredients are clinically effective
in the treatment of cough. Alcoholic extract of the drug shows antibacterial activity against
Micrococcus pyrogens var. aureus. Oil of cubeb is effective against influenza virus and
Bacillus typhosus.

Cuckoo Pint (Arum italicum): Theophrastus wrote about the Cuckoo Pint. It was used in
ancient medicine, mixed with honey, to cure coughs. Currently used in homeopathy

Cucumber, Chinese (Trichosanthes kirilowii) Internally used for diabetes, dry coughs,
abscesses, childbirth (second stage of labor), and abortion (tubers); bronchial infections with
thick phlegm, chest pain and tightness; dry constipation, and lung and breast tumors (fruits).
Fruits are traditionally prepared as a winter soup to ward off colds and influenza.
         Trichosanthin was isolated from the root tuber of a Chinese medicinal herb
Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz and was identified as the active component of Tian Hua
Fen, a Chinese medicine described as early as the 16th century as a treatment for various
kinds of ulcer. Since the discovery of its specific injurious effects on human placental
trophoblasts in the 1970's, trichosanthin has been used clinically in China to induce abortion
and to treat diseases of trophoblastic origin such as hydatiform mole, invasive mole and
choriocarcinoma. Soon after the laboratory finding in 1989 by McGrath et al. that trichosanthin
appeared to inhibit the HIV-1 replication in both acutely infected T-lymphoblastoid cells and in
chronically infected macrophages, and selectively killed HIV-infected cells while leaving
uninfected cells unharmed, clinical trials of trichosanthin as a potential treatment for HIV were
carried out in USA. Trichosanthin attacks the life cycle of the virus at an entirely different point
from AZT and related drugs, and in other words, it has a unique mechanism of action
complementary to other drugs. Present clinical reports showed that trichosanthin has some
curing effects on AIDS patients and suggested it to be a possible treatment that may fill the
gap in the treatment of HIV disease. Source: Crimson Sage

Cucumber Root (Medeola virginiana): Leaf and berry tea administered to babies with
convulsions. Root tea once used as a diuretic for dropsy.

Cucumber Tree (Magnolia acuminate): A mild diaphoretic, tonic, and aromatic stimulant. It
is used in rheumatism and is contra-indicated in inflammatory symptoms. In the Alleghany
districts the cones are steeped in spirits to make a tonic tincture. A warm infusion is laxative
and sudorific, a cold one being antiperiodic and mildly tonic. It has historically been used as a
substitute for quinine in the treatment of malaria. An infusion has been used in the treatment
of stomach ache and cramps. The bark has been chewed by people trying to break the
tobacco habit. A hot infusion of the bark has been snuffed to treat sinus problems and has
also been held in the mouth to treat toothaches. The bark is harvested in the autumn and
dried for later use. It does not store well so stocks should be renewed annually. A tea made
from the fruit is a tonic, used in the treatment of general debility and was formerly esteemed in
the treatment of stomach ailments. In Louisiana, the bark of the root and the fruit was used in
herbal treatments. The powdered root bark dosage was about a teaspoonful. The tincture
was most often used. It was made by placing the fruit in weak alcohol for a given time. The
rural herbal users have used the fruit of the cucumber tree to treat dyspepsia and general
debility for many years. Herbalists used the bark and fruit prepared in the required form to
give relief from the pains of rheumatism. Midwives gave a tonic of the cucumber tree for
treatment in obstinate cases of suppressed menstruation.

Culantro (Eryngium foetidum (E. antihystericum) ) In Carib medicine as a cure-all, and,
specifically for epilepsy, high blood pressure, and fevers, fits, and chills in children. In
Suriname's traditional medicine fitweed (culantro) is used against fevers and flu. It is used as
a tea for diarrhea, flu, fevers, vomiting, diabetes and constipation. In India the root is used to
alleviate stomache.

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum): : Cumin seed is used for diarrhea and indigestion. Specific for
headaches caused by ingestion. Hot cumin water is excellent for colds and fevers and is
made by boiling a teaspoon of roasted seeds in 3 cups of water. Honey can be added to
soothe a sore throat. It is supposed to increase lactation and reduce nausea in pregnancy.
Used in a poultice, it relieves swelling of the breast or the testicles. Smoked in a pipe with
ghee, it is taken to relieve the hiccups. Stimulates the appetite. Still used in veterinary
practice. Cumin mixed with flour and water is good feed for poultry and it is said if you give
tame pigeons cumin it makes them fond of their home and less likely to stray. Basalt mixed
with cumin seeds was a common country remedy for pigeons' scabby backs and breasts.

Cupid's Shaving Brush (Emilia sonchifolia): A tea made from the leaves is used in the
treatment of dysentery. The juice of the leaves is used in treating eye inflammations, night
blindness and sore ears. It is used in the treatment of infantile tympanites and bowel
complaints. The root is used in the treatment of diarrhea.

Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii): Said to be tonic and stomachic. In India, the young leaves
are taken for dysentery and diarrhea. The leaves and the stem are used as a tonic, stimulant
and carminative. An infusion of the toasted leaves is anti-emetic. A paste of the bark and
roots is applied to bruises and poisonous bites. The seeds are used to make a medicinal oil
called ‗zimbolee oil.‘ Fresh juice of the leaves mixed with lemon juice and sugar is prescribed
for digestive disorders, and eating 10 curry leaves every morning for 3 months is thought to
cure hereditary diabetes. A few drops of the juice are believed to keep eyes bright. A liberal
intake of curry leaves impedes premature greying of the hair. The leaves, boiled in coconut
oil, are massaged into the scalp to promote hair growth and retain color. The leaves may also
be used as a poultice to help heal burns and wounds. Juice from the berries may be mixed
with lime juice and applied to soothe insect bites and stings.

Cycas (Cycas media): Seeds used in folk medicine. They have been used mainly topically
to treat sores and skin diseases. In India the seeds are used as a remedy for insomnia.

Cynanchum (Cynanchum glaucescens): The fragrant root is used in Chinese
medicine. The roots and stems are used to treat coughs, pneumonia, uneasy breathing, and
lung diseases. They are also used in the treatment of asthma with profuse sputum, coughs

Cypress, White (Chamaecyparis thyoides): A decoction of the leaves has been used as a
herbal steam for treating headaches and backaches. A poultice made from the crushed
leaves and bark has been applied to the head to treat headaches.

Dahnoon (Ilex cassine): A strong decoction of the plant was used by some native North
American Indian tribes to induce vomiting. This was seen partly as a physical and partly a
spiritual cleansing.

Dakota Vervain (G              l      a      n       d      u      l      a       r      i      a
b       i    p       i     n       n       a      t      i     f      i     d       a       ): As an
effective sedative tea, particularly in the early feverish states of a cold or flu. It also stimulates
sweating. It is a good remedy for children, although the taste leaves much to be desired. The
powdered tops are mixed with lard or Vaseline and applied to the back of the neck for back or
neck pain. The herb or tea is used for goats that have just kidded and have udder infections.

Daisy (Bellis perennis (English): Flowers are used externally in lotions for skin disease,
wounds, varicose veins, sore and watery eyes and bruises. An infusion of the flower was
drunk in the morning and at night for a fever. Daisy is under investigation for possible use in
HIV therapy. The flowers contain compounds similar to those in Castanospermum. It is most
often used as a gentle laxative. Its fresh flowers are anodyne and help heal inflamed
swellings and burns. It is also beneficial for colds and chest problems, coughs and mucous
congestion. The tea is good for stomach and intestinal problems where some sort of internal
fermentation is the source, also for catarrh, colic, and liver, kidney and bladder problems.
The juice can be used externally for injuries and suppuration. As a double treatment to relieve
stiffness or soreness, wild daisy can be taken internally as a tea and applied externally in

Damiana (Turnera diffusa): As an aphrodisiac, damiana works by sending blood to the
genital area. It must be used consistently for several weeks before an effect is noticed. The
leaf is infused to treat sexual trauma, frigidity, and impotence. It also clears the kidneys, helps
the digestion, relieves constipation, and benefits lung problems and coughs. Due to its
testosterogenic quality, damiana has always been seen as an herb for men, helpful in treating
premature ejaculation and impotence. It works well in combination with saw palmetto berry
and/or ginseng and was used that way by Native Americans for this purpose.
             It is a blood purifier with many of the same properties as parsley. Its essential oil is
irritating to mucous membranes, increasing the production while decreasing the thickness of
fluids produced by these membranes and may account for its success as a diuretic, laxative,
blood purifier and expectorant.           The effect is most pronounced in the reproductive and
urinary systems. It‘s used in the treatment of urinary infections such as cystitis and urethritis
due to the constituent arbutin, which is converted into hydroquinone, a strong urinary
antiseptic, in the urinary tubules.
It is a relaxing nervine and tonic with an affinity for nervous system problems that affect the
reproductive system. It works by increasing blood flow, blood oxygenation, and energy in the
affected area while it relaxes the whole person. It is also used for debility, depression and
lethargy. It has mild laxative properties. It has traditionally been used to treat coughs, colds,
enuresis, nephritis, headaches and dysmenorrhea.

Damianita (Chrysactinia mexicana): The flower is used for fever, rheumatism, and as a
diuretic, sudorific, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale): Dandelion contains much that is beneficial to our bodies:
bitter compounds, choline, inulin, large quantities of minerals such as calcium, sodium, silicic
acid, sulfur and, in the fresh leaves, a high content of potassium. The bitter compounds
stimulate the appetite and promote digestion. Choline affects the gallbladder and the
intestines, often stimulating the mucous membranes of the large intestine in a laxative effect.
It also has a relationship to the liver‘s lipid metabolism. Our daily requirement of choline is 2-3
grams and a lack of it increases fatty degeneration of the liver. Dandelion can promote bile
production in the liver and its secretion from the liver. Dandelion root is a "blood purifier" that
helps both the kidneys and the liver to improve elimination. It helps clear up many eczema-
like skin problems because of this. The root has also been successfully used to treat liver
diseases such as jaundice and cirrhosis along with dyspepsia and gallbladder problems. Its
use as a diuretic is favorable because it replaces the potassium that most diuretics remove.
It's the herb of choice for treating rheumatism, gout and heart disease as well as regulating
hormonal imbalances. Fresh latex removes warts if applied several times daily. The Chinese
have prescribed it since ancient times to treat colds, bronchitis, pneumonia, hepatitis, boils,
ulcers, obesity, dental problems, itching, and internal injuries. A poultice of chopped
dandelion was also used to treat breast cancer. Traditional Ayurvedic physicians used the
herb in a similar manner. Recent research shows a wide number of possibilities using
dandelion. It's diuretic property can make it useful in relieving the bloated feeling of PMS and
in help with weight loss. One study shows dandelion inhibits the growth of the fungus
responsible for vaginal yeast infections. It stimulates bile production and prevents gallstones.
There is a German preparation Chol-Grandelat (a combination of dandelion, milk thistle and
rhubarb) prescribed for gallbladder disease. Traditional formulas: dandelion and barberry;
dandelion and parsley; dandelion and purslane

Darnel (Lolium temulentum): Occasionally used in folk medicine to treat headache,
rheumatism, and sciatica. It is occasionally used externally in cases of skin eruption and
tumorous growth. It is sometimes used by doctors to treat dizziness, insomnia, blood
congestion, and stomach problems. It may also be used for skin problems like herpes, scurf,
and sores.

Date (Phoenix dactylifera): The fruit, because of its tannin content, is used medicinally as a
detersive and astringent in intestinal troubles. In the form of an infusion, decoction, syrup or
paste, is administered as a treatment for sore throat, colds, bronchial catarrh. It is taken to
relieve fever, cystitis, gonorrhea, edema, liver and abdominal troubles. And it is said to
counteract alcohol intoxication. The seed powder is an ingredient in a paste given to relieve
ague. A gum that exudes from the wounded trunk is employed in India for treating diarrhea
and genito-urinary ailments. It is diuretic and demulcent. The roots are used against
toothache. The pollen yields an estrogenic principle, estrone, and has a gonadotropic effect
on young rats.

Day Flower (Commelina communis): The leaves are used as a throat gargle to relieve sore
throats and tonsilitis. A decoction of the dried plant is used to treat bleeding, diarrhea, fever
etc. Extracts of the plant show antibacterial activity. An extract of Commelina
communis after decoction in water has been traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in

Death Camas (Zygadenus elegans): Death camass was once used as an external
medicine. The Blackfoot Indians applied a wet bound dressing of the pulped bulbs to relieve
the pain of bruises, sprains and rheumatism.

Deertongue (Carphephorus odoratissimus (Trilisa odoratissima, Liatris
odoratissima)) The roots have been used for their diuretic effects and applied locally for
sore throats and gonorrhea. It has also been used as a tonic in treating malaria. Demulcent,
febrifuge, diaphoretic. A powerful stimulant, highly regarded by Native Americans as an
aphrodisiac, and said to induce erotic dreams.

Desert Lavender (Hyptis emoryi): Both the flowers and the leaves can be used to make a
minty-tasting tea that is good for the stomach and throat. It‘s an anesthethic to the
esophagus, thus extremely soothing to inflamed tissues. It is also a hemostatic, used by
desert Indians to treat heavy menstruation and bleeding hemorrhoids as well as being given
to women in childbirth. Desert lavender is an excellent tea for hangovers and helps rid the
mouth of the sour taste that comes with stomach flu. Betulinic acid, with tumor-inhibitory
properties, was identified from a chloroform extract by Sheth et al. (3). Tanowitz et al. (4)
identified 34 constituents from the oil of a collection from San Diego Co., California, with
11.9% borneol as the most abundant constituent

Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens): : It has been recommended for treating a
wide variety of conditions: cholecystitis, cholelithiasiss, gout, obesity, osteoarthritis,
rheumatoid arthritis; Dyspepsia; Hypercholesterolemia; Hyperlipidemia. It is a remedy from
the Kalahari desert in Namibia with a well deserved reputation as an effective rheumatic
remedy. A group of glycosides called harpagosides found in the root show a marked anti-
inflammatory effect. Devil‘s claw is also considered by herbalists to be a potent bitter. Bitter
principles, like the iridoid glycosides found in devil‘s claw, stimulate the stomach to increase
the production of acid, thereby helping to improve digestion.
        In the west, Devil's claw has been recommended for treating a wide variety of
conditions including diseases of the liver, kidneys, and bladder, as well as allergies,
arteriosclerosis, lumbago, gastrointestinal disturbances, menstrual difficulties, neuralgia,
headache, climacteric (change of life) problems, heartburn, nicotine poisoning, and above all,
rheumatism and arthritis.
           Externally, devil's claw root is made into ointments for skin rashes, wounds and the
like. Diabetes, hepatitis, kidney and bladder deficiency, nervous malaise and respiratory
ailments are all treated with devil's claw preparations. Insofar as hardening of the arteries
pertains to complications of aging, devil's claw finds application. There is some concern in the
industry about the difficulty of obtaining good devil's claw root; only certain portions of the root
contain active constituents, and often the whole root is supplied to manufacturers. To help
circumvent this problem, standardized preparations are now being produced.
          Not much research has been done in this area, but it has been established devil's
claw root possesses a bitter value of 6,000, equal to the main Western bitter, gentian root. It
would therefore be expected to possess similar gastro-intestinal properties. Indeed, in the few
reported studies on g.i. problems, harpagophytum proved effective in treating such complaints
as dyspepsia and conditions relating to the proper functioning of bile salts, the gallbladder,
and the enterohepatic circuit. In a related manner, the herb helps to raise cholesterol and fatty
acid levels in the blood. As one author points out, devil's claw may be the perfect treatment
for elderly people with arthritis, obesity and hyperlipemia.
           An early review paper on devil's claw suggested the plant was a good stimulant of
the lymphatic system, with detoxifying effects that extended to the whole organism, and
provided evidence from clinical studies involving close to 400 persons. The plant was indeed
effective for most of the conditions listed in the folklore section above, especially as pertaining
to the liver, gallbladder, bladder and kidneys.
           More recent studies have found devil's claw preparations are generally well suited
for the treatment of chronic rheumatism, arthritis, gout, spondylosis-induced lower back pain,
neuralgia, headaches, and lumbago. One study found its anti-inflammatory effects equaled
those of pyrazolone derivatives and the commonly prescribed anti-arthritic phenylbutazone.
Analgesic effects of a subjective nature are reported, but objective tests are ambiguous on
this point. Relief of pain is probably a side benefit of reduced inflammation. Improved mobility
in the joints is often reported, as well as improved feeling of well-being. Currently, physicians
in Europe are injecting devil's claw extract directly into arthritic joints, where it acts much like
cortisone in terms of reducing inflammation. As in the case of most arthritis treatments, not
everybody benefits, but there are enough to do to warrant further investigation of this plant,
and to recommend it as a possible treatment option. A clinical study carried out in Germany
in 1976 reported that devil's claw exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, comparable in many
respects to the well-known anti-arthritic drug, phenylbutazone. Analgesic effects were also
observed along with reductions in abnormally high cholesterol and uric-acid blood levels.

Devil’s Club (Oplopanax horridum): Devil's Club is used to stabilize blood sugar levels. It
is used routinely in the treatment of diabetes as a natural alternative to insulin. Although
devil‘s club shares some pharmacological and therapeutic similarities with ginseng, it is not
the same medicine. It is a strong and safe respiratory stimulant and expectorant increasing
the mucus secretions to initiate fruitful coughing and soften up hardened bronchial mucus that
can occur later on in a chest cold. The cold infusion, and to a lesser degree the fresh or dry
tincture, is helpful for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders , taken regularly
and with sensible modifications to the diet. It is more helpful when taken during remissions
and has little effect during active distress. Its main value is in modifying extremes of
metabolic stress and adding a little reserve to offset the person‘s internal cost of living. . Its
use by Native Americans as a treatment for adult-onset diabetes has been substantiated by
scientific studies in this century. It seems to decrease the lust for sugars and binge food in
those trying to lose weight or deal with generally elevated blood fats and glucose. Seems to
work best on stocky, mesomorphic, anabolic-stress-type, middle-aged people with elevated
blood lipids, moderately high blood pressure, and early signs of adult onset, insulin-resistant
diabetes. Indians also used it to treat cancer. Root strongly warms lymphatic system
function; weakly warms central nervous system activity; weakly warms hepatic activity.
          Root weakly warms immunologic activity; weakly warms mucosal activity; weakly
warms parasympathetic nervous system activity; weakly warms renal activity; weakly warms
reproductive system function; weakly warms respiratory system function; weakly warms skin
activity; weakly warms sympathetic nervous system activity; weakly warms thyroid stress;
weakly warms upper GI activity; weakly cools adrenal stress; weakly cools anabolic stress.
Devil's Horsewhip (Achyranthes aspera) The plant is highly esteemed by traditional
healers and used in treatment of asthma, bleeding, in facilitating delivery, boils, bronchitis,
cold, cough, colic, debility, dropsy, dog bite, dysentery, ear complications, headache,
leucoderma, pneumonia, renal complications, scorpion bite, snake bite and skin diseases etc.
Traditional healers claim that addition of A. aspera would enhance the efficacy of any drug of
plant origin. Prevents infection and tetanus. Used to treat circumcision wounds, cuts. Also
used for improving lymphatic circulation, strengthens musculatured, improves blood
circulation; Cold with fever, heat stoke with headache, malaria, dysentery; Urinary tract
lithiasis, chronic nephritis, edema; Rheumatic arthralgia (joint pain). Used traditionally for
infertility in women: Two ml decoction of root and stem is administered orally thrice a day for
three months. Younger women respond better to this therapy.

Dewberry (Rubus caesius): The fruit is commonly used for a treatment for diarrhea and
dysentery. Combination of the roots is treatment for coughs and also fevers.

Dill (Anethum graveolens): Carvone is a carminative. Limonene and phellandrene--an
irritant found in oil of dill and many other essential oils--are photosensitizers. Dill seed
improves digestion and appetite and sweetens the breath. The oil kills bacteria and relieves
flatulence. It is frequently used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicines for indigestion, fevers,
ulcers, uterine pains and kidney and eye problems. Ethiopians chew the leaves along with
fennel to treat headaches and gonorrhea. In Vietnam it is used to treat intestinal diseases.
Contemporary herbalists recommend chewing the seeds for bad breath and drinking dill tea
both as a digestive aid and to stimulate milk production in nursing mothers. The herb helps
relax the smooth muscles of the digestive tract. One study shows it's also an antifoaming
agent, meaning it helps prevent the formation of intestinal gas bubbles.
            Historically, injured knights were said to have placed burned dill seeds on their open
wounds to speed healing. A mixture of dill, dried honey and butter was once prescribed to
treat madness.

Dittany of Crete (Origanum dictamnus) As a medicinal plant, the herb has been utilized to
heal wounds, soothe pain, and ease childbirth. The root has been used in a salve to treat
sciatica, and the juice was consumed in wine to cure snake bite. In addition, it has been used
as a remedy against gastric or stomach ailments and rheumatism.

Dock, Bloody (Rumex sanguineus): Has been used medicinally for cancer and for various
blood diseases. An infusion of the root is useful in the treatment of bleeding. The root is
harvested in early spring and dried for later use. A decoction of the leaves is used in the
treatment of several skin diseases.

Dock, Japanese (Rumex japonicus): For internal use it is similar to da huang: nose
bleeding, functional bleeding of the uterus, purpura due to thrombocytopenia, chronic
hepatitis, inflammation of the anus, constipation. Fresh squeezed juice is effective for fungus
infection of skin, hemorrhoids, inflammation of the mammary glands, and eczema.

Dodder (Cuscuta epithymum) A mild laxative and a well regarded hepatic. It is of value for
the treatment of bladder and liver troubles. It is also considered a remedy for kidney

Dodder, Big Fruit (Cuscuta megalocarpa) Indians used the plants in a bath for treatment of
tuberculosis. Early settlers put their fevered children in the same kind of bath. A poultice of
the plant has been used to treat insect stings. Indians believed the plant to be a useful
contraceptive and gave it to their women. It has also been considered a bile stimulant and a

Dodder, Common (Cuscuta europaea): In traditional folk medicine, a decoction was used
as a laxative. The entire plant is used in Tibetan medicine, where it is considered to have a
bitter, acrid and sweet taste with a heating potency. It is aphrodisiac, renal and a hepatic tonic,
being used to increase semen, to treat pain in the wrist and limbs, vaginal/seminal discharge,
polyuria, tinnitus and blurred vision.

Dodder, Japanese (Cuscuta japonica) Internally used for diarrhea, impotence, urinary
frequency, vaginal discharge, and poor eyesight associated with liver and kidney energy
weakness. Also used for prostatis and neurological weakness. It builds sperm, builds the
blood, strengthens sinews and bones. It also treats enuresis and seminal emission;
constipation, backache and cold knees; and rheumatoid arthritis. One of the safer and more
affordable yang tonics. The herb is reputed to confer longevity when used for prolonged
periods, particularly in combination with Chinese yam. The herb is nontoxic and can be used
continuously for long-term periods except for the contraindication below.

Dog Lichen (Peltigera canina): Liver tonic. The whole plant is used in the form of an
infusion of 1 oz to 1 pt of boiling water and taken in doses of 2 fl oz as a liver tonic. It is
laxative. It is best combined with other remedies for the liver such as dandelion

Dog's Tongue (Psychotria sulzneri): Added to a mixture of medicinal leaves (usually 9) to
make an herbal bath formula for bathing wounds, rashes, swellings, and for those who feel
nervous and sleepless. Mash leaves and flowers to apply as poultice on infected

Dong Quai (Angelica sinensis) Often called ―the female ginseng.‖ Though dong quai has
no specific hormonal action, it exerts a regulating and normalizing influence on hormonal
production through its positive action on the liver and endocrine system. It has a sweet and
unusually thick pungent taste and is warming and moistening to the body. Chinese angelica
is taken in Traditional Chinese Medicine as a tonic for ―deficient blood‖ conditions, anemia
and for the symptoms of anemia due to blood loss, pale complexion, palpitations, and lowered
vitality. Chinese angelica regulates the menstrual cycle, relieves menstrual pains and cramps
and is a tonic for women with heavy menstrual bleeding who risk becoming anemic. Since it
also stimulates menstrual bleeding, other tonic herbs, such as nettle, are best taken during
menstruation if the flow is heavy. It is also a uterine tonic and helps infertility. Chinese
angelica is a ―warming‖ herb, improving the circulation to the abdomen and to the hands and
feet. It strengthens the digestion and it also is useful in the treatment of abscesses and boils.
Research has shown that the whole plant, including the rhizome, strengthens liver function
and the whole rhizome has an antibiotic effect. In China, physicians inject their patients with
Dong quai extract to treat sciatic pain. Clinical trials show that when this extract is injected
into the acupuncture points used to treat sciatica, about 90% of people receiving treatment
report significant improvement.

Dragon Arum (Dracunculus vulgaris): Dioscorides thought it resembled a dragon. In
ancient medicine it was used for the eyes and ears, for ruptures, convulsions and
coughs. Dioscorides says, ―But being beaten small with honey, and applied, it takes away the
malignancie                                   of                                     ulcers.‖

Dragon's Blood (Daemonorops draco syn Calamus draco) a stringent, and regarded as
effective for the treatment of dysentery. It is applied externally as a wash or liniment to stop
bleeding and promote healing. Internally it is used for menstrual irregularities, chest pains,
post-partum bleeding and traumatic injuries. Doses of 10 to 30 grains were formerly given as
an astringent in diarrhea, etc., but officially it is never at present used internally, being
regarded as inert. The following treatment is said to have cured cases of severe syphilis. Mix
2 drachms of Dragon's Blood, 2 drachms of colocynth, ½ oz. of gamboge in a mortar, and add
3 gills of boiling water. Stir for an hour, while keeping hot. Allow to cool, and add while stirring
a mixture of 2 oz. each of sweet spirits of nitre and copaiba balsam. Dragon's Blood is not
acted upon by water, but most of it is soluble in alcohol. It fuses by heat. The solution will
stain marble a deep red, penetrating in proportion to the heat of the stone.

Dragon's Blood (Croton lechleri): For centuries, the sap has been painted on wounds to
staunch bleeding, to accelerate healing, and to seal and protect injuries from infection. The
sap dries quickly and forms a barrier, much like a "second skin." It is used externally by
indigenous tribes and local people in Peru for wounds, fractures, and hemorrhoids, internally
for intestinal and stomach ulcers, and as a douche for vaginal discharge. Other indigenous
uses include treating intestinal fevers and inflamed or infected gums, in vaginal baths before
and after childbirth, for hemorrhaging after childbirth, and for skin disorders.
         It is also used internally for ulcers in the mouth, throat, intestines and stomach; as an
antiviral for upper respiratory viruses, stomach viruses and HIV; internally and externally for
cancer        and,    topically,    for    skin     disorders,   insect      bites   and    stings.
          Some studies have found that the taspine, found in the red sap of dragon‘s blood,
appears to accelerate the healing of wounds. But later research at the University of London,
School of Pharmacy has cast doubt on taspine‘s wound-healing power, suggesting instead
that substances known as polyphenols may be responsible. The same British study also
examined the ability of dragon‘s blood to kill certain human cancer cells and bacteria. In
laboratory tests on samples of human oral cancer cells, dragon‘s blood sap proved toxic to
those cells. In addition, other components in the sap were believed to be valuable in killing off
bacteria, making dragon‘s blood useful as an anti-infective.

Drumstick (Moringa oleifera): The flowers, leaves, and roots are used in folk remedies for
tumors, the seed for abdominal tumors. The root decoction is used in Nicaragua for dropsy.
Root juice is applied externally as rubefacient or counter-irritant. Leaves applied as poultice to
sores, rubbed on the temples for headaches, and said to have purgative properties. Bark,
leaves and roots are acrid and pungent, and are taken to promote digestion. Oil is somewhat
dangerous if taken internally, but is applied externally for skin diseases. Bark regarded as
antiscorbic, and exudes a reddish gum with properties of tragacanth; sometimes used for
diarrhea. Roots are bitter, act as a tonic to the body and lungs, and are emmenagogue,
expectorant, mild diuretic and stimulant in paralytic afflictions, epilepsy and hysteria.
      The juice from the leaves is believed to stabilize blood pressure, the flowers are used to
cure inflammations, the pods are used for joint pain, the roots are used to treat rheumatism,
and          the        bark       can        be        chewed        as       a       digestive.
          A decoction of the root bark of Moringa is used as fomentation to relieve spasm. The
juice of the leaves is given as an emetic. The root and bark are abortifacient. The expressed
juice of the fresh roots, bark, and leaves of Moringa is poured in the nostrils in stupor and
coma. In Guinea, the bark and the roots are considered rubefacient and they are used as
vesicants. The ground roots are mixed with salt and applied as a poultice to tumors. The bark
and     the      leaves    ground    together     are    applied   on    head    for   neuralgia.
       In the Indian indigenous system of medicine (Ayurveda), the leaves of Moringa oleifera
are described to remove all kinds of excessive pain, useful in eye diseases, cure
hallucinations, and as an aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, dry tumors, hiccough, asthma etc.
           Drumsticks have been confirmed as a natural antibiotic and antifungal agent.
Pterygospermin, which clinical tests seem to confirm is antitubercular, has been isolated in
the drumstick‘s root, although Ayurvedic medicine uses the root for liver disorders.
         Medicines made from drumsticks are also gynecologically valuable in childbirth as an
aid for difficult deliveries. Externally, applications compounded from drumsticks are used for
leg spasms, while the seeds are ground and administered for unblocking nasal catarrhs.
         Moringinine acts on Sympathetic nerve endings and can: Produces a rise in blood
pressure; Acceleration of heart beat and constriction of blood vessels; Inhibits the tone and
movements of involuntary muscles of the gastrointestinal tract; Contracts the uterus in guinea
pigs and rabbits; Produces a slight diuresis due to rise of blood pressure; Relaxes

Drumstick Tree (Moringa peregrine): The seeds of the common small tree Moringa
peregrina are turned into a yellowish oil that cures abdominal pains, infantile convulsion and
for childbirth. The testa is removed, powdered and then has salt and water added.

Du Huo (Angelica pubescens): The roots and rhizomes are used to treat nose bleed, blood
in urine, rheumatic arthritis, lumbago, common cold, headache; increase menstrual flow. A
decoction is used to promote menstruation, to treat rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatism,
headache, toothache and abscesses.
Dulse (Rhodymenia palmate): In several traditions of European herbal medicine, dulse was
used to remove parasites, to relieve constipation, and as a treatment for scurvy. It is a
superior source of the iodine the body needs to make the thyroid hormones thyroxine and
triiodothyronine which affect weight and metabolic rate. The complex polysaccharides in the
herb make it a gentle alternative to psyllium or senna in the treatment of constipation.
             Externally, the fresh blades can be used to treat skin diseases, headaches, and to
help expel placenta. It is used as a gentle laxative. Dulse has also been used to help prevent
fibroid tumors of the breasts, the uterus or the ovaries and in cases of swollen lumps or
enlargements of the intestinal area. Natural, organically-bond iodine extracts from Dulse are
used for the treatment and prevention of thyroid disease, and clinical trials on daily molecular
iodine supplementation have shown that cyclical breast lumps and cysts are completely
resolved within two months. The iodine in Dulse can also prevent goiter.
              Dulse has an alkalizing effect on the blood that neutralizes wastes that build up in
the body and also aids in removing radioactive and heavy metals from the body. It also
prevents the absorption from the gut by binding these elements, which include radioactive
strontium, barium, and cadmium. This is done by transforming them into harmless salts (via a
substance called alginic acid) that are easily eliminated. Dulse has elements to eliminate
excess uric acid from the system and has been used for genitourinary problems such as
kidney, bladder, prostrate, and uterus. Clinical documentation shows that taking some each
day can reduce enlarged prostrates in older men and urination can become painless.
         Seaweeds may reduce the risk of poisoning from environmental pollution by providing
fiber that increases fecal bulk and also reduces cholesterol levels through the retardation of
bile acid absorption. Recent research has suggested that Dulse may help reverse hardening
of the arteries, reduce high blood pressure, regress and prevent tumors Research has shown
that Dulse extracts inhibited HeLa cell proliferation that is found in human cervical
adenocarcinoma and has also been found in animal studies to reduce the risk of intestinal
and                                        mammary                                        cancer.
            It has been used to treat the problems associated with thyroid malfunction. Liquid
Dulse can help to soothe an irritated throat and mucous membranes. It has been used for
enlarged thyroid and lymph nodes, swollen and painful testes and to reduce
edema. Seaweeds are used to promote wound healing. New generation dressings such as
the hydrocolloid dressings are seaweed base as they provide optimal conditions for healing to
begin. It is known to prevent seasickness. Thus it should be of value in other conditions
where motion sickness is the cause such as vertigo and labrynthitis or Meniere's Disease.

Durian (Durio zibethinus): The flesh is said to serve as a vermifuge. In Malaya, a decoction
of the leaves and roots is prescribed as a febrifuge. The leaf juice is applied on the head of a
fever patient. The leaves are employed in medicinal baths for people with jaundice.
Decoctions of the leaves and fruits are applied to swellings and skin diseases. The ash of the
burned rind is taken after childbirth. The leaves probably contain hydroxy-tryptamines and
mustard                                                                                       oils.
         The odor of the flesh is believed to be linked to indole compounds which are
bacteriostatic. Eating durian is alleged to restore the health of ailing humans and animals. The
flesh is widely believed to act as an aphrodisiac because it improves sexual function for
those               who              are             kidney              yang           deficient.
        In the late 1920's, Durian Fruit Products, Inc., of New York City, launched a product
called "Dur-India" as a "health-food accessory" in tablet form, selling at $9 for a dozen bottles,
each containing 63 tablets–a 3-months' supply. The tablets reputedly contained durian and a
species of Allium from India, as well as a considerable amount of vitamin E. They were
claimed to provide "more concentrated healthful energy in food form than any other product
the world affords"–to keep the body vigorous and tireless; the mind alert with faculties
undimmed;                           the                       spirit                     youthful.
         A toothpaste flavored with durian is currently marketed for durian fanciers. The Malays,
besides looking on the durian fruit as tonic, consider the root medicinal, taking a decoction of
it for a fever, which has lasted three days. The leaves and root are used in a compound for
fevers. The leaves are utilized in medicinal baths for jaundice. The juice enters into a
preparation for bathing the head of a fever patient. In Java the fruit-walls are used externally
for ski complaints. Considered by many to be the strongest aphrodisiac in the world
         Decoction of the leaves and roots is used as antipyretic; the leaves are used in
medicinal baths for people with jaundice; decoctions of the leaves and fruits are applied to
swellings and skin diseases; the ash of the burned rind is taken after childbirth.

Dyers Greenwood (Genista tinctoria)            Both the flowering stems and seeds are the
medicinal parts. Dyer's Greenweed was used as a laxative, to expel uroliths and for gout. It
has strong diuretic, weak cardioactive and laxative properties. Besides being a remedy for
kidney and urinary disorders, it has also been used to strengthen heart action, to raise blood
pressure and to alleviate rheumatic and arthritic pain. It has diuretic, cathartic and emetic
properties and both flower tops and seeds have been used medicinally, though it has never
been an official drug. The powdered seeds operate as a mild purgative, and a decoction of
the plant has been used medicinally as a remedy in dropsy and is stated to have proved
effective in gout and rheumatism, being taken in wineglassful doses three or four times a day.
The ashes form an alkaline salt, which has also been used as a remedy in dropsy and other
diseases. In the fourteenth century it was used, as well as Broom, to make an ointment
called Unguentum geneste, 'goud for alle could goutes,' etc. The seed was also used in a
plaster for broken limbs. A decoction of the plant was regarded in the Ukraine as a remedy
for hydrophobia, but there's not much scientific evidence on this use.


Edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum): : It is not toxic, but has been used traditionally in folk
medicine as a remedy against abdominal and respiratory diseases. Extracts and individual
constituents of Leontopodium alpinum were tested for their antimicrobial activity in two
different assays. Extracts were screened in agar diffusion assays, whereas the minimum
inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of single compounds were determined by the microbroth
dilution method according to NCCLS criteria. Significant antimicrobial activities were found
against various strains of Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes strains.
These results support the ethnomedicinal use of Leontopodium alpinum for the treatment of
respiratory and abdominal disorders.

Elder: (Sambucus nigra): Key actions: Flowers: expectorant, reduces phlegm, circulatory
stimulant, promote sweating, diuretic, topically anti-inflammatory; Berries: promote sweating,
diuretic, laxative; Bark: purgative, promotes vomiting, diuretic; topically--emollient. The
berries help coughs, colic, sore throats, asthma and flu. A pinch of cinnamon makes the tea
more warming. The berries have also been taken for rheumatism and erysipelas. They are
mildly laxative and also help diarrhea.
         The flowers are infused for fevers, eruptive skin conditions such as measles and
severe bronchial and lung problems. The infusion is relaxing and produces a mild
perspiration that helps to reduce fever. The flowering tops tone the mucous linings of the
nose and throat, increasing their resistance to infection. They are prescribed for chronic
congestion, allergies, ear infections and candidiasis. Infusions of the flowering tops and other
herbs can reduce the severity of hay fever attacks if taken for some months before the onset
of the hay fever season. A classic flu remedy is a mixture of elderflower, yarrow and
peppermint teas.
By encouraging sweating and urine production, elder flowering tops promote the removal of
waste products from the body and are of value in arthritic conditions.
The specific compounds in elder flowers have not been well established for the diuretic and
laxative properties. The compound sambuculin A and a mixture of alpha- and beta-amyrin
palmitate have been found to exhibit strong antihepatotoxic activity against liver damage
induced experimentally by carbon tetrachloride.
The bark‘s energetics are bitter and toxic. Only bark that has been aged for a year or more
should be used or cyanide poisoning may result. The Western species are more toxic. This
herb has two compounds that are active against flu viruses. It also prevents the virus from
invading respiratory tract cells. A patented Israeli drug (Sambucol) that contains elderberry is
active against various strains of viruses. It also stimulated the immune system and has
shown some activity in preliminary trials against other viruses, such as Epstein-Barr, herpes
and even HIV.

Elder, Dwarf (Aralia hispida): Very valuable in dropsy, gravel, suppression of urine, and
other urinary disorders. The bark of the root is the strongest, but that of the stem is also used.
It is a relaxant and mild stimulant, acting with but moderate promptness, leaving behind gentle
tonic effect, and influencing the kidneys chiefly. A portion of its power is unquestionably
expended upon the uterus, and slightly upon the circulation toward the surface; both of which
effects have usually been overlooked. It has a slightly warming, bitter taste, and is rather
pleasant to the stomach.
        It is mostly used in compounds for dropsy, and is one of the best of its class; but for any
sub-acute or chronic torpor of the renal organs, with aching back and scanty urine, it is an
agent of peculiar value. In high-colored urine, and in chronic aching and weakness of the
bladder, it is equally beneficial. It promotes menstruation a little; and is a good adjunct to
other remedies in the treatment of mild leucorrhea, amenorrhea, and other female disorders.
It is generally prepared in decoction, two ounces to the quart; of which two or three fluid
ounces may be given three times a day. Used warm, it will promote gentle diaphoresis.
        A tea made from the leaves is diaphoretic. An infusion of the root has been used in the
treatment of heart diseases.

Elder, Mexican (Sambucus mexicana): An infusion of the blossoms has been used in the
treatment of upset stomachs, fevers, sore throats, colds and flu. A decoction of the roots has
been used in the treatment of constipation. A widely used treatment for fever, combined with
equal parts of Brook Mint or Pennyroyal as a tea. A tea of the flowers and/or dried berries
acts as a simple diuretic to treat water retention. As a face wash for acne and pimples, use a
tea of the flowers. Take as a tea up to 3 times a day.

Elecampane (Inula helenium): European scientists have discovered elecampane contains a
chemical, alantolactone, that helps expel intestinal parasites and is better than santonin and
less toxic (1 teaspoon of root to a cup of water, bring to boil and simmer 20 minutes, drinking
up to 3 cups a day). It is also anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and fungicidal adding to its
potential          therapeutic          action          in          the         intestine.
        All chronic lung conditions such as bronchitis and asthma are helped by it. It is
generally mixed with other lung herbs (often white horehound, coltsfoot, pleurisy root and
yarrow). It is a constitutional treatment for general catarrhal conditions such as chronic
pulmonary affections that have symptoms of cough, shortness of breath, wheezing in the
lungs, a specific for whooping cough in children, pneumonia, diseases of the breast and
malignant fevers, hepatic torpor, dyspepsia and the feeling of stitches in the side caused by
the spleen. It‘s warming for a cold, wet cough. It doesn‘t suppress the cough, but increases
       Elecampane produces an active principle called helenin, which is antiseptic and
antibacterial, making the root useful in salves and surgical dressings. Elecampane contains
an essential oil that consists primarily of sesquiterpene lactones. The root also contains the
complex carbohydrate inulin. This starchy material swells and forms a slippery suspension
when mixed with digestive fluids. The inulin soothes the lining of the digestive tract and
provides the benefits of viscous fiber. It also apparently elicits a sympathetic expectorant
response        to      mucous        membranes         of      the      respiratory       system.
         A bitter-aromatic tonic, elecampane root increases appetite and promotes digestion.
Europeans with indigestion still sometimes sip on a cordial made by infusing the roots, sugar
and currants in white port. In Russia, the whole root is preserved in vodka to store it for
winter use. Soluble in alcohol and partially in water. Used in China for certain cancers. Wash
used for facial neuralgia, sciatica. Experimentally, tea strongly sedative to mice.

Elephant Tree (Bursera microphylla): The resin was an Aztec remedy. In the 16 century,
Fray Bernardino de Sahagun wrote that a little ground copal, the size of a small fingernail,
added to water and drunk only7 once a day on an empty stomach would cure diarrhea. The
resin, bark and leaves are steeped in tequila or grain alcohol to make a tincture that is applied
to gum sores, cold sores, and abscessed teeth. The dried stems and leaves are drunk in a
tea to relieve painful urination, and as a stimulating expectorant for slowly healing bronchitis
and chest colds. A tea of the leaves or the leaves and bark is used as a tonic to fortify the
immune system.

Elephantheads (Pedicularis groenlandica): The Cheyenne Drug used a tea of powdered
leaves and stems taken to stop or loosen a coughs. They also used a tea of smashed leaves
and stems taken for coughs. All of the Pedicularis' are tranquilizers, muscle relaxants,
powerful aphrodisiacs, and sedatives. They are often employed medicinally for muscle pain
and tension, particularly back pain. . It is also used for muscle strain due to overwork, sprains,
joint pain, night-time cramps, and as a preliminary before bodywork such as massage. It is
very relaxing to voluntary muscles, but large amounts can make a person goofy and
lethargic. Pedicularis are also used for their psychological effects, good for anger, fear, pain,
anxiety. The whole flowering herb is harvested for the tincture, but only the flowers, fresh or
dried, are made into a tea. At least one Native American tribe is known to smoke the flowers
of certain Pedicularis species for their medicinal effects and narcotic effects. These plants are
a welcome addition to any smoking mixture both as flavor and a narcotic. Elephant's Head is
claimed to have the best flavor but is the mildest, but every Pedicularis has an excellent taste.
P. Densiflora being the most potent species

Elodea (Elodea canadensis): An infusion of the plant has been used as a strong emetic.

Embauba (Cecropia peltata): The corrosive and astringent latex is used against warts,
calluses, herpes, ulcers, dysentery, and venereal diseases. A tea made from the leaves is
widely employed as a cure for asthma and thought to be useful in treating a wide variety of
other ailments including liver disease, cardiovascular problems, Parkinson's disease, and
snakebite. It also is used to ease childbirth and menstrual complaints. Various substances
have been extracted from yagrumo hembra for medicinal use, including one that increases
cardiac muscular contraction and acts upon the kidneys as a diuretic. A substance extracted
from the roots is said to heal wounds, and the leaves are often used as a poultice to reduce
swelling and as an abrasive

Enchanter's Nightshade (Circaea lutetiana): The plant has been used as a treatment on
wounds. A compound infusion has been drunk and also used as a wash on injured parts of
the body.

Epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides) Has been used for centuries beginning with the
Mayans. By the middle of the 18 century, medicinal use of the plant was firmly established
in the US. Mexican mothers steep epazote in milk and sugar to rid their children of intestinal
parasites, especially roundworms and hookworms. Helps prevent flatulence. The ingredient
ascaridol is a powerful worm expellent. The Catawba made a poultice from the plant, which
they used to detoxify snake bite and other poisonings. It has also been used as a digestive
remedy, being generally taken to settle colic and stomach pains. Wormseed leaves have
antispasmodic properties. A decoction of the leaves or of the whole plant brings relief to a
variety of gastrointentinal problems. Its muscle-relaxing action has led to its use in the
treatment of spasmodic coughs and asthma. The plant also has external uses. Juice
expressed from the whole herb is applied as a wash for hemorrhoids. In addition, the whole
plant is thought to have wound-healing properties. Dose: of the oil, 4-20 drops with honey, or
molasses, for children according to age. The infusion of the tops and pulverized seeds, 1
teaspoonful to 1 cupful of boiling water; steep 15 min. administer in wineglassful amounts. To
expel worms: omit the evening meal, give the prescribed dose and again in the morning
before breakfast, followed by a herbal cathartic; repeat for three days to make sure the larva
is expelled. Was official in the US Pharmacopeia for more than a century, from 1820-1947.
Ephedra (Ephedra sinica and E. vulgaris) Ephedra‘s active constituents are strong central
nervous system stimulants, more powerful than caffeine but less potent than amphetamine.
Ephedrine itself opens the bronchial passages, thus acting as a bronchodilator, stimulates the
heart, and increases blood pressure, metabolic rate, and perspiration and urine production. It
also reduces the secretion of both saliva and stomach acids. Traditional Zen monks used
ephedra to promote calm concentration during meditation. In China, ephedra is popular for
chills and fevers, coughs and wheezing, and in combination with rehmannia is given to treat
kidney yin deficiency. For asthma use with almond; for ―wind-cold‖ injury use with cinnamon;
for allergic skin reaction use with mint and cicada moltings. Ephedra is used principally in
current Western herbal medicine as a treatment for asthma and hay fever, and for the acute
onset of colds and flu. It also helps to raise blood pressure, cool fevers, and alleviate
rheumatism. The whole plant contains many compounds—some active, some inert, which in
combination seem to act synergistically. The whole plant can be used at a much lower
dosage than isolated constituents and it has significant therapeutic effects, including dilating
the bronchial airways and increasing blood flow to the skin. Unlike ephedrine, the whole plant
rarely gives rise to side effects. One study shows ephedrine helps smokers quit by
decreasing cigarette cravings. Ephedrine causes uterine contractions in laboratory animals.
Pregnant women should not use it. Other women may try it to initiate menstruation.

Ephedra, Joint Fir (Ephedra distachya): Members of this genus contain various medicinally
active alkaloids (but notably ephedrine) and they are widely used in preparations for the
treatment of asthma and catarrh. The whole plant can be used at much lower concentrations
than the isolated constituents - unlike using the isolated ephedrine, using the whole plant
rarely gives rise to side-effects. The plant also has antiviral effects, particularly against
influenza. Ephedrine stimulates the sympathetic nervous system dilating the coronary
vessels. It has a powerful and rapid antiallergic action. Indicated to combat coughs, asthma,
hay fever, nettle-rash, some edema and eczema conditions. A tincture and an extract are
used. It is used to relieve acute muscular and rheumatic pains (when it is called teamsters'
tea), as a stimulant, and in the cardio tonics in Ayurveda. It is sometimes identified with the
legendary drug soma, as described in the Avesta and the Rig Veda, the respective ancient
sacred texts of the Zoroastrian and Hindu faiths. Valued in Chinese medicine almost as much
as Ephedra sinica. The branches and root are used in Siberia as a remedy in gout and
          The stems are a pungent, bitter, warm herb that dilates the bronchial vessels while
stimulating the heart and central nervous system. They are used internally in the treatment of
asthma, hay fever and allergic complaints. They are also combined with a number of other
herbs and used in treating a wide range of complaints.

Ephedra, Torrey (Ephedra torreyana): In some areas of the southwest this species is
preferred as a diuretic to the greener species (Ephedra viridis and E. trifurca). Native tribes of
the southwest used it for a variety of ailments. The Pima made a decoction from stems and
used as an antiluetic (anti-syphilitic). The Mescalero Apache made a decoction from the
entire plant and used as an antiblenorrhagic. Spanish New Mexicans made a decoction and
used it to reduce fever and to relieve kidney pain. This plant has a wide reputation as a cure
for syphilis. The recipe is: boil a handful of the plant in a quart of water, then strain through a
cloth. Drink one glass of this tea (hot) at least three times a day, about 1 hour before meals.
When the pain is gone, one must eat a chopped red onion three times before meals for
approximately 6 to 8 days. A decoction of the stems is used, in treating coughs, bladder and
kidney problems and stomach disorders. A decoction of the leaves and stems has been used
as              a             lotion             on             itchy            skin.
           The stems of most members of this genus contain the alkaloid ephedrine and are
valuable in the treatment of asthma and many other complaints of the respiratory system. The
whole plant can be used at much lower concentrations than the isolated constituents - unlike
using the isolated ephedrine, using the whole plant rarely gives rise to side-effects. Ephedra
does not cure asthma but in many cases it is very effective in treating the symptoms and thus
making life somewhat easier for the sufferer. The stems can be used fresh or dried and are
usually made into a tea, though they can also be eaten raw. The young stems are best if
eating them raw, though older stems can be used if a tea is made The stems can be
harvested at any time of the year and are dried for later use.
Eternal Flower (Helichrysum stoechas): Formerly used as an expectorant. The ointment it
seems to have beneficial effects on skin diseases, while reduced in aerosol it is a good
remedy against bronchitis and asthma.

Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis) The tiny seeds were used as an unspecified
medicine by the Forest Potawatomis. The Flambeau Ojibwas used the whole plant, soaked in
warm water, to make a poultice to heal bruises. The Omahas also made a poultice from
some part of the four-point evening primrose. GLA is responsible for many of the herb‘s
properties. It is an anticoagulant that is thought to reduce high blood pressure, prevent heart
attacks and guard against coronary artery disease. A 1981 clinical study at the St. Thomas
Hospital in London gave evening primrose oil to 65 women with premenstrual syndrome and
61% of the participants found their symptoms completely disappeared and another 23% felt
partial relief. There was noticeable improvement in the skin conditions of 99 people with
eczema when they were treated with evening primrose oil in a double-blind study. In another
study, the oil was found to improve dry and brittle nails and combines with zinc treatments, it
helped acne and dry eyes, as well as nails. In 1987, the Glasgow Royal Infirmary of Scotland
saw improvement in 60% of its rheumatoid arthritis patients who took a combination of
evening primrose and fish oil instead of their regular drugs. A study by the Highland
Psychiatric Research Group at the Draig Dunain Hospital, Inverness, Scotland, found that
evening primrose encouraged regeneration of liver cells damaged by alcohol consumption.
Other researchers think it may also prevent alcoholic poisoning, hangovers, postdrink
depression and alcohol withdrawal. It is thought to stop alcohol from damaging brain cells by
bolstering them with unsaturated fats. . A New York City hospital found that more than 10%
of overweight people tested with evening primrose oil lost weight. In another study, two-thirds
of hyperactive children studied responded favorably to the oil.
Evening primrose oil improved Parkinson‘s-induced tremors in 55% of those who took the
equivalent of 2 teaspoons a day for several months. Some studies suggest that GLA helps
relieve symptoms of Raynaud‘s disease. In one study, EPO was massaged into the fingers of
people         with     Raynaud‘s         disease       and      about      half     improved.

Eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis) Eyebright is similar, but much weaker in action, to golden
seal when it comes to its use as an eyewash. It contains astringent and antibiotic principles
that are useful for cleansing the eye. Systemic effects such as stimulation of the liver to
release vitamin A are unfounded scientifically. It tightens the mucous membranes of the eye
and appears to relieve the inflammation of conjunctivitis and blepharitis. Its ability to counter
mucus means that it is often used for infectious and allergic conditions affecting the eyes,
middle ear, sinuses, and nasal passages. It is helpful in acute or chronic inflammations,
stinging and weeping eyes as well as over-sensitivity to light. Although eyebright counters
liquid mucus, it should be used guardedly for dry and stuffy congestion, which tends to be
made worse by the plant‘s astringency.
Used internally it is a powerful anti-catarrhal and thus may be used in nasal catarrh, sinusitis
and other congestive states. In catarrhal conditions it combines well with golden rod, elder
flower or goldenseal. In allergic conditions where the eye are affected it may be combined
with Ephedra. As an eye lotion it mixes with Goldenseal and distilled witch hazel.
         Eyebright tea may be given internally at the same time. The mechanism of action is
not yet known.

False Indigo (Baptisia tinctoria ) Although not as well known, false indigo is comparable to
Echinacea. The root is used to enhance the immune system and to combat infection. The
polysaccharides it contains have been shown to stimulate antibody production. A few Native
American tribes used the roots and sometimes the leaves both internally and externally to
treat cancer. It is considered particularly effective for upper respiratory infections such as
tonsillitis and pharyngitis, and is also valuable in treating infections of the chest,
gastrointestinal tract and skin. Its anti-microbial and immunostimulant properties combat
lymphatic problems. When used with detoxifying herbs such as burdock, it helps to reduce
enlarged lymph nodes. It was once used to treat typhoid and scarlet fevers. An astringent
and antiseptic, it is an ingredient in ointments, poultices, and washes for skin ulcerations,
infections, boils, and even staph infections. Foul discharges with a dark purplish discoloration
are definite indications for baptisia. It is also added to douche formulas for vaginitis and
taken as a tea, as well as a douche for cervical ulcerations. False indigo has been
recommended to reduce inflammatory diseases, including arthritis. Prescribed along with
Echinacea angustifolia for chronic viral conditions or chronic fatigue syndrome. A decoction
of the root soothes sore or infected nipples and infected skin conditions. Used as a gargle or
mouthwash, the decoction treats canker sores, gum infections, and sore throat. Solvent in
alcohol                         and                        boiling                      water.

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): Fennel‘s effects have a warming, respiring and loosening
nature. It warms and stimulates the digestive organs, especially when they become sluggish.
This relieves gas and headaches that are related to improper digestion. An excellent
stomach and intestinal remedy for treating flatulence and colic conditions, while also
stimulating healthy appetite and digestion. Fennel frees the respiratory system, rendering a
calming anti-spasmodic effect on coughs and bronchitis. It gives a delicious flavor and
aromatic lift to herbal blends and cough syrups. Helpful for cancer patients after radiation and
        To help with indigestion and gas, pour boiling water over crushed fennel seeds (1 tsp
seed to a pt of water). The seeds are simmered in syrups for coughs, shortness of breath,
and wheezing. The leaves and seeds when boiled with barley increase breast milk. The
seeds and root help clean the liver, spleen, gallbladder, and blood. The tea and broth of this
herb are said to help in weight loss programs. Fennel oil mixed with honey can be taken for
coughs, and the tea is used as a gargle. The oil is eaten with honey to allay gas and it is
applied externally to rheumatic swellings. The seeds are boiled to make an eye wash for
inflamed and swollen eyes. Use an infusion of the seeds as a gargle for gum disorders, loose
teeth,                  laryngitis              or                 sore                  throats.
         Fennel increases the libido of both male and female rats. Fennel has compounds
that act like the female hormone estrogen and has been used for centuries to promote milk
flow in nursing women. Don‘t use the oil, however because in pregnant women, the oil can
cause miscarriage. And in doses greater than about a teaspoon, it can be toxic. As an
estrogenic herb it has been used as a breast enlarger.
         Anethole, the main constituent of the oil, has demonstrated anti-microbial activity.
Dissolve a total of 25 drops of thyme, eucalyptus and fennel oils in 25 ml sunflower or almond
oil as a chest rub. Fennel should not be used in high doses as it causes muscular spasms
and hallucinations.
America‘s 19 century Eclectic physicians prescribed fennel as a digestive aid, milk and
menstruation promoter. Latin Americans still boil the seeds in milk as a milk promoter for
nursing mothers. Jamaicans use it to treat colds. And Africans take fennel for diarrhea and
        A decoction of the seeds is used in Chinese medicine for abdominal pain, colic and
stomach chills. Enters the Liver, Kidney, Spleen, Stomach channels. Spreads the Liver qi,
warms the Kidneys, expels cold and alleviates pain: used to warm and encourage movement
in the Liver channel or the lower burner as in cold hernial disorders or any kind of lower
abdominal pain due to cold. Use with caution in cases of yin deficiency with heat signs.
One study suggests fennel has oddly contradictory effects on the liver. It aggravates liver
damage in experimental animals but spurs liver regeneration in animals with parts of their
liver removed

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Uses have been an aid to digestion and treat
inflammations. Medicinal use and commercial cultivation is at present on the increase. Its
seeds are high (40%) in mucilage, an emollient soothing to the skin and used as an emulsifier
in drugs and food. The seeds also contain diosgenin, a steroid that can be converted to
pregnenolone (a steroid formed during the synthesis of hormones) and progesterone, the
anti-estrogen hormone secreted by pregnant women. The seeds are reported to contain
chemicals that inactivate trypsin and chymotrypsin, enzymes making it possible for your body
to digest protein. But there is no evidence that fenugreek used to season food has any such
effect. Seeds are high in protein and contain trigonelline, a nitrogen compound found in many
legumes. When trigonelline comes in contact with acids or is heated, it yields nicotinic acid
(niacin), the B vitamin that prevents pellagra. Grind seed coarsely, infuse and drink as a tonic
tea to stimulate digestion and milk flow, ease coughing, flatulence and diarrhea. Make a
mushy poultice of crushed seed and hot milk for inflammation, ulcers, swollen glands, sciatica
and bruises. Said to be effective in treating fevers. The seeds have galactogenic and
anthelminthic properties; the ancients believed them to be aphrodisiac.
Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium also Chrysanthemum parthenium): When the wife of a
Welsh doctor ended her 50-year-old history of migraine with a course of feverfew, a detailed
scientific investigation of feverfew got underway and in clinical trials in Britain during the
1980s the herb was demonstrated to be an effective remedy for migraine. 20 headache
patients eat fresh feverfew leaves daily for 3 months and stop using headache-related drugs
during the lasst month. After they were given capsules of .37 grains of freeze-dried leaf every
day, they experienced less severe headaches and fewer symptoms, including nausea and
vomiting, than a placebo group. As an added benefit, their blood pressure went down.
Despite extensive research, the exact nature of its action is not yet understood, but the
constituent parthenolide appears to inhibit the release of the hormone serotonin, which is
thought to trigger migraine. The parthenolides in feverfew do not work by the same method
as salicylates. While many herbalists feel the fresh leaves, or an extract made from them,
are preferred, results have been seen with fresh, freeze-dried, and air-dried leaves, although
boiling feverfew tea for 10 minutes instead of steeping it did reduce its activity in one study.
As a preventative it should be taken in small quantities (3 leaves a day) regularly. The herb
can help arthritic and rheumatic pain, especially in combination with other herbs.
The herb has been used since Roman times to induce menstruation. It is given in difficult
births to aid expulsion of the placenta. It has not been shown to cause uterine contractions,
but because of its history in promoting menstruation pregnant women should probably not use
In South America where feverfew is naturalized, it has been effective for colic, stomachahe,
morning sickness and kidney pains. In Costa Rica, it has also been employed as a digestive
aid and emmenagogue. Mexicans have used it as a sitz bath to regulate menstruation as well
as an antispasmodic and tonic.
Feverfew is useful for cats as an alternative to aspirin, which is toxic to felines. Use a
glycerin-based tincture or a cooled tea with a dose of 12-20 drops of the tincture or ½ tsp of a
strong tea for each 20 pounds of the animal‘s weight, twice daily. Pets can be bathed in a
cooled tea as a flea rinse.

Feverweed (Aureolaria pedicularia): It has been used in herbal remedies for its diaphoretic
and sedative properties. Used principally in febrile and inflammatory diseases; a warm
infusion produces a free and copious perspiration in a short time. Dose of the infusion, from 1
to 3 fluid ounces.

Fiddlewood (Vitex gaumeri): To treats skin fungus, infected sores, and ringworm, toasted
and powdered fiddle wood bark is applied over a bit of oil which holds the powder on the skin.
A tea made from boiled bark is useful to wash wounds. For biliousness a strip of bark 1 inch
by 3 inches is boiled in 3 cups of water for 5 minutes and taken in ½ cups doses over 12
hours- the use of this treatment should not exceed 3 days. Leaves boiled in water are used as
a bath for asthma, malaria and chills. Crushed leaves are applied as a poultice to sores and

Figwort (Scrophularia nodosa): Powerful medicines whenever enlarged glands are
present including nodosities in the breasts. Figwort is used to cleanse and purify the body.
Figwort is used to treat skin diseases such as eczema, acne and psoriasis. It has been called
the Scrofula Plant, on account of its value in all cutaneous eruptions, abscesses, wounds, etc.,
the name of the genus being derived from that of the disease for which it was formerly
considered a specific (tuberculosis of the lymph glands in the neck). It has diuretic and
anodyne properties. A decoction is made of it for external use and the fresh leaves are also
made into an ointment. Of the different kinds of Figwort used, this species is most employed,
principally as a fomentation for sprains, swellings, inflammations, wounds and diseased parts,
especially in scrofulous sores and gangrene. The leaves simply bruised are employed as an
application to burns and swellings. Figwort is used for lingering and congenital illnesses of
the lymphatic system and the skin. It has a stimulating and strengthening effect on the
bladder and kidneys. The glycosides it contains make it suitable for treating mild heart
conditions that call for stimulating the metabolism and eliminating water retention in the body.
For this purpose, use figwort as a tea or tincture.
         The herb and root have been used to treat cancer of the fleshy parts. The powdered
root in water has been used as a tea to treat condyloma. The juice of the root and leaf are
applied externally to tumors and cancers. The ointment treats painful tumors, and the fresh
poultice may be used for inflamed tumors and glandular indurations. When figwort is used
externally, the tea is also given internally as further therapeutic support. In traditional Chinese
medicine, Figwort (S. ningpoensis) is a standard remedy. Because of its ability to stimulate
the pancreas, it is used in the treatment of diabetes Known as huyen sam or xuan shen, it is
also a remedy for fever and sadness, swellings and pain of the throat, furuncles, and to aid
         A decoction of the herb has been successfully used as a cure for the scab in swine.
Cattle, as a rule, will refuse to eat the leaves, as they are bitter, acrid and nauseating,
producing purging and vomiting if chewed.

Fir, Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii): Douglas fir was often employed medicinally by
various native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints. An
antiseptic resin is obtained from the trunk. It is used as a poultice to treat cuts, burns, wounds
and other skin ailments. The poultice is also used to treat injured or dislocated bones. The
resin is used in the treatment of coughs and can be chewed as a treatment for sore
throats. An infusion of the green bark has been used in the treatment of excessive
menstruation, bleeding bowels and stomach problems. An infusion of the leaves has been
used as a wash and a sweat bath for rheumatic and paralyzed joints. An infusion of the young
sprouts has been used in the treatment of colds. An infusion of the twigs or shoots has been
used in the treatment of kidney and bladder problems. A decoction of the buds has been used
in the treatment of venereal disease. Young shoots have been placed in the tips of shoes to
keep the feet from perspiring and to prevent athletes foot. A mouthwash is made by soaking
the shoots in cold water.

Fir, Himalayan (Abies spectabilis): The leaves are used in the treatment of asthma,
bronchitis etc. The leaf juice is antiperiodic.

Flame Azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum): An infusion of peeled and boiled twigs has
been used as a medicinal tea by Cherokee Indians

Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus): In Europe, the rhizomes and seeds were thought
to have medicinal properties. The cooling nature of the flowers are applied to fresh wounds,
impostumes and other hot humors (Culpeper)

Flux Weed (Hypericum punctatum): Some compounds of the plant have been shown to
have potent anti-retroviral activity without serious side effects and they are being researched
in the treatment of AIDS. Hypericum punctatum is a mild antidepressant of the class "MAO
inhibitor." The mechanism by which St. Johnswort acts as an antidepressant is not fully
understood. Early research indicated that this it mildly inhibits the enzyme monoamine
oxidase (MAO). MAO is responsible for the breakdown of two brain chemicals - serotonin and
nor epinephrine. By inhibiting MAO and increasing nor epinephrine, it may exert a mild anti-
depressive action. The antidepressant or mood elevating effects of Hypericum punctatum
were originally thought to be due solely to hypericin, but hypericin does not act alone, it relies
on the complex interplay of many constituents such as xanthones and flavonoids for its
antidepressant actions. Hypericum punctatum may also block the receptors that bind
serotonin and so maintain normal mood and emotional stability. Hypericum punctatum is used
in treating a wide range of disorders, including pulmonary complaints, bladder problems,
diarrhea and nervous depression. It is also very effectual in treating bed wetting in children. It
has a sedative and pain reducing effect, it is especially regarded as an herb to use where
there are menopausal changes triggering irritability and anxiety. In addition to neuralgic pain,
it will ease fibrositis, sciatica and rheumatic pain. The oil extract of the plant can be taken for
stomach ache, colic, intestinal problems, and as an expectorant for the congestion in the
lungs. Externally, a medicinal infusion of the flowers in olive oil is applied to wounds, sores,
burns, ulcers, swellings, cramps, rheumatism, tumors, caked breasts, and other skin
problems. It is also valued in the treatment of sunburn and as a cosmetic preparation to the

Fo-Ti (Polygonum multiflorum): First mentioned in Chinese herbal medicine in 713 A.D., it
has become one of the most important and widely used. It is taken regularly for its
rejuvenating and toning properties and to increase fertility in both men and women. In TCM
it‘s most important use is as a tonic for the liver and kidneys. By strengthening liver and
kidney function, it helps to cleanse the blood, enabling the qi to circulate freely around the
whole body. It‘s also given to people with symptoms of dizziness, weakness, numbness and
blurred vision with indicate inefficient nerves and ―blood deficiency.‖ It is prescribed in China
for people showing signs of premature aging, including graying of the hair. Also it is
prescribed in the treatment of chronic malaria, when it is often combined with ginseng,
Chinese angelica and green tangerine peel. Traditional Chinese herbalists place great
emphasis on the shape and age of the roots, with the older roots being in great demand. It is
also employed as a remedy for insomnia, stomach upset, and diabetes. Many use it as an
effective tool against high blood pressure and hardening of the veins and arteries. The
component of Lecithin which is contained in Fo-ti helps to reduce arterial plaque and blood
pressure. Research in China with animals has shown that he shou wu reduces raised blood
cholesterol levels significantly. With humans, 80% of patients with high blood cholesterol
showed an improvement. Other research shows to it helps to increase the levels of sugar in
the blood and has the ability to counter the tuberculosis bacillus.

Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) Foxglove yields digitoxin, which is still used today to increase
the force of the heart‘s contractions. As a result blood pressure in the veins is reduced and
the pulse is slowed and stabilized. Used to increase force of systolic contractions in
congestive heart failure, lowers venous pressure in hypertensive heart ailments, elevates
blood pressure in weak heart; diuretic and reduces edema.

Frankincense (Boswellia serrata): serves as an antiseptic and anti-inflammatory to lung,
genital and urinary complaints, digestive tract ulcers and chronic diarrhea. It is also used it
the treatment of breast cysts and to increase menstruation. Used in inhalation, it may be
helpful for asthma sufferers as it eases shortness of breath and increases the amplitude of
the breath. Has a pronounced effect on the mucous membranes, particularly helpful in
clearing the lungs. May mitigate the effects of cystitis, nephritis and genital infections
generally. Also soothes the stomach, easing digestion, dyspepsia and belching. Chinese
herbalists use it in powder form and in teas for rheumatism and menstrual pain and externally
as a wash for sores and bruises.

Fringe Tree (Chionanthus virginicus) The bark and dried roots have been used in
poultices for skin inflammations. Fringetree bark may be safely used in all liver problems,
especially when they have developed into jaundice. Good for the treatment of gall-bladder
inflammation and a valuable part of treating gall-stones. It is a remedy that will aid the liver in
general and as such it is often used as part of a wider treatment for the whole body. It is also
useful as a gentle and effective laxative. The root bark also appears to strengthen function in
the pancreas and spleen. Anecdotal evidence indicates that it may substantially reduce sugar
levels in the urine. Fringe tree also stimulates the appetite and digestion, and is an excellent
remedy for chronic illness, especially where the liver has been affected. For external use, the
crushed bark may be made into a poultice for treating sores and wounds.

Fumitory (Fumaria officinalis ) The herb has a stimulant action on the liver and gallbladder
and is chiefly used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, dermatitis and exanthema. Its
action is probably due to a general cleansing mediated via the kidneys and liver. It is also
diuretic and mildly laxative. Taken over a long period, it helps to cure depression. Also used
internally for biliary colic and migraine with digestive disturbances. Externally used for

                                           -G- Herbs

Galangal (Languas officinarum): Resembling ginger in its effects, galangal is an aromatic
stimulant, carminative, stomachic, antispasmodic, antiphlogistic, antibacterial. It is used in
nausea, flatulence, dyspepsia, rheumatism, catarrh and enteritis. It also possesses tonic
qualities and is used in veterinary and homeopathic medicine. In Both galangals have been
used in Europe and Asia as an aphrodisiac. In Asian medicine, galangal is used to treat
catarrh and respiratory problems. A drink made from grated galangal and lime juice is taken
as a tonic in Southeast Asia. In the past, it was a treatment for flatulent indigestion. In the
Philippines the rhizome, when mixed with oils, is used as a poultice and is applied to boils and
furuncles to bring them to a head.
In Chinese herbal medicine, galangal is a warming herb used for abdominal pain, vomiting,
and hiccups, as well as for diarrhea due to internal cold. When used for hiccups, it is
combined with codonopsis.
In India and southwestern Asia, galangal is considered stomachic, anti-inflammatory,
expectorant, and a nervine tonic. It is used in the treatment of hicccups, dyspepsia, stomach
pain, rheumatoid arthritis and intermittent fever. It is also used as a body deodorizer and
halitosis remedy.
In the West it is mainly used for gas, indigestion, vomiting, and stomach pain. An infusion can
be used to alleviate painful canker sores and sore gums. Galangal as long been
recommended as a treatment for seasickness. It can be used with other antifungal herbs as
part of a regimen to treat intestinal candidiasis.

Galbanum (Ferula galbaniflua ) Stimulant, expectorant in chronic bronchitis. Antispasmodic
and considered an intermediate between ammoniac and asafoetida for relieving the air
passages, in pill form it is specially good, in some forms of hysteria, and used externally as a
plaster for inflammatory swellings.

Galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora): In China it is viewed as medicinal: the whole plant
hemostatic and anti-inflammatory, the decoction of the flowers cleansing to liver and
eyes. When rubbed onto the body, the plant is useful in treating nettle stings.

Garlic, Crow (Allium vineale): A tincture of the whole plant is used to prevent worms and
colic in children, and also as a remedy for croup. The raw root can be eaten to reduce blood
pressure and also to ease shortness of breath.

Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata ) Internally for bronchitis, asthma, and eczema.
Externally the leaves were applied as dressings to open sores and ulcers, as well as for
neuralgia, rheumatism, and gout. The leaves were used medicinally by the early herbalists
for dropsy and to induce sweating. It warms the stomach and helps digestion. The juice
boiled with honey is good for a cough, to cut and expectorate tough phlegm. The seed
bruised and boiled in wine is a good remedy for colicky wind or the stone, if drank warm. The
seeds have also been used to promote sneezing.

Gas Plant (Dictamnus albus) Very rarely used today, dittany has an action similar to that of
rue in that it strongly stimulates the muscles of the uterus, inducing menstruation and
sometimes causing abortion. By contrast, its effect on the gastrointestinal tract is
antispasmodic. It relaxes the gut and acts as a mild tonic for the stomach. The plant has also
been used as a treatment for nervous conditions. Internally and externally it‘s used for skin
diseases (especially scabies and eczema), German measles, arthritic pain, and jaundice.
May be combined with Sophora flavescens for external use.

Gentian (Gentiana lutea): One of the most bitter of the bitter digestive tonics, gentian is often
called "bitter root". Taken 30 minutes before eating, it increases the appetite, stimulating
digestive juices, pancreas activity, the blood supply to the digestive tract, and intestinal
peristalsis. It also decreases intestinal inflammation and kills worms. Digestive juice begin
flowing about 5 minutes after the herb reaches the stomach, and the level achieved in 30
minutes is maintained for 2 to 3 hours. It is especially helpful in fat and protein digestion and
slightly raises stomach acidity. A German study found it extremely effective in curing
indigestion and heartburn when volunteers were given gentian with small amounts of cayenne,
ginger, and wormwood. Gentian is also used to treat liver and spleen problems, and to
promote menstruation. At times, its fever-lowering action has been considered superior to
Peruvian bark. There is some evidence that it makes the body more sensitive to adrenalin
and may indirectly stimulate more than appetite. It was once used externally to clean wounds.
         In Chinese medicine G. macrophylla & G. scabra are used as clearing "heat and
damp." It is used to treat digestive disorders, sore throat, headache, and arthritis. Ayurvedic
physicians have used it to treat fevers, venereal diseases, jaundice and other liver problems.

Gentian, Chinese (Gentiana longdancao): This herb is used for inflammatory conditions
associated with jaundice, itching, herpes virus, leucorrhea, venereal diseases, hepatitis,
cholecystitis, and hypertension. Symptoms can include fever, headache, restlessness,
abdominal pain, sore throat, bitter mouth taste, flank pain, and redness of the conjunctiva of
the eyes. For systemic fungal infections gentian preparations from the plant Radix gentianae
Longdancao are taken orally in the form of lozenges, tablets, capsules or in solution form for
gargling or swallowing.

Gentian, Indian (Andrographis paniculata): It is chiefly used in viral hepatitis, diminished
appetite and drug induced liver damage. It is used in loss of appetite in infants. Andrographis
paniculata has been shown to reduce liver damage due to toxins such as alcohol. It has been
demonstrated that Andrographis paniculata can protect the liver from the effects of alcohol if
taken prior to consumption. Research has also linked Andrographis paniculata to increases
in immune system activity. When supplemented with Andrographis paniculata, animals had
an increase activity of both their specific and non-specific immune systems. Andrographis
paniculata may be effective in both the prevention and treatment of ailments that range from
the common cold to cancer. It has also been shown to help alleviate atherosclerotic narrowing
of arteries induced by high cholesterol diets. This can, in turn, reduce the risk of heart
disease and heart attacks, as well as helping the recovery of patients who already suffer from
these conditions. It is useful in burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, chronic bronchitis, leprosy,
pruritis, flatulence, colic and diarrhea.

Germander (Teucrium chamaedrys ) Infusions of wall germander have long been used to
treat gout, rheumatism, stomach problems, fever and congestion. The plant has also been
taken to aid weight loss and is a common ingredient in tonic wines. Wall germander has been
used as a mouthwash for sore gums and as a lotion to help heal wounds. It was also used
as a tonic in intermittent fevers, and is recommended for uterine obstructions. The expressed
juice of the leaves, with the addition of white wine, is held to be good in obstruction of the
viscera. Possessing qualities nearly allied to those of Horehound, a decoction of the green
herb, taken with honey, has been found useful in asthmatic affections and coughs, being
recommended for this purpose by Dioscorides. The decoction has also been given to relieve
dropsy in its early stages. Germander had been approved in France for use in weight-loss
products but was suspended as a result of several well-documented cases of toxic reactions
and nonspecific acute hepatitis.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale): The root is warming to the body, is slightly antiseptic and
promotes internal secretions. Chop about 2 inches of the fresh root, cover with one cup of
water, and simmer for about 20 minutes or 1/ 2 teaspoon of the powdered root can be
simmered in one cup of water. Add lemon juice, honey, and a slight pinch of cayenne. A few
teaspoons of brandy will make an even more effective remedy for colds. This preparation
treats fevers, chest colds and flu. A bath or a foot-soak in hot ginger tea is also beneficial.
The tea without additives helps indigestion, colic, diarrhea and alcoholic gastritis. Dried
ginger in capsules or in juice is taken to avoid carsickness, seasickness and morning
sickness. Use about 1/ 2 teaspoon of the powder (2 capsules) 30 minutes before departure
and then one to two more as symptoms begin to occur. Works well for dogs and children.

Ginger contains zingibain, a special kind of proteolytic enzyme that has the ability to
chemically break down protein. Clinical studies have shown that proteolytic enzymes have
anti-inflammatory properties. They also play an additional role in controlling autoimmune
disease. They help reduce blood levels of compounds known as immune complexes. Ginger
is also well-known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Indian and Scandinavian studies have
consistently shown that ginger is useful for treating most kinds of arthritis. It also contains
more than 12 antioxidants. It can be taken as a tea, tincture or capsule
Ginger actually gives other herbs a boost by improving the body‘s ability to assimilate them.
Ginger actually protects herbal compounds from being destroyed by the liver and continue
circulating in the blood for a longer time. It also improves the intestines‘ absorption of other
Helps reduce serum cholesterol levels, reduces tendency towards blood clots. Aids circulation
(including peripheral circulation). Stimulates vasomotor (producing contraction and dilation in
walls of vessels) and respiratory center of the central nervous system.
         Ginger has long been used in eastern Africa for killing intestinal parasites.
Researchers discovered that all 42 components in ginger essential oil kill roundworms,
among other parasites. Some of these compounds were more effective than the commonly
prescribed drug piperatzine citrate.
In Chinese medicine it warms the middle and expels cold: for warming the Spleen and
Stomach both in conditions of excess due to externally-contracted cold, as well as cold from
deficiency due to insufficiency of the yang qi. Rescues devastated yang and expels interior
cold: for devastated yang with such signs as a very weak pulse and cold limbs. Warms the
Lungs and transforms phleghm: for Lung cold with expectoration of thin, watery, or white
sputum. Warms the channels and stops bleeding: for cold from deficiency that may present
with hemorrhage of various types, especially uterine bleeding.

Ginseng (Panax ginseng ) Ginseng was considered for generations to be a panacea by the
Chinese and Koreans, although there are some disorders, such as acute inflammatory
diseases, for which it is not recommended. It usually is not taken alone, but combined in
formulas with other herbs. One of ginseng‘s key investigators, Russian I.I. Brekhman, coined
the term ―adaptogen‖ to describe ginseng‘s ability to regulate many different functions. It can
have different responses, depending on what an individual needs. Studies show that ginseng
increases mental and physical efficiency and resistance to stress and disease. Psychological
improvements were also observed according to Rorschach. Studies done at the Chinese
Academy of Medical Science in Beijing, China, showed that the ginsenosides increase protein
synthesis and activity of neurotransmitters in the brain. They are also probably responsible
for ginseng‘s dual role of sedating or stimulating the central nervous system, depending on
the condition it is being taken to treat. Studies also show that ginseng improves carbohydrate
tolerance in diabetics. When volunteers were given 3 grams of ginseng along with alcohol,
their blood alcohol level was 32% to 51% lower than that of the control group.
Ginseng appears to stimulate the immune system of both animals and humans. It revs up the
white blood cells (macrophages and natural killer cells) that devour disease-causing
microorganisms. Ginseng also spurs production of interferon, the body‘s own virus-fighting
chemical, and antibodies, which fight bacterial and viral infections. It reduces cholesterol,
according to several American studies. It also increases good cholesterol. Ginseng has an
anticlotting effect, which reduces the risk of blood clots. It reduces blood sugar levels.
Ginseng protects the liver from the harmful effects of drugs, alcohol, and other toxic
substances. In a pilot human study, ginseng improved liver function in 24 elderly people
suffering from cirrhosis. Ginseng can minimize cell damage from radiation. In two studies,
experimental animals were injected with various protective agents, then subjected to doses of
radiation similar to those used in cancer radiation therapy. Ginseng provided the best
protection against damage to healthy cells, suggesting value during cancer radiation therapy.

Asians have always considered ginseng particularly beneficial for the elderly. As people age,
the senses of taste and smell deteriorate, which reduces appetite. In addition, the intestine‘s
ability to absorb nutrients declines. Ginseng enjoys a reputation as an appetite stimulant and
one study showed it increases the ability of the intestine to absorb nutrients, thus helping
prevent undernourishment.          This is a yin tonic, taken in China for fevers and for
exhaustion due to a chronic, wasting disease such as tuberculosis. It can help coughs related
to lung weaknessIn the 1960s, a Japanese scientist, Shoji Shibata, at the Meiji College of
Pharmacy in Tokyo, identified a unique set of chemicals that are largely responsible for
ginseng‘s actions. They are saponins, biologically active compounds that foam in water.
Ginseng‘s unique saponins were dubbed ―ginsenosides.‖
Research reveals that ginseng can have beneficial effects on metabolic function, immunity,
mood, and physiological function at the most basic cellular level. It doesn‘t benefit everyone;
recent studies of elite athletes reveal that it has no demonstrable effects on athletic
performance. Yet in older people, studies show that it reduces fatigue, improves performance,
and boosts mood. This makes sense in classic terms because why would world-class
athletes, with superior yang energy, want to take a root for people with ―devastated‖ yang?
But if you are recovering from a drawn-out illness, feeling fatigued, or feeling the effects of
age—if you are experiencing a ―collapse‖ of your ―chi‖, ginseng may be right for you.
          As an adaptogenic, ginseng‘s action varies. In China, ginseng is best known as a
stimulant, tonic herb for athletes and those subject to physical stress, and as a male
aphrodisiac. It is also a tonic for old age, and is traditionally taken by people in northern and
central China fro late middle age onward, helping them to endure the long hard winters.
Ginseng has been researched in detail over the past 20-30 years in China, Japan, Korea,
Russian, and many other countries. Its remarkable ―adaptogenic‖ quality has been confirmed.
Trials show that ginseng significantly improves the body‘s capacity to cope with hunger,
extremes of temperature, and mental and emotional stress. Furthermore, ginseng produces a
sedative effect when the body requires sleep. The ginsenosides that are responsible for this
action are similar in structure to the body‘s own stress hormones. Ginseng also increases
immune function and resistance to infection, and supports liver function.
In Asian countries, ginseng has long been recognized as effective n reducing alcohol
intoxication and also as a remedy for hangovers. A clinical experiment demonstrated that
ginseng significantly enhanced blood alcohol clearance in humans. In regards to cancer, a
number of experiments have shown that ginseng can help restore physiological balance
within the system and significantly reduce the side effects when used along with anticancer
drugs. For diabetes, when patients are treated with ginseng at the early stages, conditions
can return to normal. In advanced stages, the blood glucose level is significantly lowered.
When combined with insulin, insulin requirements are reduced while still effectively lowering
blood glucose level. Other symptoms such as fatigue and decreased sexual desire are also
There is some evidence that ginseng, taken in small amounts over a long period of time,
improves regulation of the adrenals so that stress hormones are produced rapidly when
needed and broken down rapidly when not needed. Whole root is best. Extracts, even those
that contain specific guaranteed-potency ginsenosides, don‘t have some of the other
compounds in ginseng that may be beneficial. It‘s not recommended to take even good
quality extracts for more than 2-3 weeks at a time, but the whole ginseng root, in small
amounts can be taken every day for a year or more.
At the Institute of Immunological Science at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan,
researchers have been studying a ginsenoside, Rb2. In mice given lung tumors, ―oral
administration of ginsenoside Rb2 caused a marked inhibition of both neovascularization and
tumor growth,‖ they write. Neovascularization, also called angiogenesis, is the tendency of
tumors to create tiny blood vessels that feed their malignant growth.
A case-control study in Korea compared about 2,000 patients admitted tot eh Korea Cancer
Center Hospital in Seoul to another 2,000 noncancer patients. Those with cancer were about
half as likely to use ginseng as those without cancer. Cancer risk was lower with those who
took ginseng for a year but much lower for those who took ginseng for up to 20 years. Fresh
ginseng, white ginseng extract, white ginseng powder, and red ginseng were all associated
with reduced cancer risk.

Ginseng, American (Panax quinquefolius): Similar to Panax ginseng only milder

Ginseng, Tienchi (Panax pseudo-ginseng (P. notoginseng)) Internally it is used for
coronary heart disease and angina(roots), dizziness, and vertigo (Flowers). Internally and
externally it is used for nosebleed, and hemorrhage from lungs, digestive tract, uterus, or
injuries (roots). It was used extensively by the North Vietnamese during the Vietnam War to
increase recovery rates from gunshot wounds. Used in the herbal combination PC-SPES….a
compound of 8 herbs used for prostate cancer. It is one of the most valuable Chinese herbs
for traumas and injuries because of its ginseng-like tonic properties and its strong hemostatic
action in acute conditions. It will effectively dissolve blood clots when taken internally and
works very well for most abnormal bleeding when combined with the ashes of human hair. Its
healing, astringent properties increase when combined with comfrey root. Like the other
ginsengs, it may be taken as a blood and energy tonic and is regarded by some as equally
effective. It is considered preferable for younger people because it moves the chi more than
the common American or Oriental ginsengs. It also strengthens the heart and improves
athletic performance, making it a preferred tonic for the purposes of sports medicine.
Give and Take (Cryosophila argentea): Its Creole name of ―Give and Take‖ refers to the
fact that this palm can give a very bad stinging cut from the thorns, but one can take a remedy
for bleeding, infection, and pain from the inner portion of the leaf sheath and petiole. The
inside part of the sheath and petiole is pink, cotton-like and sticky. It is applied to fresh
wounds to staunch bleeding, prevent infection and alleviate pain. Brooms are made from
young, dried leaves tied together on a slender stick.

Goat’s Rue (Galega officinalis) : Uses in cases of agalactia, diabetes mellitus,
hyperglycemia, edema and fluid retention. Goat‘s rue is chiefly used as an antidiabetic herb,
having the ability to reduce blood sugar levels. It is not a substitute for conventional
treatments but can be valuable in the early stages of late-onset diabetes, and is best used as
an infusion. The herb has the effect of increasing breast-milk production. It may also
stimulate the development of the mammary glands. Has been used with some success in
stimulating milk production in women that have not been pregnant but adopted a child. It is
also a useful diuretic. In hot infusion goat‘s rue makes a useful remedy for increasing
sweating and bringing down fevers—and for this reason it was an old remedy for the plague.
For digestive problems, especially chronic constipation caused by lack of digestive enzymes.
Fed directly to livestock to increase milk yield. It was also used as a remedy for worms and
recommended as a cure for the bites of serpents. Parkinson says it is 'good for fattening hens.

Goat‘s rue has shown to have hypoglycemic activity by enhancing glucose utilization. It was
researched in the early 1920‘s as a possible therapy which led to the development of
antidiabetic biguanide drugs. These drugs had numerous side effects which the whole plant
did not produce. A study in 1961 found that galega actually regenerated pancreatic cells.

Golden Goddess (Tabebuia chrysantha): The palmate leaves are concocted to treat cancer
and candida in native S. American cultures. It is also considered a remedy for controlling
diabetes and for liver and kidney disorders.

Golden Seal (Hydrastis canadensis) Early American medicine primarily used goldenseal
root for treating uterine lining inflammation, but it is now considered valuable for treating any
infection, inflammation and congestion of mucous-lining areas, such as the lungs, throat,
digestive tract and sinuses. It dries and cleanses the mucous membranes inhibiting
excessive flow.
       It counteracts inflammation, regulates menses, aids digestion, treats liver diseases,
cleanses the blood and counters infection. It also is a stimulant to the uterine muscles,
contracts the blood vessels and inhibits excessive bleeding. Golden seal is effective against
flu, fevers and infections of all kinds; and in treating hemorrhoids, vaginal yeast infection and
as an eyewash for inflamed eyes. It also alleviates gastro-enterities, indigestion, gas and
heartburn; and is effective in treating amoebic dysentery (giardia) when used over a 10 day
period. The primary constituents are hydrastine and berberine. Similar in action, they lower
blood pressure and destroy many types of bacterial and viral infections. Goldenseal salve
helps to heal herpes, ringworm, impetigo, hemorrhoids, canker sores, and inflamed gums.
The powdered root is sniffed for sinus congestion or gargled for sore throat, and a strong and
well strained eyewash is used for conjunctivitis. The tea also makes an effective douche for
thrush and trichomonas. The dried rhizome possesses cytotoxic activity, indicating it is useful
against viruses. A bitter digestive, goldenseal stimulates appetite and bile production and it
also helps in the treatment of severe diarrhea caused by various diseases, including cholera.
Berberine effectively treats intestinal parasites, including giardia, a threat to campers and
those living in rural areas. It proved as effective as, and sometimes even better than, the
established drugs. It is also used to help restore patients after long bouts with fevers and flus.
Goldenseal is a beneficial but overused herb. Herbalists find it most effective used to treat an
active infection, then discontinued, since it does not show the long-range adaptogenic actions
of ginseng. The rumor that goldenseal can mask urine tests for drugs is untrue.

Goldenrod (Solidago spp (virgaurea) Because it is antioxidant, diuretic and astringent,
goldenrod is a valuable remedy for urinary tract disorders. It is used both for serious ailments
such as nephritis and for more common problems like cystitis. It reputedly helps flush out
kidney and bladder stones. The diuretic effect is very helpful for cases of colon bacilli. The
saponins act specifically against the Candida fungus, the cause of yeast infections and oral
thrush. Internally also used for chronic excess mucus, skin diseases, influenza, whooping
cough, and flatulent dyspepsia associated with nervous tension. It is the first plant to think of
for upper respiratory catarrh, whether acute or chronic. Externally used for wounds, insect
bites, ulcers and sore throat. Due to its mild action, goldenrod is appropriate for treating
gastroenteritis in children. It may be used as a mouthwash or douche for yeast infections. As
a gargle it can be used in laryngitis and pharyngitis. Combines well with marsh cudweed
(Gnaphalium uliginosum), Echinacea, Poke Root and Wild Indigo. A cold extract s more
effective than an infusion made with boiling water. A daily dose is two to three cups. The
alcohol extract from the herb contains many constituents considered by some to be more
effective than the tea.

Good King Henry (Chenopodium bonus-henricus): The leaf is a source of iron, vitamins
and minerals. A poultice and ointment cleanses and heals skin sores. Also in the preparation
of an ointment for painful joints. The plant was recommended for indigestion and as a
laxative and a diuretic. Used in a veterinary cough remedy for sheep. Rich in iron as well as
vitamin C.

Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica): Gotu kola has been used for thousands of years in India and
still has a central place in Ayurvedic medicine for revitalizing the nerves and brain cells. It is
used specifically to treat leprosy, skin ulcers, and other skin problems. Gotu kola cream can
help relieve the painful scaly red welts of psoriasis.      It stimulates the regeneration of skin
cells and underlying connective tissue. In a study published in Annals of Plastic Surgery, gotu
kola accelerates healing of burns and minimizes scarring. Other studies show the herb
accelerates the healing of skin grafts and episiotomy . The herb has a longstanding reputation
in India as a "rejuvenator," helping concentration and memory. It is also taken for fertility and
as a tonic for poor digestion and rheumatism. Fresh leaves are given to children for
dysentery. The plant is also thought helpful for fevers, abdominal disorders, asthma and
bronchitis. An oil extract is used to promote hair growth. It is now also considered to have an
anti-inflammatory effect and is given for rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis and poor venous
circulation. For varicose veins researchers have found that ginkgo and gotu kola are more
effective when used together and numerous studies have shown them to be more effective
and better tolerated than tribenoside, the standard drug used for this purpose.
Gotu kola is also a glandular tonic, anti-fatigue, strengthening adrenals. It cleanses and feeds
the immune system. It's also a blood purifier, neutralizing blood acids. Used in China for
fractures, sprains and bruises. It is valuable in intermittent or periodic fevers, like malaria.
        Gotu kola is a tonic and rejuvenative for Pitta. At the same time it inhibits Vata, clams
the nerves and helps reduce excessive Kapha. It is perhaps the most spiritual and sattvic of
all herbs. It is used by yogis as food for meditation. It awakens the crown chakra and helps
balance the right and left hemispheres of the brain. A cup of gotu kola tea can be taken with
honey before meditation. It does contain 2 sedatives, saponin glycosides and an abundance
of B vitamins. In one study, it also improved the general ability and behavior patterns of
mentally handicapped children. It balnces the hemispheres of the brain and is well suited for
people who are chronically overheated to the point at which they are burning up their memory
and concentration. You can take 6-8 capsules or more daily, depending upon your energy
and       tongue       observations.                It    is      a     cooling    remedy.
          The compound asiaticoside is among the most promising treatments for leprosy.
The effectiveness in killing the leprosy bacteria is thought due to its dissolving the waxy,
protective               substance                 around                the             bacteria.
         Recent studies show that gotu kola has a positive effect on the circulatory system: It
seems to improve the flow of blood throughout the body by strengthening the veins and
capillaries. Gotu Kola has been used successfully to treat phlebitis (inflammation of the veins)
as well as leg cramps, swelling of the legs, and "heaviness" or tingling in the legs. Gotu Kola
has been shown to be particularly useful for people who are inactive or confined to bed due to
illness. Proponents of the herb also believe that its beneficial effect on circulation may help
improve                  memory                  and                 brain              function.
         The gotu kola herb also has an important role in gynecology. Gotu Kola has been
used successfully to promote healing after episiotomy, a surgical incision of the vulva
performed to prevent tearing during childbirth. In fact, in one study reported in a French
medical journal in 1966, women treated with gotu kola after childbirth healed more rapidly
than                those                 given                standard                 treatment.
      According to modern studies, gotu kola does offer support for healthy memory function.
A study conducted in 1992 by K. Nalini at Kasturba Medical College showed an impressive
improvement in memory in rats which were treated with the extract (orally) daily for 14 days
before the experiment. The retention of learned behavior in the rats treated with gotu kola was
three to 60 times better than that in control animals. Preliminary results in one clinical trial with
mentally retarded children was shown to increase scores on intelligence tests (Bagchi, 1989).
This does not mean gotu kola will improve intelligence for all special or normal children.
         According to pharmacological studies, one outcome of gotu kola's complex actions is
a balanced effect on cells and tissues participating in the process of healing, particularly
connective tissues. One of its constituents, asiaticoside, works to stimulate skin repair and
strengthen skin, hair, nails and connective tissue (Kartnig, 1988). Scientific studies have also
shown that in relatively large doses the alcoholic extract produces a sedative effect, caused
by the saponin glycosides.

Goumi (Elaeagnus multiflora): The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich
source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-
active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly
unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence
of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers. The leaves are
used in the treatment of coughs. The fruit is prescribed in the treatment of watery diarrhea.
The root is astringent, a decoction is used to treat itch and foul sores.

Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta): Used in West African herbal remedies, grains
of paradise relieve flatulence and also have stimulant and diuretic effects. The seeds are in a
number of veterinary medicines. They appear in old pharmacopoeias like Gerard‘s for a
variety of abdominal complaints. Chinese herbalists often add it to fruits such as baked pears
to reduce the production of mucus in the body. Classified in traditional Chinese medicine as
an acrid, warm herb. It‘s taken for nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, indigestion,
gas and loss of appetite; morning sickness, pain and discomfort during pregnancy; involuntary

Grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris): A decoction of the plant is occasionally used as
a mouthwash in the treatment of stomatitis. The dried and powdered plant can be sprinkled
onto wounds to aid the healing process. A distilled water made from the plant is an excellent
astringent eye lotion.

Green Bristle Grass (Setaria viridis): The plant is crushed and mixed with water then used
as an external application in the treatment of bruises.

Green Osier (Cornus alternifolia): Green osier was employed medicinally by a number of
native North American Indian tribes who valued it particularly for its astringent bark which was
used both internally and externally to treat diarrhea, skin problems etc. The inner bark was
boiled and the solution used as an enema and this solution was also used as a tea to reduce
fevers, treat influenza, diarrhea, headaches, voice loss etc. It was used as a wash for the
eyes. A compound infusion of the bark and roots has been used to treat childhood diseases
such as measles and worms. It has also been used as a wash on areas of the body affected
by venereal disease. A poultice of the powdered bark has been used to treat swellings,
blisters etc. Useful in diarrhea and dysentery; as gargle in sore throats; and in typhoid fever
and ague. It is little used in modern herbalism. Preparation: The fresh bark and young twigs
are pounded to a pulp and macerated in two parts by weight of alcohol.

Green Stick (Critonia morifolia): Of the medicinal leaves found in the forest, this is one of
the most important and useful to add to herbal bath formulas. Steam baths (―bajos‖) are given
in cases of swelling, retention of fluids, rheumatism, arthritis, paralysis, and muscle
spasms. The leaf is heated in oil and applied to boils, tumors, cysts, and pus-filled
sores. Boil leaf alone or in combination with other bathing leaves for any skin condition,
exhaustion, wounds, feverish babies, insomnia, flu, aches, pains and general malaise.
Greendragon (Arisaema dracontium): The dried and aged root was used by the N.
American Indians in the treatment of 'female disorders'. The plant leaves were chewed in the
treatment of asthma. Diaphoretic and expectorant in dry, hacking coughs attended with
irritation. Dose of fl'ext.: 1 to 10 drops (0.065 to 0.6 mil).

Grindelia (Grindelia robusta, G. squarossa ) An expectorant and sedative with an action
resembling atropine. As a tea the leaves and flowers can be used interchangeably. For
tincturing, the flowers are preferable. Use as a tea for bronchitis and wherever an
expectorant is needed. It is a useful antispasmodic for dry hacking coughs, alone or
combined with Yerba Santa, a tablespoon in tea as needed. The tincture is especially useful
for bladder and urethra infections, one-fourth teaspoon in water every four hours. Topical use
of the tincture or a poultice of the crushed flowers is often helpful in poison oak inflammations
and as a lotion for dermatitis. A mild sedative and cardiac relaxant, although not always
reliable. Its unpleasant bitterness makes it useful as a mild stomach tonic.

Ground Elder (Aegopodium podagraria) Diuretic and sedative. Can be successfully
employed internally for aches in the joints, gouty and sciatic pains, and externally as a
fomentation for inflamed parts. The roots and leaves boiled together, applied to the hip, and
occasionally renewed, have a wonderful effect in some cases of sciatica.

Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea (Nepeta hederacea) Ground ivy has had a long history
as a headache cure. The fresh juice squeezed from the leaves was snuffed up the nostrils
and this was a very popular remedy, said to relive the most stubborn headache. In the U.S., a
tea from the leaves was at one time considered to be a remedy for and preventer of a type of
lead poisoning known as ―painter‘s colic‖. In China, most of the folk names for it allude to the
resemblance o the leaves to Chinese coins. It was used medicinally to treat toothache and
earache, but was believed most valuable in reducing fever. Ground ivy is tonic, diuretic, and
a decongestant, and is used to treat many problems involving the mucous membranes of the
ear, nose, throat and digestive system. A well-tolerated herb, it can be given to children to
clear lingering congestion and to treat chronic conditions such as ―glue ear‖ and sinusitis.
Throat and chest problems, especially those due to excess mucus, also benefit from this
remedy. Ground ivy is also a valuable treatment for gastritis and acid indigestion. Further
along the gastrointestinal tract, its binding nature helps to counter diarrhea and to dry up
watery and mucoid secretions. Ground ivy has been employed to prevent scurvy and as a
spring tonic, and is considered beneficial in kidney disorders. It aids lingering diseases;
conditions of chronic waste, rot and purulent discharge; and chronic metabolic diseases. It
can help where pus develops in the body or where a lingering metabolic disease exists.
         Best used fresh, for remedial preparations, juice the freshly gathered leaves and mix
the juice with buttermilk in equal parts.       As a follow-up treatment for tuberculosis, it‘s
recommended mixing ground ivy juice with goat‘s milk.
Traditionally, ground ivy is added to bath water to refresh the body‘s muscles and joints. It
also strengthens the nerves and aids bladder and kidney conditions and pains related to
rheumatism and gout. The homeopathic mother tincture ―Glechoma hederacea‖ is made from
the                                          fresh                                         plant.
         As an inhalant, a hot infusion of ground ivy acts as a pleasant relief on head colds
and stuffy noses. An infusion can be used as a lotion, or on compresses, to cleanse sores
and ulcers

Gu Jing Tsao (Eriocaulon cinereum): This is one of the most effective Chinese herbs for
treating disorders of the eyes, such as cataracts, glaucoma, swelling, and so on. When using
it to treat eye disorders, the decoction should be used internally and externally at the same
time. The whole plant, including flowers, is used

Guan Jung (Dryopteris crassirhizoma): The root contains 'filicin', a substance that
paralyses tapeworms and other internal parasites and has been used as a worm expellant for
humans and also in veterinary medicine. It is one of the most effective treatments known for
tapeworms - its use should be immediately followed by a non-oily purgative such as
magnesium sulphate in order to expel the worms from the body. An oily purge, such as caster
oil, increases the absorption of the fern root and can be dangerous. The root is also taken
internally in the treatment of internal hemorrhage, uterine bleeding, mumps and feverish
illnesses. The root is harvested in the autumn and can be dried for later use, it should not be
stored for longer than 12 months. Externally, the root is used in the treatment of abscesses,
boils,                        carbuncles                       and                        sores.
          In recent times this herb has been prescribed as a preventive measure during
influenza epidemics. Guan zhong preparations strongly inhibit the flu virus in vitro. In one
clinical trial, 306 people took twice-weekly doses of guan zhong and 340 served as controls.
In the treatment group, 12 percent became ill versus 33 percent of the controls. Local
versions of guan zhong from Guangdong, Hunan, and Jiangxi provinces have mildly inhibitory
effects in vitro against many pathogenic bacteria. Guan zhong also is effective against pig
roundworms in vitro, and it expels tapeworms and liver flukes in cattle.
          In other studies, decoctions and alcohol extracts of dong bei guan zhong strongly
stimulated the uterus of guinea pigs and rabbits. It increased the frequency and strength of
contractions. Intramuscular injections of dong bei guan zhong preparations were used with
more than 91-percent success to treat postpartum, post miscarriage, and postsurgical
bleeding. Guan zhong is usually combined with other anti-infection herbs, like isatis, and
provided in prepared remedies for both treating and preventing respiratory tract infections. For
example, a folk practice in southern China is to treat drinking water with this herb to ward off
common cold. Disease spread is also prevented by burning guanz hong with moxa (Artemisia
argyi) as a fumigant.

Guan Mu Tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis): Stem treats fever, diabetes; increases flow
or urine; induces menstruation; stimulates milk flow in women after labor

Guarana (Paullinia cupana)… Guarana‘s medicinal uses are largely the same as those of
coffee-it is taken for headache and migraine, for mild depressive states, and to boost energy
levels. In view of guarana‘s significant tannin content, long-term use is not advisable,
because tannins impair the intestines‘ ability to absorb nutrients. It is a useful short-term
remedy though for boosting energy levels or for a tension headache that cannot be treated
with rest, especially of a rheumatic nature. Brazilian miners drink this constantly and believe
it to be a preventive of many diseases. Guarana‘s astringency also treats chronic diarrhea. It
is a good short-term adrenal builder because it supplies raw material the adrenals need to
make hormone, rather than simply signaling your adrenals to make more hormone. The
whole seed with all of its complementary components doesn‘t have the harsh effect of
caffeine with its potential for addiction, fast ―rush,‖ nervousness, irritability, and so on.
Tannins and saponins in the seeds slow down the rate at which guaranine is dissolved and
absorbed. This slow release provides a sustained long-term energizing effect. A daily 1-
gram dose contains less than 20% of the caffeine in a regular cappuccino. Guarana seed can
be taken in capsules, not late in the day, 1-5 per day. As a strong diuretic 7 ½ grains can be
taken daily and in 24 hours it has be known to increase urine from 27 oz to 107 oz.

Guava (Psidium guajava): : Guava has been widely used in Latin American traditional
medicine as a treatment for diarrhea and stomachaches due to indigestion. Treatment
usually involves drinking a decoction of the leaf, roots, and bark of the plant. It also has been
used for dysentery in Panama and as an astringent in Venezuela. A decoction of the plant‘s
bark and leaves is also reported to be used as a bath to treat skin ailments. Chinese and
Caribbean traditional medicine have used guava in the control of diabetes, but a study in
Mexico found that guava did not lower blood sugar levels in rabbits.
       In the Philippines the astringent, unripe fruit, the leaves, the cortex of the bark and
roots – through more often the leaves only – in the form of a decoction, are used for washing
ulcers and wounds. Guerrero states that the bark and leaves are astringent, vulnerary, and
when decocted, antidiarhetic. The bark is used in the chronic diarrhea of children and
sometimes adults; half an ounce of the bark is boiled down with six ounces of water to 3
ounces; the dose (for children) is one teaspoonful 3 to 4 times a day. The root-bark has been
recommended for chronic diarrhea. In a decoction of ½ oz. in 6 oz. of water, boiled down to 3
oz. and given in teaspoonful doses; and also recommended as a local application in
prolapsus and of children. A decoction of the root-bark is recommended as a mouthwash for
swollen                                                                                     gums.
       The leaves, when chewed, are said to be remedy for toothache. The decocted leaves
are used in Mexico for cleansing ulcers. The ground leaves make an excellent poultice. A
decoction of the young leaves and shoots is prescribed in the West Indies for febrifuge and
antispasmodic baths, and an infusion of the leaves for cerebral affections, nephritis, and
cachexia; the pounded leaves are applied locally for rheumatism; an extract is used for
epilepsy and chorea; and the tincture is rubbed into the spine of children suffering from
convulsions. The leaves have also been used successfully as an astringent in diarrhea. In
Mexico the leaves are said to be a remedy for itches. In Uruguay, a decoction of the leaves is
used     as     a     vaginal     and     uterine    wash,    especially    in     leucorrhoea.
         In Costa Rica, a decoction of the flower buds is considered an effective remedy for
diarrhea and flow of blood. The fruit is astringent and has a tendency to cause constipation.
The fruit is anthelmintic in Mexico. The guava jelly is tonic to the heart and good for
constipation. The ripe fruit is good aperient, and should be eaten with the skin, for without it,
costiveness results. The unripe fruit is said to be indigestible, causing vomiting and
feverishness, but it is sometimes employed in diarrhea. Water in which the fruit is soaked is
good for diabetes.

Gouduchi (Tinospora cordifolia): Historically administered to increase longevity, promote
intelligence, and improve memory and immune function, modern science has shown the herb
protects against infections, decreases allergic reactions, and stimulates the immune system
by increasing the production of white blood cells. This herb is a bitter tonic. It has been
helpful in eye conditions and as a tissue builder, as well as helping development of the brain
and intelligence, and combating premature aging. It is a constituent of several compound
preparations. It is used in fever, urinary disorders, dyspepsia, general debility and urinary
diseases. It is also used in treatment of rheumatism and jaundice. The plant is used in
Ayurvedic rasayanas to improve the immune system and the body's resistance to infections. It
is used in general debility, digestive disturbances, loss of appetite and fever in children. It has
long been known in Ayurvedic literature as a tonic, vitalizer and a remedy for diabetes and
metabolic disorders. It has been used to reduce blood glucose level. The plant has been
found effective in preventing fibrous changes and promotes regeneration of the liver from
drug                         induced                        hepatic                        toxicity.

Guinea Hen Weed (Petiveria alliacea): It is an important medicinal and ritual plant in
southern Florida, Central America and the Caribbean, especially in the Santeria religion and
has common names in many languages. Whole plants, leaves, and roots are collected for
use in decoctions. Fresh leaves are bound around the head for headaches or juiced for direct
application for earache. It reputedly calms the nerves, controls diarrhea, lowers fever,
stimulates the uterus, and relaxes spasms and is used for paralysis, hysteria, asthma,
whooping cough, pneumonia, bronchitis, hoarseness, influenza, cystitis, venereal disease,
menstrual complaints and abortion.

Gumbo-Limbo (Bursera simaruba): Gumbo-limbo is used as a tonic and for back pain,
kidney ailments, gonorrhea, syphilis, leukorrhea, skin irritations esp. from Metopium, stings,
arthritis/rheumatism, colds, sore throat, asthma, sweat induction, stomach hemorrhage,
intestinal ailments, snakebite, wounds, reduction of blood pressure, fever, blood tonic esp.
during pregnancy, diarrhea, bruises, loosing weight. The sap is used to treat Poison Ivy and
Poison Wood. The resin is used to produce incense and against gastritis, ulcers and to heal
skin wounds. When someone sprained an ankle or pulled a muscle, gumbo limbo resin was
applied to the affected area. The bark is a common topical remedy for skin affections like skin
sores, measles, sunburn, insect bites and rashes. A bark decoction is also taken internally for
urinary tract infections, pain, colds, flu, sun stroke, fevers and to purify the blood. A strip of
bark about 4 -5 cm x 30 cm is boiled in a gallon of water for 10 minutes for this local remedy
and then used topically or drunk as a tea. Decoctions, infusions and direct use of bark, gum,
wood and leaves hot and cold, alone and with other species.

Gumweed (Grindelia camporum) Grindelia acts to relax smooth muscles and heart
muscles. It‘s used in the treatment of asthmatic and bronchial conditions, especially where
these are associated with a rapid heart beat and nervous response. It may be used in
asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough and upper respiratory catarrh. Because of the relaxing
effect on the heart and pulse rate, there may be a reduction in blood pressure. Externally the
lotion is used in the dermatitis caused by poison ivy. Traditionally, Grindelia‘s been used for:
arrhythmia, arthritis, asthma, blisters, bronchitis, bronchorrhea, burns, cachexia, common cold,
cough, cystitis, difficulty breathing, dyspepsia, eczema, emphysema, fever, gonorrhea, hay
fever, hepatitis, hypertension, indolent skin ulcer, iritis, muscle spasms, ophthalmia, pertussis,
pharyngitis, pneumonia, poison ivy, psoriasis, rheumatism, rhus dermatitis (lotion), sleep
apnea, smallpox, splenomegaly, syphilis, tachycardia, tuberculosis, upper respiratory catarrh

Gymnema (Gymnema silvestre): Indian physicians first used Gymnema to treat diabetes
over 2,000 years ago. . In the 1920s, preliminary scientific studies found some evidence that
Gymnema leaves can reduce blood sugar levels, but nothing much came of this observation
for decades. It is a taste suppressant. By topical application gymnema has been shown to
block the sweet and some of the bitter taste, but not salt and acid taste. By keeping off the
sweet taste it helps to control a craving for sugar. Responsible for this are considered
saponins. Gymnema has also shown mild hypoglycemic effect. Topically (applied to the
tongue, mainly to the tip or by chewing) it is used to control a craving for sugar, recommended
as an aid to a weightloss diet and diabetes. Internally it is used as an adjuvant (tea, h.p.) for
diabetes. Gymnema leaves raise insulin levels, according to research in healthy volunteers.
Based on animal studies, this may be due to regeneration of the cells in the pancreas that
secrete insulin. Other animal research shows that Gymnema can also improve uptake of
glucose into cells and prevent adrenaline from stimulating the liver to produce glucose,
thereby reducing blood sugar levels. The leaves are also noted for lowering serum cholesterol
and triglycerides. In the past, powdered Gymnema root was used to treat snake bites,
constipation, stomach complaints, water retention, and liver disease.

                                          -H- Herbs

Hairy Cap Moss, Common (Polytrichum           commune): Reduces inflammation, as an
anti-fever agent, detergent, diuretic, laxative and hemostatic agent.

Hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) Hawthorn was traditionally used in Europe for kidney and
bladder stones and as a diuretic. Its current use for circulatory and cardiac problems stems
from an Irish physician who started using it successfully on his patients for such conditions
toward the end of the 19 century. It is used today to treat angina and coronary artery
disease. Hawthorn normalizes the heart and circulation, lowering or raising blood pressure
according to need. It is found in most herbal preparations for heart weakness, irregular heart
beat, hardening of the arteries, artery spasms, and angina. In studies the hearts of those
patients taking hawthorn required less oxygen when under stress as compared to standard
treatments. And in another study it normalized heart action and efficiency and seemed to
strengthen contractions in almost all the patients with primary heart disease and even some
with more severe secondary heart disease. It also improved heart problems caused by
hepatitis or other liver disease. In vitro increases in coronary circulation ranging from 20% to
140% have been observed following the administration of a dose equal to about 1 mg of the
dry extract.
Hawthorn lowers blood pressure by dilating surface blood vessels, as opposed to directly
acting on the heart as does digitalis. This also means it takes longer to work but there is also
no cumulative effect on the heart tissue. It does make the body more sensitive to digitalis, so
the prescribed dose of digitalis may eventually be cut in half. Hawthorn also helps keep the
heart beating properly and decreases peripheral vascular resistance. Originally only the
berries were used, but higher concentrations of active flavonoids have been discovered in the
flowers and leaves when hawthorn is in full bloom. One study found spring shoots to be the
most active. The flavonoids dilate coronary and external arteries while procyanidines, which
are most prevalent in the leaves around August, apparently slow the heart beat and are
Combined with ginkgo, hawthorn is used to enhance poor memory by improving the
circulation of blood to the head which increases the amount of oxygen to the brain.
At one time unripe berries were used for diarrhea and hawthorn-flower tea as a safe diuretic.
A decoction of the ripe berries is also used for sore throats, skin diseases, diarrhea and
abdominal distention. The berries also strengthen the appetite and digestion.
Heather (Erica/Calluna vulgaris (E tetralix, E cinerea) ) It was used in baths for easing
joint and muscle pain, and taken for urinary infections and to ease sleep. An infusion of the
dried flowers helped to decrease nervousness, sleeplessness and the pains of rheumatism. It
was also recommended as a bath for babies who were failing to thrive. Today, heather makes
a useful urinary antiseptic when taken internally due to the arbutin it contains, and can be
taken for cystitis, urethritis and prostatitis. It has a mild diuretic action, reducing fluid retention
and hastening elimination of toxins via the kidneys. It makes a good cleansing remedy for
gout and arthritis as well as skin problems such as acne. It has a mildly sedative action and
can easy anxiety, muscle tension and insomnia. A hot poultice of heather tips is a traditional
remedy                                             for                                       chilblains.

Hedge Nettle (Stachys palustris ) One of the most effective sweating herbs, useful in the
early stages of colds, flu, and fevers. Internally used for gout, cramps, vertigo and
hemorrhage. It will relieve diarrhea and dysentery. Externally used for minor injuries. The
bruised leaves when applied to a wound will stop bleeding and help heal the wound. It is an
equivalent of comfrey in its effect on wounds. It may be used directly or as an ointment or

Hedge Woundwort (Stachys sylvatica): The whole herb is styptic. It is applied externally to
wounds etc. From Culpeper: this herb 'stamped with vinegar and applied in manner of a pultis,
taketh away wens and hard swellings, and inflammation of the kernels under the eares and
jawes,' and also that the distilled water of the flowers 'is used to make the heart merry, to
make a good colour in the face, and to make the vitall spirits more fresh and lively.'

Hellebore, American White (Veratrum viride ) In standard medicine, Hellebore was
employed for its irritant and sedative action in a wide range of complaints, including
pneumonia, gout, rheumatism, typhoid and rheumatic fevers and local inflammations.
American Hellebore preparations are well known to contain a complex mixture of steroid
alkaloids (including jervine, pseudojervine, and meratroidine) that are still used by the medical
profession to treat severe cases of high blood pressure and related cardiovascular conditions.
It is a very potent drug plant. It is effective only in selected types of high blood pressure, and
has many side effects if used over a long period of time. It has been used in the treatment of
acute cases of pneumonia, peritonitis and threatened apoplexy. A decoction of the root has
been used in the treatment of chronic coughs and constipation. A portion of the root has been
chewed, or a decoction used, in the treatment of stomach pain. The root has been used to
make a skin wash and compresses for bruises, sprains and fractures. The powdered root has
been applied as a healing agent to wounds and as a delousing agent. The stems have been
scraped and the powder snuffed to induce sneezing. An infusion of the leaves has been used
as a wash to treat aches and pains.

Helonias Root (Chamaelirium luteurm (Helonias dioica) ) The medicinal use of false
unicorn root is based in Native American tradition, where it was recommended for many
women‘s health conditions, including lack of menstruation, painful menstruation, and other
irregularities of menstruation, as well as to prevent miscarriages. It was also used as a
remedy for morning sickness. This herb is one of the best tonics and strengtheners of the
reproductive system that we have. Though primarily used for the female system, it can be
equally beneficial for men. It is known to contain precursors of the estrogens. However, it acts
in an amphoteric way to normalize function. The body may use this herb to balance and tone
and thus it will aid in apparently opposite situations. Where ovarian pain occurs, False
Unicorn Root may be safely used. The indication for its use is a dragging sensation in the
extreme lower abdomen. It is useful in impotence, as a tonic in genito-urinary weakness or
irritability, for liver and kidney diseases. Especially good in diseases due to poor action of the
liver and not to weakness of the heart or circulation. It is a good remedy in albuminaria.
Steroidal saponins are generally credited with providing false unicorn root‘s activity.

Hemp Agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum) Hemp agrimony has been employed chiefly as
a detoxifying herb for fever, colds, flu and other acute viral conditions. It also stimulates the
removal of waste products via the kidneys. The root is laxative, and the whole plant is
considered to be tonic Recently, hemp agrimony has found use as an immunostimulant,
helping    to    maintain      resistance     to    acute     viral   and     other     infections.

Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger ) The official preparation of Henbane is obtained from fresh
or dried leaves, flowering tops and branches of the biennial form of the plant. Internally
henbane has been used for asthma, whooping cough, motion sickness, Meniere‘s syndrome,
tremor in senility or paralysis, and as preoperative medication. Externally it has been used for
neuralgia and dental and rheumatic pain. It was added to laxatives to prevent griping, and to
antiasthma and herbal cigarettes. Its sedative and antispasmodic effect makes it a valuable
treatment for the symptoms of Parkinson‘s disease, relieving tremor and rigidity during the
early stages of the illness. Henbane also has been used to treat asthma and bronchitis,
usually as a ―burning powder‖ or in the form of a cigarette. Applied externally as an oil, it can
relieve painful conditions such as neuralgia, sciatica, and rheumatism. Henbane reduces
mucus secretions, as well as saliva and other digestive juices. One of henbane‘s active
components, hyoscine, is sometimes used as a substitute for opium. Hyoscine is commonly
used as a preoperative anesthetic and in motion sickness formulations.

Henna (Lawsonia inermis ) Used mainly within Ayurviedic and Unani medicine. The fruits
have been thought to stimulate the menstrual function. In powdered form, the leaves have
been utilized both internally and externally to treat various skin diseases, including leprosy,
fungal infections, acne and boils. In Arabic medicine the powder was employed in the
treatment of jaundice, though there it is unlikely the henna benefited the patient at all. In India
the leaves were made into an astringent gargle. An infusion or decoction of the leaves is
used for diarrhea and dysentery.
Extracts of henna leaves have been shown to act in a manner similar to ergot with respect to
inducing uterine contractions. So it‘s possible that extracts of the plant could induce
menstruation and be effective emmanagogues. The topical application of two chemical
components of this shrub, lawsone and dihydroxyacetone, has been reported ultraviolet light
for people with chlorpromazine-induced light sensitivity. Experimentally, a water extract of the
leaves inhibited gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antitumor activity in experiments
with mice tends to support folkloric uses of henna as an anticancer agent.

Hens and Chicks (Sempervivum tectorum) or Houseleek: Internally used for shingles,
skin complaints, and hemorrhoids. The juice from the leaves of houseleeks have astringent
and cooling properties, applied as an ointment to reduce fevers and relieve the pain of burns,
scalds, inflammations, shingles, ulcers, ringworm, gout, headache, sunburn, inflamed or
itching skin, and bee stings. The juice was also an effective treatment for corns and warts on
the hands and feet. The leaves have been chewed to relieve toothache, and the juice has
been sniffed to stop nosebleeds. Simply pick one of the large outer leaves, squeeze it
between forefinger and thumb and apply to the affected part. The juice mixed in equal parts
with wine expels worms. Externally it is used to soften corns, as well as to reduce inflamed
glands. The juice, mixed with water in a proportion of 1:2, is used for conjunctivitis, or as a

Herb of the Wolf (Hymenoxys hoopesii): Pains due to rheumatism or pulmonary diseases
are treated by rubbing with the dried, ground roots. A tea made by boiling the roots has been
used to treat stomachache and diarrhea, and to eliminate intestinal worms. A snuff made
from the crushed blossoms and the leaves of Psoralidium lanceolatum has been inhaled in
the treatment of headaches and hay fever.

Herb Patience (Rumex patientia): The juice, and an infusion of the root, has been used as a
poultice and salve in the treatment of various skin problems. An infusion of the root has been
used in the treatment of constipation. The leaves have been rubbed in the mouth to treat sore

Herb Robert (Geranium robertianum): In the past Herb Robert was used mostly in
veterinary medicine, especially fore the treatment of blood in the urine and infectious diseases.
An application for melancholy and sadness was recommended. It stimulated the metabolism.
It is now occasionally employed in much the same way as American cranesbill as an
astringent and wound healer. More investigation is needed as according to one authority it is
also effective against stomach ulcers and inflammation of the uterus, and it has potential as a
treatment for cancer. To treat chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal trace, try
administering Herb Robert in the form of a medicinal wine. A simple one is made by filling a
large jar half and half with freshly plucked, chopped Herb Robert and a good red wine. Let
the mixture stand for two weeks before straining it into a corked bottle. Sip by snifter before
meals. For external applications, the freshly pressed juice of Herb Robert is best. You can
either apply the juice directly to the area being treated or use it In compresses. Herb Robert
is available as ―Herba Geranii Robertiani and the homeopathic mother tincture ―Geranium
robertianum is prepared from the fresh flowering plant.

Hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa, rosa-sinensis): In African folk medicine, the drug is
considered spasmolytic, antibacterial, chologogic, diuretic and anthelmintic.          Aqueous
extracts of hibiscus flowers are said to relax the muscles of the uterus and to lower the blood
pressure. The tincture is good for minor stomach and intestinal disorders. Used for kidney
and reproductive system problems due to heat. Effective for menstrual difficulties, especially
excessive bleeding. Helps purify blood. Good for the heart. Improves skin complexion and
promotes hair growth. Dosage is 10-30 drops 3 times per day.

Himalayan May Apple (Podophyllum hexandrum): A number of double-blind clinical
studies have been done on the medicinal values of the key mayapple chemical extracts,
podophyllotoxin and podophyllin. These have been proven efficacious in some serious
medical conditions, including temporary resolution of HIV-related oral hairy leukoplakia,
effective topical treatment for penile warts, interference with certain unhealthy cell cycles
involved in leukemia, anti-tumor activity including for breast cancer treatment, and as a useful
topical ointment to prevent scarring during healing after laser incisions. Roots used to treat
stomachache and vomiting. Used to treat cancer, particularly ovarian cancer, but alopecia is
said to be a common side effect. Although it is used medicinally in India, it should not be
substituted for mayapple roots as it is much stronger than the American species and contains
far     higher    quantities   of     podophyllotoxin,     with    drastic   laxative    effect.
         Recent ongoing studies have shown that the mayapple may help treat the painful
symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. In one study, 30 patients were treated with a Podophyllum
hexandrum derivative called CPH82. This derivative was given to them in a 50 mg capsule
form (3 times daily) and compared with a placebo under a double blind condition. The patients
showed significant improvement in amount of pain, morning stiffness and grip strength as well
as in other areas after twelve weeks, (p < .01). The researchers concluded that the CPH 82
was effective in short term treatment but more researched is required to determine the long
term effects.

Hoary Pepperwort (Cardaria draba): The seeds have been used as a cure for flatulence
and food poisoning caused by eating suspect fish.

Hog Peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata): An infusion of the root has been used in the
treatment of diarrhea. Externally, the root has been applied to bites from rattlesnakes. A
poultice of the pulverized leaves has been applied with any salve to swellings.

Hog Plum (Spondias radlkoferi): Drink as an astringent tea for diarrhea, gonorrhea, or sore
throat – boil a handful of flower buds and bark together in 3 cups water for 10 minutes; drink
1 cup before each meal. For gonorrhea, take in this way for 10 days and re-test. Use as a
bath for stubborn sores, rashes, painful insect stings, and to bathe pregnant women who feel
weak and tired beyond first trimester—boil a large double handful of leaves and a strip of bark
3 cm x 15 cm in 2 gallons of water for 10 minutes.

Hog's Fennel (Peucedanum officinale): A fairly rare plant and not in general use It
resembles dill more than fennel, and either can be used as a substitute. Russian herbalists
have used the powdered herbs as a remedy for epilepsy. An infusion is used in the treatment
of coughs, bronchial catarrh, intermittent fever and to stimulate menstrual discharge .
      The juice, say Dioscorides and Galen, used with vinegar and Rose-water put to the
nose, helps those that are troubled with lethargy, frenzy, giddiness of the head, the falling-
sickness, long and headache, palsy, sciatica and the cramp. The juice dissolved in wine, or
put into an egg, is good for a cough, or shortness of breath and for those that are troubled
with wind in the body. It purges the belly gently, expels the hardness of the spleen, gives ease
to women that have sore travail in childbirth and eases the pains of the reins and bladder, and
also the womb.

Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum (O. sanctum) ) An infusion of the leaves is a quick
remedy for bronchitis and colds and an infusion of the seeds is an excellent diuretic. A
decoction of the roots is thought to relieve malarial fever. Leaves are diaphoretic, antiperiodic,
bronchitis, gastric & hepatic disorders etc. A tea prepared with the leaves of O. sanctum is
commonly used in cough, cold, mild, indigestion, diminished appetite and malaise.
Anthelmintic, deodorant, stimulant, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, blood purifier, useful in skin
diseases, antipyretic particularly in malarial fevers. Externally applied on chronic non healing
ulcers, inflammation, skin disorders, useful in nausea, pain in abdomen, worms, allergic
rhinitis, all types of cough, respiratory disorders. It acts as a powerful mosquito repellent.
          In a 1997 study at M.S. University of Baroda, India, 17 NIDDM patients were
supplemented with 1 g basil leaf per day for 30 days. Ten NIDDM patients served as controls,
receiving no supplementation. All subjects were taking antidiabetic medications and did not
change their diets. Holy basil lowered fasting blood glucose 20.8 percent, total cholesterol
11.3 percent and triacylglycerols 16.4 percent. I recommend 14 g of dried leaf daily. . It is
said that eating Holy basil along with other foods will relieve stomach problems including
cramps                         and                      digestive                      disorders.
         The ethanolic extract of the leaves exhibited a hypoglycemic effect in rats and an
antispasmodic effect in isolated guinea pig ileum. Tulsi extract was administered to 20
patients with shortness of breath secondary to tropical eosinophia in an oral dosage of 500
mg TID and an improvement in breathing was noted. The aqueous extract showed a
hypotensive effect on anesthetised dogs and cats and negative inotropic and chronotropic
activity (reduces the force and rate, respectively) on rabbit's heart. Antibacterial activity has
been shown against Staphlococcus aureus and Mycoplasma tuberculosis in vitro as well as
against several other species of pathogens including fungi. The plant has had general
adaptogenic effects in mice and rats and has been shown to protect against stress-induced
ulcers. The leaf extract was found to protect guinea pigs against histamine and pollen induced
asthma. Adaptogenic activity of Ocimum sanctum is reported in rats & mice.
           Recent research studied the effect of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi)on experimental
cataract in rats and rabbits by P. SHARMA, S. KULSHRESHTHA AND A.L. SHARMA
Department        of     Pharmacology,    S.N.    Medical     College,    Agra    -   282    001.
SUMMARY Objective: Methods: Two models of experimental cataract were induced: (1)
Galactosaemic cataract in rats by 30% galactose, (2) Naphthalene cataract in rabbits by 1
gm/kg naphthalene. Ocimum sanctum (O.S.) was administered orally in both models at two
dose levels 1 and 2 gm/kg of body weight for curative and prophylactic effects. The study was
conducted                            for                          40                        days.
Results: O.S. delayed the onset of cataract as well as the subsequent maturation of cataract
significantly in both models. In addition to delay in reaching various stages of development of
cataract, IV stage did not develop with high doses till completion of 40 days of experimental
Conclusion: O.S. delayed the process of cataractogenesis in both models. The higher doses
are more effective and have got promising prophylactic role rather than curative one. This
effect is more clear in galactosaemiccataract. (Indian J Pharmacol 1998; 30: 16-20) More
research: Surender Singh and D.K. Majumdar University of Delhi, New Delhi, India: The fixed
oil of O. sanctum seeds was screened for antiarthritic activity using Freund's adjuvant arthritis,
formaldehyde-induced arthritis and also turpentine oil-induced joint edema in rats. The oil was
administered intraperitoneally for 14 days in the case of adjuvant-induced arthritis and 10
days in formaldehyde-induced arthritis. The mean changes in diameter of paw were noted at
regular intervals. X-rays of paws were taken at the end of study and SGOT & SGPT levels
were also estimated. The fixed oil showed significant anti-arthritic activity in both models and
anti-edema           activity   against       turpentine       oil-induced      joint     edema.
      Traditional Uses: The leaf infusion or fresh leaf juice is commonly used in cough, mild
upper respiratory infections, bronchospasm, stress-related skin disorders and indigestion. It is
combined with ginger and maricha (black pepper) in bronchial asthma. It is given with honey
in bronchitis and cough. The leaf juice is taken internally and also applied directly on
cutaneous lesions in ringworm. The essential oil has been used in ear infections. The seeds
are considered a general nutritious tonic.

Honewort (Cryptotaenia canadensis): Traditional herbalists in New England use an infusion
as a diuretic and urinary tract tonic, to strengthen and cleanse the kidneys and to relieve
frequent urination. In the Orient it is held in especially high esteem to treat menstrual and
puerperal diseases of women. Honewort root has been prescribed for Chinese women who
wish to conceive.

Honey Locust (Gleditsia sinensis): A decoction of the leaves is used for washing sores,
including syphilitic skin diseases. It is used in the treatment of bronchial asthma with sticky
phlegm, epilepsy and apoplexy with loss of consciousness. The thorns are used in the
treatment of acute purulent inflammation, dermatopathies and tonsillitis. They should not be
used by pregnant women. The plant has been used in the treatment of lockjaw, stroke, acute
numbness of the throat and epilepsy. It reduces swellings, opens the orifices, revives the
spirit and dissolves phlegm. Commonly used to treat cough with sputum that is difficult to
expectorate, facial paralysis, loss of consciousness and abscesses. The seeds have been
used in the treatment of cancer of the rectum. Fruits, seeds: loosen mucus in the respiratory
tracts; increase urine flow. Bark, roots: expel intestinal worms; treat fever

Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica & L. caprifolium) The Chinese use honeysuckle flowers
extensively to treat sore throat, colds, flu, tonsillitis, bronchitis and pneumonia. Honeysuckle
flower extracts are strongly active against many microorganisms that cause sore throat and
respiratory conditions. It has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against salmonella typhi,
pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus pneumoniae. It‘s
considered the echinacea of Chinese medicine. It‘s also been shown to have an inhibitory
effect with tuberculosis. A suggested help is making a tea with a handful of flowers per cup
of oiling water and drinking up to three cups a day. The bark is diuretic and may be taken to
relieve gout, kidney stones and liver problems. In winter a decoction of twigs and dried
leaves can be drunk adding lemon and honey for flavor. The leaves are astringent and make
a good gargle and mouthwash for sore throats and canker sores. The FDA has not put
honeysuckle on its GRAS list

CHINESE: Clears heat and relieves fire toxicity: for hot, painful sores and swellings in various
stages of development, especially of the breast, throat, or eyes. Also for Intestinal abscess.
Expels externally-contracted wind-heat: for the early stages of warm-febrile diseases with
such symptoms as fever, slight sensitivity to wind, sore throat, and headache. Also for
externally-contracted summer heat. Clears damp-heat from the lower burner: for damp-heat
dysenteric disorder or painful urinary dysfunction.

Hoodia (Hoodia gordonii): Some tribes in Namibia boil the Hoodia to treat various ailments
with the brew. including severe abdominal cramps, hemorrhoids, tuberculosis, indigestion,
hypertension                                    and                                    diabetes.
         Current popular use is for weight control. Within the hypothalamus, there are nerve
cells that sense glucose sugar. When you eat, blood sugar goes up because of the food,
these cells start firing and now you are full. What the Hoodia seems to contain is a molecule
that is about 10,000 times as active as glucose. It goes to the mid-brain and actually makes
those nerve cells fire as if you were full. But you have not eaten. Nor do you want to.
        Published scientific conference abstracts (not peer reviewed) of research studies have
reported that orally administered crude or partially purified extracts of four different Hoodia
species reduced food intake and body weight and body fat of obese and, to a lesser extent,
lean rats. Other animal studies performed in South Africa reported weight loss due to
appetite suppression from intake of hoodia (56^). An unpublished 2-week clinical trial of P57,
as a less purified extract, also found body fat loss, reduced energy intake, as well as lower
blood sugar and triglycerides

Hopi Tea (Thelesperma gracile): It is considered useful for the kidneys, especially in winter.
To settle the stomach and purify the blood. It is combined with Canela, Yerba Buena, or
Poleo (with a pinch of cone sugar added for a more tasty brew). The tea is kind to the
stomach, and was used traditionally as a vermifuge.

Hops (Humulus lupulus) The strobiles of hops are mildly sedative and diuretic. They are a
bitter digestive that is especially suited for treating nervous indigestion, ulcers, insomnia,
irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn‘s disease. They relax nerves and smooth muscles,
especially in the digestive tract, within 20-40 minutes after ingestion. A 1980 study suggested
that they contain a muscle-relaxing constituent in addition to lupulin, which had been
assumed to be the only active chemical. Hops‘ antibacterial agents, responsible for
preserving bread and beer, also fight digestive tract infections. Hormonal effects from
estrogen-like compounds were first noted when female hops pickers experienced changes in
their menstrual cycles (some even stopped menstruating) after absorbing quantities of the
essential oil through their hands. Aphrodisiacal effects were observed in men. Regular doses
of the herb can help regulate the menstrual cycle. GLA which also occurs in evening
primrose oil, has been found in hops, suggesting its usefulness for PMS and menstrual
problems, especially muscle cramps, headaches, and sore breaks. Hops also helps
insomniacs. A hops poultice can relive the pain and inflammation of earache or toothache.
Experiments in Germany have shown that hops tinctures are more stable than dried hops,
which quickly degrades with exposure to light and humidity.             Externally used for skin
infections, eczema, herpes, and leg ulcers. Combined with Valerian as a sedative and
Roman        Chamomile        or      Peppermint     for     nervous      digestive    problems.

Horehound (Marrubium vulgare ) Horehound‘s bitterness stimulates the appetite and also
promotes bile, making large doses laxative. The whole herb and its derivatives are used in
thousands of lung medications around the world, especially for treating bronchitis and coughs.
The essential oils and marrubiin dilate the arteries and help to ease lung congestion. The
herb apparently causes the secretion of a more fluid mucus, which is more readily cleared by
coughing.      Marrubiin also normalizes the heart beat and is a weak sedative. At one time,
horehound was suggested for relieving menstrual pain and slowing a rapid heart beat. Since
it also induces sweating, it has been used to reduce fevers, even those associated with
malaria. It is less commonly used as a decoction for skin conditions. Old recipes call for the
leaves to be boiled in lard and applied to wounds.

Hornbeam, American (Carpinus caroliniana): The astringent inner bark was used to
staunch bleeding. Delaware Indians used the root or bark infusion for general debility and
female ailments. Iroquois used it for childbirth and used the bark chips in a polyherbal
formula for tuberculosis. Iroquois also used it for big injuries and Italian itch. An infusion has
been used in the treatment of diarrhea and difficult urination with discharge.

Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum)…Horse chestnut is astringent, an anti-
inflammatory, and an aid to toning the vein walls, which, when slack or distended, may
become varicose, hemorrhoidal, or otherwise problematic. Horse chestnut also reduces fluid
retention by acting on the connective tissue barrier between blood vessels and tissue, where
nutrients and gases diffuse, inhibiting exudation and the development of edema and reducing
vascular fragility. The wall of the vein becomes less permeable, and this inhibits edema and
allows the reabsorption of excess fluid back into the circulatory system. The bark can be
used to reduce fever (dose of ½ ounce of the bark in 24 hours). The herb has been taken
internally in small to moderate doses for leg ulcers, varicose veins, phlebitis, inflammation of
the veins, hemorrhoids, and frostbite, and applied externally as a lotion, ointment, or gel. It
also stops the enzymes that break down damaged veins (along with the enzyme bromelain
from pineapple and gotu kola). After only 12 days of taking horse chestnut, the level of these
enzymes drops by one-quarter. Research trials have shown that application of a topical
escin (aescin) gel reduced the pain of injection hematoma and could be extrapolated to other
models in which extravasated blood leads to inflammation and tenderness as in impact
hematoma. In the US, a decoction of the leaves has been given for whooping cough.
The seeds have been employed in the treatment of rheumatism and neuralgia and also in
rectal complaints and for hemorrhoids. In France, an oil extracted from the seeds has been
used externally for rheumatism. For painful cramps in the legs at night recommended dosage
is 20 drops or more of a standardized horse chestnut preparation at night.
Japanese scientists found that horse chestnut (along with witch hazel, rosemary and sage)
having sufficient antioxidant activity to have potential against wrinkles.          Soothing and
astringent salves containing these herbs can be mixed for use.

Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana): Horseradish has long been known as a stimulant for
many parts of the circulatory system, while having antiseptic qualities too. When taken with
rich food it assists digestion and when a little horseradish is taken regularly it will build up
resistance to coughs and colds. In dropsy, it benefits the system by correcting imbalances in
the digestive organs. In a more concentrated form, it is able to reduce catarrhal and bronchial
complaints. Horseradish taken inwardly also relieves sinus pain and is said to help reduce
blood pressure. As a poultice it‘s used for rheumatitis, chest complaints and circulation
problems. Infused in wine it becomes a general stimulant and causes perspiration. It is
believed to be a good vermifuge for children. It is richer in vitamin C than orange or lemon.
The volatiles in horseradish have been shown to be antimicrobial against some organisms.
Horseradish derivatives may be useful to replace current microbial treatments that remove
toxic pollutants form water and make them insoluble. Syrup of horseradish is made by
steeping a tablespoon of grated horseradish root in a cup of boiling water and covering it for
two hours. The horseradish is then strained out and either sugar or honey is added. Heat
until a thick syrupy consistency is achieved. Bottle for use. A peroxidase enzyme extracted
from the root has novel commercial applications as an oxidizer in chemical tests to evaluate
blood glucose, and a molecular probe in studies on rheumatoid arthritis.

Horsetail (Equisetum spp. (arvense and hyemale)) The astringent, healing stems check
bleeding in wounds, nosebleeds, and heavy menstruation. A strong diuretic for urinary tract
and prostate disorders, they also tonify the urinary mucous membranes, can control bed-
wetting, and help with skin problems. The other main use is for deep-seated damage in lung
disease. Horsetail absorbs gold dissolved in water better than most plants, as much as 4
ounces per ton of fresh stalks. The amount of gold in a cup of horsetail tea is quite small, but
small amounts of gold are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, and the Chinese used horsetail
for                                                                                            this.
          Ellingwood suggests the following uses: dropsy, lithaemia, haematuria, gonorrhoea,
gleet, irritable bladder, enuresis in children, prostatis, and the ashes for acid dyspepsia. It is
often      combined      with    Hydrangea      in   the    treatment     of   prostate    troubles
         This is one of the silica-containing plant drugs where the silica is largely in a water-
soluble colloidal form. It is primarily a connective tissue drug, but is also considered a diuretic,
though this is true only within limits. The silica is not responsible for a certain diuretic effect,
which clearly is not very great and is probably due to saponins. A search has been made for
other constituents that might explain the diuretic effect. A close relative of the common
horsetail, Equisetum palustre. Animal experiments designed to demonstrate the diuretic
properties of the horsetail came up with widely differing results. Some investigators obtained
completely negative results, others noted an increase in urinary output by up to 68% in rats,
and called the horsetail one of the most powerful diuretics.. Reports on the use of this plant
with normal subjects and patients are similarly contradictory. The diuretic effect does not
appear to have been very great in this case. Horsetail has the advantage that no harmful
effects have been reported.
A more important property of this plants is the general metabolic stimulation it achieves,
above all increasing connective tissue resistance. As connective tissues are also involved in
rheumatic conditions, this explains the usefulness of the drug in this field. In the use of this
plant, emphasis should be placed not so much on the diuretic effect, as has been generally
assumed so far, but the antidyscratic and humoral actions. The key indications are therefore
more in the metabolic spehre. E.g. edema of the legs tdue to metabolic causes and in many
cases of rheumatoid arthritis and arthrosis. Sitz baths with equisetum extract are indicated for
functional pelvic disease in women where there is no inflammation such as adnexitis or
parametritis, but primarily muscular tensions and changes in muscle tone in the small pelvis
that are autonomous in origin.
The silica is relatively easily dissolved out of the herb by making a decoction, 2.0g of the dried
herb boiled for three hours in 200ml of water. Extraction is even better if a little sugar is
added. The resulting decoction contains 55.5mg of SiO2 and is remarkably stable. Silica
greatly accelerates blood coagulation, and horsetail is our best silica drug.
      In China, E. hyemale is used mainly to cool fevers and as a remedy for eye
inflammations, such as conjunctivitis and corneal disorders

Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale ) An infusion from shaved root or crushed
leaves is used to bathe cuts, bruises, burns and eczema and to treat coughs and bronchitis.
The leaves produce a potent poultice for external relief of scrofulous tumors, burns, goiter and
inflammations. Use similar to comfrey. It makes a good treatment for piles and hemorrhoids,
drink a cup of the herb or root every day. It has been used in catarrhs, hemoptysis, diarrhea,
and dysentery. Externally, it has been found highly beneficial in removing the pain and
soreness attending irritated, bruised, or chafed parts especially in excoriation of the feet from
much traveling. The tincture, or the application of bruised fresh leaves will remove the
swelling and ecchymosis consequent upon severe blows or bruises.

Hsien Yu (Curculigo ensifolia): The root is used for arthritis, blenorrhea, cachexia, enuresis,
impotency, and weak kidneys, incontinence, lassitude, lumbago, nervine, tonic, for
neurasthenia, to increase virility in premature senility

Hu Lu Ch'a (Tadehagi triquetrum): Whole plant: expels intestinal worms; treats spasms in
infants, indigestion, piles, abscesses. Whole plant decoction is drunk as hematinic and used
medicinally as an antipyretic, diuretic, for invigorating the spleen, and promoting
digestion. Leaves employed as a tonic and hemorrhoid remedy.

Huckleberry, Black (Gaylussacia baccata): An infusion of the leaves, or the bark, has been
used in the treatment of dysentery. An infusion of the leaves has been used in the treatment
of Bright's disease.

Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (Dolichos lablab)) Hyacinth bean is mild-and-lightly-
warm-natured, tastes sweet. It can tonify the spleen and stomach, relieve internal heat fever,
relieve summer beat-and damp and remove dampness to stop diarrohea, etc., leukorrhea,
with reddish discharge, infantile malnutrition and anti-cancer, etc. The seeds are used to
stimulate gastric activities, for vomiting and diarrhoea in acute gastro-enteritis, thirst in heat-
stroke, rheumatic arthritis, sunstroke, as an antidote against fish and vegetable poisoning
and to treat colic and cholera. The flowers are used to treat dysentery when there is pus and
bloody stools, inflammation of the uterus and to increase menstrual flow. Contraindicated in
cases      of     intermittent     fevers    and     chills,   and     in    cold       disorders.

Hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens ) It treats fluid retention and stone formation in the
kidneys and bladder. It is also used for cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout
and edema. It also is excellent for chronic penile discharge in men and mucousal urinary
irritation in the aged. It is also used to decrease pain and inflammation in the urinary tract and
when stones are passed. The dried root is considered strongest, but the leaves are
sometimes also used. According to the Eclectic doctors, it does not actually dissolve the
stones but helps them to pass and prevents their reoccurrence. It‘s used in combination with
other herbs to treat inflamed and enlarged prostates. The roots have a laxative effect.
Hydrangea contains a substance called rutin which is valuable in decreasing capillary fragility
and           reducing         the        incidence       of         recurrent        hemorrhages.

Hyssop (Hyssop officinalis) The flowering tops and the leaves are tonic and stomachic.
Hyssop contains marrubiin, also found in horehound. It‘s an expectorant, used to treat lung
conditions, specifically bronchitis, especially where there is excessive mucus production.
Hyssop appears to encourage the production of a more liquid mucus, and at the same time
gently stimulates expectoration. This combined action clears thick and congested phlegm.
Hyssop can irritate the mucous membranes, so it is best given after an infection has peaked,
when the herb‘s tonic action encourages a general recovery. Hyssop also contains ursolic
acid, which reduces inflammation, so the tea makes a good sore throat gargle. Studies also
show it to be an antiviral that is especially effective against the herpes simplex virus. It is
included in some flu and cold remedies to reduce congestion and fevers. As a sedative,
hyssop is a useful remedy against asthma in both children and adults, especially where the
condition is exacerbated by mucus congestion. Like many herbs with a strong volatile oil, it
soothes the digestive tract and can be an effective remedy against indigestion, gas, bloating,
and colic. An old country remedy for rheumatism was made from the fresh green tops
brewed into a tea and taken several times a day. When hyssop flowers are blended with
valerian root, chamomile flowers, a few peppermint leaves, and a pinch of lavender flowers,
the mixture makes a powerful sedative tea on going to bed. A wash made from the leaves
and applied to cuts and bruises is antiseptic and healing. The leaves were soaked in oil and
applied to the head to kill lice. Special application for adders‘ sting was a compress of
bruised hyssop leaves mixed with honey, salt, and cumin seeds. Experimental extracts have
shown promise against herpes simplex. The green tops of the herb can be added to soups to
benefit asthmatics. Hyssop baths are useful for rheumatic complaints.

Hyssop, Mexican Giant (Agastache mexicana): Intensely lemon-scented leaves; used in
tea and as medicine in Mexico where it is considered an important aid to digestion. It relieves
flatulence, indigestion and dyspepsia, and improves appetite, and is often recommended for
children. It is popular for weight control, anorexia, and central nervous system
disorders. Taken with cognac, it is an excellent sudorific, and helps to lower a fever.

Iboga (Tabernanthe iboga): It has been used in folk medicine in Africa as a general
stimulant and also to treat neuralgia and nervous conditions. Iboga causes euphoria and
visual hallucinations. Ibogaine is not a substitute for narcotics or stimulants, is not addicting
and is given in a single administration modality (SAM). It is a chemical dependence interrupter.
Retreatment may occasionally be needed until the person being treated with Ibogaine is able
to extinguish certain conditioned responses related to drugs they abuse. Early data suggests
that a period of approximately two years of intermittent treatments may be required to attain
the goal of long-term abstinence from narcotics and stimulants for many patients. The
majority of patients treated with Ibogaine remain free from chemical dependence for a period
of three to six months after a single dose. Approximately ten percent of patients treated with
Ibogaine remain free of chemical dependence for two or more years from a single treatment
and an equal percentage return to drug use within two weeks after treatment. Multiple
administrations of Ibogaine over a period of time are generally more effective in extending
periods                                      of                                      abstinence.
         Ibogaine has central nervous system activity, produces hallucinations and has
anticonvulsant properties. Plants containing ibogaine are traditionally used in the treatment of
fevers and hypertension, as a tonic, stimulant and aphrodisiac. It shares many of its healing
properties with yohimbine and other related indole alkaloids. It's remarkable ability to
stimulate the alpha-2 adrenal receptors produces a longlasting stimulation without the
hypertension associated with many other stimulants. Recent research into yohimbine's effect
to efficiently combat lethargy and lack of energy in HIV patients and chronic fatigue syndrome
may               also             be             applicable             to             ibogaine.

Iceland Moss (Cetraria islandica): As a soothing demulcent with a high mucilage content,
Iceland Moss finds use in the treatment of gastritis, vomiting and dyspepsia. It is often used
in respiratory catarrh and bronchitis. It calms dry and paroxysmal coughs, being particularly
helpful as a treatment for elderly people. It generally soothes the mucous membranes. The
extract is added to antiseptics and to lozenges for dry coughs and sore throats. In addition its
nourishing qualities contribute to the treatment of cachexia, a state of malnourishment and
debility. Iceland moss is also very bitter and, within the gut, has both a demulcent and bitter
tonic effect. It is thus of value in all kinds of chronic digestive problems, such as irritable
bowel syndrome. It also gently expels worms, and in view of recent research, could prove
useful for certain digestive infections.

Incense Plant (Calomeria amaranthoides): Homeopathic uses for skin problems like

Ignatius Bean (Strychnos ignatii): Historically, the pits of the S. Ignacio cured persons who
had eaten something poisonous. A small piece of it, eaten and followed down with cold water,
expelled the poison. It also stopped stomach cramps and the inflammation of the ileum. It
cured lockjaw and helped women giving birth. Scrapped pieces could be ingested when chills
started in order to lower the fever. Ground into a powder and placed over the affected area, it
cured the effects of hairy worms called "basut." Sucked as a candy, it eased arthritic pains
and watery discharges due to indigestion. Cut into strips and fried in oil, it could be massaged
into a paralyzed part of the body. It eased body aches as well.
         It appears to possess an influence over the nervous system of a tonic and stimulating
character, not belonging to Nux vomica or strychnine. It is never a remedy for conditions of
excitation of the nervous system, but its key-note is atony; it is the remedy for nervous debility,
and all that that term implies, being one of the best of nerve stimulants and nerve tonics. It
was early recognized as a remedy for nervous debility, amenorrhea, chlorosis, etc. As a rule,
the dose of ignatia administered is too large, a depressing headache often resulting from its
immoderate use. The preparation mostly employed is specific ignatia, of which from 5 to 10
drops should be added to 4 fluid ounces of water, and the solution be administered in
teaspoonful doses every 2 or 3 hours. Bearing in mind the condition of nervous atony, it may
be successfully administered in anemia, where the patient is cold, and especially when
coldness of the extremities is one of the distressing features of the menopause. It should be
thought of in anemic states of the brain, and particularly in those cases where the patient
exhibits hysterical, melancholic, or hypochondriacal demonstrations. It is a remedy for
digestive disorders, such as atonic dyspepsia and chronic catarrh of the stomach, with atony,
and gastralgia or gastrodynia. The sick headache of debility is relieved by it. Shifting,
dragging, boring, or darting pains, deeply seated in the loins or lumbar region, are those
benefited by ignatia. It is an important remedy in atonic reproductive disorders. Eclectics have
not found it to be especially adapted to females only, as have the Homoeopaths declare it the
remedy for women, while nux and strychnine are remedies for men. Sexual coldness in both
sexes, impotence in the male and sterility in the female are remedied many times by the
judicious administration of ignatia. The deep-seated pelvic pains of women, particularly
ovarian pains and uterine colic are especially relieved by ignatia, which is also indicated in
menstrual disorders with colic-like pains, heavy dragging of the ovaries, and an abnormally
large and heavy womb. If added to these pelvic weaknesses, the general nervous system is
greatly debilitated, there are wandering pelvic pains or pain in the right hypochondrium with
constipation, neuralgia in other parts of the body, twitching, of the facial muscles, a tendency
to paralysis, and choreic and epileptiform symptoms, associated with a disposition to grieve
over one's condition, the indications for ignatia are still stronger. But to obtain beneficial
effects the dose must be small.

Ikhathazo (Alepidea amatymbica): Used for colds and chest complaints, as well as for
influenza and abdominal cramps. An infusion is made, together with Cannabis sativa, for
treating asthma. Used generally in traditional medicine to treat colds, coughs, rheumatism,
wounds, and to wash divining bones. Immune booster and also for kidney and liver

Indian Atees (Aconitum heterophyllum): It is used in India in the treatment of dyspepsia,
diarrhea and coughs. It is also used in Tibetan medicine, where it is said to have a bitter taste
and a cooling potency. It is used to treat poisoning from scorpion or snake bites, the fevers of
contagious diseases and inflammation of the intestines. The dried tuberous roots are used
for hemorrhoids, vomiting, edema, liver disorders, Kapha and Pitta diseases; convalescing
after fever, debility, diarrhea, dysentery, acute inflammations, cough, indigestion, chronic
fevers. Even though Aconitum heterophyllum belongs to the aconitum family, it is non-toxic if
used properly. In Ayurvedic medicine it is used for children experiencing fever and diarrhea. It
does slow the heart rate. It is also used to treat headaches caused from eating excessive
amounts of greasy foods, thirst associated with fever, yellowish sclera, nausea, vomiting,
throat pain, and lung and eye inflammation. This herb is also used for treating digestive
disorders such as anorexia, piles, and worms. It is said to help revitalize sexual desire and
reduce obesity. Mitigates breast milk in lactating mothers. The recommended doses of
Aconitum heterophyllum depend on the condition that is being treated. Different formulations
of Aconitum heterophyllum can be toxic, therefore, strict supervision by a qualified herbalist or
physician is advised before using this herb. Do not use old herbs as they lose their potency.
Historically before using the root it would be purified by being kept in cow's urine for one night
and then dried in sunlight and ground into powder.

Indian Bread (Poria cocos): Poria cocos is a very old and widely used herb especially in
Chinese medicine. Poria cocos has been traditionally used as a tonic to benefit the internal
organs. Poria is normally white in color, and also called "white poria". The variant with light
red color is called "red poria". Poria cocos is a mushroom amphoteric in its ability to regulate
either high or low, potassium and sodium balance. Traditional Chinese medicine uses poria
cocos or Fu Ling to remove spleen dampness. This herb is often used in female, male, or
relaxing herbal blends. The pach maram is effective for many diseases such as chronic
hepatitis. It is much used as a diuretic and tonic and is prescribed for a variety of conditions
affecting the urinary system, including fluid retention and difficulty in passing urine. Fu ling
has a soothing and tranquilizing effect on the nervous system, and can be most helpful in
treating stress-related problems such as anxiety, tension headaches, palpitations, and
difficulty in sleeping. In common with many other tonic herbs, fu ling plays a useful role in
supporting convalescence after long-term illness. Fu ling compound was used on 70 different
type of tumors. In some cases only fu ling was used, and in others fu ling was used with
chemo therapy, or radiation therapy or surgery. It showed that fu ling can strengthen the body,
improve body weight, improve appetite, lessen or prevent side effect of chemo therapy,
protect bone marrow, improve liver and kidney functions, improve radiation therapy on nose
and throat cancers. Clears dampness, tonifies the spleen functions, calms the mind. It is
used for edema, mucus, urinary imbalances, diarrhea, palpitations, vertigo, restlessness,
anxiety, and insomnia. The outer peel can be used for clearing edema. Fu shen mushroom is
most effective for calming the spirit. Like the majority of herbs, Poria cocos needs more
experimental data for scientific verification of the anecdotal evidences of its health effects.
Although there are positive indications of Poria's health benefits, most of them are
inconclusive due to the scarcity of data.

Indian Cassia Lignea (Cinnamomum tamala): By the time the Greeks and Romans first
learned of the Indian cassia lignea, its medicinal and culinary properties were already held in
high esteem by Ayurvedic physicians. In the first century A.D., Charaka was prescribing its
dried leaves and bark for fever, anemia, and body odor. Its seeds were crushed and mixed
with honey or sugar, and administered to children for dysentery or coughs. Discovered to be
of assistance in cardiac disorders, cassia lignea bark gained a reputation on ancient trade
routes as an aid to rejuvenation, while the medicinal properties of its leaf were sufficiently
respected to find mention in the Arabic Materia Mecia, Avicenna‘s works and the English
Pharamcopoeia,      and the leaves can still be bought in Italian drugstores.
Cinnamon enhances insulin efficiency in Type 1 Diabetes patients.

Indian Coral Tree (Erythrina variegata): In Ayurveda, Indian coral tree is used to treat
inflammatory conditions, menstrual pain, and problems related to eating and digestion,
including anorexia, flatulence, colic, and worms. The bark is used for skin problems, fever,
and leprosy. A paste made from the leaves is traditionally applied to heal wounds. The bark
and leaves are used in many traditional medicines, including paribhadra, an Indian
preparation said to destroy pathogenic parasites and relieve joint pain. Juice from the leaves
is mixed with honey and ingested to kill tapeworm, roundworm and threadworn. Women take
this juice to stimulate lactation and menstruation. It is also commonly mixed with castor oil to
cure dysentery. A warm poultice of the leaves is applied externally to relieve rheumatic joints.

Indian Fig (Opuntia compressa): The stems, which look like flat, spiny green leaves, are
roasted and used as a poultice on swellings of all sorts and on the breasts of nursing mothers
whose milk supply has dwindled. The roots have been used in an effort to increase hair
growth. A tea made of flowers has been drunk to increase urine flow. Indians made tea of the
stems and used this as a wash to ease headaches, eye troubles, and insomnia. The early
settlers of the West boiled the root in milk and drank the liquid to treat dysentery. A poultice
of the peeled pads is applied to wounds, sores etc. The juice of the fruits is used as a
treatment for warts. A tea made from the pads is used in the treatment of lung ailments.

Indian Kamila (Mallotus philippensis): Traditional healers in India use the powdered fruit
with ghee and gud (jaggery) to flush out the harmful worms. The natives use the powdered
fruit to dress the wounds. They also use it to treat syphilis and gonorrhea alone in simple
cases and with other herbs in case of complicated cases. To treat itching in the rectum
healers suggest the patients dip the cotton in seed oil and put it inside the anus. This
treatment cures the trouble effectively. The root of the tree is used for cutaneous eruptions,
also used by the Arabs internally for leprosy and in solution to remove freckles and pustules.
In England it has been successfully used for an eruption in children known as wildfire, the
powder is rubbed over the affected part with moist lint. Its greatest use, however, is in the use
of tapeworm, being safer and more certain than other cures; the worm is passed whole and
generally dead. Kamala acts quickly and actively as a purgative, and often causes much
griping and nausea, but seldom vomiting. It may be given in water mucilage or syrup; the
worm is usually expelled at the third or fourth stool; if it fails to act, the dose is repeated after
four hours, or a dose of castor oil is given. Kamala is largely used in India externally for
cutaneous troubles, and is most effective for scabies. It has been successfully employed in
herpetic ringworm, and as a taenifuge it has been used with good results combined with
Kousso and known as Kama-kosin. Was also used externally to treat scabies and other
parasitic skin diseases. All parts of the tree can be applied externally to treat parasitic
infections of the skin. The paste of unripe fruit is mixed with half the amount of plant juice of
Cynodon dactylon and is applied to treat ringworm. Kamala is often grossly adulterated; its
quality can be judged by throwing a little on the surface of water, when the adulterants, such
as sand, ferric oxide, etc., will sink, and the pure drug float; stalks and leaves can be easily
sifted out. Dyed starch is detected by microscope, also ground safflower by same means.

Indian Madder (Rubia cordifolia): The roots have an antibacterial action, inhibiting the
growth of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pneumococci etc. They are used to lower
the blood pressure. The roots are used internally in the treatment of abnormal uterine
bleeding, internal and external hemorrhage, bronchitis, rheumatism, stones in the kidney,
bladder and gall bladder, dysentery etc. The stems are used in Tibetan medicine, where they
are considered to have a bitter taste and a cooling potency. They are used in the treatment of
blood disorders and spreading fever of kidneys and intestines. This is one of the most
reliable alterative blood-purifying herbs in the Chinese pharmacopeia. It cools, detoxifies, and
dissolves obstructions in the blood, particularly in the female reproductive system. Its
deobstruent properties extend to tumors, kidney stones and liver clots, all of which it helps
dissolve and eliminate. It‘s an excellent choice for any condition that causes or is caused by
blood and liver toxicity.

Indian Mallow (Abutilon indicum): Used in much the same way as marsh mallow as a
demulcent. The root and bark of Indian mallow are mucilaginous and are used to soothe and
protect the mucous membranes of the respiratory and urinary systems. A decoction of the
root is given for chest conditions such as bronchitis. The mucilaginous effect benefits the
skin; an infusion, poultice, or paste made from the powdered root or bark is applied to wounds
and used for conditions such as boils and ulcers. The seeds are laxative and ―useful in killing
threadworms, if the rectum of the affected child be exposed to the smoke of the powdered
seeds‖ (Herbs that Heal, H.K Bakhru, 1992) The plant has an antiseptic effect within the
urinary tract and can be used to treat and can be used to treat infections.

Indian Paintbrush (Castilleja coccinea): Chippewa Indians used paintbrush to treat
rheumatism and as a bath rinse to make their hair glossy. (probably because of the selenium
content). Nevada Indians sometimes used dilute solutions of the root tea to treat venereal
disease. Various tribes used the flowering plant as its name and appearance suggest—as a
paintbrush. Two or three moderately strong cups a day are drunk as a remedy for water
retention associated with weather and temperature changes. Take as a simple tea, up to 3
times a day. Today, it is seldom used as a food or medicine, but some herbalists believe that
the selenium content of this plant may make it useful in treating various forms of cancer.

Indian Pipe (Monotropa uniflora): The dried powdered root was given to children for
epilepsy and convulsions. At one time the dried plant was used in place opium to relieve pain
and induce sleep. It is a good remedy for spasms, fainting spells and various nervous
conditions. The plant was used by some native North American Indian tribes to treat eye
problems, the stem was bruised and the clear fluid of the stems applied to the eyes. The juice
from the stems has also been used to treat nervous irritability, including fits and spasms. An
infusion of the leaves has been used to treat colds and fevers. The crushed plant has been
rubbed on bunions and warts in order to destroy them. A poultice of the plant has been
applied to sores that are difficult to heal. The flowers have been chewed in order to bring
relief from toothache. Water extracts of the plant are bactericidal.

Inmortal (Asclepias asperula) Outside the Spanish and Indian herbal tradition of the New
Mexico, Inmortal is virtually unknown. It is a bronchial dilator and stimulates lymph drainage
from the lungs, consequently, a medicine for asthma, pleurisy, bronchitis, and lung infections
in general One-half teaspoon of the dried root is boiled in water and drunk every three or four
hours as long as necessary. The root is a mild but reliable cardiac tonic, particularly in
congestive heart disorders, one-half teaspoon of the powdered root swallowed with water in
the morning, either occasionally or for maintenance. Has no tendency to accumulate.
Inmortal is an effective menstrual stimulant, either for tardiness or for stimulating a scanty,
painful period; one-half to one teaspoon in tea, once or twice. It has been used as an
abortifacient up to the sixth week of pregnancy but is not reliable and is more likely to cause
nausea than a miscarriage. The tea drunk after childbirth or during labor will aid in shortening
the uterine contractions afterward and decrease the time necessary for vaginal discharge or
lochia. A small amount of the root taken several times during a day will stimulate the
changeover from colostrums to milk production. Further, a small amount of the finely
powdered root can be snuffed vigorously up each nostril to produce copious sneezing without
irritation, which can clear up the most obstructed sinus. Inmortal causes obvious vagus nerve
stimulation. The root will stimulate perspiration at the onset of an infection and as a laxative

Intoxicating Yam (Dioscorea hispida): Pounded tubers are used for sores on the feet, skin
diseases and boils. Rhizome serves as sedative, maturative and insecticide.

Ipecac, American (Gillenia stipulate): The dried powdered root bark is cathartic, slightly
diaphoretic, a mild and efficient emetic, expectorant and tonic. Minute doses are used
internally in the treatment of colds, chronic diarrhea, constipation, asthma and other bronchial
complaints. The roots have been used externally in the treatment of rheumatism. A cold
infusion of the roots has been given, or the root chewed, in the treatment of bee and other
stings. The roots are harvested in the autumn, the bark is removed and dried for later use. A
tea made from the whole plant is strongly laxative and emetic. Minute doses are used
internally in the treatment of colds, indigestion, asthma and hepatitis. A poultice or wash is
used in the treatment of rheumatism, bee stings and swellings. A decoction or strong infusion
of the whole plant has been taken a pint at a time as an emetic. A poultice of the plant has
been used to treat leg swellings. The plant has been used in the treatment of toothaches.

Iporuru (Alchornea floribunda): A member of the spurge family, it is a psychedelic plant
which veers into the aphrodisiac. Chemicals as yet unisolated may be involved in the
aphrodisiacal proclivities of this plant. For medicinal use, the root-bark is macerated and
powdered. Among indigenous Amazonian tribes, the genus is used to treat rheumatism and
arthritis. Its perceived anti-inflammatory properties have made iporuru popular in North
America as a treatment for arthritis and rheumatism. It also has the ability to support muscle
and joint structure, aiding flexibility of movement and range of motion. It is also an effective
topical pain reliever when rubbed into injuries. In Africa, it is reported to be used for
gonorrhea and coughs. A study found that an extract of the bark of a related species
appeared to act as an antispasmodic and an antibacterial agent and is thus useful in
combating diarrhea. In some parts of Peru it is hailed as an effective aphrodisiac, increasing
female fertility and a remedy for male impotency. When used as an aphrodisiac by African
natives, sometimes in combination with other drugs such as iboga, niando is generally
prepared by steeping the root bark in palm or banana wine. Other folk uses include treating
diabetes. Taken regularly it produces an interesting state of heightened awareness.
Laboratory research has also shown Iporuru to have antitumor, antifungal and antiviral
efficacy. Iporuru remedies and products are often sold in local markets and herbal
pharmacies in Peru. Leaves of Iporuru are used in the area around Piura to increase female
fertility in cases where the male is relatively impotent. It is also used as an aphrodisiac and
geriatric for males. In addition to its anti-inflammatory and pain relieving properties, a study in
Argentina found that an extract of Iporuru was antibacterial and effective against penicillin G
resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger. Currently, in
Peruvian herbal medicine, Iporuru is widely used to treat impotency and for reducing sugar in
the blood and urine in diabetics.

Iris, Beachhead (Iris setosa): a decoction of the root is used as a laxative

Iris, Yellow (Iris pseudacorus): : Yellow flag was once credited with healing properties it did
not actually have—it was used as a diuretic, purgative and emetic. It has also been
recommended for making a cooling astringent lotion for external application, and is reputedly
effective when applied to wounds. A tea prepared from the rhizome (underground stem) was
once used as a remedy for certain gynecological complaints, but is no longer recommended.
A lotion made from the juice of the fresh rhizome is sometimes recommended by herbalists
for wounds. Pharmacologists report that there is some evidence that yellow flag shows anti-
inflammatory activity. A slice of the root held against an aching tooth is said to bring
immediate relief. It was at one time widely used as a powerful cathartic but is seldom used
nowadays because of its extremely acrid nature. When dried the root loses its acridity and
then only acts as an astringent. A tincture of the rhizome is used in homeopathy.

Irish Moss (Chondrus crispus ) This very property is the basis of its use in digestive
conditions where a demulcent is called for, such as gastritis and ulcers. However, its main
use is in respiratory problems such as bronchitis. Its expectorant effect encourages the
coughing up of phlegm, and it soothes dry and irritated mucous membranes. It is of value for
acid indigestion, gastritis, and urinary infections such as cystitis. For these conditions it is
normally combined with other appropriate herbs. Mucilaginous in texture and slightly salty in
taste, Irish moss makes a valuable nutrient in convalescence. Applied externally, this
emollient herb soothes inflamed skin. Irish moss also acts to thin the blood. It often is
combined with Iceland moss, comfrey root and honey to form a mucilage for treating inflamed
lungs, sore throat and wasting diseases.

Iroko (Milicia excelsa): Baka Pygmies use the leaves for lactation failure

Ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata): The root is a bitter tonic used to improve the
blood. Particularly useful in female complaints, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, leucorrhea and
menorrhagia. Considered a certain remedy for chills and intermittent and bilious fevers, and
also valuable in scrofula, diseases of the skin and in constitutional syphilis. Some herbalist
employed it in the treatment of dyspepsia.

Italian Bugloss (Anchusa italica): The dried and powdered herb is used as a poultice to
treat inflammations. Use internally with caution, the plant contains the alkaloid cynoglossine
which can have a paralyzing effect.

Ivy, American (Parthenocissus quinquefolia): A hot decoction of the bark and fresh young
shoots can be used as a poultice to help reduce swellings. A tea made from the leaves is
used as a wash on swellings and poison ivy rash. A tea made from the plant is used in the
treatment of jaundice. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of gonorrhea and
diarrhea. The fruit is useful in treating fevers. The bark and twigs are usually made into a
syrup for use in coughs and colds, but a decoction can also be used.

Ivy, English (Hedera helix): Ivy is a bitter aromatic herb with a nauseating taste. It is often
used in folk herbal remedies, especially in the treatment of rheumatism and as an external
application to skin eruptions, swollen tissue, painful joints, burns and suppurating cuts.
Berries were used to treat fevers and glandular disorders. They may safely be turned into an
effective poultice for bruises and stiff joints. Poultices made from the leaves may be applied
to cuts, sores, and skin eruptions. A tincture of the bark resin and a tea prepared from the
fresh leaves were once given internally for a variety of problems but is no longer
recommended. Herbals once recommended that the resin of the bark (ivy gum) be taken
internally to stimulate menstruation and used externally as an antiseptic. The bark resin was
sometimes used on dental cavities in the same manner as present toothache gels. Internally
used for gout, rheumatic pain, whooping cough and bronchitis. Externally used for skin
eruptions, swollen tissues, painful joints, neuralgia, toothache, burns, warts, impetigo, scabies,
and cellulitis. Recent research has shown that the leaves contain the compound 'emetine',
which is an amoebicidal alkaloid, and also triterpene saponins, which are effective against
liver flukes, molluscs, internal parasites and fungal infections. The leaves are used internally
in the treatment of gout, rheumatic pain, whooping cough, bronchitis and as a parasiticide. An
infusion of the twigs in oil is recommended for the treatment of sunburn.
           While very few human clinical trials have been performed on ivy, a controlled study
in 28 children with bronchial asthma suggested that 25 drops of ivy leaf extract given twice
daily was effective in increasing the amount of oxygen in the lung after only three days of use.
For example, airway resistance in the ivy leaf group decreased by 24% on day three of the
study compared to only 5% in the placebo group. However, the incidence of cough and
shortness of breath symptoms did not change during the short trial period. In addition to the
use of ivy to treat asthma, clinical reports from Europe suggest that topical cream
preparations containing ivy, horsetail, and lady‘s mantle are beneficial in reducing, although
not eliminating, skin stretch marks.

                                           J HERBS

Jaborandi (Pilocarpus jaborandi): Used internally for psoriasis, itching of the skin, syphilis,
chronic excess mucus, and dropsy (leaf extracts). Internally and externally used for
glaucoma and as an antidote to atropine; externally for hair gloss (leaf extracts).
        Clinical research is still ongoing today on the isolated alkaloid of Jaborandi leaves,
pilocarpine. Some of the latest research is now focused on the topical applications of it as a
transdermal penetration agent for other pharmacologic agents since it has the ability to open
skin pores and promote capillary blood circulation. These effects are also attributed to its use
as a topical agent for baldness.

Jack in the Bush (Eupatorium odoratum): The leaves of this herb are used as tea to break
up the common cold and for intermittent fevers and influenza. It is also a tonic and a
stimulant. For bronchitis in children it is given with milk. The leaves are applied as a paste to
heal wounds.

Jack-in-the-Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum ) Internally used as a traditional Native American
remedy for asthma, whooping cough, and bronchitis. Externally used for rheumatism, boils,
and snake bite. Native people used dried, aged roots, since these are less acrid but maintain
their active constituents. The corms have been grated and boiled in milk and the concoction
used to treat coughs and tuberculosis.

Jacob's Ladder (Polemonium caeruleum): The herb is astringent and diaphoretic. It was
formerly used internally in the treatment of a wide range of conditions ranging from
headaches to fevers and epilepsy.

Jacote (Spondias purpurea): In traditional medicine of Latin America, jacote has many uses
for a wide range of illnesses. Brazilians use the bark to make a decoction for the treatment of
diarrhea, while a decoction from the flowers and leaves is reportedly used to relieve
constipation and stomachache. The Tikunas Indians of the Amazon area use a decoction of
the bark to relieve pain and to prevent excessive bleeding during menstruation. They also
use it to treat stomach pains and diarrhea as well as use it as a wash for wounds. Cubans
have traditionally eaten large amounts of the fruit as an emetic, while Haitians take the fruit
syrup as a remedy for angina. Dominicans have used it as a laxative.
        The fruits are regarded as diuretic and antispasmodic. Its bark also has a reputation in
folk medicine for being useful in treating minor skin ulcers. The fruit decoction is used to bathe
wounds and heal sores in the mouth. A syrup prepared from the fruit is taken to overcome
chronic diarrhea. The astringent bark decoction is a remedy for mange, ulcers, dysentery and
for bloating caused by intestinal gas in infants. In the Philippines, the sap of the bark is used
to                   treat                 stomatitis                in                 infants.
      The juice of the fresh leaves is a remedy for thrush. A decoction of the leaves and bark
is employed as a febrifuge. In southwestern Nigeria, an infusion of shredded leaves is valued
for washing cuts, sores and burns. Researchers at the University of Ife have found that an
aqueous extract of the leaves has antibacterial action, and an alcoholic extract is even more
effective. The gum-resin of the tree is blended with pineapple or soursop juice for treating
jaundice. Amazon Indians believe that permanent sterility would result from the drinking of
one cup a day of a decoction of jacote following childbirth. Colombians believe the fruit is bad
for the throat and that the leaves and bark contain tannin and thus are astringent.

Jalap (Ipomoea purga): Jalap is such a powerful cathartic that its medicinal value is
questionable. Even in moderate doses it stimulates the elimination of profuse watery stools,
and in larger doses it causes vomiting.

Jambolan (Eugenia jambolana): The jambolan has received far more recognition in folk
medicine and in the pharmaceutical trade than in any other field. Medicinally, the fruit is stated
to be astringent, stomachic, carminative, antiscorbutic and diuretic. Cooked to a thick jam, it is
eaten to allay acute diarrhea. The juice of the ripe fruit, or a decoction of the fruit, or jambolan
vinegar, may be administered in India in cases of enlargement of the spleen, chronic diarrhea
and urine retention. Water-diluted juice is used as a gargle for sore throat and as a lotion for
ringworm of the scalp. The seeds, marketed in 1/4 inch (7 mm) lengths, and the bark are
much used in tropical medicine and are shipped from India, Malaya and Polynesia, and, to a
small extent, from the West Indies, to pharmaceutical supply houses in Europe and England.
Extracts of both, but especially the seeds, in liquid or powdered form, are freely given orally, 2
to 3 times a day, to patients with diabetes mellitus or glycosuiria. In many cases, the blood
sugar level reportedly is quickly reduced and there are no ill effects. However, in some
quarters, the hypoglycemic value of jambolan extracts is disclaimed. Mercier, in 1940, found
that the aqueous extract of the seeds, injected into dogs, lowered the blood sugar for long
periods, but did not do so when given orally. Reduction of blood sugar was obtained in
alloxan diabetes in rabbits. In experiments at the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow,
the dried alcoholic extract of jambolan seeds, given orally, reduced blood sugar and
glycosuria                                        in                                         patients.
          The seeds are claimed by some to contain an alkaloid, jambosine, and a glycoside,
jambolin or antimellin, which halts the diastatic conversion of starch into sugar. The seed
extract has lowered blood pressure by 34.6% and this action is attributed to the ellagic acid
content. The leaves, steeped in alcohol, are prescribed in diabetes. The leaf juice is effective
in the treatment of dysentery, either alone or in combination with the juice of mango or emblic
leaves. Jambolan leaves may be helpful as poultices on skin diseases.

Jasmine (Jasminum officinale (J. sambac)) Although rarely used in Western medicine, a
jasmine flower syrup for coughs and lungs was once made. The flowers make a tea that
calms the nerves and increases erotic feelings. Steep two teaspoons of flowers per cup of
water for 20 minutes. The dose is a quarter cup, four times a day. The East Indians do use it,
chewing the leaves to heal mouth ulcers and softening corns with the juice. They also make
a leaf tea to rinse sore eyes and wounds and use it as a remedy for snakebite. In traditional
Chinese medicine states that jasmine clears the blood of impurities. Headaches and
insomnia have been relieved with a tea made from the root along with pain due to dislocated
joints and rheumatism. . The oil of the leaf is rubbed on the head to heal the eyes. The
flowers of J. officinale var. grandiflorum are used to treat hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and
dysentery; the flowers of J. sambac are used for conjunctivitis, dysentery, skin ulcers and

Jasmine, Cape (Gardenia jasminoides): It is used as a tea for feverish states,
inflammations of the liver (chronic hepatitis), gastrointestinal tract (with impaired digestion,
minor constipation), genitourinary tract (cystitis), and as an antidyscratic (blood purifier) and
anti-inflammatory for atopic eczema and chronic rheumatic complaints.

Jasmine, Wild (Clerodendron inerme): Used as local medicine in both Kosrae and Pohnpei
for a variety of ailments. Known to be used in Samoa as a local medicine as well. The root of
Clerodendron inerme is of a more decided bitter taste and strong odor, and is regarded as
possessing tonic and alterative properties, and as being useful in venereal and scrofulous
complaints. A steam bath (srawuk) of kwacwak is used by women during their monthly
menstrual cycle. Used to treat fever, skin rash, flu, headache, infected umbilical cord, eye
infections, evil spirit prevention. Can also be added to coconut oil and rubbed into skin.

Java Tea (Orthosiphon stamineus): Java tea is listed in the French, Indonesian, Dutch, and
Swiss pharmacopoeias. The herb is thought to increase the kidney‘s ability to eliminate
nitrogen-containing compounds. It is often used as a diuretic and as a treatment for kidney
infections, stones, and poor renal function resulting from chronic nephritis. It is also used to
treat cystitis and urethritis. It supports the elimination of gallstones. It helps accelerate
weight loss.

Jeffersonia (Jeffersonia diphylla): : It is used to treat rheumatism, nervousness, excitability,
tension, spasms and cramps. It also is effective for inflammatory symptoms, sore throat,
ulcers, ophthalmia and indolent ulcers. It may be used during pregnancy for any of the above
conditions. It is specifically indicated for head pains with dizziness and feelings of
tension. An infusion of the plant is used in the treatment of diarrhea, dropsy, gravel and
urinary problems. The root is emetic in large doses and expectorant in smaller doses. The
root contains berberine, which has been shown to have anti-tumor activity. A poultice of the
plant is applied to sores, ulcers and inflamed parts. The root is said to induce vomiting in large
doses and to be an effective expectorant in small doses.

Jequirity (Abrus precatorius): Jequirity seeds have been used medicinally in the past as a
contraceptive, abortifacient, and as a treatment for chronic conjunctivitis. However, they are
so poisonous that even external application is no longer justifiable. Even small amounts
brought into contact with an open wound can prove fatal. The leaves and roots contain
glycyrrhizin and can be substituted for licorice. The leaves have been used in the Ayurvedic
tradition in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, sore throats, dry coughs and other chest
conditions. They have been used in Chinese medicine to treat fever. Externally the leaves
are used for sciatica, hair loss, skin disease, leprosy, nervous debility and the seeds for

Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus): Jerusalem artichoke is a folk remedy for
diabetes and rheumatism.

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis (previously I. biflora) ) The juice from the broken stem is
a well-known folk remedy for poison ivy rash. It also works on poison oak. Can be frozen into
small ice cubes and used. Also relieves the pain of insect bites, nettle stings, burns, sprains,
ringworm and various skin diseases. The juice is also made into an ointment for hemorrhoids,
warts and corns. It used to be taken for jaundice and asthma.

Ji Xue Teng (Millettia reticulata): In Chinese herbal medicine, pain is often thought to be
due to poor or obstructed blood flow. In this tradition, ji xue teng is classified as an herb that
invigorates the blood, and is mainly used to treat menstrual problems. Ji xue teng is used to
relieve menstrual pain or an irregular or absent cycle, especially where this may be due to
blood deficiency such as anemia. It is also prescribed for certain types of arthritis pain, as
well as for numbness of the hands and feet. Limited investigation indicates that ji xue teng
may be anti-inflammatory and may lower blood pressure. A decoction is used in the
treatment of stomach aches, breathlessness, anemia in women, menstrual irregularities,
vaginal discharge (bloody discharge and leukorrhea), numbness and paralysis, backache and
pain in the knees, seminal emission, gonorrhea and stomach ache. The plant is used as a
tonic to induce the growth of red blood cells. The plant contains the antitumor compound

Jimson Weed (Datura stramonium) anti-asthmatic, antispasmodic, good for swellings and
healing wounds Traditional medicinal uses include placing a folded leaf behind the ear to
allay motion-sickness, or applying a fresh leaf poultice externally to allay the pain of rheumatic
or glandular swellings. Leaves and seeds were once smoked with Mullein for treating asthma.
Specifics: Body pain: Grind the roots and leaves of Datura stramonium into a paste. Add the
latex of Jatropha gossyifolia in it. Then fry this paste with mustard oil. Massage this oil an all
over the body only once before going to bed at night. Earache: Pound a fruit of Datura
stramonium and extract the juice. Warm this juice gently and put 2 to 3 drops of this juice
inside the aching ear only once. Elephantiasis: Grind all the following into a paste: the roots
of Datura stramonium, the seeds of Brassia juncea and the bark of Morangia oleifera. Smear
this paste locally on legs once daily for one month and bandage by a cloth. Rheumatism: Boil
all the followings in mustard oil: the young branch of Datura stramonium, the bark of Vitex
negundo, few pieces of Ginger and garlic. Massage this oil on joints twice daily for a week.

Jing Jie (Schizonepeta tenuifolia): In the Chinese tradition, jing jie is valued as an aromatic
and warming herb. It is taken to alleviate skin conditions such as boils and itchiness. It also
induces sweating and is used to treat fever and chills and as a remedy for measles. It is often
combined with bo he. Chinese studies have confirmed jing jie‘s ability to increase blood flow
in the vessels just beneath the skin. Jing Jie is valued in Chinese medicine as an aromatic
and warming herb. It is taken to alleviate skin conditions such as boils and itchiness. It is often
combined with Mentha haplocalyx. Used in Chinese medicine in the treatment of
hemorrhages, especially post-natal bleeding and excessive menstruation, colds, measles and
nettle rash. Relieves wind cold, antispasmodic. Can be used for the onset of the common cold
and influenza when they are accompanied by a headache and sore throat. Also used for
hastening the ripening and termination of eruptive skin diseases, such as measles and
abscesses, as well as to alleviate itching. Also useful for blood in stools or uterine
bleeding. In vitro it inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Job's Tears (Coix lacryma-jobi): In Chinese medicine, the seeds strengthen the spleen and
counteract ―damp heat‖, and are used for edema, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis and difficult
urination. Drains dampness, clears heat, eliminates pus, tonifies the spleen. This herb is
added to medicinal formulas to regulate fluid retention and counteract inflammation. It is very
good for all conditions and diseases associated with edema and inflammation, including pus,
diarrhea, phlegm, edema or abscesses of either the lungs or the intestines, and rheumatic
and arthritic conditions. A tea from the boiled seeds is drunk as part of a treatment to cure
warts. It is also used in the treatment of lung abscess, lobar pneumonia, appendicitis,
rheumatoid arthritis, beriberi, diarrhea, oedema and difficult urination. The roots have been
used in the treatment of menstrual disorders. The FDA has approved testing for cancer
therapy. Currently going through testing, the Kanglaite Injection is a new effective diphasic
anti-cancer medicine prepared by extracting with modern technology the active anti-cancer
component from the Coix Seed, to form an advanced dosage form for intravenous and intra-
arterial perfusion. It had been proved experimentally and clinically that the Kanglaite Injection
had a broad spectrum of anti-tumor and anti-metastasis action, such as hepatic cancer and
pulmonary cancer, along with the action of enhancing host immunity. When used in combined
treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, the Kanglaite Injection can increase the
sensitivity of tumor cells, reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, relieve
cancerous pain, improve cachexia, and raise the quality of life in advanced cancer victims. As
a fat emulsion, the Kanglaite Injection can provide patients with high-energy nutrients with
little toxicity. It inhibits formation of new blood vessels that promote tumor growth,
counteracts               weight           loss           due              to            cancer.
         Some of the latest research also shows that Job‘s tears is immunostimulating, induces
interferon, Bronchodialates; Lowers blood sugar; Reduces muscle spasms and is anti-
convulsant; Stimulates respiration in small doses and inhibits it in higher doses; reduces
arterial plaque; Anti-inflammatory, possibly through the suppression of macrophage activity

Joe Pye (Eupatorium purpurea) Dried flowering tops and leaves were used as a tonic for
biliosness and as a laxative but this is now felt by some to be too toxic. Specifically to help
remove stones in the bladder caused by excess uric acid--which gives one of its names of
gravel root. Infusion may be used as an astringent tonic and stimulant. The solvent is water.

Leaves of Joe Pye stimulate circulation and sweating and reduce inflammation. The dried
root has been used to tone the entire reproductive tract, helping with pelvic inflammatory
disease, gonorrhea, menstrual cramps, and also prostate and urinary infections; gout and
rheumatism. It is toning to the mucous membranes and cleans sediments that have settled
on their surfaces.    A concentrated root extract called "eupuriun" was sold by the Eclectic
As a nervine, it is said to influence the entire sympathetic nervous system. In cases of a
depressed state of typhoid fever, its combination with Capsicum and Juniper is very effective.

Johnny Jump Up (Viola tricolor): It is commonly used in an infusion as a treatment for skin
eruptions in children, fevers, hypertension, anxiety and nervousness, dry throat, cough, and
diarrhea and urinary inflammations. It may be used in eczema and other skin problems
where there is exudates (weeping) eczema. As an anti-inflammatory expectorant it is used
for whooping cough and acute bronchitis where it will soothe and help the body heal itself.
For urinary problems it will aid in the healing of cystitis and can be used to treat the symptoms
of frequent and painful urination.

Johnson Grass (Sorghum halepense): The seed is demulcent and diuretic. A folk remedy
for blood and urinary disorders

Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis): The leaves are a good tea for chronic mucous-membrane
inflammation, ranging from chronic colitis, vaginitis, and hemorrhoids to stomach and
esophageal ulcers. In Mexico it has been widely used as a folk remedy for asthma and
emphysema, but it is more a matter of aiding the injured pulmonary membranes than
addressing any underlying causes. A tea for the seeds will decrease inflammation in
pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and various types of sore throat. Two to three ounces of the infusion
drunk every several hours decrease the irritability of the bladder and urethra membranes in
painful urination.

Joshua Tree (Yucca brevifolia): A good strong infusion of the roots was once a popular
treatment for venereal diseases.

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba): Jujube is both a delicious fruit and an effective herbal remedy. It
aids weight gain, improves muscular strength, and increases stamina. In Chinese medicine,
jujube is prescribed as a qi tonic to strengthen liver function. Mildly sedative and
antiallergenic, it is given to reduce irritability and restlessness.. It is also used to improve the
taste of unpalatable prescriptions, as a buffer to improve synergy and minimize side
effects. In Japan, jujube has been shown to increase immune-system resistance. In China,
laboratory animals fed a jujube decoction gained weight and showed improved endurance. In
one clinical study, 12 patients with liver ailments were given jujube, peanuts, and brown sugar
nightly. In 4 weeks, their liver function had improved. The fruit is also used for chronic fatigue,
diarrhea, anemia and hysteria; the seeds for palpitations, insomnia, nervous exhaustion, night
sweats and excessive perspiration. Long term use reputedly improves the complexion.

Juniper (Juniperus communis) : Mostly used are the green unripe berries because
properties are more pronounced. It is diuretic, stimulant, stomachic and carminative. The
berries are mainly used for urinary infections and prescribed to clear acid wastes from the
system in arthritis and gout. They reduce colic and flatulence, stimulate the digestion and
encourage uterine contractions in labor. It is a valuable remedy for cystitis, and helps to
relieve fluid retention but should be avoided in cases of kidney disease. In the digestive
system, juniper is warming and settling, easing colic and supporting the function of the
stomach. Taken internally or applied externally, juniper is helpful for chronic arthritis, gout,
and rheumatic conditions.                Juniper contains a potent antiviral compound
(deoxypodophyllotoxin). The extracts appear to inhibit a number of different viruses including
those that cause flu and herpes. Large doses of juniper cause the urine to smell of violets.
Being disinfectant and insectifugal, the berries are used in veterinary medicine to treat open
wounds. Its disinfectant action is similar to that of pine cleaners. As a diuretic the oil is thought
to increase the production of urine by irritating the kidney's filtration glomerulae. The oil is also
irritating to microbes, so much so that it kills many of them. Traditional formulas are in
combination with ginger and dong quai or with goldenseal or with uva ursi.

Jurema (Mimosa hostilis): In Mexico, the bark of the tree is used as a remedy for skin
problems and injuries such as burns, and it is now used in commercial skin and hair products
which are promoted as being able to rejuvenite skin. Research has shown that it has some
useful activities which support the traditional uses. The bark is rich in tannins, saponins,
alkaloids, lipids, phytosterols, glucosides, xylose, rhamnose, arabinose, lupeol,
methoxychalcones, and kukulkanins. In vitro studies on bacterial cultures have shown it is
three times more effective as a bacteriocide than streptomycin, although in vivo studies have
not been as positive.

Jurubeba (Solanum paniculatum): Jurubeba is listed as an official drug in the Brazilian
Pharmacopoeia as a specific for anemia and liver disorders. Jurubeba has long been used for
liver and digestive disorders. The leaves and roots are used today as a tonic and for fevers,
anemia, erysipelas, hepatitis, liver and spleen disorders, uterine tumors, irritable bowel
syndrome, chronic gastritis, and other such digestive problems as sluggish digestion, bloating,
and flatulence. Jurubeba leaf tea is a very common household remedy throughout Brazil for
hangovers and overeating. It is relied on to speed the digestive process and promote gastric
emptying. After a heavy meal or drinking bout, Brazilians drink a cup of Jurubeba tea. After
just a few minutes the symptoms of indigestion and that bloated feeling disappear. It is also a
powerful tonic for the liver. The roots, leaves and fruits are used as a tonic and
decongestive. It is a good remedy against chronic hepatitis, intermittent fever and
hydropsy. It is also sometimes employed externally in poultices to heal wounds and ulcers.
The leaves are applied externally for dressing ulcers. Jurubeba has been used to treat
uterine tumors.

Justice Weed (Eupatorium hyssopifolium): The entire plant is applied externally as a
remedy for the bites of reptiles and insects.

                                          -K- Herbs

Kantakari (Solanum xanthocarpum) In the Ayurvedic tradition, kantakari leaves are taken to
treat gas and constipation, and are made into a gargle for throat and gum disorders. The
expectorant, anticongestive seeds may be taken to relieve asthma and to clear bronchial
mucus. The root is used to treat snake scorpion bites.

Kapok (Ceiba pentandra): The seeds, leaves, bark and resin have been used to treat
dysentery, asthma, and kidney disease. Internally it is also used for abnormal uterine bleeding,
diarrhea in children (gum), bronchial congestion (bark, leaves). Externally in baths, for fevers
and headaches (bark, leaves), and wounds (bark). The claim by Nigerian traditional herbal
medicine practitioners that the silk cotton tree, barks extract has antidiabetic properties was
investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin and graded doses of the
aqueous bark extract were then administered ad libitum in drinking water to the
experimentally diabetic rats for 28 days. Administration of the aqueous bark extract caused a
statistically significant reduction in plasma glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic
rats. The extract appeared non-toxic as evidenced by normal serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP
and bilirubin. The data appear to support the hypoglycemic effects of C. pentandra.

Kava Kava (Piper methysticum) The kava lactones have a depressant effect on the central
nervous system and are antispasmodic. Research sows that kawain, in particular, is sedative.
The kava lactones also have an anesthetic effect on the lining of the urinary tubules and the
bladder. The results of a clinical trial in Germany published in 1990 revealed that kawain is
as effective as benzodiazepene in helping to relieve anxiety. Kava‘s analgesic and cleansing
diuretic effect often makes it beneficial for treating rheumatic and arthritic problems such as
gout. The herb helps to bring relief from pain and to remove waste products from the affected
joint. Kava is a safe and proven remedy for anxiety that does not cause drowsiness or affect
the user‘s ability to operate machinery. It may be taken long term to help relieve chronic
stress, and its combination of anxiety-relieving and muscle-relaxant properties makes it of
value for treating muscle tension as well as emotional stress. With its tonic, strengthening,
and mildly analgesic properties, kava kava is a good remedy for chronic pain, helping to
reduce sensitivity and to relax muscles that are tensed in response to pain. It has an
antiseptic action and in the past it was used specifically to treat venereal disease, especially
gonorrhea. Although it is no longer generally applied in this way, it is a valuable urinary
antiseptic, helping to counter urinary infections and to settle an irritable bladder. Absorption in
the gastrointestinal tract is remarkably rapid, so the effects are felt almost immediately. It is
used as an intoxicating beverage in certain South Sea islands. It can induce lethargy,
drowsiness and dreams. It is one of the best pain-relieving herbs.

Kenilworth Ivy (Cymbalaria muralis): The herb is used externally as a poultice on fresh
wounds to stop the bleeding. There are reports that it has been used with success in India for
the treatment of diabetes.

Kentucky Coffee Tree (Gymnocladus dioica): The pulverized root bark is used as an
effective enema. A tea made from the bark is diuretic. It is used in the treatment of coughs
due to inflamed mucous membranes and also to help speed up a protracted labor. A snuff
made from the pulverized root bark has been used to cause sneezing in comatose
patients. A tea made from the leaves and pulp from the pods is laxative and has also been
used in the treatment of reflex troubles. A decoction of the fresh green pulp of the unripe fruit
is used in homeopathic practice. There‘s a folk remedy for radiation poisoning using
Kentucky coffee tree seeds, cornsilk, linden flowers and the seaweeds Irish moss, kelp and

Khat (Catha edulis) A restorative tea made from the flowers (called flowers of paradise in
Yemen ) of the plant is still consumed in Arabia. Mainly used as a social drug, khat is also
chewed fresh or taken in an infusion to treat ailments such as malaria. In Africa, it is taken in
old age, stimulating and improving mental function. Khat is used in Germany to counter
obesity. Khat is usually packaged in plastic bags or wrapped in banana leaves to retain its
moistness and freshness. It is often sprinkled with water during transport to keep the leaves
moist. Khat also may be sold as dried or crushed leaves or in powdered form. Khat is
becoming increasingly available in the US, especially in cities like New York City, LA , Boston,
California, Dallas, Detroit and Buffalo. It is commonly sold in restaurants, bars, grocery stores,
and smoke shops that cater to East Africans and Yemenis after its importation from Kenya,
Egypt, and Arabia. Because Khat in leaf form starts to lose its potency after 48 hours, it is
generally shipped to the US on Thursdays, Fridays, and Saturdays for weekend use.
How it works: In humans, it is a stimulant producing a feeling of exaltation, a feeling of being
liberated from space and time. It may produce extreme loquacity, inane laughing, and
eventually semicoma. It may also be an euphorient and used chronically can lead to a form of
delirium tremens. So, Khat chewing produces a mild cocaine- or amphetamine-like euphoria
that is much less potent than either substance with no reports of a rush sensation or paranoia
indicated. Up to 80% of the adult population of Yemen use Khat. Upon first chewing Khat, the
initial effects were unpleasant and included dizziness, lassitude, tachycardia, and sometimes
epigastric pain. Gradually more pleasant feelings replaced these inaugural symptoms. The
subjects had feelings of bliss, clarity of thought, and became euphoric and overly energetic.
Sometimes Khat produced depression, sleepiness, and then deep sleep. The chronic user
tended to be euphoric continually. In rare cases the subjects became aggressive and
overexcited . In animals, Khat produces excitation and increased motor activity. What Khat
does: it stimulates brain and spinal cord through synapses resulting in: - Alleviation of fatigue
and reduction of depression; Euphoria , excitation , high activity and mood; Increasing levels
of alertness and ability to concentrate; Increasing of confidence, friendliness, contentment
and flow of ideas; Increases motor activity; Positive sexual effects ( regarding the desire and
duration of sexual intercourse according to the type and source of Khat ); Dispel feeling of
hunger; It promotes communication; Casual users claim Khat lifts spirits, sharpens thinking;
Advocates of Khat use claim that it eases symptoms of diabetes, asthma, and
stomach/intestinal tract disorders; Socially, it's used to meet people, socialize with each
others, communication issues and problems solving.
Fresh Khat leaves are typically chewed like tobacco. By filling the mouth to capacity with fresh
leaves the user then chews intermittently to release the active components. Chewing Khat
leaves produces a strong aroma and generates intense thirst. Its intake occurs mostly in
moderation esp. in a special Yemeni style rooms designed especially for that purpose with the
fine famous Yemeni-furnishing style provided with water pipes and these special rooms called
" Diwan " which are so large and wonderful rooms. It is also prepared as a tea, an infusion of
water or milk is made, and then sweetened with honey.
 Khella (Ammi visnaga) This plant and its components have shown effects in dilating the
coronary arteries. Its mechanism of action may be very similar to the calcium channel-
blocking drugs. The New England Journal of Medicine writes "The high proportion of
favorable results, together with the striking degree of improvement frequently observed, has
led us to the conclusion that Khellin, properly used, is a safe and effective drug for the
treatment of angina pectoris." As little as 30 milligrams of Khellin per day appear to offer as
good a result, with fewer side effects. Rather than use the isolated compound "Khellin," Khella
extracts standardized for khellin content (typically 12 percent) are the preferred form.
         A daily dose of such an extract would be 250 to 300 milligrams. Khella appears to work
very well with hawthorn extracts. An aromatic herb which dilates the bronchial, urinary and
blood vessels without affecting blood pressure.
Visnaga is a traditional Egyptian remedy for kidney stones. By relaxing the muscles of the
ureter, visnaga reduces the pain caused by the trapped stone and helps ease the stone down
into the bladder. Following research into its antispasmodic properties, visnaga is now given
for asthma and is safe even for children to take. Although it does not always relieve acute
asthma attacks, it do3es help to prevent their recurrence. It is an effective remedy for various
respiratory problems, including bronchitis, emphysema, and whooping cough. In Andalusia in
Spain, the largest and best quality visnaga were employed to clean the teeth. Khella is the
source of amiodarone one of the key anti-arrhythmia medications. The usual
recommendation calls for pouring boiling water over about a quarter-teaspoon of powdered
khella fruits. Steep for five minutes and drink the tea after straining.
              Its active constituent is khellin, a bronchiodilator and antispasmodic that makes it
useful for asthma sufferers It's best used to prevent asthma rather than to counter an attack
and can be taken on a daily basis with no contraindications. Because khella builds up in the
blood, its use can be decreased after a period of time. Khella is safer than ma huang
(ephedra) for asthma sufferers because it's nonstimulating and nonenervating. Unlike ma
huang, it doesn't rob the body, especially the adrenals, of energy.
            Spasmolytic action of khellin and visnagin (both furanochromones) is indicated for
treatment of asthma and coronary arteriosclerosis.
              An extract from khella (Ammi visnaga) is so far the only herb found to be useful in
vitili. Khellin, the active constituent, appears to work like psoralen drugs—it stimulates
repigmentation of the skin by increasing sensitivity of remaining pigment-containing cells
(melanocytes) to sunlight. Studies have used 120-160 mg of khellin per day. Khellin must be
used with caution, as it can cause side effects such as nausea and insomnia.
Another use is for vitiligo (an extract from ammi visnaga appears to stimulate repigmentation
of the skin by increasing sensitivity of remaining pigment containing cells, melanocytes to

Kino (Pterocarpus marsupium ) The strongly astringent kino tightens the mucous
membranes of the gastrointestinal tract. It can treat chronic diarrhea and relieve the irritation
caused by intestinal infection and colitis. Although its taste is unpleasant, this herb makes a
good mouthwash and gargle. It is widely used in Asia as a douche for excessive vaginal
discharge. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the plant produced a significant reduction in the
blood sugar level in rabbits. The decoction of bark has significant effect on scrum cholesterol
in hyper- cholesterolemic rabbits. Propterols, isolated from the plant, show antibacterial
activity against gram-positive bacteria. Epicatechin was tested for antidiabetic activity in
albino rats; it protected against alloxan-induced diabetes Kino is almost entirely soluble in
alcohol and entirely in ether and partly in water.

Knapweed (Centaurea nigra ) A medieval wound salve. Used to soothe sore throats and
bleeding gums. Also acts as a diuretic.

Knapweed, Brown (Centaurea jacea): As an astringent it is used for piles, a decoction of the
herb being taken in doses of 1-2 fl oz three times a day. This will also be useful for sore throat
if used as a gargle. An infusion of the flowering part is also helpful in diabetes mellitus. The
root is bitter tonic, diuretic and stomachic. An excellent bitter for treating difficult digestive
systems, it is still used in rural areas as a digestive and also to reduce the temperature of
feverish children. A distilled water made from the leaves is used as an eye lotion in the
treatment of conjunctivitis. It was also applied as a vulnerary and was used internally.
Culpepper describes it as a mild astringent, 'helpful against coughs, asthma, and difficulty of
breathing, and good for diseases of the head and nerves,' and tells us that 'outwardly the
bruised herb is famous for taking away black and blue marks out of the skin.'

Knapweed, Greater (Centaurea scabiosa): The Knapweed was once used as a vulnerary. It
was included in the 14 century ointment, Save, for wounds and for the pestilence, and was
also used with pepper for loss of appetite. The root and seeds are used. Its diuretic
diaphoretic and tonic properties are recognized. It is good for catarrh, taken in decoction, and
is also made into ointment for outward application for wounds and bruises, sores, etc.
Culpepper tells us: 'it is of special use for soreness of throat, swelling of the uvula and jaws,
and very good to stay bleeding at the nose and mouth.'

Knotweed, Common (Polygonum aviculare) It has been used in the treatment of chronic
urinary tract infections. It is claimed to be useful in the prevention of the formation of renal
calculi. It stops bleeding and alleviates colics and catarrhs (usually combined with silverweed
and ribwort plantain). It is an ingredient in many herbal teas. It operates in the basal
metabolism as an adjuvant in diabetic, expectorant and antidiarrheic preparations. It is used
to treat bronchitis with bleeding. It is used for pulmonary complaints since its silicic acid
content helps strengthen connective tissue within the lungs. It is also used in combination
with other herbs to treat rheumatic conditions, gout, and skin disease. It is regarded as a
―blood purifying‘ remedy. Knotgrass has also been used to treat inflammations of the mucous
membranes of the intestinal tract and has been useful in cases of flatulence and biliary
insufficiency. Externally it has been used to treat sore throats and vaginal inflammation.
Dosage is a decoction of the root from 10-20g to 2 glasses of water, half a glass 3 times a
day. Can be used for douches, compresses, rinses. Alcoholic extracts prevent the
crystallization of mineral substances in the urine and are antiphlogistic, bacteriostatic and
diuretic. Research is being done on the efficacy of the plant in reducing the fragility of blood
capillaries, especially in the alimentary canal.
In the Chinese tradition, knotgrass is given for intestinal worms, to treat diarrhea and
dysentery, and as a diuretic, particularly in cases of painful urination. Chinese research
indicates that the plant is a useful medicine for bacillary dysentery.

Knotweed, Japanese (Polygonum cuspidatum) In China, the root was used medicinally to
treat menstrual and postpartum difficulties.

Kokum (Garcinia indica): Kokum has outstanding medicinal properties and is used as an
acidulent. The bark and young leaves act as astringent. The leaves are used as a remedy
for dysentery. A decoction is given in cases of rheumatism and bowel complaints. It is useful
as an infusion, or by direct application, in skin ailments such as rashes caused by
allergies. Kokum butter is an emollient helpful in the treatment of burns, scalds and chaffed
skin. In Western medicine the butter is used as a base for suppositories. A hot infusion of
the fruit rinds is emetic. The fruit is also in piles, dysentery, tumors, pains and heart
complaints. The fruit juice is given in bilious affections. The root is astringent. The syrup
amrutkokum is diluted with water and drunk to relieve sunstroke.

Kombu (Laminaria japonica): The ancient Chinese, prescribed for goiter a tincture and
powder of these plants. Employed as alterative in the treatment of goiter and other iodine
deficiencies. It is used to induce labor and abortion. Kombu possesses a strong anticancer
activity and inhibits the growth of cancer. Studies have shown that a regular use of Laminaria
japonica reduces risk of the breast cancer considerably.
         Imbibition is employed in medicine to dilate the ear canals so they will drain properly.
A slender porous cylinder called an "ear wick" is inserted into the blocked ear canal where it
gradually imbibes water and swells. This same mechanism also involves one of the most
unusual uses for brown algae. A slender cylinder of Laminaria japonica called "dilateria" is
used to dilate the cervix in routine gynecological examinations. The cylinder of brown algae is
inserted into the cervix where it imbibes water and swells. Laminaria has been preferred by
many Japanese physicians for more than a century; they have found its gradual dilatation far
less traumatic than the rapid dilatation induced by rigid dilators.‘
        As a dietary supplement, Laminaria is rich in several constituents that can be very
beneficial to the health, aside from being a great natural source of iodine for the thyroid gland.
It is high in calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and trace minerals such as manganese,
copper, selenium, and zinc. It also provides chromium, which is instrumental in blood sugar
control, and vitamins B1 and B2. Somewhat more interesting are the polysaccharides. It
contains alginates, laminarin, laminine, and fucoidan as well as a number of other
polysaccharides and simple sugars. The alginates are adept at absorbing toxic heavy metals
and radioactive isotopes from the body by binding with them in the gastrointestinal tract when
they are present in the bile. Levels of dangerous metals like mercury, lead and aluminum can
be significantly reduced in the body if Laminaria japonica is consumed on a regular basis for
at least 4 months. This period of time is necessary, as it takes time for the body to cycle
accumulated toxins into the bile. Laminaria has been used with great success in treating
radiation sickness in the victims of the Chernobyl, Russia disaster via this mechanism.
       Fucoidan, a sulphated fucopolysaccharide constituent is the subject of extensive
research for its anticancer properties. Studies have shown fucoidan to be effective in stopping
the growth of tumors, inducing cancer cell apoptosis (programmed cell death) in leukemia,
stomach and colon cancer lines, and in interfering with metastasis by inhibiting interaction
between tumor cells and the host tissue basement membrane. Laminarin, another constituent,
has been found to assist with this process via a tumor angiogenesis blocking
mechanism. Fucoidan also has some beneficial effects on the immune system. It enhances
phagocytosis by macrophages, and helps to reduce inflammation.
         Kombu is also excellent for the hair, skin and nails, taken either internally or applied
topically in masks and creams. Because of its high mineral content and polysaccharides, the
seaweed helps by adding important nutrients to the skin, and by removing toxins. In its extract
form, this seaweed can be easily incorporated into a range of skin care products to help give
the skin a silky smoothness.

Kotuja (Holarrhena antidysenterica): Kutaja bark has been used in India in the treatment of
amoebic dysentery and liver ailments resulting from amebiasis. Conessine from the bark
killed free living amoebae and also kills entamoeba histolytica in the dysenteric stools of
experimentally infected kittens. It is markedly lethal to the flagellate protozoon. It is
antitubercular also. Conessine produced little effect on Trichomonas hominis but was
markedly lethal to the flagellate protozoon. It is a well known drug for amoebic dysentery and
other gastric disorders. A clinical study records the presentation of forty cases with
amochiasis and giardiasis. The efficacy of kutaja in intestinal amochiasis was 70%. Good
response was also observed in Entamoeba histolytica cystpassers when treated with kutaja
bark. The flowers improve appetite. The seeds are cooling, appetising and astringent to the
           Today Conessi seed is used as a remedy for dysentery, diarrhea, intestinal worms,
and irregular fever, though the actions are milder than that of the bark. Conessi bark is used
to treat dysentery, but also is used for treating hemophilia disorders, skin diseases, and loss
of appetite. It also works well in treating indigestion, flatulence, and colic. The British materia
medica regards it as one of the most valuable medicinal products of India.
         It also has been used to treat various skin and stomach disorders. It is an astringent
tonic for the skin. It is used against hot disorder of the gall bladder and stops
dysentery. Relieves cholecystitis and diarrhea associated with fever. It is used in disorders
of the genitourinary system and is helpful in the cases of impotence, spermatorrhea and
seminal debilities.

Kousso (Hagenia abyssinica) Purgative and anthelmintic; One dose is said to be effective in
destroying both kinds of tapeworms, the taenia solium and bothriocephalus latus; but as it
possesses little cathartic power the subsequent administration of a purgative is generally
necessary to bring away the destroyed ectozoon. The dose of the flowers when powdered is
from 4 to 5 1/2 drachms, macerated in 3 gills of lukewarm water for 15 minutes; the
unstrained infusion is taken in two or three doses following each other, freely drinking lemon-
juice or tamarind water before and after the doses. It is advisable to fast twenty-four or forty-
eight hours before taking the drug. The operation is usually safe, effective, and quick, merely
causing sometimes a slight nausea, but it has never failed to expel the worm. Occasionally
emesis takes place or diuresis, and collapse follows, but cases of this sort are extremely rare.
It is said in Abyssinia that honey gathered from beehives immediately the Kousso plants have
flowered is very effective in teaspoonful doses as a taenicide, its effect being to poison the
worms. As a medicine it is very apt to be adulterated, owing to its high price; therefore it is
advisable to buy it in its unpowdered state.

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): The leaves of kratom have been used as an herbal drug from
time immemorial by peoples of Southeast Asia. It is used as a stimulant (at low doses),
sedative (at high doses), recreational drug, pain killer, medicine for diarrhea, and treatment
for opiate addiction.
          Inspired by traditional use, H. Ridley reported in 1897 that the leaves of Mitragyna
speciosa were a cure for opium addiction. In more recent times, mitragynine has been used in
New Zealand for methadone addiction detox. Kratom was smoked whenever the patient
experienced withdrawal symptoms, over a 6 week treatment period. Patients reported a
visualization effect taking place at night in the form of vivid hypnagogic dreams. While working
on plans for ibogaine experiments in the USA, Cures Not Wars activist Dana Beal suggested
that mitragynine could be used as an active placebo for comparison in the study. Acting
Deputy Director of the NIDA Charles Grudzinskas rejected the proposal, however, saying that
even less was known about mitragynine than ibogaine.
      Although chemically similar, ibogaine and mitragynine work by different pathways, and
have different applications in treatment of narcotic addiction. While ibogaine is intended as a
one time treatment to cure addiction, mitragynine used to gradual wean the user off narcotics.
The fact that mitragynine's mu crossover is increased by the presence of opiate drugs may be
exploitable in the treatment of narcotics addiction, because it directs binding to where it is
needed, automatically regulating the attachment ratio and modulating it towards the delta
receptors over a short time. Within a few days, the addict would stop use of the narcotic they
are addicted to, and the cravings and withdrawal will be moderated by the binding of
mitragynine to the delta receptors. Mitragynine could also perhaps be used as a maintenance
drug for addicts not wishing to quit but trying to moderate an out of hand addiction.
         In 1999, Pennapa Sapcharoen, director of the National Institute of Thai Traditional
Medicine in Bangkok said that kratom could be prescribed both to opiate addicts and to
patients suffering from depression, but stressed that further research is needed.
Chulalongkorn University chemists have isolated mitragynine which researchers can obtain
for study.
           When taken as a tea, Kratom effects can be noticed in about 20 minutes. Generally,
a feeling of stimulation and relaxation is noted, as well as a growing feeling of euphoria. Many
become more sociable, and want to engage in conversation. In time, the stimulation fades
and a strong sedation is noticed. This narcotic effect can be overpowering, and many will lay
down and try to sleep. This can result in the waking dream state often times achieved by
opiates. These effects can, in all, last between 2 to 5 hours. Extracts tend to take longer to
take effect if they are eaten, but the effects can be noticed for a longer period of time.
        Leaves can also be made into a crude resin extraction. This resin extract is made by
preparing a water extract of the leaves, boiling it down, and then shaping it into small ball.
       While new users may only need 5-10 grams of leaves to obtain the desired effects,
some users find with time they need to increase doses, up to 50 grams leaves per day for a
strong effect. It is best to take the leaves on an empty stomach.
      One of the side effects of Kratom consumption is constipation and this is made use of in
folk medicine to treat diarrhea. The fresh leaves are pounded and applied directly to wounds.
The poultice of the leaves is applied to the upper part of the abdomen to expel worms in

Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Indicated for colds, fever and chills with attendant aches in
shoulders, neck and back; dry throat and stomach. The root is good for most external, acute
conditions and is particularly useful in relieving stiff neck and muscular tension due to ―wind-
heat‖ injury, as well as in treating colds, flu, headache and diarrhea. Because of its mild tonic
properties and its ability to replenish body fluids, it may be used for the treatment of diabetes
and hypoglycemia. Plant has long been used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol abuse and
has recently been publicized as a potentially safe and effective treatment. The chemicals
daidzin and daidzein in both roots and flowers suppress the appetite for alcohol. For measles
it is often used in combination with sheng ma. Chinese studies indicate that kudzu increases
cerebral blood flow in patients with arteriosclerosis, and eases neck pain and stiffness.Roots:
counter poisons; induce sweating; treat fever, vomiting, dysentery, diarrhea, chicken pox,
influenza, diabetes, typhoid fever, excessive gas in the system. Dry pan roasted, it is very
good for spleen deficient diarrhea and loose bowls. Flowers: treat excessive influence of
alcoholic drinks, dysentery, gas in the intestine. Vine (without the leaves): treats coughs,
general weakness

Kulith (Macrotyloma uniflorum): A teaspoonful of horse gram boiled in about 2 cups of
water makes an infusion which is prescribed for colds and high blood pressure.

Kumarou (Pomaderis kumarahou) Kumarahou is a traditional Maori remedy that has been
used to treat a wide range of illnesses. Its most common use is as a remedy for problems of
the respiratory tract, such as asthma and bronchitis. However, it has also been used in the
treatment of indigestion and heartburn, diabetes, and kidney problems. Kumarahou is
considered to be a detoxifier and ―blood cleansing‖ plant, and is used to treat skin rashes and
sores, including lesions produced by skin cancer. High in anti-oxidants, protects liver from
lipid peroxidation. Adaptagenic activity increases performance, speed and stamina.

Kwao Kreu (Pueraria mirifica): Preliminary data from a clinical trial conducted in Thailand to
study the beneficial effect of Pueraria mirifica supplement have recently been obtained. Eight
female subjects who were having menopausal symptoms received Pueraria mirifica in the
form of capsule once daily at the dose of 200 mg for 4 months followed by the dose of 100 mg,
for 8 months. Improvement of menopausal symptoms was observed in 5 out of 8 subjects
throughout the study period. Physical examinations and biochemical studies revealed that all
subjects were healthy. The dietary supplement dose of Pueraria mirifica recommended by the
physician for its estrogenic effect in this case is 100 mg per day.
          A series of studies involving breast cell lines and the activity of Pueraria mirifica in
vitro have been performed by the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia,
USA, and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Phramongkutklao College of
Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand. These studies have shown that Pueraria mirifica root extract
(Smith Naturals Co Ltd., Bangkok) has potent anti-estrogenic properties against aggressive
cell cancer lines in vitro, especially the proliferative estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast
cancer lines (T47-D, MCF-7, and ZR-75-1) obtained from the MD Anderson Cancer Institute
(Texas) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the U.S. National Institutes of Health
         Tectorigenin, an isoflavone present in kudzu, demonstrated antiproliferative activity
against human cancer (HL-60) cells. The proposed mechanisms are induction of
differentiation in the cells and a reduction in the expression of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein.
In addition, isoflavones in Pueraria mirifica are thought to be involved in alleviating symptoms
such as hot flashes and night sweats in perimenopausal women and affect cognitive function
in postmenopausal women. The isoflavones present in kudzu root extract are also thought to
suppress alcohol intake and alcohol withdrawal symptoms in mice although the mechanism is
unclear. The anti-inflammatory property of kudzu is attributed to its ability to decrease
Prostaglandin E2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha release, both of which are involved
in inflammatory process. The flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana exhibit protective effects
against ethanol-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells by inhibiting the expression
of a protease, caspase-3 that is responsible for proteolytic cleavage of many proteins.

Labrador Tea (Ledum groenlandicum ) -- Pacific Northwest natives use a strong leaf tonic
as a blood purifier and treatment for rheumatism. Tribes farther north use the same infusion
to combat cold symptoms. They also marinate strong meats in it. In Alaska, Labrador tea
has been used to treat stomach ailments, hangovers, and dizziness, as well as pulmonary
disorders including tuberculosis. Infusions have also been used as a wash to soothe itching
rashes including poison ivy, sores, burns, lice, and leprosy. In modern herbalism it is
occasionally used externally to treat a range of skin problems. A tea is taken internally in the
treatment of headaches, asthma, colds, stomach aches, kidney ailments etc. Externally, it is
used as a wash for burns, ulcers, itches, chapped skin, stings, dandruff etc. An ointment
made from the powdered leaves or roots has been used to treat ulcers, cracked nipples,
burns and scalds. The plant is apparently a mild narcotic, it was taken by Indian women three
times daily shortly before giving birth
Lacquer Tree (Loropetalum chinense): A decoction of the whole plant is used in the
treatment of coughing in tuberculosis, dysentery, enteritis etc. The leaves can be crushed and
pulverized for external application on wounds.

Ladies' Fingers (Anthyllis vulneraria ) - This plant is an ancient remedy for skin eruptions,
slow-healing wounds, minor wounds, cuts and bruises, it is applied externally. Internally, as
an infusion, it is used as a treatment for constipation and as a spring tonic. A decoction is
used in compresses or bath preparations for treating inflamed wounds, ulcers and eczema,
and in gargles and mouth washes. It can be used as a substitute for ordinary tea mixed with
the leaves of Wild Strawberry, Raspberry and the flowers of Blackthorn. The plant can be
used fresh in the growing season, or harvested when in flower and dried for later use. Old
flowers are not dried because they turn brown and disintegrate.

Lady's Bedstraw (Galium verum) A slightly bitter-tasting remedy, lady's bedstraw is used
mainly as a diuretic and for skin problems. The herb is given for kidney stones, bladder
stones and other urinary conditions, including cystitis. It is occasionally used as means to
relieve chronic skin problems such as psoriasis, but in general, cleavers is preferred as a
treatment for this condition. Lady's bedstraw has had a longstanding reputation, especially in
France, of being a valuable remedy for epilepsy, though it is rarely used for this purpose
today. It has long been used in folk medicine as a styptic and for making foot baths.

Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris) The root, harvested in spring or fall, and the leaves,
harvested as the plant blooms in June, are used medicinally. A decoction of the fresh root is
a powerful styptic which stops bleeding of a cut and is also used as an eyewash.. The leaves
are also astringent and styptic owing to their tannin content. The tea is used internally for
excessive menstrual bleeding, for prolonged blood loss due to menopausal or uterine fibroids
and to reduce pains associated with periods as well as diarrhea. Lady‘s mantle has a very
rapid healing action and gargling with the herb after the loss or removal of teeth is one of the
most beneficial activities the patient can indulge in. It is also very effective for mouth ulcers
and sores as well as laryngitis. Any skin troubles, such as inflamed wounds or rashes, should
also be bathed with a liquid made from this herb. It battles vomiting and flux and eases
bruises and ruptures. After giving birth, women should drink a tea of Lady‘s mantle, specially
if it is mixed with shepherd‘s purse or yarrow. It aids with debility of the abdomen and, for
women who are likely to miscarry, it is strengthening for the fetus and the uterus. Culpeper
claimed women who wanted to conceive should drink a decoction of Lady‘s mantle for 20
days before conception. Once she‘s pregnant, the woman should sit in a bath made from the
decoction. Culpeper also recommended it for "green wounds" or gangrene. One ounce of the
dried leaves is added to a pint of water for medicinal purposes. While the plant is generally
considered of historical interest in America, it has a long, continuing tradition as a popular
European herb medicine. Its astringency, and hence medicinal benefit, is attributed to the
tannin content, though the plant has been little studied. In Europe, decoctions or infusions of
lady‘s mantle are valuable to treat diarrhea and other gastrointestinal conditions. Europeans,
especially Swedes, find it useful to reduce heavy menstruation and prevent menstrual and
even intestinal cramping. It is also recommended when a woman‘s body is adjusting
hormone levels such as after childbirth and during menopause. Tinctures or gargles of the
herb can help soothe irritated mucous membranes of the mouth and throat. A recent study
identified the ellagitannins, agrimoniin and pendunculagin, in the herb. These compounds
may be partly responsible for the plant‘s biological activity. A trace of salicylic acid is also
found in the plant.
Try using externally as a vaginal douche or following antibiotic treatment for trichomonas and
candida infections when the healthy vaginal flora has been disturbed and requires
strengthening. Lady‘s Mantle tea is also used as an adjunct treatment for ovarian failure or
inflammation, irregular menstruation, prolapsed uterus, constitutional miscarriage and
menopausal difficulties. Avoid during pregnancy as it is a uterine stimulant.

Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens) Lady‘s slipper used to be a
specific remedy to overcome depression, mental anxiety, and troubled sleep. It was often
recommended for women for both emotional and physical imbalances relating to menopause
or menstruation, such as nervous tension, headaches, or cramps. Lady‘s slipper is said to
increase nervous tone after a long disease and to relax nervous muscle twitches. It is almost
always given as an alcoholic tincture, since some constituents are not water-soluble. Lady‘s
slipper is often compared to valerian, although valerian doesn‘t create the uncomfortable side

Lady's Thumb (Polygonum persicaria) The Anglo-Saxons used Lady‘s-thumb as a remedy
for sore eyes and ears. They called it Untrodden to Pieces, perhaps because it was so hardy
and though that it survived even being stepped upon or otherwise crushed.

Lamb's Ear (Stachys byzantina (S. lanata, S. olympia))            Lamb‘s ears make a natural
bandage and dressing to staunch bleeding.

Larch (Larix decidua(s) ) - The bark, stripped of its outer layer, has its main application as
an expectorant in chronic respiratory problems such as bronchitis and pharyngitis and has
also been given internally in the treatment of hemorrhage, cystitis and urethritis. A cold extract
of the bark is used as a laxative. As an external application, it is useful in the treatment of
chronic eczema and psoriasis. The powdered bark can be used on purulent and difficult
wounds to promote their healing. The turpentine obtained from the resin is a valuable remedy
in the treatment of kidney, bladder and rheumatic affections, and also in diseases of the
mucous membranes and the treatment of respiratory complaints. Externally, the turpentine is
used in the form of liniment plasters and inhalers. It has also been suggested for combating
poisoning by cyanide or opium. The resin is applied to wounds, where it protects and counters
infection. A decoction of the bark is sometimes used to soothe eczema and psoriasis.

Larix, American (Larix laricina) Tamarack was employed medicinally by a number of
native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints. It is used in
the treatment of jaundice, anemia, rheumatism, colds and skin ailments. It is gargled in the
treatment of sore throats and applied as a poultice to sores, swellings and burns. A tea made
from the leaves is used as an astringent in the treatment of piles, diarrhea etc. An infusion of
the buds and bark is used as an expectorant. The needles and inner bark are disinfectant and
laxative. A tea is used in the treatment of coughs. A poultice made from the warm, boiled
inner bark is applied to wounds to draw out infections, to burns, frostbite and deep cuts. The
resin is chewed as a cure for indigestion. It has also been used in the treatment of kidney and
lung disorders, and as a dressing for ulcers and burns.

Larkspur, Rocket (Delphinium ajacis) Larkspur formerly had a reputation for its ability to
consolidate and heal wounds, while the juice from the leaves is considered to be a remedy for
piles and an infusion of the flowers and leaves has been used as a remedy for colicky
children. However, the whole plant is very poisonous and it should not be used internally
without the guidance of an expert. Externally, it can be used as a parasiticide. A tincture of
the     seed     is     applied     externally      to    kill    lice    in     the     hair.

Lavender (Lavandula officinalis) : In the past, lavender has been used as a folk remedy for
numerous conditions, including acne, cancer, colic, faintness, flatulence, giddiness, migraine,
nausea, neuralgia, nervous headache, nervous palpitations, poor appetite, pimples,
rheumatism, sores, spasms, sprains, toothache, vomiting and worms. Lavender salts have
been employed for centuries as a stimulant to prevent fainting; lavender oil vapor is
traditionally inhaled to prevent vertigo and fainting. A compound tincture of lavender (also
known as Palsy Drops) was officially recognized by the British Pharmacopoeia for over 200
years, until the 1940s. Used to relieve muscle spasms, nervousness, and headaches, it
originally contained over 30 ingredients. Tests show that lavender‘s essential oil is a potent
ally in destroying a wide range of bacterial infections, including staph, strep, pneumonia, and
most flu viruses. It is also strongly anti-fungal. A lavender-flower douche is an effective
treatment for vaginal infections, especially candida-type yeast infections. Lavender ointments
are rubbed into burns, bruises, varicose veins, and other skin injuries. The straight oil is
dabbed on stops the itching of insect bites.

Laver (Porphyra umbilicalis): Sloke gives off a green liquid, thought to be rich in iron (used
as a dietary supplement). There is a story of one woman having had a case of dropsy cured
by drinking two bottles of sloke water. In Scotland, the natives ate the laver boiled, and
dissolved into oil. It was said that if a little butter was added to it one might live many years on
this alone, without bread or any other food, and at the same time undergo any laborious

Leadwort (Plumbago europaea ) Traditionally has been used for epilepsy and scabies.
The dried root is sometimes used as an astringent, or as a chewing-gum. Chewing the root
produces copious salivation. It has been used to treat toothache, and, in the form of a poultice
or plaster, back pain and sciatica.

Lemon (Citrus limon ) The fruit is an excellent source of vitamin C and has cooling
properties. Lemon juice is a traditional remedy for sunburn, and it was once taken cold to
relieve feverish conditions including malaria. Today, hot lemon juice and honey is still a
favorite home remedy for colds and its astringency is useful for sore throats. In the home,
lemon juice may be used to descale kettles and acts as a mild bleach. Lemons are an
excellent preventative medicine and have a wide range of uses in the domestic medicine
chest. The fruit is rich in vitamin C which helps the body to fight off infections and also to
prevent or treat scurvy. It was at one time a legal requirement that sailors should be given an
ounce of lemon each day in order to prevent scurvy. Applied locally, the juice is a good
astringent and is used as a gargle for sore throats etc. Lemon juice is also a very effective
bactericide. It is also a good antiperiodic and has been used as a substitute for quinine in
treating malaria and other fevers. Although the fruit is very acid, once eaten it has an
alkalizing effect upon the body. This makes it useful in the treatment of rheumatic conditions.
The skin of the ripe fruit is carminative and stomachic. The essential oil from the skin of the
fruit is strongly rubefacient and when taken internally in small doses has stimulating and
carminative properties. The stembark is bitter, stomachic and tonic. Some of the plants more
recent applications are as sources of anti-oxidants and chemical exfoliants in specialized
cosmetics. The bioflavonoids in the fruit help to strengthen the inner lining of blood vessels,
especially veins and capillaries, and help counter varicose veins and easy bruising.

Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis) Lemon balm‘s main action is as a tranquilizer. It calms a
nervous stomach, colic, or heart spasms. The leaves are reputed to also lower blood
pressure. It is very gentle, although effective, so is often suggested for children and babies.
The hot tea brings on a sweat that is good for relieving colds, flus and fevers and an antiviral
agent has been found that combats mumps, cold sores and other viruses.
      The tea has also been shown to inhibit the division of tumor cells. Studies indicate that
the herb slightly inhibits the thyroid-stimulating hormone and restricts Grave‘s disease, a
hyperthyroid condition. Lemon balm‘s antihistamine action is useful to treat eczema and
headaches and accounts for the centuries-old tradition of placing the fresh leaf on insect bites
and                                                                                     wounds.
         Lemon balm has antipyretic, refreshing, cholagogic and stimulating properties. Use a
pad soaked in the infusion to relieve painful swellings such as gout. Use as ointment for
sores, insect bites, or to repel insects. Use hot infused oil as ointment or gentle massage oil
for          depression,             tension,         asthma           and           bronchitis.
         A clinical multicentric study in Germany offers evidence of the antiviral activity of a
specially prepared dried extract of lemon balm against herpes simplex infections. The extract
was a concentrated (70:1) dry extract of lemon balm which was included at a level of 1% in a
cream base. Patients applied the cream 2-4 times daily for 5-10 days. In the group receiving
the active Melissa cream, there was a significant improvement in symptoms on day two
compared to the placebo group and on day five over 50% more patients were symptom-free
than in the placebo group. To be effective, the treatment must be started in the very early
stages                           of                        the                        infection.
         Research has clearly demonstrated the plant‘s ability to impact the limbic system of
the brain and ―protect‖ the brain from the powerful stimuli of the body and should be part of
any ADHD formula.

Lemon Verbena (Aloysia triphylla) Infuse as a mildly sedative tea to soothe bronchial and
nasal congestion, to reduce indigestion, flatulence, stomach cramps, nausea and palpitations.
Lemon verbena is especially useful for women. In the past, midwives gave a woman in the
last phases of childbirth a strong tea to stimulate contractions of the uterus. Ancient Egyptian
medicine included it for this purpose. Today, verbaline has been isolated from the plant and
used as a stimulant for uterus contractions. Do not use the oil internally during pregnancy.
Used as a cold compress or in an aroma lamp, it is wonderfully refreshing and aids the birth
process where stamina is required. It has also been said to stimulate milk production and to
be helpful for infertility. Its tonic effect on the nervous system is less pronounced than that of
lemon balm, but nonetheless helps to counter depression.

Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates) In East India and Sri Lanka, where it is called "fever
tea," lemon grass leaves are combined with other herbs to treat fevers, irregular menstruation,
diarrhea, and stomachaches. Lemon grass is one of the most popular herbs in Brazil and the
Caribbean for nervous and digestive problems. The Chinese use lemon grass in a similar
fashion, to treat headaches, stomachaches, colds, and rheumatic pains. The essential oil is
used straight in India to treat ringworm or in a paste with buttermilk to rub on ringworm and
bruises. Studies show it does destroy many types of bacteria and fungi and is a deodorant. It
may reduce blood pressure - a traditional Cuban use of the herb - and it contains five different
constituents that inhibit blood coagulation.

Lettuce, Larkspur (Lactuca ludoviciana): The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows
freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air. The sap
contains 'lactucarium', which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive,
diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble
opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets, nor is it addictive. It is taken
internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs,
whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants
and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower. It is collected commercially by
cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day
until the plant is exhausted. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used.
The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled
practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness
and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis. Some physicians believe that any
effects of this medicine are caused by the mind of the patient rather than by the medicine.
The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts.

Lettuce, Prickly (Lactuca serriola): The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely
from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air. The sap contains
'lactucarium', which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic,
hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but
without its tendency to cause digestive upsets, nor is it addictive. It is taken internally in the
treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping
cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most
concentrated when the plant comes into flower It is collected commercially by cutting the
heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the
plant is exhausted. This species does not contain as much lactucarium as L. virosa. An
infusion    of   the    fresh   or   dried    flowering     plant    can      also    be     used.

Lettuce, White: (Nabalus albus): The Chippewa doctor considered this a ―milk root‖ and
used the root as a remedy for female complaints, possibly as a douche in leucorrhea, to help
arrest the discomforting white discharge of the vagina. At the same time a tea of the leaves
was taken as a diuretic to flush the poisons from the urinary organs. To the Indians, the
oozing bitter juice also corresponded to the pus of a sore, for which purpose he applied a
poultice of the leaves to the bites of snakes and insects. In time, the herb became better
known for its content of the astringent tannic acid and was used not only in dysentery but as
an everyday vulnerary, to heal cancerous and canker sores. The powdered root is sprinkled
on food to stimulate milk flow after childbirth. A tea made from the roots is used as a wash for
weakness. A latex in the stems is diuretic it is used in female diseases. It is also taken
internally in the treatment of snakebite. . Used in diarrhea and relaxed and debilitated
conditions of the bowels.
Levant Wormseed (Artemisia cina) Vermifuge. Santonin is particularly active against
round-worms, and to some extent against threadworms. Wormseed has been taken
combined with honey or treacle or as a decoction, it must be used with care as high doses are

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza  glabra) Since Hippocrates' day licorice has been prescribed for
dropsy because it does, indeed, prevent thirst--probably the only sweet thing that
does. The chief medicinal action of licorice is as a demulcent and emollient. Its
soothing properties make it excellent in throat and chest complaints and it is a very
common ingredient in throat pastilles and cough mixtures. It is also widely used in
other medicines to counteract bitter tastes and make them more palatable. Recent
research has shown that it has a pain-killing effect on stomach ulcers and prolonged
use raises the blood pressure. Medicinally the dried peeled root has been decocted to
allay coughs, sore throat, laryngitis, and urinary and intestinal irritations. The root is
expectorant, diuretic, demulcent, antitussive, anti-inflammatory, and mildly
laxative. It has proven helpful in inflammatory upper respiratory disease, Addison's
disease, and gastric and duodenal ulcers. Side effects may develop in ulcer
treatment. Licorice may increase venous and systolic arterial pressure causing some
people to experience edema, and hypertension. In some countries, licorice has been
used to treat cancers. Licorice stick, the sweet earthy flavored stolons, are
chewed. Licorice chew sticks blackened Napoleon's teeth. In the 1940s Dutch
physicians tested licorice's reputation as an aid for indigestion. They came up with a
derivative drug, carbenoxolone, that promised to help peptic ulcer patients by either
increasing the life span of epithelial cells in the stomach or inhibiting digestive
activity in general. Many cures were achieved in the experiments, but negative side
effects--the patients' faces and limbs swelled uncomfortably--outweighed the cures.
       Certain agents in licorice have recently been credited with antibacterial and
mild antiviral effects; licorice may be useful in treating dermatitis, colds, and
infections. It also has been used in a medicinal dandruff shampoo. Other modern-day
research      found      that     the     herb    can     reduce     arthritic   activity.
         An extract of licorice is made by crushing the fresh or stored roots, then
boiling or passing steam through them and evaporating the liquid, leaving a thick
paste or solid black glossy substance with a sharp fracture. The active ingredient
Glycyrrhizin may cause hypertension from potassium loss, sodium retention, and in
increase of extracellular fluid and plasma volume. It is fifty times sweeter than
sugar. Licorice also reportedly contains steroid hormones, but their relation to
licorice's biological activity is yet to be determined, though extracts have been shown
to be estrogenic in laboratory animals. Perhaps the most common medicinal use is in
cough syrups and cough drops; licorice soothes the chest and helps bring up phlegm.
Licorice has also been used to treat ulcers, to relieve rheumatism and arthritis, and to
induce menstruation. In this country it was used in powder form as a laxative.
        Licorice root is being used today in France and China in eye drops that relieve
inflammation. Sodium salts of glycyrrhinic acid are extracted from the root and
added to the eye drop formula. The cortisone like action of the licorice root extract is
responsible for its healing effects.

Life Root (Packera aurea) Herbalists have prescribed the plant for the treatment of urinary
tract problems such as kidney stones. It is used as a douche for excessive vaginal discharge.
As a uterine tonic, Life Root may be used safely wherever strengthening and aid are called for.
Useful for menopausal disturbances of any kind. Also useful for delayed or suppressed
menstruation. For leucorrhoea it can be used as a douche. It has a reputation as a general
tonic for debilitated states and conditions such as tuberculosis. While often stated to be
completely safe to use, recent research has found that the plant contains pyrrolizidine
alkaloids that, in isolation, can cause liver damage. The roots and leaves are abortifacient,
diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, pectoral, stimulant and uterine tonic. It is used externally
in the treatment of vaginal discharge. A tea made from the plant was frequently used by the
N. American Indians as a remedy for various female troubles, including the pain of childbirth.
Pharmacologists have not reported any uterine effects, but the plant does contain an
essential oil (inuline) plus the alkaloids senecine and senecionine (which are poisonous to
grazing animals).

Lilac (Syringa vulgaris ) Used as a vermifuge in the US and as a tonic anti-periodic and
febrifuge; used as a substitute for aloes and in the treatment of malaria.

Lily, Giant Spider (Crinum latifolium): A leafy traditional Vietnamese herbal remedy, it was
used in ancient times by the royalty to enhance longevity. It is currently used in Vietnam for a
wide variety of health benefits in treatment for serious health conditions including prostate and
ovarian disorders such as prostatitis, adenoma, benign prostate enlargement, uterine fibroids,
ovarian cysts and tumors. It is known to contain eleven different alkaloids and amino acids.
Crinum latifolium also contains steroid saponins and antioxidants, supports cellular immunity,
and has been researched as being an effective T-lymphocyte activator. It may also be used to
assist the body in improving hypoxia, infection and chronic inflammation, detoxification,
regeneration of tissues, hormone balancing and is particularly supportive to the prostate and
ovaries. The leaf juices of this plant are used in India to alleviate ear-ache, and the bulbs,
after roasting, are laid on the skin to ease rheumatic pain. Leaves of the herb smeared with
castor oil and warmed is a useful remedy for repelling whitlows and other inflammations at the
end of toes and fingers. You can also use bruised leaves of the herb mixed with castor oil for
this purpose. The herb is also useful to treat inflamed joints and sprains. For earache and
other ear complaints, use slightly warmed juice of the leaves mixed with a little salt. You can
also use an oil prepared from the fresh juice for this purpose. The bulbs are powerfully
emetic and are used to produce vomiting in poisoning especially antiaries.

Lily, Mariposa (Calochortus gunnisonii): An infusion of the plant has been taken internally
to treat rheumatic swellings by the Acoma and Laguna Indians and by the Navajo to ease the
delivery of the placenta. Juice of the leaves were applied to pimples.

Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis ) Lily of the Valley is perhaps the most valuable
heart remedy used today. It is used for nervous sensitivity, neurasthenia, apoplexy, epilepsy,
dropsy, valvular heart diseases, heart pains and heart diseases in general. It has an action
equivalent to Foxglove without its potential toxic effects. Lily of the Valley may be used in the
treatment of heart failure and water retention where this is associated with the heart. It will
aid the body where there is difficulty with breathing due to congestive conditions of the heart.
Also used for arteriosclerosis with angina and arterial hypotension. Lily of the Valley
encourages the heart to beat more slowly regularly and efficiently. It is also strongly diuretic,
reducing blood volume and lowering blood pressure. It is better tolerated than foxglove, since
it does not accumulate within the body to the same degree. Relatively low doses are required
to support heart rate and rhythm, and to increase urine production. An ointment made from
the roots is used in the treatment of burns and to prevent scar tissue.

Linden (Tilia spp) Lime Blossom, or Linden, is well known as a relaxing remedy for use in
nervous tension.        It has a reputation as a prophylactic against the development of
arteriosclerosis and hypertension. It is considered to be a specific in the treatment of raised
blood pressure associated with arteriosclerosis and nervous tension. It initially increases
peripheral circulation to fingers and toes, helping the evaporation of body heat, and then
stabilizes blood vessels and body temperature. Linden is an excellent remedy for stress and
panic, and is used specifically to treat nervous palpitations. Its relaxing action combined with
a general effect upon the circulatory system give lime blossom a role in the treatment of some
forms of migraine. The diaphoresis combined with the relaxation explains its value in feverish
colds and flus. The flowers bring relief to colds, and flu by reducing nasal congestion and
soothing fever. Because of their emollient quality, linden flowers are used in France to make a
lotion for itchy skin. The tea is given to babies for teething.
The sapwood of a linden growing wild in the south of France (T. cordata) is used as a diuretic,
choleretic, hypotensive and antispoasmodic. A light infusion of the flowers is sedative,
antispasmodic and diaphoretic. It also thins the blood and enhances circulation.

Lion's Ear (Leonotis nepetifolia)        The sheets are used against infectious diseases by
infusing them and using them in inhalers and vapor baths as a preventative. It is also used as
an emmenagogue, amenorhea, fever and skin diseases. . The sheets séches are sometimes
used in Africa as substitute of the marijuana. Used similarly to Lion‘s Tail (Leonotis leonurus)
it just blooms earlier.

Lion's Tail (Leonotis leonurus) Many traditional uses have been recorded. The foliage is
commonly made into a medicinal tea, which is favored for the hypnotic focus it gives. The
leaves or roots are widely used as a remedy for snakebite and also to relieve other bites and
stings. Decoctions of the dried leaf or root have been applied externally to treat boils, eczema,
skin diseases and itching, and muscular cramps. Extracts are also used to relieve coughs,
cold and influenza, as well as bronchitis, high blood pressure and headaches. Leaf infusions
have been used to treat asthma and viral hepatitis. The tea is also used to treat headache,
bronchitis, high blood pressure and the common cold. This species is also important in
Chinese/Vietnamese medicine as an euphoric, purgative and vermifuge.

Litsea cubeba The root and stem are used in traditional Chinese medicine. It expels wind
and dampness, promotes the movement of qi and alleviates pain: for wind-damp painful
obstruction and stomach aches. Most commonly used for lower back pain. It promotes the
movement of qi and blood, warms the channels and alleviates pain: for dysmenorrhea that
presents primarily with a distended and painful lower abdomen that improves with heat or
pressure. Also for blood stasis pain due to trauma, or other gynecological pain associated
with blood stasis. Also used for chills, headaches and muscle aches due to an exterior
disorder. Has been reported to be useful in treating motion sickness.
      The fruits are reputed to alleviate chronic asthma, as well as being a treatment for
coronary heart disease and high blood pressure.

Little Mallow (Malva parviflora ) The bruised leaves have been rubbed on the skin to treat
skin irritations. A strained tea of the boiled leaves has been administered after childbirth to
clean out the mother‘s system. As a headache remedy, the leaves or the whole plant have
been mashed and placed on the forehead. Powdered leaves have been blown into the throat
to treat swollen glands. The leaves have been used to induce perspiration and menstrual
flow, reduce fever, and treat pneumonia. The whole plant can be used as a poultice on
swellings, running sores and boils. The seeds are used in the treatment of coughs and ulcers
in the bladder. A decoction of the roots or leaves has been used as a hair rinse to remove
dandruff and to soften the hair.

Live Forever (Sedum purpureum ) The fresh leaves yield a juice that is used as an
astringent to help heal wounds. The plant has enjoyed a reputation as an internal remedy for
ulcers, lung disorders, and dysentery and as an external astringent for the treatment of slow-
healing wounds. It is a popular remedy for diarrhea, stimulates the kidneys and has a
reputation in the treatment of cancer. A poultice of the crushed leaves has been used in the
treatment of boils and carbuncles.

Liverwort, Common (Marchantia polymorpha): Cytotoxicity against the KB cells;
antileukemic activity in several compounds from leafy liverworts. In China, to treat jaundice,
hepatitis and as an extermal cure to reduce inflammation; in Himalayas for boils and
abscesses; mixed with vegetable oils as ointments for boils, eczema, cuts, bites, wounds,

Liverwort, Great Scented (Conocephalum conicum): Mixed with vegetable oils as ointments
for boils, eczema, cuts, bites, wounds and burns; inhibits growth of micro-organisms.
Liverwort, Ker-gawl (Hepatica americana, (H. tribola); H. nobilis) While rarely found in
herbal remedies today, it is a mild astringent and a diuretic. It stimulates gall bladder
production and is a mild laxative. Its astringency has also stopped bleeding in the digestive
tract and the resultant spitting of blood. Historically, liverwort has been used for kidney
problems and bronchitis. It‘s active constituent, protoaneminin, has been shown to have
antibiotic action. The Russians use it in their folk medicine and also to treat cattle with ―mouth

Liverleaf (Hepatica acutiloba) The herb has astringent and tonic properties. It also has
demulcent activity. The roots and leaves are used dried or fresh in a tea or syrup. Of little use.

Lobelia (Lobelia inflata) Lobelia was a traditional Native American remedy and its use was
later championed by the American herbalist Samuel Thomson (1769-1843), who made the
herb the mainstay of his therapeutic system. He mainly used it to induce vomiting. It was
promoted by Jethro Kloss and later by Dr. John Christopher. A powerful antispasmodic and
respiratory stimulant, lobelia is valuable for asthma, especially bronchial asthma, and chronic
bronchitis. It relaxes the muscles of the smaller bronchial tubes, thus opening the airways,
stimulating breathing, and promoting the coughing up of phlegm. In the Western tradition,
lobelia has always been combined with cayenne, its hot stimulant action helping to push
blood into areas that lobelia has relaxed. Lobelia is often most effective when the infusion or
diluted tincture is applied externally. It relaxes muscles, particularly smooth muscle, which
makes it useful for sprains, and back problems where muscle tension is a key factor.
Combined with cayenne, lobelia has been used as a chest and sinus rub. Due to its chemical
similarity to nicotine, lobelia is employed by herbalists to help patients give up smoking.
Lobeline sulphate has been part of commercial over-the-counter antismoking lozenges. It
seems to replace physical addiction to nicotine without its addictive effects.      The Native
Americans smoked it like tobacco for respiratory problems and it gained the name Indian
tobacco. Both drinking the tea and smoking lobelia, usually with other herbs to modify its
intense reaction, have been employed to treat asthma, bronchitis and whooping cough.
Plasters and liniments for sprains, muscle spasms, and insect bites and poultices for breast
cancer sometimes contain lobelia.

Locoto (Capsicum baccatum): The hot and pungent fruit is antihemorrhoidal when taken in
small amounts, antirheumatic, antiseptic, diaphoretic, digestive, irritant, rubefacient,
sialagogue and tonic. It is taken internally in the treatment of the cold stage of fevers, debility
in convalescence or old age, varicose veins, asthma and digestive problems. Externally it is
used in the treatment of sprains, unbroken chilblains, neuralgia, pleurisy etc.

Lomatium (Lomatium dissecta) Both Lomatium and Ligusticum were used by Native
Americans and early American medical practitioners for a variety of chronic or severe
infectious disease states, particularly those of viral origin. Modern research is rather limited,
but clinical trials have supported the inclusion of these botanicals for viral infections including
HIV and condyloma. Traditionally it‘s demonstrated efficacy against a variety of bacterial
infections                                 including                                   tuberculosis.
          Lomatium contains an oleoresin rich in terpenes. It acts as a stimulating expectorant,
enhancing the liquification and consequent elimination of mucus from the lungs. It also
appears to exert a strong antibacterial activity, interfering with bacterial replication and
inducing increased phagocytosis. The resin also contains a number of furanocoumarins
including nodakenetin, columbianin and pyranocoumarin. These resins may be responsible
for the plant's antiviral effect. They may also be partly responsible for the phagocytic action
lomatium         causes                                                                            .
          Based on empirical evidence and discussions with clinical herbalists, lomatium can
be used as an antimicrobial, especially in the lungs and upper respiratory tract. It provides
quick-acting relief in cases of viral or bacterial infection, particularly when there is a large
amount of thick or sticky mucus and infection is deep-seated and persistent. Consider taking
lomatium          for     pneumonia,        infective      bronchitis       and         tuberculosis
           As an immunostimulant, this herb is traditionally used to treat colds and flus. Many
cases during the 1920s U.S. influenza epidemic were successfully treated with lomatium by
the professional herbalists of the time, and it has been used for this purpose by Native
Americans since the introduction of influenza to the Americas                                   .
           Its infection-fighting ability makes lomatium valuable as a mouthwash and gargle for
oral and throat infections, as a douche for bacterial and viral infections or candida, as a skin
wash for infected cuts or wounds, and in many other first- aid situations                        .
            Both tea and tincture forms are commonly used. For acute bacterial or viral
infections, 2.5 ml of the tincture diluted in water can be used three to four times daily. A
painful, itchy full-body rash that can persist for days occurs frequently when the crude tincture
is used. It seems to occur more commonly with the strong, fresh-root preparation and
disappears when treatment stops

Long Dan Cao (Gentiana scabra) The root is a bitter, cooling, anti-inflammatory herb that
stimulates the appetite and digestion, increases blood sugar levels and potentiates the
sedative and analgesic properties of other herbs. Internally used for liver disorders, eye
complaints related to liver disharmony (such as conjunctivitis), acute urinary infections,
hypertension with dizziness or tinnitus and tantrums in children. Included in many Chinese
patent remedies for ―liver heat.‖ It is also used in the treatment of jaundice, leucorrhoea,
eczema, conjunctivitis, and sore throat.

Long Pepper (Piper longum): The unripe spike of the plant and the root, which is thick and
branched, is also medically important and is called modi or pippali-moolam. Long Pepper
inhibits the secretion of digestive juice and lowers total stomach acid; it lowers LDL and
VLDL and TC; prevents hardening of the arteries; has a calming effect on CNS. Seed used in
cough and throat pain. Root used in paralysis, epilepsy, and stiff joints. Both seeds and root
are used for cough, rheumatism, leprosy, and consumption. The herb is also believed to
improve vitality.

Loofah (Luffa cylindrical ) In Chinese medicine, the inner skeleton of the dried fruit is used
to treat pain in the muscles and joints, chest, and abdomen. It is prescribed for chest
infections accompanied by fever and pain, and is used to clear congested mucus. Loofah is
also given to treat painful or swollen breasts. Research indicates the fresh vine has a
stronger expectorant effect than the dried fruit. Dried fruit fibers are used as abrasive
sponges in skin care to remove dead skin and stimulate the peripheral circulation.         .

Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera ) The entire plant is used in medicine. The Sacred water lotus
has been used in the Orient as a medicinal herb for well over 1,500 years. The leaf juice is
used in the treatment of diarrhea and is decocted with liquorice (Glycyrrhiza spp) for the
treatment of sunstroke. A decoction of the flowers is used in the treatment of premature
ejaculation. The flowers are recommended as a cardiac tonic. A decoction of the floral
receptacle is used in the treatment of abdominal cramps, bloody discharges etc. The flower
stalk is used in treating bleeding gastric ulcers, excessive menstruation, post-partum
hemorrhage. The stamens are astringent and used in treating urinary frequency, premature
ejaculation, hemolysis, epistasis and uterine bleeding. A decoction of the fruit is used in the
treatment of agitation, fever, heart complaints etc. The seed is used in the treatment of poor
digestion, enteritis, chronic diarrhea, insomnia, palpitations etc. The plumule and radicle are
used to treat thirst in high febrile disease, hypertension, insomnia and restlessness. The root
starch is used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery etc, a paste is applied to ringworm and
other skin ailments. It is also taken internally in the treatment of hemorrhages, excessive
menstruation and nosebleeds. The roots are harvested in autumn or winter and dried for later
use. The root nodes are used in the treatment of nasal bleeding, hemoptysis, hematuria and
functional bleeding of the uterus. The plant has a folk history in the treatment of cancer,
modern research has isolated certain compounds from the plant that show anticancer activity.
The leaves, which have antipyretic and refrigerant properties, are used against symptoms of
summer-heat, such as headache, respiratory congestion, chronic thirst, and dark scanty urine.
The peduncle relieves stomachaches, calms restless fetus, and controls leukorrhea.

Lotus, Blue (Nymphaea caerules): An aphrodisiac for both men and women as well as a
general remedy for all illness enhancing sexual vigor and general good health. A tonic like
ginseng, pain reliever like arnica, circulation stimulant richer than ginkgo biloba, and sexual
stimulant richer than Viagra. It creates a feeling of well being, euphoria and ecstasy, as well
as being widely used as a general remedy against illness, and is still used as a tonic for good
health, consumed as an extract, 6-12 drops or up to 1 tsp to 1 Tbs in juice taken 1 to 3 times
daily. Traditionally, fresh Blue Lotus was made into a tea or drank after being soaked in wine,
usually followed by a cigarette made of the dried plant material. Dried flowers are sometimes
smoked for a mild sedative effect. By itself, Lotus produces an opiate-like intoxication.
Traditionally, Nymphaea caerulea was drunk after being soaked in warm water or wine, while
the dried flowers were also smoked. About 5 grams of dried petals steeped in small amount of
alcohol for a few hours to a week is said to have a synergistic effect with the Lotus, producing
a euphoria. The overall effect of this combination is a narcotic empathogenic experience.
According to recent studies, Blue Lily was found to be loaded with health-giving phytosterols
and bioflavonoids. It turned out to be one of the greatest daily health tonics ever found.

Lotus, Egyptian (Nymphaea lotus): A soothing, astringent herb that has diuretic and
tranquilizing effects and is reputedly detoxicant and aphrodisiac. The seeds, crushed in water
are an old remedy for diabetes. The rhizomes is useful in Diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia and
general debility. The flowers are astringent and cardiotonic. The seeds are sweet, cooling,
constipating, aphrodisiac, stomachic and restorative. It has found uses both as a culinary
delight and starchy food staple as well as being used internally as a treatment for
gastrointestinal disorders and jaundice.

Lovage (or Ligusticum levisticum) Although no extravagant cures were attributed to
lovage, medieval physicians and country folk claimed it alleviated a host of maladies. Fresh
juice from the plant squeezed into the eyes relieved conjunctivitis, and an infusion brewed
from the seeds and dropped into the eyes remedied redness and dim vision. Applied to the
skin, this decoction was supposed to remove freckles. People gargled with it, used it as a
mouth wash, and drank it to mitigate pleurisy and flatulence.
Boils, carbuncles and other pustules were treated with hot poultices of lovage leaves. A tea
made from the leaves was said to promote menstrual discharge, soothe bronchitis and bring
comfort in the early stages of diptheria. Drinking the dried and powdered roots in a medium
of wine, water or oil was held to improve the functioning of the lymphatic system, reduce
obesity and flabbiness through diuretic action, and remedy colic, jaundice, urinary troubles
and stomach disorders. Main ingredient in many European diuretic preparations and is added
to urinary tract formulas. Can irritate kidneys, so it is not suggested when an infection is
present but Commission E suggests making a tea with 2-4 teaspoons of dried herb per cup of
boiling water and drinking it once a day for treating kidney stones. Also used to promote
menstruation and to ease migraine headaches.
The colonists in New England found an additional use for the dried root. They nibbled bits of
it in church to chase away the weariness caused by long and tedious sermons. Also in the
New World, the Shakers grew lovage and sold it for medicine and flavoring much like the
monks did centuries earlier. The Pennsylvania Germans dried its hollow stems to use as
natural drinking straws. A stimulating cordial called lovage was once popular at public houses
and inns. It was flavored with lovage, but was made primarily from tansy and yarrow. Oil
extracted from lovage roots was used in tobacco blends, perfumes and bath cologne. Has
been employed as a mouthwash for soothing tonsillitis and mouth ulcers.

Lousewort (Pedicularis resupinata): The plant is used in the treatment of fevers,
leucorrhoea, rheumatism, sterility and urinary difficulties. A decoction of the plant is used to
wash foul ulcers

Lousewort, Marsh (Pedicularis palustris): Lousewort is poisonous and a powerful
insecticide. Formerly, an infusion of the plant was made to destroy lice and other insect
parasites. The plant is now rarely used.

Lovage, Chinese (Ligusticum sinense): Ligusticum is a Chinese herb that promotes
circulation and regulates energy. Good for post-natal abdominal pain, painful abscesses, and
headaches due to colds. The ligusticum roots and fruit are aromatic and stimulant, and have
diuretic and carminative action. In herbal medicine ligusticum is used for disorders of the
stomach and feverish attacks, especially for cases of colic and flatulence in children, its
qualities being similar to those of Angelica in expelling flatulence, exciting perspiration and
opening obstructions. The infusion of dried leaf is used as a good emmenagogue. Internally
the dried rhizome and root are also used for menstrual problems, postpartum bleeding,
coronary heart disease and headaches (those caused by concussion). The root is soaked in
alcohol for 2 weeks and then used in the treatment of gout

Lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis) Lungwort has been used primarily for lung problems,
especially in cases of bronchitis and laryngitis, and to reduce bronchial congestion. The silica
it contains restores the elasticity of lungs, and made it an appropriate remedy when
tuberculosis was common. Major ingredient in the English ―Potters Balm of Gilead Cough
Mixture.‖ As a poultice, it helps enlarged thyroid, burns and tumors and reduces swelling and
inflammation from injuries and bruises. Potential use as a yin tonic. An astringent, lungwort
treats diarrhea, especially in children, and eases hemorrhoids. Its properties are similar to
those in comfrey. Both contain allantoin, which promotes wound-healing action.

                                           -M- HERBS

Ma Dou Ling (Aristolochia contorta): A decoction of the fruit is used in the treatment of
cancer, coughs, inflammation of the respiratory organs, hemorrhoids and hypertension. It is
also used to resolve phlegm and lower blood pressure. It has an antibacterial action, effective
against Staphylococcus aureus, Pneumococci, bacillus dysentericae etc. The root contains
aristolochic acid. This has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with
chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Aristolochic acid can also be used in the treatment of acute
and serious infections such as TB, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and infantile pneumonia. It also
increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells. Aristolochic
acid is said to be too toxic for clinical use. The root is used as a purgative in the treatment of
rabies and also has sedative properties.

Mace (Myristica fragrans): Carminative, stimulant, and tonic, mace aids the digestion, is
beneficial to the circulation and is used to mollify febrile upsets and in Asia to relieve nausea.
Mace butter is employed as a mild counter-irritant and used in hair lotions and plasters. As
with nutmeg, large doses of mace can lead to hallucination and epileptiform fits, myristin
being poisonous, but dangerous doses are unlikely to be taken in the course of everyday use.
Taken in a toddy, it was a cure for insomnia, but prolonged over-indulgence is now avoided
as addictive.

Madagascar Periwinkle (Vinca rosea) In 1923, considerable interest was aroused in the
medical world by the statement that this species of Vinca had the power to cure diabetes, and
would probably prove an efficient substitute for Insulin, but V. major has long been used by
herbalists for this purpose. Vincristine, a major chemotherapy agent for leukemia, and
vinblastin (for Hodgkin‘s disease) are derived from the plant. The anti-cancer constituents are
very strong and should only be taken under the supervision of a qualified health care
practitioner. Use as a fluid extract. It has also been used in traditional herbal medicine to
treat wasp stings (India), stop bleeding (Hawaii), as an eyewash (Cuba), and to treat diabetes
(Jamaica); contains the alkaloid alstonine which can reduce blood pressure.

Madder (Rubia tinctorium ) Madder is still grown as a medicinal in central Europe and west
Asia. The root eliminates and prevents the formation of kidney and bladder stones, increases
bile production and menstruation, and is a laxative. It is especially useful in urinary tract
afflictions in which the system has become alkaline. Powdered root is wound-healing, often
used for skin ulcers. Two ounces of the root can be boiled in six quarts of water and added to
the tub to make a bath that will heal the skin. The red coloring agent is so potent that it turns
the urine red and eventually even stains the bones, although no health problems are
associated with these phenomena. Infusions of leaves and stems treat constipation, diarrhea
and bladder disorders. It has a marked effect on the liver and has been found useful in
jaundice. A madder poultice encourages wound healing. It is used in Ayurvedic medicine in
east India and considered an important ―blood-purifying‖ herb that ―cleans‖ the body by
improving liver functions. Used for many pitta-type bleeding conditions. Homeopathically
used to treat anemia and ailments of the spleen.
Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris (A pedatum North American variety))
Medicinal Uses: Used by Western herbalists to treat coughs, bronchitis, excess mucus, sore
throat, and chronic nasal congestion. The plant also has a longstanding reputation as a
remedy for conditions of the hair and scalp. It may be used as an infusion. Native American
sometimes chewed the leaves of the plant to stop internal bleeding. An extract of the plant
has diuretic and hypoglycemic activity in animals. It needs to be used fresh as it‘s highly
sensitive to time and heat. Can be used in a poultice (raw and crushed), directly applied to a
wound or scalded and infused for several minutes for a topical poultice to treat eczema,
suppurating infections and wounds. In the form of a hair lotion, it stimulates hair growth. In a
tea (1 plant in 1 cup water), it is excellent in treating coughs and chronic skin disorders. In the
case of poor blood circulation, take 3 cups daily. A tincture is also a good choice as an
effective concentrated preparation: 2/3 oz in 1 cup alcohol.

Makabuhai (Tinospora crispa ): The Filipinos and Malays in general consider this vine as a
universal medicine. It is the most popular of local medicinal plants. Makabuhai, the common
Tagalog name; means, ―to give life‖. It is commonly prescribed as an aqueous extract in the
treatment of stomach trouble, indigestion, and diarrhea. It is the basis of a popular preparation,
which is used as a cordial, a tonic, or an ingredient in cocktails. It is also an effective remedy
in the treatment of tropical ulcers. In powder form, it is prescribed in fevers. A preparation with
coconut oil is an effective cure for rheumatism and also for flatulence of children (kabag). The
preparation is made by chopping the makabuhai stem into pieces of 1 or 2 inches long,
placing them in a jar with coconut oil, and ―cooking‖ them under the sun. The jar is then put
aside and not opened until a year has elapsed. A decoction of the stem is considered an
effective cure if used as a wash for tropical ulcers. Father de Sta.Maria includes makabuhai in
his book, ―Manual de Medicinas Caseras,‖ and says that it is given the decoction or powder
from as a febrifuge. The decoction of the stem is also an excellent vulnerary for itches,
ordinary and cancerous wounds. Guerrero reports that internally it is used as tonic and
antimalaria; externally as a parasiticide.
         Traditionally used in Thai medicine, Tinospora crispa is one ingredient in Thai folk
remedies for maintaining good health. A decoction of the stems, leaves and roots is used to
treat fever, cholera, diabetes, rheumatism and snake-bites, an infusion of the stem is drunk as
a vermifuge, a decoction of the stem is used for washing sore eyes and syphilitic sores, the
crushed leaves are applied on wounds and made into poultice for itch. Also it reduces thirst,
internal inflammation, and increases appetite.
The drug (stem) is registered in the Thailand Pharmacopoeia, and commonly used in hospital
to treat diabetes.
      In Vietnam the southern pharmacopoeia was developed and adapted in the 14th century
by the monk Tue Tinh, to treat Vietnamese for diseases common to the tropics, while keeping
the principles of Chinese medicine and blending into it the qualities of southern plants known
to traditional popular medicine. To treat Malaria they use the Tinospora crispa.
            In general folklore, the stem decoction is considered antipyretic, useful as an
antimalarial and a wash for skin ulcers. Traditionally an infusion is used to treat fever due to
malaria and also in cases of jaundice and for use against intestinal worms. The antimalarial
effect was confirmed in a study. A decoction of the stems, leaves and roots is used to treat
fever, cholera, diabetes, rheumatism and snake-bites. An infusion of the stem is drunk as a
vermifuge. A decoction of the stem is used for washing sore eyes and syphilitic sores. The
crushed leaves are applied on wounds and made into poultice for itch.
         A decoction of the fresh root mixed with pepper and goat‘s milk is given for
rheumatism, where the dose is half a pint (in doses of two to four ounces according to another
author under chronic rheumatism and syphilitic cachexia) every morning. It is said to be
laxative and sudorific. When under this treatment the natives make a curry of the leaves,
which they recommend to their patients. The leaves when agitated in water render it
mucilaginous and is then sweetened with sugar and drunk when freshly made (half a pint
taken twice-a-day). This is given for the cure of gonorrhea and is said to soothe the smarting
and scalding. It is also used externally as a cooling and soothing application in prurigo,
eczema, impetigo, etc.
      If allowed to stand for a few minutes, the mucilaginous parts separate, contract and float
in the center Leaving the water clear, and almost tasteless.
        Decoction of the root in combination with ginger and sugar is given in cases of bilious
dyspepsia and in cases of fevers with other bitters and aromatics. Roots rubbed with bonduc
nuts in water are given for stomachache, especially in children.
           Indonesians use an infusion of the stems to treat fevers and malaria. They can also
be used to treat stomachache and jaundice. The infusion is also useful in fevers caused by
smallpox and cholera. Another popular use of this infusion is in a mixture for treating
           In India, the leaves are made into a calming or soothing drug mainly for children
that acts by relieving pain and flatulence. The juice of the leaves coagulates in water and
forms a mucilage which is used externally as a cooling and soothing application in prurigo,
eczema, impetigo etc. Decoction of the root (1 in 10) mixed with long-pepper and goat's milk
is given in doses of two to four ounces in chronic rheumatism and syphilitic cachexia. Roots
rubbed with bonduc nuts in water are given for stomachache, especially in children.

Male Fern (Dryopteris filix-mas (Syn Aspidium filix-mas)) : One of the most effective of
all ―worm herbs,‖ male fern root, or the oleo-resin it yields, is a specific treatment for
tapeworms. It acts by paralyzing the muscles of the worm, forcing it to relax its hold on the
gut wall. Provided that the root is taken along with a nonoily purgative like scammony or
black hellebore, it will flush out the parasites. The roots are added to healing salves for
wounds and rubbed into the limbs of children with rickets. It is also good for sores, boils,
carbuncles, swollen glands and epidemic flu. It inhibits bleeding of a hot nature and is
combined with cedar leaves for uterine bleeding. With other alteratives like honeysuckle,
forsythia and dandelion it treats toxic blood conditions. Fern tincture should be prepared in
new batches every year.

Mallow, Common (Malva sylvestris): Though less useful than marsh mallow, common
mallow is an effective demulcent. The flowers and leaves are emollient and good for
sensitive areas of the skin. Mallow is beneficial in the treatment of painful swellings and is
used as a digestive and diuretic herb, as well as in the making of an external lotion for acne.
The leaves have the reputation of easing the pain of a wasp sting if rubbed on the affected
area. A certain cure for a cold was believed to be bathing the feet in a decoction of the leaves,
flowers and roots. Taken internally, the leaves reduce gut irritation, aids recovery from
gastritis and stomach ulcers, laryngitis and pharyngitis, upper respiratory catarrh and
bronchitis and have a laxative effect. When common mallow is combined with eucalyptus, it
makes a good remedy for coughs and other chest ailments. As with marsh mallow, the root
may be given to children to ease teething. The fresh dried leaves are put into decoctions; the
root may be dried, but it is best fresh, if chosen when there are leaves growing from it.

Mallow, Dwarf (Malva neglecta): Mallow root is highly regarded by herbalists as an effective
demulcent and emollient. Both of these actions are attributed to the plant‘s mucilaginous
qualities. Roundleaf mallow is used as a lotion or internal medication for an injury or swelling
(Navajo). All parts of the plant are astringent, laxative, urine-inducing, and have agents that
counteract inflammation, that soften and soothe the skin when applied locally, and that induce
the removal (coughing up) of mucous secretions from the lungs. The leaves and flowers are
the main part used, their demulcent properties making them valuable as a poultice for bruise,
inflammations, insect bites etc, or taken internally in the treatment of respiratory system
diseases or inflammation of the digestive or urinary systems. They have similar properties,
but are considered to be inferior to the marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis), though they are
stronger acting than the common mallow (M. sylvestris). The plant is an excellent laxative for
young children.

Man Vine (Agonandra racemosa): Man Vine is an excellent anti-spasmodic and in general
quite relaxing to involuntary muscle tissues such as the uterus, stomach and intestines. Chop
woody part of vine; boil a small handful in 3 cups of water for 10 minutes and drink 1 cup
before each meal for constipation, intestinal gas, indigestion, mucus in stool, inability to eat
even a small portion of food, gastritis, and any ailment to do with the digestive or alimentary
tract. This same tea also acts as an excellent mild sedative, and can be drunk for backaches,
neckache, headaches, muscle spasms, and for males who pass mucus in the urine. The root
is a superior remedy for male impotency—chop root and boil 1 small handful in 3 cups of
water for 10 minutes; drink 1 cup before each meal. Note that while drinking man vine tea,
one must abstain from all acid foods, cold drinks, and beef.
Manaca (Brunfelsia uniflora): Used by native healers both medicinally and as
hallucinogens. Internally used as an alterative, and of the greatest value for the treatment of
arthritis. It eases pain and restores mobility quickly. In Peru, indigenous peoples apply a
decoction of leaves externally for arthritis and rheumatism; they also employ a root decoction
for chills. The root of manacá is said to stimulate the lymphatic system. It has long been used
for syphilis, earning the name vegetable mercury. Though the aerial parts of the plant have
active compounds, the root has been used primarily.
         Two of the constituents, manaceine and manacine are thought to be responsible for
stimulating the lymphatic system, while aesculetin has demonstrated analgesic,
antihepatotoxic, antimutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities in laboratory tests.

Manchineel (Hippomane mancinella): Manchineel is occasionally used in folk medicine to
treat parasitic disease of the skin. It is diuretic, and in 2-drop doses is reputed actively
purgative. The Cubans make use of it in tetanus. It has been used in homeopathic medicine

Manketti Tree (Schinziophyton rautanenii): The roots are used as a remedy for stomach
pains and diarrhea, the nuts tied around the ankles are said to relieve leg pains.

Maori Mint (Mentha diemenica): A tea made from the leaves of most mint species has
traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, digestive disorders and various
minor ailments. The leaves are harvested as the plant comes into flower and can be dried for
later use. The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic, though it is toxic in large doses. A
decoction of this plant was used occasionally to induce sweating.

Maple, Rock (Acer glabrum): A decoction of the wood and bark is said to cure nausea. An
infusion of the bark has been used as a cathartic. A decoction of the branches, together with
the branches of Amelanchier sp., was used to heal a woman's insides after childbirth and also
to promote lactation. One tribe of southern Vancouver Island used the bark to make an
antidote for poisoning.

Maple, Silver (Acer saccharinum): An infusion of the bark is used in the treatment of
coughs, cramps and dysentery. The infusion is also applied externally to old, stubborn
running sores. A compound infusion is used in the treatment of 'female complaints'. The inner
bark is boiled and used with water as a wash for sore eyes. An infusion is used internally in
the treatment of diarrhea. An infusion of the root bark has been used in the treatment of

Maple, Vine (Acer circinatum): The wood was burnt to charcoal and mixed with water and
brown sugar then used in the treatment of dysentery and polio. Coastal Aboriginal peoples
have boiled the bark of the roots to make a tea for colds.

Mare's Tail, Common (Hippuris vulgaris): The whole plant is an effective vulnerary, the
juice being taken internally or applied externally. The old European herbalists recommended
it for a number of uses, including: stopping internal and external bleeding, stomach ulcers,
strengthening the intestines, closing wounds, inflammation and breakouts on the skin,
coughs. Culpepper, in common with the older herbalists, considered it of great value as a
vulnerary: 'It is very powerful to stop bleeding, either inward or outward, the juice or the
decoction being drunk, or the juice, decoction or distilled water applied outwardly.... It also
heals inward ulcers.... It solders together the tops of green wounds and cures all ruptures in
children. The decoction taken in wine helps stone and strangury; the distilled water drunk two
or three times a day eases and strengthens the intestines and is effectual in a cough that
comes by distillation from the head. The juice or distilled water used as a warm fomentation is
of service in inflammations and breakings-out in the skin.'

Marigold, Irish Lace (Tagetes filifolia): The tea is said to be drunk as a refreshing beverage
and to relieve minor ills. Bolivians drink the decoction as a digestive. Venezuelans employ it
as an emollient and treatment for syphilis. In Costa Rica, it is taken as a carminative to
relieve colic and as a diuretic. Also used for prostate problems and difficulties associated with

Mariola (Parthenium incanum): The cold tea is taken for liver pain and for gallbladder
spasms with semi-formed diarrhea. Small amounts of the tea are taken for pregnancy
morning sickness. The salted tea is gargled and swallowed to relieve sore throats and
tonsillitis. Cold infusion of the herb, 2-4 fluid ounces up to 45 times a day. For morning
sickness, 1-2 fluid ounces up to 4 times a day

Marjoram, Sweet (Origanum majorana) Has digestive, antispasmodic, carminative,
diaphoretic and diuretic properties. Marjoram tea aids digestion, increases sweating and
encourages menstruation. In tests, it inhibits viruses such as herpes 1 and is an antioxidant
that helps preserve foods containing it. As a steam inhalant, marjoram clears the sinuses and
helps relieve laryngitis. Particularly helpful for gastritis and a weak tea is good for colic in
children. The plant is also sometimes made into an herb pillow for rheumatic pains.

Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris) Dr. Withering described a case in which a large bouquet
of marsh marigolds brought into the sickroom of a spasmodic girl stopped her fits. The cure
was presumed a result of whatever the flowers exude. Since then, the infusions have also
been used to prevent fits. A decoction of the herb has been used for dropsy and in urinary
affections. The root tea induces sweating, is an emetic and an expectorant. The leaf tea is a
diuretic and a laxative. Ojibwas mixed tea with maple sugar to make a cough syrup that was
popular with colonists. The syrup was used as a folk antidote to snake venom. The plant
contains anemonin and protoanemonin both with marginal antitumor activity. It has also been
used to treat warts: a drop of the leaf juice was applied daily until the wart disappeared. The
Chippewa applied the dried powdered and moistened or fresh root of cowslip twice daily to
cure scrofula sores.

Marshmallow (Althea officinalis): Used whenever a soothing effect is needed, marsh
mallow protects and soothes the mucous membranes. The root counters excess stomach
acid, peptic ulceration, and gastritis. It reduces the inflammation of gall stones. Marsh mallow
is also mildly laxative and beneficial for many intestinal problems, including regional ileitis,
colitis, diverticulitis, and irritable bowel syndrome Marshmallow‘s ability to bind and eliminate
toxins allows the body to cleanse itself. For this reason, it is added to arthritis, laxative,
infection, female tonic, vermifuge and other cleansing formulas. Taken as a warm infusion,
the leaves treat cystitis and frequent urination. Marsh mallow‘s demulcent qualities bring
relief to dry coughs, bronchial asthma, bronchial congestion, and pleurisy. The flowers,
crushed fresh or in a warm infusion, are applied to help soothe inflamed skin. The root is
used in an ointment for boils and abscesses, and in a mouthwash for inflammation. The
peeled root may be given as a chewstick to teething babies. The dried root contains up to
35% of mucilage, 38% of starch and 10% of pectin and sugar. Extracts have to be made with
cold water if they are to contain the mucilage and not the starch, the latter dissolving only in
hot water. If marsh mallow is to be used for gargling rather than taken internally as a tea, the
starch will be of additional benefit. Marsh mallow root is very high in pectin. Taking pectin is
an effective way to keep blood sugar levels down. The root boiled in milk, will prove
beneficial in treating diarrhea and dysentery. It will also enrich the milk of nursing mothers,
and at the same time increase milk flow. Combining both Blessed Thistle and Marshmallow
for enriched milk is especially effective. Marshmallow‘s ability to bind and eliminate toxins
allows the body to cleanse itself. For this reason, it is added to arthritis, laxative, infection,
female tonic, vermifuge and other cleansing formulas.

Masterwort, Great (Astrantia major): The rhizomes and flowering stems have medicinal
action. Their main constituent is an essential oil that acts as a stomachic. In herbal medicine
the dried herb is used in an infusion or as a powder to promote the flow of digestive juices
and thus stimulate the appetite. Great masterwort is also included in diuretic tea mixtures. A
decoction of the root is purgative.

Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus): Stimulant, diuretic. It has many of the properties of the
coniferous turpentines and was formerly greatly used in medicine. Of late years it has chiefly
been used for filling carious teeth, either alone or in spirituous solution, and for varnishes, and
in the East in the manufacture of sweets and cordials. In the East it is still used medicinally in
the diarrhoea of children and masticated to sweeten the breath. The most effective oil for
treating varicose veins is mastic (Pistacia lentiscus), but it is very expensive and ill smelling. A
good substitute is cypress oil. A blend for external use can be made by combining several
essential oils: 10 drops cypress or 5 drops mastic; 10 drops lavender or geranium; 5 drops
rosemary or juniper; and 5 drops chamomile. A massage oil can be made by adding 15 drops
of this essential oil blend to an ounce of carrier oil, which should be rubbed gently into the
legs several times each day. Always massage above the varicose area. For hemorrhoids, mix
one tablespoon KY jelly to 10 drops of the essential oil blend, then apply.

Maturique (Cacalia decomposita): The roots are used to treat adult-onset, insulin-resistant
diabetes. An eighth of an ounce is taken in a cold infusion once or twice a day for several
days, then handing to Bricklebush for maintenance. Maturique seems to be the best initial
therapy when a person is overweight, soft and tired. But it is strong and most people who use
it slip into a gentler approach for the long haul. The root tea or tincture is an excellent liniment
for sprains, hyperextensions, and acute arthritis. Folk uses also includes the plant as a
purgative, and wounds. The dried rhizome and root may work to prevent gluconeogenesis
(the formation of glycogen from noncarbohydrates such as protein or fat, by conversion of the
later into glucose) in the liver. Its method of action is unclear, but it appears to dramatically
lower serum-glucose.

Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum ) In New England the root was used to stimulate glands
and for gastrointestinal disorders. The root was also used as a tonic for liver, lung, and
stomach ailments. A decoction was made by boiling the roots in water and was used to treat
rheumatism. This was also used on chickens who had diarrhea. Years ago it was used as a
poison for eliminating chipmunks. Taken internally it is a powerful stimulant to the liver and
intestines. It is a very strong glandular stimulant and useful for treating chronic liver diseases,
promoting bile flow and digestion, and in the elimination of obstructions and skin problems.
            The wart-removing drugs are produced from podophyllotoxin—found in mayapple
rhizomes. Its application must be restricted to abnormal tissue only. The compound is
thought to interfere with the wart‘s development and blood supply. The podophyllotoxin in
mayapple has been found to stimulate the immune system while suppressing lymph cells. It
is more toxic to leukemia cells than to normal cells. The tumor inhibitor was actually
discovered in 1958, but the compound created digestive-tract irritations too severe to make it
practical. Now a semisynthetic derivative, etoposide, is being used for chemotherapy in
Europe to treat lung cancer and cancer of the testicles. It has been shown to restrict the
activity of an enzyme necessary for the reproduction of cancer cells. It was introduced in
1985 under the trade name Vepeside®.
           Traditionally, podophyllotoxin has been collected from the roots of podophyllum
emodi. It is a wild plant that grows only in the Himalayan Mountains. However, the plant has
been declared endangered because too much of it has been collected in India. Decreasing
supplies of the plant in India have resulted in export restrictions. Attempts to make copies of
the cancer-fighting substance have proven costly. Now, researchers from the United States
Agriculture Department and the University of Mississippi have developed a way to get
podophyllotoxin from the mayapple plant. The researchers believe that both the mayapple
and podophyllum emodi produce the substance as a form of protection against insects and
other plant-eating creatures. The plants store the substance until they are attacked.
            The American researchers say their method is successful because it makes the
mayapple think it is being attacked. This results in the release of large amounts of
podophyllotoxin. They say their system to remove podophyllotoxin from the mayapple is fast,
effective and low cost. The researchers say the mayapple plant provides a plentiful and
renewable supply of the substance. And they add there may be increased demand for the
mayapple plant as a crop if the method becomes widely used.

Mayflower, Canada (Maianthemum canadense): A tea made from the plant has been used
in the treatment of headaches and as a kidney tonic for pregnant women. It is also used as a
gargle for sore throats and as an expectorant.
Meadow Rue (Thalictrum aquilegifolium) Meadow rue is a purgative and diuretic. It is a
bitter digestive tonic that contains berberine or a similar alkaloid. The leaves were sometimes
added to spruce beer in the 19 century as a digestive tonic.

Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria ) Meadowsweet is used to treat rheumatism, fevers,
and pain in much the same way as aspirin is used, but it contains buffering agents that
counter the drug‘s side effects, such as gastric bleeding. In fact, it prevents overacidity in the
stomach and is considered one of the best herbal treatments for heartburn. It would seem
that reducing acidity within the stomach can help to reduce acid levels in the body as a whole,
thereby helping joint problems (which are associated with acidity). It also improves digestion
and helps to heal ulcers. An antiseptic diuretic that promotes uric acid excretion, it is used for
urinary tract problems. Meadowsweet is also occasionally used for cystitis. It was once the
treatment of choice for children‘s diarrhea. The cleansing diuretic effect has given
meadowsweet a reputation for clearing the skin and resolving rashes. Given its mild
antiseptic action it makes a good remedy for cystitis and urethritis, fluid retention and kidney
problems. The salicylate salts are said to soften deposits in the body such as kidney stones
and gravel, as well as arteriosclerosis in the arteries. Meadowsweet reduces fevers by
suppressing the sympathetic temperature regulation center.

Melilot (Melilotus officinalis) As with horse chestnut, long-term use of melilot—internally or
externally—can help varicose veins and hemorrhoids. Melilot also helps reduce the risk of
phlebitis and thrombosis. The plant is mildly sedative and antispasmodic, and is given for
insomnia (especially in children) and anxiety. It has been used to treat gas and indigestion,
bronchitis, problems associated with menopause and rheumatic pains. The infusion prepared
with the dried parts has digestive and carminative properties. The dried leaves have a scar-
forming action and also repel moths. Yellow melilot is used in poultices and salves for boils,
swellings, arthritis, rheumatism and headaches. For centuries there was a salve called simply
Melilot. It was compounded of the juice of young green Melilot plants boiled with rosin, wax,
sheep tallow, and a little turpentine. It was used to draw and heal all kinds of wounds and
sores and remained popular for centuries. A similar Melilot plaster can still be purchased
today in many parts of Europe. The tea is used to wash sores and wounds and as an
antinflammatory eye wash. For headaches and joint pains, try making melilot into an herb
pillow. In Germany, powdered melilot is mixed with an equal amount of water to make a
poultice for treating hemorrhoids.
         In Chinese medicine, it is considered sedative and astringent. When taken internally,
it imparts its sweet fragrance to the body.

Mexican Marigold Mint (Tagetes lucida): internally for diarrhea, indigestion, nausea, colic,
hiccups, malaria, and feverish illnesses. Externally for scorpion bites and to remove ticks.

Mexican Poppy (Argemone mexicana ) The fresh latex of Mexican poppy contains protein-
dissolving constituents, and is used to treat warts, cold sores, and blemishes on the lips. The
whole plant acts as a mild painkiller. An infusion of the seeds—in small quantities—is used in
Cuba as a sedative for children suffering from asthma. In greater quantities, the oil in the
seeds is purgative. The flowers are expectorant, and are good for treating coughs and other
chest conditions.
The juice of the plant has a rubifacient and slightly caustic effect; used straight for warts,
diluted for skin ulcerations, externally. The fresh juice, greatly diluted, has a long traditional
history as a treatment for opacities of the cornea. The preserved juice, with three or four
parts water, can be used for heat rash, hives, and jock itch. One-half teaspoon in water in the
morning for a few days will lessen the irritability of urethra and prostate inflammations. The
whole plant can be boiled into a strong tea and used for bathing sunburned and abraded
areas for relief of pain. The dried plant is a feeble opiate and helps to reduce pain and bring
sleep, a rounded tablespoon in t4ea. The seeds are a strong cathartic, a teaspoon or two
crushed in water and drunk. They have somewhat of a sedative and narcotic effect when
eaten and have traditionally been smoked alone or with tobacco.

Mi Meng Hua (Buddleia officinalis): The flowers and flower buds have an action similar to
vitamin P, reducing the permeability and fragility of the blood vessels of the skin and small
intestine. They are used in the treatment of various eye problems like night blindness,
cataract and eyestrain. They are also used in the treatment of gonorrhea, hepatitis and hernia.
A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of collyrium. Also used in the treatment of
gonorrhea, hepatitis and hernia. The root has been used for asthma and coughing with blood.
Leaf used as decoction for collyrium, used in gonorrhea, hepatitis, hernia.

Milk Thistle (Silybum Marianum)             - Silymarin is poorly soluble in water, so aqueous
preparations such as teas are ineffective, except for use as supportive treatment in
gallbladder disorders because of cholagogic and spasmolytic effects. The drug is best
administered parenterally because of poor absorption of silymarin from the gastrointestinal
tract. The drug must be concentrated for oral use. Silymarin‘s hepatoprotective effects may
be explained by its altering of the outer liver cell membrane structure, as to disallow entrance
of toxins into the cell. This alteration involves silymarin‘s ability to block the toxin‘s binding
sites, thus hindering uptake by the cell. Hepatoprotection by silymarin can also be attributed
to its antioxidant properties by scavenging prooxidant free radicals and increasing intracellular
concentration of glutathione, a substance required for detoxicating reactions in liver cells.
Silymarin‘s mechanisms offer many types of therapeutic benefit in cirrhosis with the main
benefit being hepatoprotection. Use of milk thistle, however, is inadvisable in decompensated
cirrhosis. In patients with acute viral hepatitis, silymarin shortened treatement time and
showed improvement in serum levels of bilirubin, AST and ALT.

Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) A root decoction (either fresh or dried) strengthens the heart
in a different way from digitalis, and without the foxglove derivative‘s toxicity. It also soothes
the nerves and is listed as an emetic, anthelmintic (kills worms) and stomach tonic. It helps
relieve edema probably by strengthening the heart. It‘s also a diaphoretic and expectorant.
It‘s used for coughs, colds, arthritis aggravated by the cold, threatened inflammation of the
lungs, asthma, bronchitis, female disorders, diarrhea and gastric mucus. The milky sap is
used topically, fresh or dried, to reduce warts.
The root is emetic and cathartic in large doses. In average doses it is considered diuretic,
expectorant and diaphoretic. It is said to produce temporary sterility if taken as a tea.
HOMEOPATHIC: Used for afflictions of the nerves and the urinary tract and for pressing

Milkweed, South African (Asclepias physocarpa): It is used for intestinal troubles in
children or as a remedy for colds. The powdered leaves were dried for snuff.

Milkwort, Fringed (Polygala paucifolia): Its primary purpose is antiseptic, to heal broken
skin and infected sores The milky exudation was also thought to quicken the removal of
deposits from the bowels and kidneys. Fringed milkwort possesses similar properties to
Milkwort (Polygala vulgaris), and may be employed as a substitute. The root of has a pleasant,
spicy flavor, very similar to that of gaultheria. In doses of from 3 to 10 grains, bitter polygala is
an excellent bitter tonic; from 10 to 30 grains act upon the bowels, and cause slight
diaphoresis. An infusion has been found beneficial as a tonic in debility of the digestive
organs. It may be used in all cases where a bitter tonic is indicated.

Miner’s Lettuce (Montia perfoliata): Apart from its value as a nourishing vegetable, miner‘s
lettuce, like its relative purslane, may be taken as a spring tonic and an effective diuretic.

Mint (Mentha spp): Ayurvedic physicians have used mint for centuries as a tonic and
digestive aid and as a treatment for colds, cough, and fever. Medieval German
abbess/herbalist Hildegard of Bingen recommended mint for digestion and gout. Shortly after
Culpeper wrote about the benefits of mint, peppermint and spearmint were differentiated, and
herbalists decided the former was the better digestive aid, cough remedy, and treatment for
colds and fever. Spearmint cannot replace peppermint in combined bile and liver or nerve
herbal teas even though it is used as a stomachic and carminative.
The Chinese use bo he ( M. arvensis) as a cooling remedy for head colds and influenza and
also for some types of headaches, sore throats, and eye inflammations. As a liver stimulant,
it is added to remedies for digestive disorders or liver qi (energy) stagnation). Disperses
wind-heat: for patterns of wind-heat with fever, headache and cough. Clears the head and
eyes and benefits the throat: for patterns of wind-heat with sore throat, red eyes, and
headache. Vents rashes: used in the early stages of rashes such as measles to induce the
rash to come to the surface and thereby speed recovery.
Peppermint also contains antioxidants that help prevent cancer, heart disease and other
diseases associated with aging. From Jim Duke‘s ―Green Pharmacy‖ comes a Stone Tea for
gallstone attach: brew a mint tea from as many mints as possible especially spearmint and
peppermint and add some cardamom, the richest source of borneol, another compound that
is helpful.
The oil of peppermint has been shown to be antimicrobial and antiviral against Newcastle
disease, herpes simplex, vaccinia, Semliki Forest and West Nile viruses.
Menthol is an allergic sensitizer that may cause hives. The menthol in oil of peppermint is an
effective local anesthetic. It increases the sensitivity of the receptors in the skin that perceive
the sensation of coolness and reduces the sensitivity of the receptors that perceive pain and
itching. Menthol is also a counterirritant, an agent that causes the small blood vessels under
the skin to dilate, increasing the flow of blood to the area and making the skin feel warm.
When you apply a skin lotion made with menthol, your skin feels cool for a minutes, then
warm. Menthol‘s anesthetic properties also make it useful in sprays and lozenges for sore

Mint, Habek (Mentha longifolia): A popular traditional medicine. It is mainly used for
respiratory ailments but many other uses have also been recorded. It is mostly the leaves that
are used, usually to make a tea that is drunk for coughs, colds, stomach cramps, asthma,
flatulence, indigestion and headaches. Externally, wild mint has been used to treat wounds
and swollen glands. The infusion of leaves is taken as a cooling medicine. Dried leaves and
flowers tops are carminative and stimulant. It is believed to the best remedy for
headaches. In parts of Africa it is used for opthalmatic diseases. The leaves are harvested
as the plant comes into flower and can be dried for later use. It will make a soothing drink for
coughs and colds. The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic, though it is toxic in large doses.
Externally it has been used to treat wounds and swollen glands.

Mint, Japanese (Mentha arvensis piperascens): Japanese mint, like many other members
of this genus, is often used as a domestic herbal remedy, being valued especially for its
antiseptic properties and its beneficial effect on the digestion. A tea made from the leaves has
traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, digestive disorders and various
minor ailments. The leaves are a classical remedy for stomach cancer. It is said to relieve hay
fever symptoms within minutes. The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic, though can be
toxic in large doses.

Mint, River (Mentha australis): The river mint is widespread in inland areas of Australia and
was used as a medicinal plant by the Aborigines. It was boiled in water and used for the relief
of coughs and colds. It is recorded the plant was used by the Aborigines to induce
abortions. It was also used by early settlers as a tonic. A tea made from the leaves of most
mint species has traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, digestive
disorders and various minor ailments. The leaves are harvested as the plant comes into
flower and can be dried for later use. The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic, though it is
toxic in large doses and can cause abortions.

Mistletoe (Viscum album): Despite the traditional belief that European and American
mistletoe have opposite actions, science has found out that they contain similar active
chemicals and have similar effects. Mistletoe has the ability to slow the pulse, stimulate
gastrointestional and uterine contractions, and lower blood pressure.
       European mistletoe is chiefly used to lower blood pressure and heart rate, ease anxiety,
and promote sleep. In low doses it also relieves panic attacks, headaches, and improves
concentration. European mistletoe is also prescribed for tinnitus and epilepsy. In
anthroposophical medicine, extracts of the berries are injected to treat cancer.
European mistletoe‘s efficacy as an anticancer treatment has been subject to a significant
amount of research. Studies going back 25 years show mistletoe impairs the growth of test-
tube tumor cells. In Germany three mistletoe-based chemotherapy agents are administered
by injection to treat human cancers. The great advantage offered by mistletoe extracts is that
unlike other chemotherapeutic drugs, their immunostimulant and tonic effects are nontoxic
and well tolerated. There is no doubt that certain constituents, especially the viscotoxins,
exhibit an anticancer activity, but the value of the whole plant in cancer treatment is not fully
Several Indian tribes used American mistletoe to induce abortions and it stimulate
contractions during childbirth. Koreans use mistletoe tea to treat colds, muscle weakness and
arthritis. Chinese physicians prescribe the dried inner stems as a laxative, digestive aid,
sedative and uterine relaxant during pregnancy.

Mockernut (Carya alba): The inner bark has been used as a dressing for cuts and has also
been chewed to treat sore mouths.

Mosote (Priva lappulacea): The plant is used in Choco cough medicine. For internal
parasites, boil a handful of leaves in 3 cups of water for 10 minutes; drink 3 cups of tea daily
for 3 days, followed by a purge. Leaves parched over a flame are powdered and applied to
sores, infections, wounds, and fungal conditions. Mash leaves into a poultice and rub juice on
itching skin condition or rashes.

Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca ) Motherwort is primarily an herb of the heart. Several
species have sedative effects, decreasing muscle spasms and temporarily lowering blood
pressure. Chinese studies found that extracts decrease clotting and the level of fat in the
blood and can slow heart palpatations and rapid heartbeat. Another of motherwort‘s uses is
to improve fertility and reduce anxiety associated with childbirth, postpartum depression, and
menopause. If used in early labor it will ease labor pains and calms the nerves after childbirth.
Take motherwort only once soon after giving birth as consistent use before the uterus has
clamped down may cause bleeding to continue. Use one to two times a day in the weeks
following birth for easing tension and supporting a woman through the feelings that come with
new mothering. Do not use during pregnancy. Motherwort helps bring on a delayed or
suppressed menstrual flow, especially when someone is anxious and tense. Chinese women
often use it combined with dong quai as a menstrual regulator. Avoid using for menstrual
cramps when bleeding is heavy. It strengthens and relaxes the uterine muscles and eases
uterine cramping. It also reduces fevers, and is especially suggested for illnesses
associated with nervousness or delirium. Motherwort was formerly used to treat rheumatism
and lung problems, like bronchitis and asthma. Motherwort may help an overactive thyroid
but does not depress normal thyroid function. Tincture the leaves and flowers as soon as
you pick them. If you prefer to dry them, lay the leaves and stalks onto screens. Motherwort
tea has a very bitter taste. Chinese medicine uses the seeds to aid in urination; cool the body
system; treat excessive menstrual flow, absence of menstruation.

Mouse Ear (Pilosella officinarum) Mouse-ear hawkweed relaxes the muscles of the
bronchial tubes, stimulates the cough reflex and reduces the production of mucus. It is used
for respiratory problems where there is a lot of mucus being formed, with soreness and
possibly even the coughing of blood. It is considered a specific in cases of whooping cough.
It may also be found beneficial in bronchitis or bronchitic asthma. The astringency and the
diuretic action also help to counter the production of mucus, sometimes throughout the
respiratory system. The herb is used to control heavy menstrual bleeding and to ease the
coughing up of blood. Externally it may be used as a poultice to aid wound-healing or
specifically to treat hernias and fractures. A powder made from it was used to stem
nosebleeds. The tea is an occasional home remedy for fever and diarrhea.

Mozote (Triumfetta semitriloba): In Costa Rica, mozote is used as a treatment for colds and
diarrhea. The aqueous extract in Costa Rican folk medicine as remedy for the treatment of
peptic ulcer. Mexicans use a decoction of the root for treating venereal disease, as well as
kidney and liver problems, while a more astringent leaf decoction is used in Yucatan to treat
hemorrhoids and leucorrhea

Mu Tung (Akebia quinata): A popular traditional remedy for insufficient lactation in nursing
mothers is to simmer 10-15 grams of this herb together with pork knuckles for 3 hours, adding
water as needed, then drinking the herbal broth throughout the day.
Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris)-- The classic herb for premenstrual symptoms, used in tea
and the bath. Use a standard infusion of two teaspoons per cup of water steeped for 20
minutes, take ¼ cup flour times a day. It makes a good foot bath for tired feet and legs.
Cleansing to the liver, it promotes digestion. Mugwort is an emmenagogue, especially when
combined with pennyroyal, blue cohosh, or angelica root. It is helpful in epilepsy, palsy, and
hysteria              and              is          useful              for              fevers.
HOMEOPATHIC: Homeopaths use Artemisia vulgaris for petit mal epilepsy, somnambulism,
profuse perspiration that smells like garlic and dizziness caused by colored lights. It is
especially effective when given with wine.

Mugwort, Mountain (Artemisia franserioides): As a cold and flu medicine it is drunk cold to
settle the stomach, and hot to bring on and to reduce fever. It also is brewed as a bitter tonic
for stomach pains and acidosis from greasy and rancid foods. Also used for diarrhea.

Mugwort, Wild (Artemisia lactiflora): White mugwort is a bitter aromatic tonic herb. The
leaves and flowering stems are used internally in traditional Chinese medicine to treat
menstrual and liver disorders.

Muira Puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides (Liriosma ovata is a different species but often
used interchangeably) Historically, all parts of the plants have been used medicinally, but
the bark and roots are the primary parts of the plant utilized. It has long been used in the
Amazon by indigenous peoples for a number of purposes and found its way into herbal
medicine in South America and Europe in the 1920's. Indigenous tribes in Brazil use the roots
and bark taken internally as a tea for treating sexual debility and impotency, neuromuscular
problems, rheumatism, grippe, cardiac asthenia, gastrointestinal asthenia and to prevent
baldness. It is also used externally in baths and massages for treating paralysis and beri-beri.
       Muira puma has a long history in herbal medicine as an aphrodisiac, a tonic for the
nervous system an antirheumatic and for gastrointestinal disorders. In 1925, a
pharamacological study was published on muira puama which indicated it effectiveness in
treating disorders of the nervous system and sexual impotency which indicated that
"permanent effect is produced in locomotor ataxia, neuralgias of long standing, chronic
rheumatism, and partial paralysis." In 1930, Penna wrote about Muira puama in his book and
cited physiological and therapeutic experiments conducted in France by Dr. Rebourgeon
which confirmed the efficacy of the plant for "gastrointestinal and circulatory asthenia and
impotency of the genital organs." Two closely related species of Ptychopetalum were used
interchangeably when it became popular in the 1920's and 30's - P. olacoides and P.
uncinatum and a third species, Liriosma ovata syn Dulacia inopiflora, (which also had a
common name of muira puama) was used as well. Early European explorers noted the
indigenous uses and the aphrodisiac qualities of muira puama and brought it back to Europe,
where it has become part of the herbal medicine of England. Because of the long history of
use of Muira puama in England, it is still listed in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, a noted
source on herbal medicine from the British Herbal Medicine Association, where it is
recommended for the treatment of dysentery and impotence. It has been in the Brazilian
Pharmacopeia since the 1950's.
         Scientists began searching for the active components in the root and bark of Muira
puama to determine the reasons for it efficacy in the 1920's. Early research discovered that
the root and bark were rich in free fatty acids, essential oil, plant sterols, and a new alkaloid
which they named "muirapuamine." Since it continued to be used throughout the world as an
aphrodisiac and treatment for impotency as well as for hookworms, dysentery, rheumatism
and central nervous system disorders with success, scientists began researching the plant's
constituents and pharmacological properties again in the late 1960's, continuing on until the
late 1980's.
         Muira puama is still employed around the world today in herbal medicine. In Brazil
and South American herbal medicine, it is used a neuromuscular tonic, for asthenia, paralysis,
chronic rheumatism, sexual impotency, grippe, ataxia, and central nervous system disorders
In Europe, it is used to treat impotency, infertility, neurasthenia, menstrual disturbances and
dysentery. It has been gaining in popularity in the United States where herbalists and health
care practitioners are using muira puama for impotency, menstrual cramps and PMS,
neurasthenia and central nervous system disorders. The benefits in treating impotency with
muira puama has recently been studied in two human trials which showed that Muira puama
was proven to be effective in improving libido and treating erectile dysfunction. In a study
conducted in Paris, France, of 262 male patients experiencing lack of sexual desire and the
inability to attain or maintain an erection, 62% of the patients with loss of libido reported that
the extract of muira puama "had a dynamic effect" and 51% of patients with erectile
dysfunctions felt that muira puama was beneficial. The second study conducted by Waynberg
in France evaluated the positive psychological benefits of Muira puama in 100 men with male
sexual asthenia.
        It is important to note that to achieve the beneficial effects of the plant, proper
preparation methods must be employed. The active constituents found in the natural bark
thought to be responsible for Muira Puama's effect are not water soluble nor are they broken
down in the digestive process. Therefore taking a ground bark or root powder in a capsule or
tablet will not be very effective. High heat for at least 20 minutes or longer in alcohol in
necessary to dissolve and extract the volatile and essential oils, terpenes, gums and resins
found in the bark and root that have been linked to Muira Puama's beneficial effects.

Mullein (Verbascum thrapsis): One of the primary herbs for any lung problem, including
whooping cough, asthma, bronchitis and chest colds. It was traditionally smoked for lung
conditions. It is also a diuretic used to relieve urinary tract inflammation, diarrhea, and
inflammation, colitis, or other bleeding in the bowel. The flowers extracted into olive oil make
a preparation that is known to reduce the pain and inflammation of earache, insect bites,
bruises, hemorrhoids, and sore joints. A distilled flower water or a poultice has been placed
on burns, ringworm, boils and sores. The leaves are used in homeopathic products for
migraine and earache.

Mustard, Chinese (Brassica cernua): The seeds treat pain in nerves, arthritis, pneumonia

Mustard, Tansy (Descurainia pinnata): The Navajo and Cahuilla Indians used this plant for
medicinal purposes. The ground up seeds was used in the treatment of stomach complaints.
A poultice of the plant has been used to ease the pain of toothache. An infusion of the leaves
has been used as a wash on sores.

Mustard, Tumble (Sisymbrium altissimum): The leaves and flowers have medicinal
properties that has been used to cause tissue to contract. They also contain an agent that is
effective against scurvy.

Mustard, Wormseed (Erysimum cheiranthoides): A drink made from the crushed seed is
used as a vermifuge. It is intensely bitter but has been used on children and expels the worms
both by vomit and by excretion. A decoction of the root has been applied to skin eruptions.
Occasionally used as an anthelmintic. It is also used in folk medicine to treat rhueumatism,
jaundice, dropsy and asthma. The root mixed in water was applied to skin eruptions

Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha): Germany‘s Commission E has endorsed powdered myrrh for
the treatment of mild inflammations of the mouth and throat because it contains high amounts
of tannins. Myrrh improves digestion, diarrhea and immunity. It treats coughs, gum disease,
wounds, candida, overactive thyroid and scanty menstruation. Used for: amenorrhea,
dysmenorrhea, menopause, cough, asthma, bronchitis, arthritis, rheumatism, traumatic
injuries, ulcerated surfaces, anemia, pyorrhea. Used to kill yeast (10 capsules daily).
Myrrh is used internally for stomach complaints, tonsillitis, phayrngitis and gingivitis, and
externally for ulcers, boils and wounds. Acts directly and rapidly on peptic glands to increase
activity, in this way increasing digestion. Promotes absorption and assimilation of nutrients.
Good for obesity and diabetes. For inner ear infections, combine equal parts of echinacea
and mullein with one-part myrrh to make a tea.
Increases circulation, stimulates flow of blood to capillaries. Clears out mucus-clogged
passages throughout the body. Antiseptic to mucus membranes, regulates secretions of
these tissues. Good for glandular fever, fever symptoms like cold skin, weak pulse.
Research suggests that it can lower blood cholesterol levels. In China, it is taken to move
blood and relieve painful swellings. For an infusion that might help prevent heart disease, use
1 teaspoon of powdered herb per cup of boiling water. Steep 10 minutes. Drink up to 2 cups
a day. Myrrh tastes bitter and unpleasant. Add sugar, honey and lemon or mix it into an
herbal beverage blend to improve flavor.

Myrtle (Myrtus communis): The plant is powerfully antiseptic owing to the myrtol it contains
and it has good astringent properties. In medicine the leaves were used for their stimulating
effect on the mucous membranes, and for the chest pains and dry coughs of consumptive

Myrtle, Lemon-Scented (Backhousia citriodora): Made as a tea for coughs, colds and
other respiratory ailments, sinus and stress. Lemon myrtle tea is used for free blood flow and
to make the blood less sticky. Singers have also told us lemon myrtle tea is a good tonic for
their throats.

                                          -N HERBS-

Naked Broom Rape (Orobanche uniflora): Used for both its laxative and sedative
properties. Folkloric use has been as a remedy for cancer.

Nasturtium, (Tropaeolum majus): Nasturtium is an antiseptic and digestive herb, also used
to treat respiratory and urinary disorders; seeds are a vermifuge and crushed for use in
poultices for boils and sores.

Negrito (Simarouba glauca): Researchers have confirmed strong antiviral properties of
the bark in vitro against herpes, influenza, polio, and vaccinia viruses. Another area of
research on simarouba and its plant chemicals has focused on cancer and leukemia. The
quassinoids responsible for the anti-amebic and antimalarial properties have also shown in
clinical research to possess active cancer-killing properties.

Nepitella, (Calamintha nepeta) Calamintha nepita breaks a fever by promoting sweating. It
is also used as an expectorant and helps to cure jaundice. Effective when applied to snake
bites and insect stings. In the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, a study reported in 1993
showed that Calamintha nepita when analyzed for its antimicrobial and fungicide activities it
was found to have a biotoxic effect.

Neroli, (Citrus aurantium ssp. Aurantium)—bitter orange: The strongly acidic fruit of the
bitter orange stimulates the digestion and relieves flatulence. An infusion of the fruit is
thought to soothe headaches, calm palpitations and lower fevers. The juice helps the body
eliminate waste products, and, being rich in vitamin C, helps the immune system ward off
infection. If taken to excess, however, its acid content can exacerbate arthritis. In Chinese
herbal medicine, the unripe fruit, known as zhi shi, is thought to “regulate the qi” helping to
relieve flatulence and abdominal bloating, and to open the bowels. The distilled flower water
is antispasmodic and sedative.

Nettles (Urtica dioica): Nettle leaves are a blood builder often used as a spring tonic and to
treat anemia and poor circulation. They contain both iron and vitamin C, which aids iron
absorption. In the past, nettle was eaten or sipped to reduce uric acid and to treat gout and
arthritis. It encouraged mother‘s milk, lowers blood sugar and decreases profuse
menstruation. It acts as a light laxative and diuretic (possibly due to its flavonoids and high
potassium content). Both a tea and a poultice of cooked nettles are used to treat eczema and
other skin conditions (combines well with figwort and burdock). An astringent that stops
bleeding, the powder is snuffed to stop nosebleeds. Curled dock leaves provide a remedy for
the nettle‘s sting and the fresh juice of nettles themselves relieves the sting as well. Nettle is
used by asthmatics-mix the juice of the leaves or roots with honey, take to relieve bronchial or
asthmatic troubles. The seeds were once thought to allay consumption, the infusion being
taken in wine glass doses. They were also given in wine as a cure for ague, in powder form
they were used for goiter, also important in reducing diets. It was thought that a fever could
be cured by pulling a nettle up by the roots, reciting the names of the sick man and his
parents. Nettle tea was once used for dropsy and as a diuretic. Tincture of nettle is made of
2 oz of the green herb to one pint of proof spirit; Infusions are made by adding 1 oz of the
herb to a pint of boiling water.

Nettle, Bull (Solanum eleagnifolium): Treats cutaneous diseases, syphilitic conditions,
excites venereal functions, leprosy, teeter, eczema, scrofula, rheumatic and cachectic
affections, ill-conditioned ulcers, glandular swellings, obstructed menstruation, and as a
treatment of cancers. Tea is taken 1-2 cups is good for skin/hair diseases and worms. Bark in
vodka is taken a few drops at a time for heart disease. Externally 1 lb of bark is heated slowly
in 1 lb of lard for 8 hours treats painful tumors, ulcers, irritated skin, piles, burns, scalds, etc..

New Jersey Tea (Ceanothus americanus) The bark of the red roots was used as a
sedative, stimulant, and antispasmodic and for treating respiratory diseases, high blood
pressure, and enlarged spleens.        The plant has been used to treat gonorrhea, dysentery,
and eye disease in children. The root is reported to be a stimulant, a sedative, and a means
of loosening phlegm. Much later, a commercial preparation of the bark was used to prevent
hemorrhaging after surgery. New Jersey tea root-bark has been recommended for various
chest problems, including chronic bronchitis, nervous asthma, whooping cough, and
consumption. It has also been used as a gargle for inflammations and irritations in the mouth
and throat, particularly for swollen tonsils. American Indians used a tea made from the whole
plant for skin problems (including skin cancer and venereal sores). Ceanothus is one of the
few remedies which has a direct affinity for the malfunction of the spleen, and is of special
help in all ailments where there is despondency and melancholy. It is an indirect herbal agent
for diabetes. Especially useful in nervousness when mentally disturbed, bilious sick
headache, acute indigestion and nausea due to inactivity of the liver. The astringent action of
a strong tea for hemorrhoids will decrease the tissue if used often. Red Root is a lymphatic
remedy, stimulating lymph and interstitial-fluid circulation.       It prevents the buildup of
congested fluids in lymphatic tissue as well as clearning out isolated fluid cysts that may form
in some soft tissues. It will help reabsorption of some ovarian cysts and testicular hydroceles
when combined with Dong Quai or Blue Cohosh and Helonias Roots. For breast cysts that
enlarge and shrink with the estrous cycle and have been diagnosed medically as such,
combine the Red Root with Cotton Root, Inmortal, or 3-5 drop doses of Phytolacca tincture.
         It is an excellent treatment for tonsil inflammations, sore throats, enlarged lymph
nodes, and chronic adenoid enlargements.

Nigella, (Nigella sativa): Nigella is considered carminative, a stimulant, and diuretic. A
paste of the seeds is applied for skin eruptions and is sure to relieve scorpion stings. The
seeds are antiseptic and used to treat intestinal worms, especially in children. The seeds are
much used in India to increase breast milk. The seeds are often scattered between folds of
clothes as an effective insect repellent. Alcoholic extracts of the seeds are used as
stabilizing agents for some edible fats. In India, the seeds are also considered as stimulant,
diaphoretic and emmenagogue. Some of the conditions nigella has been used for include:
eruption fever, puerperium (Iraq); liver disease (Lebanon); cancer (Malaya); joints, bronchial
asthma, eczema, rheumatis (Middle East); with butter for cough and colic (North Africa);
excitant (Spain); boosing immune system, colds (U.S.) A recent study in South Carolina at
the International Immuno-Biology Research Laboratory showed that there was some action
against cancer cells using nigella plant extract.

Ningpo Figwort (Scrophularia ningpoensis): A bitter, saline, cooling herb that lowers fever,
blood pressure, and blood sugar, and has antibacterial effects. Small doses act as a heart
tonic; large doses depress cardiac function. The root is used internally for feverish illnesses
with symptoms such as rashes, delirium, and insomnia (associated with excess heat), dry
cough, throat infections, abscesses, and carbuncles. Small doses are cardiotonic; large doses
impeded cardiac functions; the drug also lowers blood sugar.

       Nutmeg, California (Torreya californica): The nuts have been chewed as a
treatment for indigestion. A decoction of the nuts has been used in the treatment of
tuberculosis. The crushed seeds have been rubbed on the temples in the treatment of
headaches. They have also been rubbed on the body to cause sweating in the treatment of
chills and fevers.

Okera (Atractylis ovata): The roots are used to treat indigestion, skin problems, diarrhea,
fever, stomach disorders, and night blindness

Orach(e) (Atriplex hortensis, A. patula) Considered diuretic, emetic, and emollient, orache
has been suggested as a folk remedy for plethora and lung ailments. Seeds mixed with wine
are said to cure yellow jaundice. They also excite vomiting. Heated with vinegar, honey and
salt, orache is used for gout. Fruits are purgative and emetic. Liniments and emollients
prepared from the whole plant, like the juice of the plant, are said to be folk remedies for
indurations and tumors, especially of the throat. Used as a spring tonic and stimulant and in
infusions to treat tiredness or exhaustion. A. patula‘s seeds are gathered when just ripe and
a pound (450 g) of them, bruised, is placed in three quarts (3.4 1) of moderate strength spirit.
The whole is left to stand for six weeks, affording a light and not unpleasant tincture. A
tablespoonful of the tincture, taken in a cup of water-gruel, has the same effect as a dose of
Ipecacuanha, except that its operation is milder and it does not bind the bowels afterwards.
After taking the dose, the patient should go to bed. A gentle sweat will follow, carrying off
whatever offending matter the motions have dislodged, thus preventing long disease. As
some stomachs are harder to move than others, a second tablespoonful may be taken if the
first does not perform its office. Native Americans used poultices of the roots, stems and
flowers for relieve of insect stings. Europeans used them to treat gout, jaundice and sore

Oregano, Syrian (Origanum syriacum): Za‘atar has a long history as a medicinal and
flavoring herb. Its thymol concentration is probably responsible for its effective applications in
treating tooth decay, gum infections, and coughs; hyssop tea is drunk after meals to aid

Orris (Iris x germanica var. florentina) Orris was formerly used in upper respiratory tract
catarrh, coughs and for diarrhea in infants. It was used to treat dropsy and has been used as
a snuff for congestive headaches. DRIED ROOT, preferably aged for at least 2 years. ½ to 1
teaspoon in warm water as suspended tea; the pressed "fingers" for teething infants to gum
on. Although sometimes a topical allergen, it is not so internally.

Osha (Ligusticum porteri ) American Indians used this herb to treat all manner of
respiratory ailments: pneumonia, influenza, colds, bronchitis, tuberculosis, hay fever and
asthma. Oshas are emmenagogues. Not recommended for pregnant women. It is used to
treat colds, flu, fevers, cough, cold phlegm diseases, indigestion, gas, delayed menses and
rheumatic complaints. This is one of the most important herbs of the Rocky Mountains,
considered sacred by the Native Americans and widely esteemed by them for its broad and
effective warm healing power. Many tribes burned it as incense for purification, to ward off
gross pathogenic factors and subtle negative influences.

Oxeye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum) ) Used for
gastrointestinal, throat, skin, women‘s circulatory and urinary concerns. Make into infusions,
tinctures, ointments, salves, foot soaks and as a bath herb.

                                          -P- Herbs

Parasol Tree, Chinese (Firmiana simplex): A decoction of the roots is used to reduce
swellings and a lotion of the leaves is used in the treatment of carbuncles, hemorrhoids and
sores. The seeds are used to treat abscesses in the mouth of children and skin
problems. The fruits are a tonic and coked with meat as tonic broth.

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum, P. sativum) Medicinal Use: Chew the leaf raw to freshen
the breath and promote healthy skin. Infuse for a digestive tonic. Bruised leaves have been
used to treat tumors, insect bites, lice and skin parasites and contusions. Parsley tea at one
time was used to treat dysentery and gallstones. Other traditional uses reported include the
treatment of diseases of the prostate, liver and spleen, in the treatment of anemia, arthritis
and cancers, and as an expectorant, antimicrobial, aphrodisiac, hypotensive, laxative and as
a scalp lotion to stimulate hair growth. Use in a poultice as an antiseptic dressing for sprains,
wounds and insect bites. Decoct the root for kidney troubles and as a mild laxative. Apply
juice to reduce swellings. It also stimulates appetite and increases blood flow to digestive
organs, as well as reducing fever. Another constituent, the flavonoid apigenin, reduces
inflammation by inhibiting histamine and is also a free-radical scavenger. The seed, when
decocted, has been used for intermittent fevers. It has also traditionally used as a
carminative to decrease flatulence and colic pain. The seeds have a much stronger diuretic
action than the leaves and may be substituted for celery seeds in the treatment of gout,
rheumatism and arthritis. It is often included in "slimming" teas because of its diuretic action.
Oil of the seed (5-15 drops) has been used to bring on menstruation. Avoid if weak kidneys.

Partridge Berry (Mitchella repens) Medicinal Uses: The Indians ate the berries
and dined on a medicinal jelly when experiencing fever. It has been used to promote
easy labor and prevent miscarriage. It is a nourishing and safe remedy for women
from puberty through menopause, including during pregnancy and lactation,
especially where there is a history of difficult pregnancy or a weak reproductive
system. In cases of chronic weakness or disease, it needs to be taken for 4-8 weeks
before results may be seen. It is a specific treatment for uterine hemorrhage and
therefore it is indicated in menopausal flooding as well as heavy uterine blood loss of
any kind after diagnosis by a health-care provider. Partridge berry may also relieve
painful periods. The dose is limited to one cup of tea of the single herb per day or up
to one-fourth part of a formula by weight, three standard cups per day. Partridge
berry herb does apparently contradictory things: it relaxes pregnant women while it
tones up the uterine and pelvic muscles and it soothes nervous ―jumpiness.‖ Its
actions are astringent (for weak uterine tone, but it is not drying or constipating),
diuretic, emmenagogue and parturient taken during the few weeks before birth. A
well-known early 20 century preparation, called Mother‘s Cordial, combined it with
cram bark, unicorn root, sassafras oil, brandy, and sugar. It appeared in the US
National Formulary from 1926 to 1947 for treating uterine problems. It improves
digestion and calms the nervous system. At times it has been substituted for
pipsissewa         as      a    treatment      for    urinary       tract    infections.

Pasque Flower (Pulsatilla vulgaris ) In Traditional Chinese Medicine, pulsatilla is
used as an anti-inflammatory and is considered specific for amoebic and bacterial
dysentery. Externally, it is used as a douche for trichomonas.
Western herbalists and homeopaths, on the other hand, use minute doses of
pulsatilla as an important remedy for premenstrual syndrome. Curiously, mainly fair
and blue-eyed women are responsive to this remedy. It is generally used as an
emmenagogue and to increase blood and energy circulation for both men and women.
It strengthens sexual sensitivity while lessening the tendency towards morbid
preoccupation. It is a good remedy to consider for disorders of the reproductive
organs and the prostate, associated with nervous and emotional problems.
Characteristically, the symptoms treated are nervousness, restlessness and an active
imagination or fear of impending danger or disease. For menstrual irregularity or
delayed menstruation, it is used to treat simple suppression due to atropy or shock. It
is also good for some cases of heart disease, again with strong mental symptoms.
           Pulsatilla is used for various inflammatory conditions, but especially if
accompanied by nervousness, despondency, sadness, unnatural fear, weepiness
and depression. It is used also for headache, insomnia, neuralgia in the anemic,
thick tongue coating with a greasy taste, stomach disorders from over-indulgence in
fats and pastries, various alternating and shifting signs such as diarrhea/constipation,
amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea, pain from exposure to wind, toothache and styes.

In France, it has traditionally been used for treating coughs and as a sedative for
sleep difficulties. Pulsatilla is also used to treat eye problems such as cataracts.
Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata) The leaves of passion flower are an ingredient in
many European pharmaceutical products to treat nervous disorders, such as heart
palpitations, anxiety, convulsions, epilepsy and sometimes high blood pressure. They have
been shown to make a nonaddictive sedative that relaxes the nervous system. Passion flower
seems especially helpful when physical or mental strain results in insomnia or stress. While it
is not a strong pain reliever and it may take a while for its effects to be noticed, it seems to
have a lasting and refreshing effect on the nervous system. It is used to prevent spasms from
whooping cough, asthma, and other diseases. The dried herb is also used for Parkinson‘s
disease, hysteria, and shingles. The unusual fruit has been historically considered to be a
          In Germany, passionflower is used as a component of prepared sedative (in
combination with lemon balm and valerian root) and cardiotonic (in combination with
hawthorn) nonprescription drugs in various dosage forms including coated tablets, tinctures,
and infusions. It is also used in German homeopathic medicine to treat pain, insomnia related
to neurasthenia, and nervous exhaustion. In German pediatric medicine, it is used as a
component of Species nervinae pro infantibus (sedative tea for children), which contains 30%
lemon balm leaf, 30% lavender flower, 30% passionflower herb, and 10% St. John's wort herb.
It is also a component of a standard Commission E fixed formula "Sedative Tea," which
contains 40% valerian root, 30% passionflower herb, and 30% lemon balm leaf. In the United
States, passionflower is used as a sedative component of dietary supplement sleep aid
formulations. It was official in the fourth (1916) and fifth (1926) United States National
Formulary and removed in 1936. It was also an approved OTC sedative and sleep aid up until
         Very few pharmacological studies have been undertaken, though its central nervous
system sedative properties have been documented, supporting its traditional indications for
use. The approved modern therapeutic applications for passionflower are supportable based
on its history of use in well established systems of traditional and conventional medicine,
pharmacodynamic studies supporting its empirically acknowledged sedative and anxiolytic
effects, and phytochemical investigations.
         German pharmacopeial grade passionflower must be composed of the whole or cut
dried aerial parts, collected during the flowering and fruiting period, containing not less than
0.4% flavonoids calculated as hyperoside. Botanical identity must be confirmed by thin-layer
chromatography (TLC) as well as by macroscopic and microscopic examinations and
organoleptic evaluation. Purity tests are required for the absence of pith-containing stem
fragments greater than 3 mm in diameter and also for the absence of other species. The
British Herbal Pharmacopoeia requires not less than 15% water-soluble extractive, among
other quantitative standards. The French Pharmacopoeia requires not less than 0.8% total
flavonoids calculated as vitexin by measuring the absorbance after reaction. The ESCOP
monograph requires that the material comply with the French, German, or Swiss
            The herb was introduced into United States medicine in 1867 as a sedative and was
listed in the National Formulary from 1916 until 1936. A sedative passion flower chewing gum
was even marketed in Romania in 1978. In 1990, a marked increase in passion flower sales
was assumed to be a result of consumer concern over using the amino acid L-tryptophan as a
sedative and sleep inducer. The Commission E approved the internal use of passionflower
for nervous restlessness. The British Herbal Compendium indicates its use for sleep
disorders, restlessness, nervous stress, and anxiety. Other uses include neuralgia and
nervous tachycardia. The German Standard License for passionflower tea indicates its use for
nervous restlessness, mild disorders of sleeplessness, and gastrointestinal disorders of
nervous origin. It is frequently used in combination with valerian and other sedative plants.
ESCOP indicates its use for tenseness, restlessness, and irritability with difficulty in falling

Patchouli (Pogostemom patchouli) In China, Japan and Malaysia the herb is used to treat
colds, headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain an halitosis. In Japan and
Malaysia it is used as an antidote to poisonous snakebites.

Pellitory (Anacyclus pyrethrum) It treats fluid retention, stones and gravel, dropsy and other
urinary complaints. In European herbal medicine, it is regarded as having a restorative action
on the kidneys, supporting and strengthening their function. It has been prescribed for
nephritis, pyelitis (inflammation of the kidney,‖ kidney stones, renal colic (pain caused by
kidney stones), cystitis, and edema (fluid retention). It is also occasionally taken as a laxative.
It combines well with parsley or wild carrot seed or root. It counteracts mucus and is useful
for chronic coughs. The leaves may be applied as poultices.

Pellitory of the Wall (Parietaria officinalis) The pungent pellitory root is taken as a
decoction or chewed to relieve toothache and increase saliva production. The decoction may
also be used as a gargle to soothe sore throats. In Ayurvedic medicine, the root is
considered tonic, and is used to treat paralysis and epilepsy. The diluted essential oil is used
in mouthwashes and to treat toothache. It is an energetic local irritant and sialagogue, and
acts as a rubefacient when applied externally. Its ethereal tincture relieves toothache. The
root chewed has been found useful in some rheumatic and neuralgic affections of the head
and face, and in palsy of the tongue. The decoction has been used as a gargle in relaxation of
the uvula. Severe acronarcotic symptoms, with inflammation of the alimentary tract and
bloody stools, were produced in a young child by less than a drachm of the tincture. The dose
is from 30 to 60 grains as a masticatory. Oil of pellitory is made by evaporating the ethereal

Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium or Hedeoma puleioides) Pennyroyal‘s main role is as an
insect repellent. The crushed leaves or essential oil are rubbed on insect bites to reduce their
itch and to ward off future attacks. The crushed green herb has been used to remove the
marks of bruises and burns. It has also been taken to relieve headaches, indigestion,
congestion from colds, and menstrual pain. Hot pennyroyal tea is one of the best herbs to
produce sweating and reduce a fever. Pennyroyal‘s nature is to make intelligent choices and
carry through clearly and without regret. Pennyroyal is an ovarian tonic; it also eases cramps,
eliminates gas, calms nausea and relieves nervous tension. Pennyroyal encourages menses.
Its oil is abortifacient and can be fatal. The leaves of pennyroyal are nervine, diaphoretic, and
antiseptic, used for colds, fevers, headaches, and sunstroke. Pennyroyal is a renewing wash
for itching, burning skin.

Pennyroyal, Dwarf (Hedeoma nana): This true pennyroyal is a prime menstrual stimulant
when menses are accompanied by a heavy sensation in the abdomen, or when the period is
delayed and crampy following a cold, fever, or exposure to rain or snow. It sometimes is used
as an abortive, but there is no proof that it is effective for this purpose. As an effective
diaphoretic to help break fevers. The aromatic oil repels insects; and bundles of it are hung
up indoors to control infestations of flies and bugs. Simple tea, ½ cup up to 4 times a day.

Pennyroyal, Hart's (Mentha cervina): : A tea made from the leaves of most mint
species has traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, digestive
disorders and various minor ailments. The leaves are harvested as the plant comes into
flower and can be dried for later use. The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic,
though it is toxic in large doses.

Pennyroyal, Native (Mentha satureioides): When early European settlers found this plant
growing in Australia they soon discovered it had similar properties to that of the European
pennyroyal. It was boiled in water and used to relieve menstrual irregularities. A pungently
aromatic, tonic, decongestant herb that improves the digestion, stimulates the uterus, and
relieves spasms and pain. Internally used for colds, excess mucus, indigestion, colic, and
menstrual complaints. Used as a substitute for both M. x piperita and M. pulegium.

Pepper (Piper nigrum) Pepper has long been recognized as an ingredient for stimulating the
appetite as well as being an aid in the relief of nausea and vertigo. It was used to treat
gastro-intestinal upsets, flatulence, fevers and congestive chills. It is supposed to be of help
in anal, rectal and urinary troubles. In India it has been used as a medicine since time
immemorial for the treatment of anything from paralysis to toothache. East Africans are said
to believe that body odor produced after eating substantial amounts of pepper repels
mosquitoes. Black pepper contains four anti-osteoporosis compounds. It is of singular
importance as a metabolic stimulant in Ayurvedic medicine. Black pepper has the ability to
recirculate vital nutrients. When fasting, grind seven peppercorns and take them mixed with a
little honey each morning.

Pepper, Japanese Black (Piper kadsura): This pepper is used as a stomachic, expectorant,
and stimulant.

Perilla (Perilla frutescens (green); P.f. Atropurpurea (purple)) Perilla is effective to
improve stomach functions. Perilla is also used for perspiration, fever and cough alleviation,
pain     removing       and     stomach      function    improvement    in    Oriental    medicine.
      Perilla (Perilla frutescens Britt.), a traditional Chinese herb has recently received special
attention because of its beneficial effects in the treatment of some kinds of allergic reactions
without the side effects associated with some other used anti-allergy medicines. Experiments
in vivo and in vitro found that among 18 kinds of vegetables, Perilla and ginger were the most
active in reducing TNF production and its activity, which is linked with the allergy and
inflammation. It has also been found that Perilla seed oil is rich in n-3 fatty acid (a-linolenic
acid) which also has some benefit in the treatment of allergy. Reports trace back the
traditional use of Perilla leaf and seed for hundreds of years in the treatment of asthma and
some symptoms associated with what is now known as allergy. Also, the traditional method of
cooking crab or shellfish with Perilla leaves, in order to prevent so called "poisoning" existing
in crab etc., might be re-evaluated as an effective way of preventing food allergy.
          Perilla leaf extract has been available as a "health product" rather than as a medicine.
There are no published reports of controlled clinical trials. Even so, there are many reports of
open (uncontrolled) studies from physicians and from patients-completed questionnaires, to
support the beneficial use of Perilla leaf extract in the treatment of allergy. Rigorous double-
blind placebo-controlled trials are doubtlessly needed before Perilla leaf extract can be
accepted           as         an        antiallergy        medicine       in       the       West.
        Open studies in the treatment of more than one hundred allergy cases of children with
atopic dermatitis were made. After three months of therapy using a Perilla extract cream
formulation, 80% of the patients showed varying degrees of improvement in the degree of
itching, skin lesion, and eruption. No side effects were observed in all the cases. All these
patients      ceased        other    medicine        while    using    the     Perilla    products.
         Although the precise mechanisms of Perilla treatment for allergy are not yet well
elucidated, recent researches on the various phytochemicals and their pharmacological
properties have also revealed some mechanisms of Perilla action in allergy. Several active
components contained in Perilla have been found to be linked with antiallergy and anti-
inflammatory actions. These include elemicine, a-pinene, caryophyllene, myristicin, b-
sitosterol, apigenin,phenylpropanoids and also some flavonoids which act as anti-
inflammatory                                                                                agents
      Perilla seed, leaf and stem contain a total amount of essential oil about 0.5%. In addition
to perillaldehyde, which was removed from the Perilla leaf extract products for its potential
allergen property, several other constituents contained in Perilla essential oil showed
pharmacological activity. It was reported that in animal experiments, one of the constituent in
the essential oil, b-caryophyllene, showed relaxing action to the windpipe of guinea pig. Also it
showed significantly suppressing action to citric acid or acrylaldehyde induced cough. It may
partially explain the action of Perilla on anticough and antiasthma. Another constituent, l-
menthol showed antiitching action thus making Perilla helpful in the treatment of some allergic
skin diseases

Periwinkle (Vinca Major and V minor) This plant is an excellent all round astringent which
can be used internally or externally. Its most common internal use is for treating excess
menstrual flow. It is useful as a douche for treating vaginal infection. It is used for digestive
problems such as inflammation of the colon or diarrhea. The astringent action is also used in
cases of nose bleed, bleeding gums, mouth ulcers and as a gargle for sore throats. Chewing
the plant relieves toothache. The tea is sedative and is beneficial for hysteria, fits, and
nervous states. Use two teaspoons per cup, steep for 20 minutes, and take a quarter-cup
doses four times a day. Make a poultice of the herb to relieve cramps in the limbs. The
leaves are used in slaves for hemorrhoids and inflammations. Use the tea as a gargle for
sore throat and tonsillitis. The fresh flowers are made into a syrup laxative, which is excellent
for small children as well as adults. To make a syrup, boil three pounds of Sucanat in one
pint of water until you get a syrup consistency, and then steep the herbs in the hot liquid for
20 minutes, or simmer the herbs in honey or maple syrup for about 10 minutes, strain, and
store in the refrigerator. It combines well with Agrimony for astringent action to treat the
digestive system and skin conditions.

Peruvian Balsam (Myroxlon pereirae) Balsam of Peru has been in the US Pharmacopeia
since 1820 used for bronchitis, laryngitis, dysmenorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery and leucorrhea
and has also been used as a food flavoring and fragrance material for its aromatic vanilla like-
odor. Today it is used extensively in topical preparations for the treatment of wounds, ulcers,
and scabies, and can be found in hair tonics, anti-dandruff preparations, feminine hygiene
sprays and as a natural fragrance in soaps, detergents, creams, lotions and perfumes.
       Peruvian balsam is strongly antiseptic and stimulates repair of damaged tissue. It is
usually taken internally as an expectorant and decongestant to treat emphysema, bronchitis,
and bronchial asthma. It may also be taken to treat sore throats and diarrhea. Externally, the
balsam is applied to skin afflictions. It also stimulates the heart, increases blood pressure and
lessens mucus secretions. Traditionally used for rheumatic pain and skin problems including
scabies, diaper rash, bedsores, prurigo, eczema, sore nipples and wounds. It also destroys
the itch acarus and its eggs.

Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata): An infusion of the plant has been used as a

Pig Nut (Conopodium majus): The powdered roots have been recommended as a cough

Pig's Ear (Cotyledon orbiculata): Excellent wart remedy, widely recommended even by
medical doctors in South Africa. Works on pets too. Thick fleshy, grey-green leaves are
sliced lengthwise and placed cut side on the wart for 8-12 hours daily. The Southern Sotho
use a dried leaf as a protective charm for an orphan child and as a plaything. In the
Willowmore District, the heated leaf is used as a poultice for boils and other accessible
inflammations, in particular, earache. A single leaf is eaten as a vermifuge and the warmed
juice can be used as drops for toothache or earache. The juice has been used to treat

Pipsissewa (Chimaphila umbellate)          Pipsissewa was an important herb among Native
Americans, who used it for various problems, including rheumatism. It induced sweating.
The Pennsylvania Dutch used it as a tonic and diuretic for kidney complaints and rheumatism.
Internally used for urinary infections, prostates, urethritis, kidney stones, arthritis and
rheumatism. It is mainly used in an infusion for urinary tract problems such as cystitis and
urethritis. It has also been prescribed for more serious conditions such as gonorrhea and
kidney stones. By increasing urine flow, it stimulates the removal of waste products from the
body and is therefore of benefit in treating rheumatism and gout. It is also a lymphatic
catalyst. The fresh leaves may be applied externally to rheumatic joints or muscles, as well
as to blisters, sores and swellings. In tests on animals, pipsissewa leaves appear to lower
blood sugar levels. Solvent in diluted alcohol, boiling water.

Plantain (Plantago major and P lanceolata): Common plantain quickly staunches blood
flow and encourages the repair of damaged tissue. It may be used instead of comfrey in
treating bruises and broken bones. An ointment or lotion may be used to treat hemorrhoids,
fistulae and ulcers. Taken internally, common plantain is diuretic, expectorant, and
decongestant. It is commonly prescribed for gastritis, peptic ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery,
irritable bowel syndrome, respiratory congestion, loss of voice and urinary tract bleeding.
The seeds are closely related to psyllium seeds and can be used similarly, a tablespoon or
two soaked in hot sweetened water or fruit juice until a mucilage is formed and the whole
gruel drunk as a lubricating laxative. The fresh juice can be made into a douche for vaginitis
by combining two tablespoons and a pint of warm water with a pinch of table salt. Proteolytic
enzymes found in the fresh leaf and the fresh or dried root make plantain useful as a gentle
internal vasoconstrictor for milk intestinal inflammation. The fresh juice or dried leaves in tea
can help bladder inflammations. The fresh juice can be preserved with 25% vodka or 10%
grain alcohol. Take one teaspoon in warm water one hour before every meal for mild
stomach ulcers. For bed-wetting plantain leaf can be given as a beverage-strength tea
throughout the day (but not right before bedtime).
Plantain roots are an old-time cure for toothaches. Fresh, the roots used to be chewed, dried
and powdered and placed in a hollow tooth as a painkiller. The Chippewa used plantain
leaves to draw out splinters from inflamed skin, and as vulnerary poultices. They favored the
fresh leaves, spreading the surface of these with bear grease before applying them and
renewing the poultices when the leaves became dry or too heated. Sometimes they replaced
the bear grease with finely chopped fresh roots, or else applied the chopped roots directly to
the wound. For winter use, they greased fresh leaves and tightly wrapped stacks of them I
leather. The Iroquois used the fresh leaves to treat wounds, as well as coughs, colds, and
bronchitis. The Shoshone applied poultices made from the entire plant to battle bruises, while
the Meskawaki treated fevers with a tea made from the root.
Traditional Chinese medicine uses plantain to treat urinary problems, dysentery, hepatitis and
lung problems, especially asthma and bronchitis. The seeds are used for bowel ailments.
Plantain is also found in African and southeast Asian folk medicine. Research in India has
shown its beneficial effects in treating coughs and colds.

Pleurisy Root (Asclepias tuberosa) Although it has fallen into disuse, butterfly weed was a
well-recognized remedy for all sorts of lung ailments, including bronchitis, consumption,
typhoid fever, and pleurisy. It is a lung tonic that relieves congestion, inflammation, and
difficult breathing by increasing fluidity of mucus in the lungs and bronchial tubes. It promotes
the coughing up of phlegm, reduces inflammation and helps reduce fevers by stimulating
perspiration. A warm tea of butterfly weed relieves digestive disturbances, diarrhea and
dysentery. The settlers learned of its use from the Native Americans, who chewed the raw
root to alleviate lung problems. They also put the powdered roots on wounds to stop bleeding
and pounded fresh roots into a poultice to place on bruises, rheumatism, inflammation, and
lameness in the legs. It has also been used to treat certain uterine problems and estrogenlike
components have been reported.

Ploughman’s Spikenard (Inula conyza)         ---The older herbalists considered Ploughman's
Spikenard a good wound herb, and it was frequently taken in decoction for bruises, ruptures,
inward wounds, pains in the side and difficulty of breathing. It also had a reputation as an
emmenagogue, and the juice of the while plant was applied externally to cure the itch.

Poke (Phytolacca americana) The Lenape chopped the root, poured boiling water over it,
and prepared a liniment to reduce swellings. To reduce fever, they bound the fresh roots to
the hands and feet. Other tribes made a purge from the juice of the root. The Delaware
considered the roasted mashed root of Pokeweed an excellent blood purifier and stimulant.
They were aware of the toxic properties of poke root, and only very small doses were
administered. It was combined with bittersweet by other tribes and used as an ointment for
chronic sores and the Pamunkey of Virginia treated rheumatism with preparations of the
boiled berries. The Mohegans of Connecticut ate the young shoots in the spring and used
poultices of the mashed ripe berries to relieve sore breasts of nursing mothers. The large
root is a violent emetic and is sometimes used as a substitute for ipecac. Pokeweed was
listed officially in the United States Pharmacopeia for nearly one hundred years, from 1820 to
1916, and in the National Formulary from 1916 to 1947, where it was classed as a slow
emetic, purgative and alterative. A fluid extract of the dried root was prescribed for a variety of
ailments. During the early 1900s, it was a major ingredient in a popular over-the-counter
obesity remedy, Phytoline, taken six times a day, before and after each meal. A ―cancer cure‖
was prepared by mixing the juice of the leaves or root with gunpowder, and in the Ozark
Mountains, Poke was a famous remedy for a variety of parasitic skin afflictions collectively
known as ―the itch.‖ The root was boiled into a thick paste and reputed to work very well, but
was quite painful when applied. Investigators have reported finding a mitogenic substance in
Pokeweed that may prove useful in cancer research and treatment.
Poke root treats constipation and glandular and lymphatic congestion. In the latter conditions
it may be taken in regular small internal doses of the tincture of the fresh root. Take only 2-5
drops two or three times daily. If it cases nausea, stop and begin again with even smaller
doses. Poke is one of the best blood and lymphatic purifying herbs. It is excellent for the
treatment of cancer, tumors, arthritis and degenerative diseases, but should be used with
respect and preferably in combination with other herbs in a formula to offset its powerful
detoxifying effects. Do not take more than 1 gm. per day.
As an external medicine, Poke root is used in a decoction as a wash or made into an ointment
for various skin diseases such as eczema, ulcers, scabies, ringworm and other fungus
infections. It has been used, in small doses, as an alterative to stimulate the metabolism and
to help break up congestion in the alimentary canal, as well as in various organs including the
lymph glands. It has also been used to treat breast cancer, and the excessive swelling of
breasts after childbirth which sometimes make nursing impossible. It has often been a part of
the formulas used in treating arthritis and rheumatism.

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Both the rind and bark of the pomegranate are
considered to be specific remedies for tapeworm infestation. The alkaloids present in the rind
and bark (pelletierines) cause the worm to release its grip on the intestinal wall. If a decoction
of pomegranate rind or bark is immediately followed by a dose of a strong laxative or
purgative, the worm will be voided. The rind and bark are also strongly astringent and
occasionally have been used to treat diarrhea. In Spain, the juice of pomegranate fruit pulp is
taken to comfort an upset stomach and as a remedy to relieve gas and flatulence.
The seeds are used in gargles and they are said to ease fevers and assist in counteracting
diarrhea. They are widely used in Indian medicines.        The pulp is good for the heart and
stomach. The rind and the skin of the fruit are sun-dried, powdered and mixed with honey to
cure diarrhea and dysentery. Pomegranate juice is a natural face mask, its astringency and
acidity being beneficial for oily skin.

Pongam Tree (Pongamia pinnata): The fruits and sprouts are used in folk remedies for
abdominal tumors in India, the seeds for keloid tumors in Sri Lanka, and a powder derived
from the plant for tumors in Vietnam. In sanskritic India, seeds were used for skin ailments.
Today the oil is used as a liniment for rheumatism. Leaves are active against Micrococcus;
their juice is used for colds, coughs, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, gonorrhea, and leprosy.
Roots are used for cleaning gums, teeth, and ulcers. Bark is used internally for bleeding piles.
Juices from the plant, as well as the oil, are antiseptic. It is said to be an excellent remedy for
itch, herpes, and pityriasis versicolor. Powdered seeds are valued as a febrifuge, tonic and in
bronchitis and whooping cough. Flowers are used for diabetes. Bark has been used for
beriberi. Juice of the root is used for cleansing foul ulcers and closing fistulous sores. Young
shoots have been recommended for rheumatism. Ayurvedic medicine described the root and
bark as alexipharmic, anthelmintic, and useful in abdominal enlargement, ascites, biliousness,
diseases of the eye, skin, and vagina, itch, piles, splenomegaly, tumors, ulcers, and wounds;
the sprouts, considered alexeteric, anthelmintic, apertif, and stomachic, for inflammation, piles
and skin diseases; the leaves, anthelmintic, digestive, and laxative, for inflammations, piles
and wounds; the flowers for biliousness and diabetes; the fruit and seed for keratitis, piles,
urinary discharges, and diseases of the brain, eye, head, and skin, the oil for biliousness, eye
ailments, itch, leucoderma, rheumatism, skin diseases, worms, and wounds. Yunani use the
ash to strengthen the teeth, the seed, carminative and depurative, for chest complaints,
chronic fevers, earache, hydrocele, and lumbago; the oil, styptic and vermifuge, for fever,
hepatalgia, leprosy, lumbago, piles, scabies, and ulcers.

Poppy (Papaver somniferum) In folk medicine poppy heads were used in poultices to cure
earache and toothache and a remedy for facial neuralgia was to lay the warmed leaves on the
skin. Medieval doctors pounded the seeds with those of sea holly and mixed them with wine
to make a lotion for washing the ears, eyes and nostrils of those suffering from insomnia.
Another cure was to mingle the juice with milk and other agents and make them into sleeping
pills. An infusion made from the powdered capsules of poppy was once applied externally to
sprains and bruises and a poppy flower poultice applied to excessive redness of the skin. A
flower compress reduced inflammation and helped watering eyes and also helped to banish
dark circles around the eyes. Morphine, heroin, codeine and papaverine are all derived from
the milk juice of the opium poppy. One poppy product, laudanum, an addictive tincture of
opium, was a universal cure-all, widely prescribed by doctors in the 19 century-its abuse
celebrated by De Quincey, Coleridge and Baudelaire, among others. It was frequently
administered to relieve pain and calm excitement, and was also used in bad cases of diarrhea
and dysentery. It has both hypnotic and sedative effects. Opium tincture and extract may be
used                internally                 to               treat                 depression.
TCM: Contains the leakage of Lung qi: for chronic coughs; binds up the intestines: for chronic
diarrhea and dysenteric disorders; Stabilizes the lower burner: for polyuria, spermatorrhea or
vaginal discharge; Alleviates pain: for any kind of pain, especially that of the sinews, bones or

Pharmacological Effects: Morphine is a very strong analgesic; in fact, it is the standard by
which all other analgesics are judged. It raises the pain threshold and also reduces the pain
reflex. That is, even though the pain sensation is still perceived, it is no longer regarded as
particularly uncomfortable. Codeine has approximately 1/4 the analgesic effect of morphine.
Morphine and codeine are both hypnotics, but they induce only a light and restless sleep.
Morphine is a strong and highly selective respiratory depressant. The dosage that acts in this
manner is lower than an analgesic dosage. Codeine's effect on respiration is much weaker
than that of morphine. Also a strong cough suppressant. Morphine causes peripheral
vasodilation and histamine release, which can lead to orthostatic hypotension. Morphine in
very low doses causes constipation by increasing the resting tone and markedly decreasing
propulsive contractions in the wall of the gut, while decreasing the secretion of digestive
juices. The constipating effect of opium is only really noticeable at the start of the treatment.
It soon diminishes and can if necessary be corrected with small doses of rhubarb or the like.

Poppy, Iranian (Papaver bracteatum): The roots are used medicinally. Their constituents
include thebaine. It is possible to derive codeine and other pain-killing substances from
thebaine. Unlike opium alkaloids, thebaine does not have additive narcotic properties, it
cannot be used directly and it thus poses no dancer of drug addiction: morphine, the
precursor of the addictive-drug heroin, can be obtained only with great difficulty from it. For
pharmaceutical purposes, therefore, there may be considerable social and economic benefits
in introducing this poppy into cultivation in place of Opium Poppy. Crop scientists have
discovered that Iranian Poppy can provide up to 37 kg of codeine per hectare compared with
Opium Poppy‘s much lower yield of 3 kg per hectare.

Psyllium (Plantago psyllium) : Psyllium is a well-known laxative. It is prescribed in
conventional as well as herbal medicine for constipation, especially when the condition is
resulting from an overtensed or overrelaxed bowel. Both husks and seeds contain high levels
of fiber (the mucilage) and expand, becoming highly gelatinous when soaked in water. By
maintaining a high water content within the large bowel, they increase the bulk of the stool,
easing its passage. It is a useful remedy for diarrhea and also an effective treatment for
many other bowel problems, including irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn‘s
disease. In India, psyllium is commonly used to treat dysentery. It is valuable for
hemorrhoids, helping to soften the stool and to reduce irritation of the distended vein. The
jellylike mucilage produced when psyllium is soaked in water has the ability to absorb toxins
within the large bowel. It is commonly taken to reduce autotoxicity. The soothing, protective
effect imparted by the mucilage-rich husks and seeds benefits the whole gastrointestinal tract.
Psyllium is taken for stomach and duodenal ulcers, and for acid indigestion. The demulcent
action of psyllium extends to the urinary tract. In India, an infusion of the seeds is given for
urethritis. In China, related species are used to treat bloody urine, coughing and high blood
pressure.     When psyllium husks are soaked in an infusion of calendula, they make an
effective poultice for external use, drawing out infection for boils, abscesses, and whitlows.
Psyllium is proving beneficial and practical for many individuals who suffer from chronic yeast
infections because it can be employed to prevent the systemic absorption of the yeast‘s
metabolic wastes that many individuals are sensitive to.

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea), The sticky, broken leaves of fresh purslane sooth burns,
stings and swellings. The juice was once used for treating earaches and to ―fasten‖ teeth and
soothe sore gums. Purslane has been considered valuable in the treatment of urinary and
digestive problems. The diuretic effect of the juice makes it useful in the alleviation of bladder
ailments-for example, difficulty in passing urine. The plant‘s mucilaginous properties also
make it a soothing remedy for gastrointestinal problems such as dysentery and diarrhea. In
Chinese herbal medicine, purslane is employed for similar problems and for appendicitis. The
Chinese also use the plant as an antidote for wasp stings and snake bite. Clinical trials in
China indicate that purslane has a mild antibiotic effect. In one study, the juice was shown to
be effective in treating hookworms. Other studies suggest that it is valuable against bacillary
dysentery. When injected, extracts of the herb induce powerful contractions of the uterus.
Taken orally, purslane juice weakens uterine contractions. In Europe it‘s been turned into a
cough syrup for sore throats. Purslane is the richest known plant source of Omega-3 acids,
found mostly in fish oils. These fatty acids reduce blood cholesterol and pressure, clotting,
and inflammation and may increase immunity. Recommended medicinal dosage is 15-30
grams. Use for scours in goats.

 Radish (Raphanus sativus) Radish root stimulates the appetite and digestion. The
common red radish is eaten as a salad vegetable and an appetizer. The juice of the
black radish is drunk to counter gassy indigestion and constipation. Radish juice has a
tonic and laxative action on the intestines and indirectly stimulates the flow of bile.
Consuming radish generally results in improved digestion, but some people are sensitive
to its acridity and robust action. It is crushed and used as a poultice for burns, bruises and
smelly feet. The leaves, seeds and old roots are used in the treatment of asthma and
other chest complaints. The juice of the fresh leaves is diuretic and laxative. In China,
radish is eaten to relive abdominal distension. The root is also prepared ―dry-fried‖ to
treat chest problems. The seed is used to treat abdominal fullness, sour eructations,
diarrhea caused by food congestion, phlegm with productive cough and wheezing.
Because of its neutral energy, it is very effective in breaking up congestion in patients
with extreme heat. Radishes are also an excellent food remedy for stone, gravel and
scorbutic conditions. The plant contains raphanin, which is antibacterial and antifungal. It
inhibits the growth of Staphylococcuc aureus, E. coli, streptococci, pneumococci etc. The
plant also shows anti-tumor activity.

Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) A poultice of the crushed plant has been used to treat
poison sumac symptoms. It has been used to treat gonorrhea, diarrhea, and other
intestinal disturbances. In Mexico, it is believed to be useful for treating intestinal worms
and reducing fever. The leaves are applied externally to insect bites and various skin
complaints, internally they are used as a tea in the treatment of pneumonia, fevers,
nausea, intestinal cramps, diarrhea and mucous discharges. The juice of wilted leaves is
disinfectant and is applied to infected toes. A tea made from the roots is used in the
treatment of menstrual disorders and stroke. The pollen is harvested commercially and
manufactured into pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of allergies to the plant.

Ragwort (Senecio jacobaea ) Ragwort is excellent when taken as an infusion for gouty
conditions and rheumatic pains. It usually gives great relief quickly. Also very good for
lung and bronchial infections. Ragwort provides a stimulating and warming liniment
preparation used externally on rheumatic muscles. An emollient poultice is made from
the leaves. The juice of the plant is cooling and astringent, it is used as a wash in burns,
sores, cancerous ulcers and eye inflammations. It makes a good gargle for ulcerated
mouths and throats and is also said to take away the pain of a bee sting. Caution is
advised here since the plant is poisonous and some people develop a rash from merely
touching this plant. A decoction of the root is said to be good for treating internal bruises
and wounds.

Ramie (Boehmeria nivea): The leaves are used in the treatment of fluxes and wounds.
The root is used to prevent miscarriages and promote the drainage of pus.

Ramps (Allium tricoccum ) As a spring tonic in native N. American medicine, and to
treat colds, sore throat, and worms in children. Traditionally the leaves were used in the
treatment of colds and croup. The warm juice of the leaves and bulb was used externally
in the treatment of earaches. A strong decoction of the root is emetic.

Ramsons (Allium ursinum) Although largely unknown in the United States, in 1989, A.
ursinum was called "the new star" of garlic in the German health journal Therapiewoche
(Therapy Week) and in 1992, was declared the European medicinal "Plant of the Year" by
the Association for the Protection and Research on European Medicinal Plants. Allium
ursinum contains much more ajoene and an about twentyfold higher content of adenosine
than its 'cultivated cousin.' Just these substances are the ones to which, according to
recent studies, an essential part of the known allium effects such as reduction of
cholesterine, inhibition of thombocyte-aggregation, drop in blood pressure, improvement
of blood-rheology and fibrinolysis are attributed. A. ursinum has all the benefits of the A.
sativum products that are found on the market. However, A. ursinum has three
advantages over this domesticated garlic: 1) It has more of the active substances ; 2) It
has active substances not found in cultivated garlic, or found only when large quantities
are taken; 3) It is odorless. What distinguishes wild garlic from its garlic relative is, above
all, the aroma. Although fields of wild garlic can be identified from afar by their
characteristic odor, you are generally spared from ‗garlic breath‘ if you eat wild garlic
leaves. Wild garlic also regulates the digestion and prevents problems caused by the iron
intake. Professor Holger Kiesewetter of the Homburg University Clinic has now found that
one gram of wild garlic per day increases blood circulation and significantly improves
blood flow. Wild Garlic cleanses the blood and intestines. It improves the intestinal flora
and is effective against acne, fungus and eczema. It also lowers high blood pressure,
fights arteriosclerosis, and increases the body's immune system. Because ramsons ease
stomach pain and are tonic to the digestion, they have been used for diarrhea, colic, gas,
indigestion and loss of appetite. The whole herb is used in an infusion against
threadworms, either ingested or given as an enema. Ramsons are also thought to be
beneficial for asthma, bronchitis and emphysema. The juice is used as an aid to losing
weight. Applied externally, the juice is a mild irritant. It stimulates local circulation and
may be of benefit in treating rheumatic and arthritic joints.

Raspberry (Rubus idaeus ) The leaf is the most valuable medicinal part of the
raspberry and a tea is traditionally drunk by expectant mothers during the last three
months of pregnancy to strengthen the uterus and to ease painful contractions during
labor as well as checking any hemorrhage. This action will occur if the herb is drunk
regularly throughout pregnancy and also taken during labor. Although the specific mode
of action is unknown, the leaves are thought to strengthen the longitudinal muscles of the
uterus, increasing the force of contractions and thereby hastening childbirth. The gentle
astringency of raspberry leaves is also helpful for diarrhea in children, and an infusion
makes a good mouthwash for ulcers and bleeding gums. It is used to treat irregular and
excessive menstruation. Externally, the leaves and roots are used as a gargle to treat
tonsillitis and mouth inflammations, as a poultice and wash to treat sores, conjunctivitis,
minor wounds, burns and varicose ulcers. The fruit is antiscorbutic and diuretic. Fresh
raspberry juice, mixed with a little honey, makes an excellent refrigerant beverage to be
taken in the heat of a fever. Made into a syrup, it is said to have a beneficial effect on the
heart. The fruit is nutritious and mildly astringent.

Rattlesnake Master (Eryngium yuccifolium).....The plant was used as an antidote to
snakebites. The roots were chewed and applied to the bite. The roots have been used
medicinally for liver ailments, to increase urine flow, to induce vomiting, and to treat
rattlesnake bite. Very useful in dropsy, nephritic and calculus affections, also in scrofula and
syphilis. It is valuable as a diaphoretic and expectorant in pulmonary affections and used
when Senega is not available. There is some effect in treating inflammations and malaria.
The pulverized root is very effective in hemorrhoids and prolapsus. Chewing the root results
in increased saliva flow. A liquid made from roots mashed in cold water was drunk to relieve
muscular pains. The roots have also been used for rheumatism, respiratory ailments, and
kidney trouble. A decoction of the roots has been found useful in cases of exhaustion from
sexual depletion, with loss of erectile power, seminal emissions and orchitis. A tincture of the
roots is used in the treatment of female reproductive disorders.         Rattlesnake master is
reported to have bitter aromatic constituents. No research seems to have been done on the
effectiveness of rattlesnake master in the treatment on rattlesnake bites, but an extract of
Eryngium creticum was found to be effective as an antivenum to the sting of the scorpion
Leiurus quinuqestristus. This Eryngium grows in Jordan, where it is used by people in rural
areas for scorpion stings.
Rau Rom (Vietnamese Coriander Polygonum odoratum)                  The roots of the closely
related Fo-ti, Polygonum multiflorum, are used in Chinese herbal medicine as a tonic and to
stimulate hair growth, where it is often combined with other herbs, such as ginseng (panax
sp.). Used in southeastern Asia against nausea, fever and to promote urination It is
sometimes employed as an anaphrodisiac. In Cambodia the twigs and leaves are used to
stimulate urination and to combat fever and nausea. In Vietnam the plant is used to treat
wound and snake bite. The dried rhizome has astringent and anti-inflammatory uses. In
Europe, an infusion from the rhizome has been used as a gargle for ulcers and gingevitis, and
applied to cuts, sores and hemorrhoids.

Red Angel's Trumpet (Brugmansia sanguinea) Known extensively throughout South
America for its medicinal virtues and ritually brewed with Trichocereous pachanoi as one
interpretation of Cimora. ... In Ecuador it is currently being cultivated for scopolamine.

Red China Root (Smilax lanceolata): Chop and boil a small handful of roots in 3 cups of
water to use as a pleasant tasting blood tonic and for fatigue, anemia, acidity, toxicity,
rheumatism, and skin conditions. Drink with milk, cinnamon, and nutmeg to strengthen and
proliferate red blood cells.

Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Traditional Chinese physicians have long used red clover
blossoms as an expectorant. Russian folk healers recommend it for asthma. Other cultures
have used it externally in salves for skin sores and eye problems and internally as a diuretic
to treat water retention and as a sedative, anti-inflammatory, cough medicine, and cancer
treatment. America‘s 19 -century Eclectic physicians were great promoters of red clover.
Their text, King’s American Dispensatory, called it ―one of the few remedies which favorably
influences pertussis [whooping cough]… possess[ing] a peculiar soothing property.‖ The
Eclectics recommended red clover for cough, bronchitis, and tuberculosis but waxed truly
enthusiastic about the herb as a cancer treatment: ―It unquestionably retards the growth of
                                      th               th
carcinomata.‖ During the late 19 and early 20 centuries, red clover was the major
ingredient                in                many                patent               medicines.
          Red clover is used internally for skin complaints, especially eczema and psoriasis. It
may be used with complete safety in cases of childhood eczema, cancers of the breast,
ovaries, and lymphatic system, chronic degenerative diseases, gout, whooping cough and dry
cough. Combined with chaparral in background treatment of cancer. It has been given as
part of a holistic treatment for breast tumors and fibroids, both associated with excess
estrogen, because the herbal version competes with excess estrogen, allowing the body to
come into balance. The estrogenic effect may be of use in treating menopausal complaints.
Research has shown that the herb has a contraceptive effect in sheep. Red clover blossoms
have been long used in the form of a salve for the removal of external cancer and indolent
ulcers. A tea is also helpful to bathe the affected part, making it fresh daily. It reduces the
desire to smoke if chewed.

Red Dead Nettle (Lamium purpureum): The leaves, when bruised and used as a poultice,
are said to staunch blood flowing from a deep cut. The dried herb, made into a tea and
sweetened with honey, promotes perspiration and acts on the kidneys, being useful in cases
of chill.

Red Hogweed (Boerhavia diffusa) It has a long tradition in Ayurvedic medical
practice. Caraka used it to make a decoction for dissolving kidney stones. The Ayurvedic
surgeon Susruta mentions its use in snake-poisoning and rat-bite infections. Another great
Ayurvedic physician, Chakradatta, used it to treat chronic alcoholics, while medieval
physicians traditionally prescribed it for fevers in patients suffering from urethritis, as well as
for asthma and jaundice. It is now believed that Ayurvedic physicians defined a single tar
vine plant with different colored flowers as three separate plants possessing similar medicinal
properties. However, Ayurvedic texts do identify the medicinal specialties of each, and the
white-flowered variety is thought to be the most effective. Today, Ayurvedic doctors primarily
prescribe drugs made from the white-flowering hogweed to dissolve kidney stones and induce
        It was found to stop intra-uterine-contraceptive-device (IUCD)-induced bleeding. This
herb is also known for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, which are comparable
to    that     of    ibuprofen.    It   has    also    proved     useful    as    a    hematinic.
            Punarnava's diuretic activity acts quickly for kidney infections, and urinary tract
infection. It quickly increases urine flow and the alkaloidal effects work to help detoxify these
systems of infection, and speed up the excretory processes. The roots are used in the
treatment of asthma, edema, anemia, jaundice, ascites, anasarca, scanty urine and internal
inflammation. They are also said to be an antidote to snake poisoning. An alkaloid in the roots
has been shown experimentally to produce a distinct and persistent rise in blood pressure
plus                                        marked                                       diuresis.
           Named as punarnava in samskrit, Boerhavia diffusa is believed to be a great
rejuvenator. The drug punarnava is also sourced by some Ayurvedists from a different
species, Trianthema portulacastrum (Aizoaceae). Shvethapunarnava (white punarnava) is the
preferred plant, but the flowers of both Boerhavia diffusa and Boerhavia repens are deep pink,
while those of Trianthema portulacasstrum are white. Sometimes it is reported that Boerhavia
punarnava is the name given to the white flowered variety of Boerhavia diffusa. In western
Africa, Boerhavia diffusa is used to treat convulsions, as laxative and a febrifuge. The leaves
and roots are expectorant and emetic in large doses. Also used to treat asthma. Boiled roots
are     used      as    poultice    on   abscesses      and    to    extract   guinea     worms.
         Punarnavine, boerhavic acid, reducing sugars, potassium nitrate and tannins including
phlobaphens were extracted from the plant. Punarnavine raises blood pressure and produces
diuresis. Particularly useful in cirrhosis of the liver and chronic peritonitis and as an anti-
inflammatory. The roots have an anticonvulsant principle.

Research: An alcoholic extract of whole plant Boerhaavia diffusa given orally exhibited
hepatoprotective activity against experimentally induced carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in
rats and mice. The extract also produced an increase in normal bile flow in rats suggesting a
strong choleretic activity.

Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle): The red bark of the South American mangrove tree
has been used for many years by the natives as a febrifuge but more recently it has been
claimed that it is a specific in leprosy. They administer a beginning dose of one fluidrachm
(3.75 mils) of the fluidextract twice a day which is gradually increased until the patient is
taking a fluidounce and a half (45 mils) daily.
        Red mangrove is a folk remedy for angina, asthma, backache, boils, ciguatera,
convulsions, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, elephantiasis, enuresis, epistaxis, eye ailments,
fever, filariasis, hemoptysis, hemorrhage, inflammation, jaundice, leprosy, lesions, leucorrhea,
malignancies, scrofula, short wind, sores, sorethroat, syphilis, tuberculosis, uterorrhagia, and
wounds. One Cali doctor reported a cure of throat cancer, with gargles of mangrove bark The
bark of the tree is boiled (1 handful of chopped bark in 1 gallon of water for 10 minutes) and
used as a hot bath for very stubborn or serious sores, skin conditions, leprosy and swellings.

Red Maple (Acer rubrum ) The bark was used by Native Americans to make a decoction
for treating eye ailments, because of its astringency. The bark has been used as a treatment
for worms, as a tonic, and in poultices for skin abrasions. An infusion of the bark has been
used to treat cramps and dysentery.

Red Sage (Salvia viridis (syn Salvia horminum) ) Red Sage is the classic remedy for
inflammations of the mouth, gums, tongue, throat and tonsils, its volatile oils soothing the
mucous membranes. It may be used internally and as a mouthwash, and as a gargle it will
help laryngitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis and quinsy. It is a valuable carminative used in
dyspepsia. It reduces sweating when taken internally and may be used to reduce the
production of breast milk. As a compress it promotes the healing of wounds. Red Sage
stimulates the muscles of the uterus.

Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza) There has been extensive research into dan shen in China,
and the tanshinones have been shown to have a profound effect on the coronary circulation,
reducing the symptoms of angina and improving heart function. The whole herb (rather than
isolated constituents) has been used in China to assist patients who are recovering from a
heart attack, and it appears to support heart function at this critical time. Clinical trials in
China, however, have shown that dan shen is most effective when taken as a preventive,
rather than as a a remedy after the heart attack has taken place. Dan shen is known to inhibit
the                   action                  of               tubercle                 bacillus.
        Dan shen has been esteemed by the Chinese for thousands of years as a circulatory
stimulant. Life hawthorn, it is a safe effective remedy for many circulatory problems. It
particularly benefits the coronary circulation, opening up the arteries and improving blood flow
to the heart, and is therefore helpful in treating coronary heart disease. Although it does not
lower blood pressure, dan shen relaxes the blood vessels and improves circulation
throughout the body. Dan shen is used traditionally to treat conditions caused by blood
stagnation, primarily those affecting the lower abdomen, such as absent or painful menstrual
periods and fibroids. The sedative action of dan shen helps calm the nerves, and it is
therefore helpful in treating angina, a condition made worse by anxiety and
worry. Palpitations, insomnia and irritability also benefit from dan shen‘s sedative
properties. Dan shen is a soothing remedy that is used to remove ―excess heat,‖ particularly
in the heart and liver. It can also alleviate inflammatory skin problems, such as abscesses,
boils, and sores.            Research: In one series of 323 patients given a preparation of dan
shen for 1-9 months, there was marked clinical improvement in 20.3% and improvement in
62% of the cases. Results were best in cases of coronary artery disease without a history of
myocardial infarction. In another clinical series of more than 300 patients with angina pectoris,
a combination of dan shen and jiang xiang, given either intramuscularly or intravenously,
improved the symptoms in approximately 82% and the ECGs in 50% of the cases.
         Tinctures of dan shen were the principal treatment in 34 cases of thromboangiitis
obliterans. Of these, 15 were clinically cured and nine showed significant
improvement. There was a low incidence of pruritus, stomach pain, and reduced appetite.
        In clinical studies, injections of dan shen have lowered the serum cholesterol levels in
some patients. Preparations of dan shen had a significant sedative effect on white mice and
prolonged the hypnotic effect of barbiturates. Injection of decoctions of dan shen at doses of
0.5g/kg had a hypoglycemic effect lasting as long as five hours.

Redbud (Cercis canadensis, C. siliquastrum) The redbud‘ inner bark and root can be
made into a tea or decoction. This was used by different Native American Indian tribes to
clear lung congestion, for whooping cough, to prevent nausea and vomiting, and to break
fevers. It has also been used for diarrhea, dysentery, and leukemia.

Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus ) The leaves have been used to stop internal
hemorrhaging, diarrhea, and excessive menstrual flow. An infusion has been used to treat
hoarseness. The stems have treated ulcers and profuse menstrual flows. In a wash, the
flowers, leaves, and roots have been used as an astringent for wounds and sores, and used
as a mouthwash for canker sores and sore gums.

Reedmace (Typha latifolia): Native Americans from most tribes living near wetland areas
have found interesting medicinal uses for cattails. Some tribes used the fuzz as a remedy for
burns or to create a powder that prevented chafing. Others crushed the rhizomes and used
them as topical treatment for sores and inflammation. The Delaware used the root as a cure
for kidney stones, and the Houma Indians steeped the flowering stem as a treatment for
whooping cough. The leaves are diuretic. The leaves have been mixed with oil and used as a
poultice on sores.
       The pollen is astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, haemostatic, refrigerant, sedative,
suppurative and vulnerary. The dried pollen is said to be anticoagulant, but when roasted with
charcoal it becomes haemostatic. It is used internally in the treatment of kidney stones,
hemorrhage, painful menstruation, abnormal uterine bleeding, post-partum pains, abscesses
and cancer of the lymphatic system. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women.
Externally, it is used in the treatment of tapeworms, diarrhea and injuries. A decoction of the
stems has been used in the treatment of whooping cough. The roots are diuretic,
galactogogue, refrigerant and tonic. The roots are pounded into a jelly-like consistency and
applied as a poultice to wounds, cuts, boils, sores, carbuncles, inflammations, burns and
scalds. The flowers are used in the treatment of a wide range of ailments including abdominal
pain, amenorrhea, cystitis, dysuria, metrorrhagia and vaginitis. The young flower heads are
eaten as a treatment for diarrhea.
Rest Harrow (Ononis spinosa ) For excess fluid retention, restharrow is best taken as a
short-term treatment, in the form of an infusion. The root contains a fixed oil that is anti-
diuretic and an essential oil that is diuretic. If the diuretic action is required then the root
should be infused and not decocted or the essential oil will be evaporated. It is also of value in
treating gout and cystitis. An infusion is used in the treatment of dropsy, inflammation of the
bladder and kidneys, rheumatism and chronic skin disorders. A cough mixture is made from

Resurrection Plant (Bryophyllum pinnatum) Pounded fresh material is applied as a
poultice for a variety of conditions: Sprains, eczema, infections, burns; carbuncle and
erysipelas. Usually not taken internally. For boils, the whole leaf is pressed by hand, to and
fro, until it becomes moist with the leaf extract. A small opening is made in the middle of the
leaf which is then placed on the boil with hole over the pointing of the abscess

Rhatany (Krameria triandra) Rhatany is a powerful astringent that was retained in the
official pharmacopea until recently. It may be used wherever an astringent is indicated, that
is, in diarrhea, hemorrhoids, hemorrhages or as a styptic. Rhatany is often found in herbal
toothpastes and powders as it is especially good for bleeding gums. It can be used as a snuff
with bloodroot to treat nasal polyps. The plant‘s astringency makes it effective when used in
the form of an ointment, suppository, or wash for treating hemorrhoids. Rhatany may also be
applied to wounds to help staunch blood flow, to varicose veins, and over areas of capillary
fragility that may be prone to easy bruising. Gargle the tea or diluted tincture for acute or
lingering sore throat. It can be combined for this purpose with Yerba Mansa or Echinacea.
For diarrhea, combine with Silk Tassel (for cramps) and Echinacea (immunostimulant), and
with either Trumpet Creeper, Desert Willow or Tonadora (for Candida) and Chaparro
Amargosa (Protozoas). For a hemorrhoidal salve and rectal fissure ointment, use either
alone or with Echinacea flowers as a salve.

Rhubarb Root (Rheum palmatum) For centuries the rhizome of the Turkey rhubarb was
highly regarded by the Chinese for its medicinal properties. Modern research has justified its
reputation. It contains anthraquinones, which have a purgative effect, and tannins and bitters
which have the opposite effect. If taken in small quantities the tonic, aperient effect
predominates and it is therefore useful in cases of appetite loss and acute diarrhea. Used to
treat constipation, dysentery, hemorrhoids, portal congestion, pin/thread worms, skin
eruptions from faulty elimination, blood in the stool and duodenal ulcers. It has a truly
cleansing action upon the gut, removing debris, and then astringing with antiseptic properties
as well. It is used externally to promote healing, counteract blood clots and promote
menstruation. Stronger doses are laxative after 8-10 hours and are used to treat chronic
constipation. Rhubarb is included in some proprietary preparations and is also a component
of herbal tea mixtures and digestive powders. In 1987 a research team investigated extracts
of 178 Chinese herbs for antibacterial activity against one of the major microorganisms in
human intestinal flora. Only Rhubarb was found to have significant activity. The herb can be
applied to burns, boils, and carbuncles. It is a useful mouthwash for canker sores.

Rice Paddy Herb (Limnophila aromatica) In Asia, rau om is employed to treat many
ailments. In China, it is used for the treatment of intoxication and pain; in Indochina, to treat
wounds; in Malaysia, chiefly as a poultice on sore legs, but also to promote appetite, and as
an expectorant to clear mucus from the respiratory tract, and to treat fever; and in Indonesia,
as an antiseptic or cleanser for worms. The plant is also used in Asia for menstrual problems,
wounds, dysentery, fever, elephantiasis, and indigestion.

River Beauty (Epilobium latifolium): The entire plant is used in Tibetan medicine, it is said
to have a bitter taste and a cooling potency. It is used in the treatment of fevers and
inflammations, plus also itching pimples.

Rocambole (Allium scorodoprasum ) The bulb is used in the treatment of abscesses,
amoebic dysentery, bronchitis, cholera, dysentery, influenza, skin diseases and TB.

Rock Sweet Flag (Acorus gramineus ) An important herb in Chinese medicine for poor
appetite, gastritis, excess mucus, and depression. Considered to be a warming herb and
therefore not given to patients with a tendency to perspire excessively. Stimulates the
digestive system, clears the bronchial passages, relieves indigestion, and has mild sedative
effects. The root is powdered and applied to bleeding gums. It is also used internally in the
treatment of depression and epilepsy.

Rocket (Hesperis matronalis ) The leaves are antiscorbutic, diaphoretic and diuretic

Roman Cassie (Acacia caven): Its bark is rich in tannin, used as a tea, recommended for
bruises, wounds and ulcers.

Roman Wormwood (Artemisia pontica) a medicinal plant against colds and as a bitter
stomachic. A decoction of the leaves and flowers is used for colds, as a tonic and as an
anthelmintic; the leafy top is a bitter stomachic and induces perspiration. It is milder in its
properties than common wormwood.

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) A tea made from the dried fermented leaves tastes similar to
oriental tea made from Camellia sinensis. It is less astringent, however, due to the lower
tannin content. It is caffeine-free, but has a higher content of fluoride which might help to
protect against tooth decay. Internally used for allergies, especially eczema, hay fever, and
asthma in infants. Externally used for skin infections and irritations. Japanese research in
the 1980s showed that rooibos contains a substance similar to the enzyme superoxide
dismutase, an antioxidant compound thought to retard aging. Recent studies have reported
rooibos tea as having antimutagenic and anti-HIV activity. The antimutagenic and antioxidant
properties of Rooibos are far greater for unfermented shoot and leaf teas.

Rose,                                    Cotton                                     (Hibiscus

While the roots and leaves of this deciduous bush have medicinal uses, it is the flowers that
are used most commonly. Acrid in flavor and neutral in nature, if used internally, it can
remove heat from the blood, reduce swelling and detoxify. If pounded and applied externally,
it relieves inflammation and reduces swelling. The flower‘s nutritional properties are
purported to be good for menopausal women. It balances hormones, and purifies your blood.
The roots and leaves, ground into paste, is good for treating diabetics with leg problems. The
abundant mucilage contained in the tissues makes the plant an effective emollient for
burns. Leaves and flowers kill pain; expel phlegm; treat excessive bleeding during
menstruation, painful urination, inflammation and snake bites. A decoction of the flowers is
used in the treatment of lung ailments.

Rose Moss (Rhodobryum ontariense): Used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases and
nervous prostration in TCM; cures angina. Ether extract actually did increase the rate of flow
in aorta of white mice by over 30%, causing reduction in amount of oxygen resistance.

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) The leaves and flowers are used internally as a tonic tea for
digestive and kidney functions. Experimentally, an infusion decreases the viscosity of the
blood, reduces blood pressure and stimulates intestinal peristalsis. The drink made by placing,
the calyx in water, is said to be a folk remedy for cancer. Medicinally, leaves are emollient,
and are much used in Guinea as a diuretic, refrigerant, and sedative; fruits are antiscorbutic;
leaves, seeds, and ripe calyces are diuretic and antiscorbutic; and the succulent calyx, boiled
in water, is used as a drink in bilious attacks. In Burma, the seed are used for debility, the
leaves as emollient. Taiwanese regard the seed as diuretic, laxative, and tonic. Philippines
use the bitter root as an aperitive and tonic. Angolans use the mucilaginous leaves as an
emollient and as a soothing cough remedy. Central Africans poultice the leaves on abscesses.
Alcoholics might consider one item: simulated ingestion of the plant extract decreased the
rate of absorption of alcohol, lessening the intensity of alcohol effects in chickens.

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Studies show rosemary leaves increase circulation,
reduce headaches and fight bacterial and fungal infections. It is considered one of the
strongest natural antioxidents.        The flavonoid diosmin strengthens fragile blood vessels,
possibly even more effectively than rutin. German pharmacies sell rosemary ointment to rub
on nerve and rheumatic pains and for heart problems. A traditional European treatment for
those suffering from poor circulation due to illness or lack of exercise is to drink rosemary
extracted into white wine.
Rosemary contains many compounds that are reported to prevent the breakdown of
acetylcholine in the brain, usually a symptom of Alzheimer‘s disease. Several if not all can be
absorbed through the skin, and some probably cross the blood-brain barrier so using a using
a final rinse of vinegar with rosemary essential oil added may be beneficial in prevention. Of
these antioxidants, at least four are known cataract fighters and Japanese researchers find it
promising                         for                    removing                       wrinkles.
              Rosemary is recommended for flatulence, heartburn and as a digestive. It
improves food absorption by stimulating digestion and the liver, intestinal tract and gallbladder.
It is also used to inhibit kidney- and bladder-stone formation. Studies on rosemary conducted
in Paraguay show that it almost completely inhibits the enzyme urease which contributes to
kidney stone formation. It makes an antiseptic gargle for sore throats, gum problems and
canker sores. Researchers speculate that rosemarinic acid might even be a good treatment
for septic shock. In addition, it inhibited, although didn't destroy, 87% of the cancer cells
tested in a laboratory study. Asthma sufferers used to smoke it with coltsfoot and eat bread
that had been baked over rosemary wood.
Research has shown that rosmaricine is a stimulant and mild analgesic. The oil content
varies within the plant. It is analgesic and stimulant, especially when applied to the skin.
Rosemary's anti-inflammatory effect is due mainly to rosmarinic acid and flavonoids.
As a warming herb, it stimulates circulation of blood to the head, improving concentration and
memory. It also eases headaches and migraine, and encourages hair growth by improving
blood flow to the scalp. It has been used to treat epilepsy and vertigo. It aids recovery from
long-term stress and chronic illness. It is thought to stimulate the adrenal glands and is used
specifically for debility, especially when accompanied by poor circulation and digestion.

Roseroot (Rhodiola rosea)             Chinese medical practitioners describe adaptogens as
"superior" plants that profoundly benefit the human body without dangerous side effects.
While the most famous adaptogen is ginseng, cutting-edge research by top Russian doctors
and scientists has shown that Arctic Root can ease more conditions, including stress,
depression, heart disease and cancer                                      .         Rhodiola rosea
has been shown to shorten recovery time after prolonged workouts, to increase attention
span, memory, strength, and anti-toxic action. Rhodiola rosea extract increases the level of
enzymes, RNA, and proteins important to muscle recovery after exhaustive exercise. It has
also been shown to increase the levels of beta-endorphin in blood plasma which helps
prevent the hormonal changes indicative of stress. This effect has also been linked to
maintaining an increased cardiac output and subsequently having a cardioprotective
effect. Studies using proofreading tests have demonstrated that Rhodiola rosea enhances
memorization and concentration ability over prolonged periods. Finally, Rhodiola has been
shown to increase anti-tumor activity by increasing the body‘s resistance to toxins.
             In Siberia it is said that "those who drink rhodiola tea regularly will live more than
100 years." Chinese emperors always looking for the secret to long life and immortality sent
expeditions into Siberia to collect and bring back the plant. Being one of the most popular
medicinal herbs of middle Asia, for many years Rhodiola was illegally trafficked across the
Russian border to China In Siberia it was taken regularly especially during the cold and wet
winters to prevent sickness. In Mongolia it was used for the treatment of tuberculosis and
cancer.       Formerly regarded as a scarce plant, researchers from Tomsk State University
found significant stands of this valuable herb growing wild in Sibera at elevations of 5000 to
9000 feet above sea level. Subsequent research has substantiated high live giving biological
activity with no toxicity. For the treatment of depression extracts of rhodiola, namely rosavin
and salidroside, in animal studies seem to enhance the transport of serotonin precursors,
tryptophan, and 5-hydroxytryptophan into the brain. Serotonin is a widely studied brain
neurotransmitter chemical that is involved in many functions including, smooth muscle
contraction, temperature regulation, appetite, pain perception, behavior, blood pressure and
respiration. When balanced, it imparts a a sense of contentment and mental ease. Either too
much or too little serotonin on the other hand has been linked to various abnormal mental
states such as clinical depression. Thus rhodiola has been used by Russian scientists alone
or in combination with antidepressants to boost one's mental state, a boon in countries and
seasons where one is deprived of adequate sun over prolonged periods of months. This leads
to a condition known as SAD or Seasonal Affective Disorder common to Northern European
             Rhodiola has also been shown to be effective for cardiac problems caused or
aggravated by stress. Its action for these conditions is in its ability to decrease the amount of
catecholamines and corticosteroids released by the adrenal glands during stress. The
abnormal presence of these stress hormones will subsequently raise blood pressure,
cholesterol, potassium levels and increase risk factors for heart disease. Rhodiola has been
found to decrease harmful blood lipids and thus decrease the risk of heart disease. It also
decreases the amount of cyclic-AMP (c-AMP) released into cardiac cells. Cyclic AMP is
related to ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the body's primary energy molecule. C-AMP acts as
a 'second messenger' or liaison between the outer and inner environments of the cell. It
assists in the uptake of more intracellular calcium into the heart thus promoting a greater
potential for heart muscle contraction. Rhodiola thus regulates the heart beat and counteracts
heart arrhythmias As an adaptogen, rhodiola both stimulates and protects the immune
system by reinstating homeostasis (metabolic balance) in the body. It also increases natural
killer cell (NK) in the stomach and spleen. This action may be due to its ability to normalize
hormones       by     modulating    the     release   of    glucocorticoid     into   the  body.
             Rhodiola has potent antioxidant properties. By limiting the adverse effects of free
radical damage, it is able to combat all the diseases associated with aging. The presence of
free radicals is associated with cell mutagenicity, the immediate cause of cancer. Again,
Russian researchers have found that the oral administration of rhodiola inhibited tumor growth
in rats 39 percent and decreased metastasis by 50 percent. It improved urinary tissue and
immunity in patients suffering with bladder cancer. In other experiments with various types of
cancer, including adenocarcinoma (cancer of glandular tissue such as breast cancer) and
lung carcinoma, the use of extracts of rhodiola rosea resulted in significant increased survival
rate                  Like Siberian ginseng, rhodiola is routinely used by athletes to improve
performance. While the mechanism is not completely understood, rhodiola seems to improve
the ratio of muscle-fat and increases hemoglobin and erythrocytes levels in the blood.
          Many other benefits from the use of Rhodiola has been found including its ability to
improve hearing, when applied to the gums to inhibit the progression of pyorrhea, to regulate
blood sugar levels for diabetics and protect the liver from environmental toxin.
             Nearly 200 different rhodiola species have been identified. Only 14 have been
subjected to biochemical study and it has been found that the chemical composition and
pharmacological activity of rhodiola is definitely species related. Essentially rhodiola rosea
counteracts the effects of stress that ultimately underlies the evolution of most diseases

Rose (Rosa spp) Honey of Red Rose (Apothecary) was once an official pharmaceutical
preparation in the US for sore mouths and throats. Fill a jar with fresh, dry rose petals and
clear honey. Cover and leave in a warm place for one week then strain the mixture. Sip a
teaspoonful of the honey as required. Rose vinegar was used for headaches, especially
those brought on by heat. The leaves are a mild, but seldom used, laxative. In Greece,
Hippocrates recommended rose flowers mixed with oil for diseases of the uterus. Ayurvedic
physicians use the petals in poultices to treat skin wounds and inflammations. At various
times, European herbalists recommended dried rose petal tea for headache, dizziness, mouth
sores, and menstrual cramps. Rose hips are a significant source of vitamin C.

         TCM: Petals: dries cold, clear mucous discharges, relieves constrictive feelings of the
chest and abdomen (stuck liver chi), treats poor appetite, harmonizes blood and is used for
irregular menstruation and pain caused by blood stagnation. Hips: used for diarrhea,
enuresis, frequent urination, spermatorrhea and leucorrhea (all complaints of deficient kidney

Rosy Twisted Stalk (Streptopus roseus): Aside from being mildly laxative, the juice of the
berries can be used to cool and soothe minor burns and skin irritations. The root was
steeped in water and used as a poultice for a sty in the eye. An infusion of the roots has been
used in the treatment of a fallen womb. A cough syrup can be made from the root. The
flowers are diaphoretic. They can be used to induce sweating in the treatment of colds and
fevers. The plant is tonic. An infusion of the plant has been used in the treatment of coughs.
Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) Rowan berries are astringent and rather acidic. The juice has
been used medicinally as a gargle for sore throats and laryngitis, and its astringency was
useful in treating hemorrhoids and excessive vaginal discharge. The fruit contains vitamin C
and was formerly employed in the prevention of scurvy. The fruit is antiscorbutic and
astringent. It is normally used as a jam or an infusion to treat diarrhea and hemorrhoids. An
infusion can also be used as a gargle for sore throats and as a wash to treat hemorrhoids and
excessive vaginal discharge. The seeds contain cyanogenic glycosides which, in reaction with
water, produce the extremely toxic prussic acid. In small quantities this acts as a stimulant to
the respiratory system but in larger doses can cause respiratory failure and death. It is
therefore best to remove the seeds when using the fruit medicinally or as a food. Both the
flowers and the fruit are aperient, mildly diuretic, laxative and emmenagogue. An infusion is
used in the treatment of painful menstruation, constipation and kidney disorders.

Royal Fern (Osmunda regalis ) The mucilaginous roots, often boiled in water to produce
royal fern jelly, once given to invalids as a nutritious, easily digested food, and also used to
treat dysentery, coughs and pulmonary disorders. The root is useful in the treatment of
jaundice and removing obstructions of the viscera. The fronds are used to make compresses
for external application to wounds and rheumatic joints - for which purposes they are fairly
effective. An infusion of the fronds, combined with wild ginger roots (Asarum species) has
been used in the treatment of children with convulsions caused by intestinal worms.

Rubber Bush (Hymenoxys richardsonii): The lukewarm infusion of the roots is used to
relieve sour stomach. A poultice of the chewed root has been applied as a dressing on sores
and rashes

Rue (Ruta graveolens) Rue was once an officially recognized treatment for hypertension,
diabetes, and allergic reactions. It‘s primary reputation is that of an antispasmodic for smooth
muscles. The action is attributed to the alkaloids arborine and arborinine, as well as to the
coumarin rutamarin and componenets fo the essential oil. It is still a popular folk medicine in
countries like Mexico, Lebanon, Iran, India and China. In traditional Chinese medicine, the
leaves are applied to reduce inflammation from snakebites, insect bites, strains and sprains.
The rutin it contains strengthens fragile blood vessels and helps alleviate varicose veins,
although using the whole plant has been found to work better. Both an eyewash and a tea
are suggested for soothing tired eyes and headaches from eyestrain, and the tea is also used
to decrease the pain and inflammation of an earache. Rue increases blood flow to the
digestive tract, relaxes muscles and calms heart palpitations, nervous indigestion and colic.
The Unami medicine of India recommends rue not only to treat various physical conditions,
but to improve mental clarity and as an anaphrodisiac—although the Polish consider it an
aphrodisiac. Rue is a well-known cold and menstrual cramp remedy in Latin America, where
an ointment is also applied for gout and rheumatic pains, and strong tea compresses are
placed on the chest for bronchitis. The infusion benefits coughs, cramp and colic. The leaves
are used in poultices and salves to relieve sciatica, gout and rheumatic pains. Fresh leaves
are placed on the temples to relieve headache. Fomentations of the tea are placed on the
chest to help bronchitis. The juice or oil is placed in the ear to relieve earaches. It is used to
kill intestinal parasites, and Arabs add it to suspect water to counteract any ill effects.   A
strong infusion made by pouring a little boiling water on dried or fresh rue leaves can be
dabbed on insect bites to bring relief.

Rupturewort (Herniaria glabra ) The whole plant, gathered when in flower, is astringent,
very actively diuretic and expectorant. It appears to have an antispasmodic effect upon the
bladder and is used in the treatment of dropsy, catarrh of the bladder, cystitis and kidney
stones. It has also gained a reputation for treating hernias. Externally, it has been used as a
poultice to speed the healing of ulcers. The whole plant appears to have an antispasmodic
effect on the bladder.

                                          -S- HERBS

Sabadilla (Schoenocaulon officinale): Rarely used internally now. It is occasionally used in
combination with other herbs to treat rheumatism and gout. It has been used in homeopathic
medicine in cases of hysteria, headache, and migraine, Externally, in the form of extracts,
sabadilla has been employed mainly to remove head lice. Veratria is useful as an ointment in
rheumatism and neuralgia, but is regarded as being less valuable than aconite. The ointment
is also employed for the destruction of pedicule. Applied to unbroken skin it produces tingling
and numbness, followed by coldness and anaesthesia. Given subcutaneously, it causes
violent pain and irritation, in addition to the symptoms following an internal dose.

Sacred Creeping Grass (Desmostachya bipinnata syn Eragrostis cynosuriodes) Ayurvedic
Applications: Root-dysentery, menorrhagia, other bleeding disorders like hemorrhoids,
purpura, etc. Used as an infusion

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) The flowers are laxative and diuretic. A tea was once
given to children with fevers, measles and other eruptive skin diseases. A paste made of the
flowers and water was applied to boils. The petals were boiled with lamb and eaten to
strengthen the heart. In the southwest, Indians soak the flowers in water until the water is
visibly yellow, then drink the decoction to reduce fever. Internally for coronary artery disease,
menstrual and menopausal problems and jaundice. Externally for bruising, sprains, skin
inflammations, wounds, and painful or paralyzed joints (flowers). Safflower is also used to
inhibit blood clotting. For post-natal abdominal pain; clots or seepages of blood in abdominal
region; traumatic injuries; stiffness and pain in joints. The extracted oil of the herb is used in
tui na massage. The East Indians, who know it as koosumbha, also use safflower medicinally
and employ the oil as the base of some Ayurvedic medicinal body oils.

TCM: The tincture is widely used in China on sprains and wounds to decrease inflammation.
The Chinese also use it combined with other herbs to treat problems relating to heart disease,
circulation, menstruation and blood congestion.

Saffron (Crocus sativus) Saffron has been cited as a remedy for such diverse ills. In
England and the US, penny packets of saffron threads were sold as recently as 50 years ago
in pharmacies to cure measles. Cheaper and superior herbs are easily found to replicate its
ability to induce menstruation, treat period pain and chronic uterine bleeding and calm
indigestion and colic. In Chinese herbal medicine, saffron stigmas are occasionally used to
treat painful obstructions of the chest, to stimulate menstruation and to relieve abdominal pain.
They regard it as a catalyst to be combined with other herbs. It is one of the finest blood
vitalizers known. It counteracts inflammatory conditions associated with excess pitta (fire),
while at the same time powerfully stimulating the circulation and regulating the spleen, liver
and heart. It is very sattvic or spiritually balancing and gives ―the energy of love, devotion and
compassion. Contains a blood pressure-lowering chemical called crocetin. Some authorities
even speculate that the low incidence of heart disease in Spain is due to that nation‘s high
saffron consumption.

Sage (Salvia officinalis) - Sage oil has a unique property from all other healing herbs--it
reduces perspiration. Several studies show sage cuts perspiration by as much as 50% with
the maximum effect occurring 2 hours after ingestion. This effect explains how it developed a
reputation for treating fever with profuse sweating. Salysat is a sage-based antiperspirant
marketed in Germany. Sage is a drying agent for the body. Use it as a sore throat gargle
and as a poultice for sores and stings. Use two teaspoons of the herb per cup of water, steep
for twenty minutes and take a quarter cup four times a day. Can also be used as a gargle. It
tastes warm, aromatic and somewhat pungent. Tincture: 15-40 drops, up to four times a day.
        Like rosemary, sage contains powerful antioxidants, which slow spoilage supporting its
traditional use as a preservative. This is due to the presence of labiatic acid and carnosic
acid. British researchers have confirmed that sage inhibits the enzyme that breaks down
acetylcholine, thus preserving the compound that seems to help prevent and treat Alzheimer's.
        Sage makes a good digestive remedy. The volatile oils have a relaxant effect on the
smooth muscle of the digestive tract, while in conjunction with the bitters, they stimulate the
appetite and improve digestion. Sage encourages the flow of digestive enzymes and bile,
settles the stomach, relieves colic, wind, indigestion, nausea, diarrhea and colitis, liver
complaints, and worms.        Its antiseptic properties are helpful in infections such as
gastroenteritis. Sage is a tonic to the nervous system and has been used to enhance
strength                                       and                                        vitality.
         It has a tonic effect upon the female reproductive tract and is recommended for
delayed or scanty menstruation, or lack of periods, menstrual cramps and infertility. It has an
estrogenic effect, excellent for menopausal problems, especially hot flashes and night sweats.
It stimulates the uterus, so is useful during childbirth and to expel the placenta. It stops the
flow of breast milk and it is excellent for weaning. One German study shows sage reduces
blood sugar levels in diabetics who drink the infusion on an empty stomach. It also contains
astringent tannins which account for its traditional use in treating canker sores, bleeding
gums and sore throats. Commission E endorses using 2-3 teaspoons of dried sage leaves
per cup of boiling water to make an anti-gingivitis tea. Recently published studies by a team
of scientists from the Department of Microbiology and Chemotherapy at the Nippon Roche
Research Center in Kamakura Japan, informed that powdered sage or sage tea helps to
prevent blood clots from forming, and is quite useful in the prevention and treatment of
myocardial infarction and general coronary pains.

Sage, Purple (Leucophyllum texanum): The dried leaves and flowers can be brewed into a
pleasant herbal tea that is said to be mildly sedative and good as a bedtime drink or for
treating colds and flus.

Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate ) - a tea made of the leaves has been used to treat
headache, stomachache, vomiting, diarrhea, sore throat, and as an antidote for poisoning.
Some Indians chewed the leaves to ease stomach gas. A wash made of boiled and steeped
leaves was used for treating bullet wounds and cuts, to bathe newborn babies, and as a hot
poultice in treating rheumatism. A poultice was also placed on the stomach to induce
menstruation, to relieve colic and treat worms. The leaves are boiled in water and the steam
inhaled as a decongestant. Warm leaves may be applied to the neck to help a sore throat.
The leaves are pungent and have been preferred for making medicine among other

Salad Burnet (Sanguisorba minor) The older herbalists held this plant in greater repute
than it enjoys at the present day. Pliny recommended a decoction of the plant beaten up with
honey for diverse complaints. Dodoens recommended it as a healer of wounds. Gerard
wrote that ‗it was a capital wound herb for all sorts of wounds, both of the head and body,
either inward or outward, used either in juice or decoction of the herb, or by the powder of the
herb or too, or the water of the distilled herb, or made into an ointment by itself or with other
things to be kept.‘ Turner advised the use of the herb, infused in wine or beer, for the cure of
gout and rheumatism.

TCM: (Officinalis) Indicated for blood in stool and urine, bleeding, dysentery; bleeding
hemorrhoids; menorrhagia. The fresh root is pulverized, mixed with sesame oil and applied to
burns, pruritus and eczema

Salep (Orchis mascula ) Once believed to have aphrodisiac powers, purple orchid is now
seen as a nourishing vegetable somewhat similar to the potato. Its current medicinal use is
generally confined to the treatment of diarrhea and irritated gastrointestinal tracts in children.
Was once much used for kidney disorders.

Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis) The leaves and the root are astringent. A poultice of the
chewed leaves has been used as a dressing on burns. The root bark is analgesic, astringent,
disinfectant and stomachic. A decoction is used in the treatment of stomach complaints. A
decoction has been used to lessen the pains of labor. The powdered bark has been used as a
dusting powder on burns and sores. A poultice of the bark has been applied to wounds and
aching teeth to ease the pain. A poultice of the chewed bark has been used as a dressing to
relive pain and clean burns and wounds.

Saltbush (Atriplex canescens) The leaves can be made into a soapy lather and used as a
wash on itches and rashes such as chickenpox. A poultice of the crushed leaves can be
applied to ant bites to reduce the pain and swelling. The dried tops as a lukewarm tea for
nausea and vomiting from the flu; taken hot for breaking fevers. The cold tea is used for
simple stomachache.

Salvia Divinorum Medicinal uses: Traditional Mazatec healers have used Salvia divinorum
to treat medical and psychiatric conditions conceptualized according to their traditional
framework. Some of the conditions for which they use the herb are easily recognizable to
Western medical practitioners (e.g colds, sore throats, constipation and diarrhea) and some
are not, e.g. 'fat lambs belly' which is said to be due to a 'stone' put in the victims belly by
means of evil witchcraft. Some alternative healers and herbalists are exploring possible uses
for Salvia. The problems in objectively evaluating such efforts and 'sorting the wheat from the
chaff' are considerable. There are no accepted uses for Salvia divinorum in standard medical
practice at this time. A medical exploration of some possible uses suggested by Mazatec
healing practice is in order in such areas as cough suppression (use to treat colds), and
treatment of congestive heart failure and ascites (is 'fat lamb's belly' ascites?). Some other
areas for exploration include Salvia aided psychotherapy (there is anecdotal material
supporting its usefulness in resolving pathological grief), use of salvinorin as a brief acting
general or dissociative anesthetic agent, use to provide pain relief, use in easing both the
physical and mental suffering of terminal patients as part of hospice care, and a possible
antidepressant effect.

Samphire (Crithmum maritimum) Though not currently much used in herbal medicine,
samphire is a good diuretic and has potential as a treatment for obesity. It has a high vitamin
C and mineral content and is thought to relieve flatulence and to act as a digestive remedy. It
was        once       recommended            to        cure       kidney        stones.

Sampson's Snakeroot (Gentiana villosa) Sampson‘s snakeroot is esteemed not only as
an antidote for snakebite and bites from rabid dogs. It has also been specified for the
treatment of gout and rheumatism. The plant‘s foremost use, generally in the form of a tea,
has been to stimulate the appetite and help digestion. The plant contains bitter chemical
substances that would have this effect.
Sand Sage (Artemisia filifolia syn Oligosporus filifolius) An infusion of the plant and
juniper branches is used in the treatment of indigestion. A strong infusion of the plant is used
as a lotion on snakebites. The plant is also used to treat boils. This thread-leaved sagebrush
is useful as a bitter tonic for hypersecreters with ulcers or chronic stress gastritis, usually
drunk in the evenings or when wakened by heartburn. The leaves and tops are boiled in water
and the steam inhaled to treat headaches and sore throats. The tea relieves prolonged
conditions of gas from fermentation.

Sand Sedge (Carex arenaria) The rootstock of the sand sedge is also referred to as
German sarsaparilla because it has a similar effect to the Central American smilax derived
from Radix Sarsparillae. It was used as a diuretic as well as a blood purifier for bronchitis,
gout and rheumatism. An infusion has been used in the treatment of abdominal and stomach
disorders, liver complaints, and skin conditions such as eczema and pruritus.

Sand Verbena (Abronia fragrans syn Abronia speciosa) The whole dried plant is boiled
into a tea and taken frequently in small amounts to stimulate milk production in nursing
mothers. The roots and flowers were used by the North American Indians to treat stomach
cramps and as a general panacea or 'life' medicine. A cold infusion was used as a lotion for
sores or sore mouths and also to bathe perspiring feet.

Sandalwood (Santalum album) Sandalwood is a classic for bladder infections. It is taken to
help the passing of stones, in kidney inflammations, and prostatitis. The oil is cooling to the
body and useful for fevers and infections when used as a massage. The scent is calming,
and helps focus the mind away from distracting chatter and creating the right mood for
meditation.. Sandalwood has been used internally for chronic bronchitis and to treat
gonorrhea and the urethral discharge that results. Simmer one teaspoon of the wood per cup
of water for 20 minutes, and take up to two cups a day in quarter-cup doses. The alcohol
tincture is 20-40 drops, 4 times a day, not with meals. In Ayurvedic medicine, a paste of the
wood is used to soothe rashes and itchy skin. For nosebleeds, the oil can be smeared up into
the        nose        using       a       finger        saturated        with      the     oil.
        In Chinese medicine, sandalwood is held to be useful for chest and abdominal pain. It
is also used to treat vomiting, gonorrhea, choleraic difficulties and skin complaints. Promotes
the movement of qi and alleviates pain: for pain associated with stagnant qi in the chest and
abdomen. Contraindicated in cases of yin deficiency with heat signs. The oil also stimulates
the spleen, promotes white blood cell production and strengthens the immune system against
infection. Very useful for chronic bronchitis, laryngitis, sore throat, hiccups and dry coughs.

Emotionally, sandalwood is profoundly seductive, dispelling anxiety and depression. It casts
out cynicism and obsessional attitudes, especially strong ties with the past, effecting a cure in
cases of sexual dysfunction. It comforts and helps the dying to make peace with the world. It
is used to awaken the power of kundalini and to connect that energy with the highest
enlightenment. About the erotic quality of the oil, scientists have discovered a connection.
Sandalwood smells similar to light concentrations of androsterone, a substance very similar in
chemical structure to the male hormone testosterone and is released in men‘s underarm

Sandalwood, Red (Pterocarpus santalus): Used occasionally in India for diabetes; the
antidiabetic constituent is pterostilbene which also has insecticidal activity. Employed in
pharmacy for coloring tinctures.

Sandwort (Spergularia rubra) : This herb acts as a diuretic, stimulating functioning of the
bladder, and is especially known in Malta for this use. It has been recommended for
inflammation of the bladder as well as for bladder stones. The powdered herb is allowed to
steep in a pint of boiling water in the preparation of one ounce of the powder to a pint of
water. It has been recommended to be taken several times a day, perhaps a cup every two
hours until relief is obtained. This should be accompanied by a mild diet with non-irritating
foods such as barley water. The plant contains a resinous aromatic substance that is
probably the active principle. An infusion is thought to relax the muscle walls of the urinary
tubules and so it is used in the treatment of kidney stones, acute and chronic cystitis and
catarrh of the bladder.

Sanicle (Sanicula europaea ) Wood sanicle used to be widely used as a herbal remedy and
has a long-standing reputation for healing wounds and treating internal bleeding. The herb is
traditionally thought to be detoxifying and has also been taken internally to treat skin problems.
A potentially valuable plant, but it is little used in modern herbalism. The herb is highly
esteemed in the treatment of blood disorders, where it is usually given in combination with
other herbs. It is also taken internally in the treatment of bleeding in the stomach and
intestines, the coughing up of blood, nosebleeds, chest and lung complaints, dysentery,
diarrhea etc. It can also be used as a mouth gargle for sore throats.
           It may also be of use in treating diarrhea and dysentery, bronchial and congestive
problems, and sore throats. This herb is traditionally thought to be detoxifying and has been
taken internally for skin problems. An old treatment for dropsy. Externally, sanicle may be
applied as a poultice or ointment for wounds, burns, chilblains, hemorrhoids, and inflamed
skin and rashes. As an astringent it is valuable for relieving leucorrhea.

Sanvitalia (Sanvitalia abertii): As a mild laxative and stimulant to digestive fluids and
saliva. Especially useful for dry, marbly, chronic constipation accompanied by sore gums and
bad breath. The flowers are chewed to whiten stained teeth.

Sanzashi (Crataegus cuneata): In China, the berries are mainly taken for symptoms of 'food
stagnation', which can include abdominal bloating, indigestion, flatulence and diarrhea. They
are believed to 'move' the blood, and are used to relieve stagnation in dysmenorrhea and
after childbirth. The fruit is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, stagnation of fatty food,
abdominal fullness, retention of lochia, amenorrhea, postpartum abdominal pain,
hypertension and coronary heart disease. Ayurvedic medicine recommends hawthorn for
heart and circulatory complaints. In search of new products for the treatment of
hyperlipidemia with a low frequency of side effects, a decoction of Crataegus cuneata,
Nelumbo nucifera and GP has been tested. A reduction of triglyceride and cholesterol was

Sarsaparilla (Smilax regelii) Used to treat skin disorders, liver problems, rheumatism and
hormone excesses. Generally the best quality sarsaparilla is the Jamaican. Honduran and
Mexican are also very good. The roots with the deeper orange-red color are considered to be
of superior quality. Sarsaparilla is excellent for chronic hepatic disorders, for venereal
diseases like gonorrhea and syphilis, and for female leuchorrea, and herpes. It combines well
with other alteratives and especially with yellow dock, sassafras, burdock, dandelion and red
clover. It also is of some help for epilepsy and other nervous system disorders. It is anti-
inflammatory and cleansing and can bring relief to skin problems caused by blood impurities
such as eczema, psoriasis and itchiness. Chinese tests indicate that sarsaparilla root, in
combination with five other herbs, was tested as a treatment for syphilis. Reportedly, 90% of
the acute cases subsequently cleared. In Mexico, the root is still frequently consumed for its
reputed tonic and aphrodisiac properties. Native Amazonian peoples take sarsaparilla to
improve virility and to treat menopausal problems. It has a progesterogenic action, making it
beneficial in premenstrual problems and debility and depression associated with menopause.
It has a tonic and specifically testosterogenic action on the body (stimulates the production of
testosterone) and stimulates natural cortisone, leading to increased muscle bulk, and it has a
potential                         use                       for                      impotence.
             The majority of Sarsaparilla's pharmacological properties and actions have been
attributed to a pharmacologically active group of phytochemicals called steroids and saponins.
The saponins have been reported to facilitate the absorption by the body of other drugs and
phytochemicals which accounts for its history of use in herbal formulas as a bioavailability and
herbal                                    enhancement                                    agent.
         Saponins and plant steroids found in many species of plants, including Sarsaparilla,
can be chemically synthesized into human steroids like estrogen and testosterone. This
chemical synthesization has never been documented to occur in the human body - only in the
laboratory. Plant steroids and their actions in the human body are still a subject of much
interest, too little research, and unfortunately, misinformation mainly for marketing purposes.
Sarsaparilla has been erroneously touted to contain testosterone and/or other anabolic
steroids. While it is a rich source of steroids and saponins, it has never been proven to have
any anabolic effects, nor is testosterone found in sarsaparilla or any other plant source thus
far. There is no known toxicity or side effects documented for sarsaparilla, however ingestion
of large dosages of saponins may cause gastro-intestinal irritation. For psoriasis it will
combine well with Burdock, Yellow Dock and Cleavers.

Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) Sassafras has traditionally been used for treating high
blood pressure, rheumatism, arthritis, gout, menstrual and kidney problems. The herb is
listed in 1983 British Herbal Pharmacopoeia for head lice, cutaneous eruptions, rheumatic
pains and gout, skin diseases and acne and ulcer. Sassafras is an excellent warming diuretic,
which makes it good for most arthritic conditions. Dosage is 10-30 drops of the tincture. The
root bark of sassafras improves digestion and increases sweating during flus, fevers and
measles. It is slightly laxative, and has been used to reduce high blood pressure and to
decrease mother‘s milk. It is also a remedy for poison ivy and oak rash poison. Native
Americans used a wash of the bark to bathe infected sores and of the twigs as eyewash. The
plant‘s disinfectant action makes a valuable mouthwash and dentrifice.

Sassy Bark (Erythrophleum guineense) It is much used by witchdoctors who use the
smoke from it to stupefy. Has laxative effects but is principally used as a narcotic. The
hydrochloride has been used in dental surgery. Erythrophleine causes a slow, strong pulse,
with a rise in the arterial pressure. Purging is probably due to local action on peristalsis, and
vomiting, the result or influence on the nerve centers, as it occurs when the alkaloid is given
hypodermically. It is asserted that it gives great relief in dyspnea, but is uncertain as a heart
tonic. The powder is strongly sternutatory. It has been useful in mitral disease and dropsy, but
disturbs the digestion even more than digitalis.
Savine (Juniperus sabina): It was used at one time as an ointment or dressing for blisters,
in order to promote discharge, and for syphilitic warts and other skin problems. In Britain the
fresh, dried shoots were once collected in spring for topical use. The powdered leaves mixed
with an equal part of verdigris were also used to destroy warts. It is a powerful
emmenagogue and should never be used in pregnancy. It is rarely administered nowadays
because of its possible toxic effects. An infusion (1 teaspoonful in 1 pint of water) is very
occasionally used in menstrual disorders, but because of its toxic action this treatment is
discouraged. It is more widely used in veterinary medicine in drenches, tonic powders,
etc. Mixed with an equal weight of verdigris, the powdered leaves have been used for
destroying venereal warts. Dose of the powdered leaves, from 5 to 15 grains in syrup, 3 times
a day; of the fluid extract, from 5 to 10 drops; of the strong tincture, from 1 to 5 drops; of the
infusion, from 1/2 to 2 fluid ounces. In traditional medicine, its foliage was used as an
abortifascient. For this reason, cultivation of this species was long prohibited in France..

Savory (Satureja hortensis and S montana): Savory has aromatic and carminative
properties, and though chiefly used as a culinary herb, it may be added to medicines for its
aromatic and warming qualities. It was formerly deemed a sovereign remedy for the colic and
a cure for flatulence, on this account, and was also considered a good expectorant. A mild
tea made with a few crushed dried leaves and boiling water has a pleasant, warming effect
and since savory, like rue, is reputed to sharpen the eyesight, use it also to relieve eyestrain
due to overtiredness or bad lighting. It will also help to disguise the flavor of unpalatable
medicine, and a few leaves added to a bottle of white wine makes a refreshing tonic. In an
emergency crushed leaves of savory can be applied to bee strings to bring rapid relief. In
Elizabethan times, the leaves were crushed into poultices for the treatment of colds and chest
ailments like asthma. A tea of savory can be helpful for diarrhea and can also stimulate the
appetite. Cherokee Indians used the herb as a snuff to cure headaches.

Saw palmetto (Seronoa repens) A hexane extract of the berries has been shown to have
antiandrogenic properties through a direct action on the estrogen receptors and by inhibiting
the enzyme testosterone-5-alph-reductase. Subcutaneously administered extracts were
strongly estrogenic in mice. Furthermore, saw palmetto extract has been shown to prevent
the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as well as to inhibit DHT binding
to cellular and nuclear receptor sites, thereby increasing the metabolism and excretion of
DHT. A double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluated the hormonal effects of saw
palmetto extract given to men with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) for 3 months prior to
operation. The study found that saw palmetto displayed an estrogenic and antiprogesterone
effect as determined by estrogen and progesterone receptor activity.
Aids thyroid in regulating sexual development and normalizing the activity of those glands and
organs. Tonic. Good for strengthening and body building. For men, it treats enlarged and
weakened prostate, impotence. For women, it increases breast size and secreting ability,
relieves ovarian and uterine irritability, frigidity. Stimulates appetite, improves digestion and
increases assimilation of nutrients. Expectorant, used for colds, head and nose congestion,
asthma, bronchitis. Promotes urine flow, urinary antiseptic, good for infections of gastro-
urinary tract. Also used in diabetes.       Increases the tone of the bladder, allowing a better
contraction and more complete expulsion of the contents, relieving any straining pain.
Nourishes the nervous system and aids assimilation of nutrients. Nicknamed the "plant
catheter" because it has the ability to strengthen the neck of the bladder.          Because
saw palmetto blocks the formation of DHT which kills off hair follicles it's possible this can be
used to prevent hair loss.

Scammony Root (Ipomoea orizabensis ) One of the most effective purgatives known
producing copious watery evacuations. In large doses it causes considerable pain, and its
preparations should not be used by those suffering from gastric or intestinal inflammation.

Scarlet Pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis) Not used much by medical herbalists today, scarlet
pimpernel has diuretic, sweat-inducing, and expectorant properties. As an expectorant, it was
used to stimulate the coughing up of mucus and help recovery from colds and flu. It has been
used to treat epilepsy and mental problems for 2,000 years, but there is little evidence to
support its efficacy. A tincture prepared from the fresh plant is used to treat skin eruptions and
ulcers, also as a cholagogic and diuretic. The whole herb can be taken internally or applied
externally as a poultice. An infusion is used in the treatment of dropsy, skin infections and
disorders of the liver and gall bladder.

Scopolia (Scopolia carniolica) A narcotic, warming herb that dilates the pupils, relaxes
spasms, and relieves pain. Internally, in Chinese medicine, used for chronic diarrhea,
dysentery, stomachache, and manic-depressive states. Mainly as a source of hyoscine, and
sometimes as a substitute for Atropa belladonna, notably in the manufacture of belladonna
plasters, and for Hyoscyamus niger. For use by qualified practitioners only. In 1900 an
alkaloid from this plant was combined with morpone from Papaver somniferum to produce
―twilight sleep‖; this compound was used as a preanesthetic prior to the administration of
chloroform or ether. The dried root causes a sleep that resembles normal sleep. In the past,
it had medical uses as a cerebral sedative for manias and drug addiction; it potentiates other
sedatives. Scopolia root acts as a parasympatholytic/anticholinergic via competitive
antagonism of the neuromuscular transmitter acetylcholine. This antagonism affects more the
muscarine-like effect of acetylcholine, less the nicotine-like effects at the ganglions and the
neuromuscular end-plate. Scopolia root displays peripheral effects targeted on the vegetative
nervous system and the smooth muscles, as well as central nervous effects. Because of its
parasympatholytic properties, scopolia root causes relaxation of the smooth muscle organs
and elimination of spastic conditions, especially of the gastrointestinal tract and the bile ducts.
Conditions of muscular tremors and muscular rigidity, caused by central nervous impulses,
disappear. The action on the heart is positively chronotropic and positively dromotropic.

Scorpion's Tail (Heliotropium indicum syn Tiaridium indicum) All parts of this plant are
used as medicine by local people. It is also used in ayurvedc treatments. The juice of the
leaves can be applied on boils, pimples, ulcers, sores and wounds to cure. It has a potent
wound healing effect, very strong antitumor agent. In Belize, the plant‘s used for
diarrhea, malaise, or vomiting in infants—boil an entire plant in 1 gallon water for 5 minutes
and bathe infant in warm water at bedtime. Use tea bath for skin conditions. Take
unsweetened tea for painful periods or scanty flow. To prepare tea, boil 3 15-cm long stem
pieces with leaves for 5 minutes in 3 cups water and drink warm. Note that the plant can be
toxic if drunk regularly or in large doses. Boil 3 leaves in 1 cup water for 10 minutes and
strain through cloth to use as eye wash. Biological activities reported include uterine
stimulant effect in rats from a water extract of roots; uterine stimulant effect in rats from an
ethanol extract of roots; antispasmodic activity of an unspecified type from a dried seed
extract in guinea pigs.

Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris ) Scot's pine has quite a wide range of medicinal uses, being
valued especially for its antiseptic action and beneficial effect upon the respiratory system. It
may be used in cases of bronchitis, sinustitis or upper respiratory catarrh, both as an inhalant
and internally. It may also be helpful in asthma. The stimulating action gives the herb a role
in the internal treatment of rheumatism and arthritis. Scots pine branches and stems yield a
thick resin, which is also antiseptic within the respiratory tract. It is a valuable remedy in the
treatment of kidney, bladder and rheumatic affections, and also in diseases of the mucous
membranes. Externally it is used in the form of liniment plasters and inhalers. The leaves and
young shoots are antiseptic, diuretic and expectorant. They are used internally for their mildly
antiseptic effect within the chest and are also used to treat rheumatism and arthritis. There is
a tradition of adding the twigs to bath water to ease nervous debility and sleeplessness, as
well as aiding the healing of cuts and soothing skin irritations. The seeds are used for
bronchitis, tuberculosis and bladder infections. A decoction of the seeds may be applied to
suppress excessive vaginal discharge.

Screwpine (Pandanus odoratissimus) Screwpine is restorative, antihydrotic, deodorant,
indolent and phylactic, promoting a feeling of wellbeing and acting as a counter to tropical
lassitude. A useful adjunct to oral hygiene as a breath sweetener, it is also used in local ritual,
its sweetness symbolizing man‘s better qualities. Externally used as a poultice for boils (leaf
Scurvy Grass (Cochlearia officinalis ) The young plant, which has a general detoxicant
effect and contains a wide range of minerals is taken as a spring tonic. Like watercress, it
has diuretic properties and is useful for any condition in which poor nutrition is a factor. It can
be used in the form of a juice as an antiseptic mouthwash for canker sores, and can also be
applied externally to spots and pimples. Blood purification cures use it as an essential
ingredient. An infusion of 8 parts leaves, 3 parts alcohol and 3 parts water, concentrated to
two-thirds of its original volume, is an effective remedy for toothache when used on a cotton
ball. The fresh leaves are used in the treatment of rheumatics, dropsy, white fluor (vaginal
discharge) and constipation.

Sea Beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima): Although little used in modern herbalism, beet has
a long history of folk use, especially in the treatment of tumors. A decoction prepared from
the seed has been used as a remedy for tumors of the intestines. The seed, boiled in water, is
said to cure genital tumors. The juice or other parts of the plant is said to help in the
treatment of tumors, leukemia and other forms of cancer such as cancer of the breast,
esophagus, glands, head, intestines, leg, lip, lung, prostate, rectum, spleen, stomach, and
uterus. Some figure that betacyanin and anthocyanin are important in the exchange of
substances of cancer cells; others note two main components of the amines, choline and its
oxidation product betaine, whose absence produces tumors in mice. The juice has been
applied to ulcers. A decoction is used as a purgative by those who suffer from hemorrhoids in
South Africa. Leaves and roots used as an emmenagogue. In the old days, beet juice was
recommended as a remedy for anemia and yellow jaundice, and, put into the nostrils to purge
the head, clear ringing ears, and alleviate toothache. Beet juice in vinegar was said to rid the
scalp of dandruff as scurf, and was recommended to prevent falling hair. Juice of the white
beet was said to clear obstructions of the liver and spleen. Culpepper recommended it for
treating headache and vertigo as well as all affections of the brain.

Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) Sea buckthorn berries are very high in vitamin C.
They have been used to help improve resistance to infection. The berries are mildly
astringent, and a decoction of them has been used as a wash to treat skin irritation and
eruptions. Medicinal uses of sea-buckthorn are well documented in Asia and Europe.
Investigations on modern medicinal uses were initiated in Russia during the 1950's.
Preparations of sea-buckthorn oils are recommended for external use in the case of burns,
bed sores, and other skin complications induced by confinement to a bed or treatment with X-
ray or radiation. Internally, sea-buckthorn is used for the treatment of stomach and duodenal
ulcers. In the United Kingdom and Europe sea-buckthorn products are used in aromatherapy.
Research in the late 1950's and early 1960's reported that 5-hydroxytryptamine (hippophan)
isolated from sea-buckthorn bark inhibited tumor growth. More recently, clinical studies on the
anti-tumor functions of sea-buckthorn oils conducted in China have been positive. Sea-
buckthorn oil, juice or the extracts from oil, juice, leaves and bark have been used
successfully to treat high blood lipid symptoms, eye diseases, gingivitis and cardiovascular
diseases such as high blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sea-buckthorn was
formally listed in the "Pharmacopoeia of China" in 1977. The tender branches and leaves
contain bioactive substances which are used to produce an oil that is quite distinct from the oil
produced from the fruit. Yields of around 3% of oil are obtained. This oil is used as an
ointment for treating burns. The fruit is astringent and used as a tonic. The freshly-pressed
juice is used in the treatment of colds, febrile conditions, exhaustion etc. The fruit is a very
rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavonoids and other
bioactive compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly
unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence
of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers. The juice is also
a component of many vitamin-rich medicaments and cosmetic preparations such as face-
creams and toothpastes. A decoction of the fruit has been used as a wash to treat skin
irritation and eruptions.

Sea Daffodil (Pancratium maritimum) Dioscorides used this plant medicinally for asthma
and coughs.
Sea Grape (Coccoloba uvifera): A gum from the bark is used for throat ailments, and the
roots are used to treat dysentery. A decoction is prepared from the leaves, wood, and bark,
which are excessively astringent, then evaporated, and the thick fluid poured into vessels, in
which it solidifies upon cooling. Upon extracting it from the vessels containing it, it is readily
reduced to pieces varying in size, generally about as large as a small cherry, and with a
disposition to the orthogonal form. They are lighter colored, and less shining than the ordinary
kino, are impervious to light in bulk, but garnet-red and semi-transparent in thin fragments;
are brittle and pulverable, forming a paler-colored powder than the commercial drug. They are
inodorous, amarous, and excessively astringent, impart a red hue to the saliva when
masticated, and contain about 41 per cent of tannic acid. Cold water, and alcohol, dissolve
nearly the whole of West Indian kino, about 6 to 11 per cent remaining undissolved.

Sea Holly (Eryngium maritimum) Sea holly is used as a diuretic. It is prescribed as a
treatment for cystitis and urethritis, and taken as a means to alleviate kidney stones. It is
unlikely that the herb actually dissolves established stones, but it probably helps retard their
formation. Sea holly is also used to treat enlargement or inflammation of the prostate gland,
and may be of benefit in treating chest problems. It will ease colic due to urinary problems as
well as reducing hemorrhage.

Sea Parsley (Ligusticum scoticum) Once used medicinally as an aromatic flavoring and in
the treatment of rheumatism. The root is used in the treatment of hysterical and uterine
disorders. The seeds are sweetly aromatic and have been used as a carminative, deodorant
and stimulant. They are also sometimes used for flavoring other herbal remedies. It is used as
a remedy to cure sheep of the cough. The root taken fasting expels wind. A broth made from
lamb and lovage was used to treat people suffering from an uncertain condition known as
'glacach', which is described as either a consumption or a swelling in the palm of the hand. It
was also thought to act as an aphrodisiac. The root of this species was thought to act as a
carminative for livestock given in whey to calves.

Sea Rocket (Cakile maritime): From Culpeper: It is a martial plant, of a hot nature, and
bitterish taste, opening and attenuating, good to cleanse the lungs of tough viscid phlegm,
and of great service in asthmas, and difficulty of breathing; and is often used as an emetic,
and to help the jaundice and dropsy. It is prescribed in scrofulous affections, lymphatic
disturbances, and the malaise that follows malaria.

Sea Wormwood (Artemisia maritima) These flower heads are especially effective against
Ascaris lumbricoides, which are nematode worms similar to earthworms, white in color, that
frequently infest the intestine of children. These flowers have also proven effective against
other intestinal parasites. Its medicinal virtues are similar to wormwood, A. absinthum, though
milder in their action. It is used mainly as a tonic to the digestive system, in treating
intermittent fevers and as a vermifuge

Seagrape (Coccoloba uvifera ) The fruits have been used to reduce fever. The roots have
been used to treat diarrhea. The bark yields an extract known as ―Jamaica kino,‖ used to
treat dysentery. A gum from the bark is used for throat ailments.

Sedge (Cyperus rotundus ) Important in traditional Chinese medicine and also used in
Ayurvedic medicine. Bittersweet herb that relieves spasms and pain, acting mainly on the
digestive system and uterus. Internally used for digestive problems related to blocked liver
energy and menstrual complaints including gas, bloating, food stagnation, colds caused by
food congestion, depression and moodiness. It is like Bupleurum in its power to regulate liver
chi. An essential oil in the tubers has antibiotic activity and has been shown to arrest the
growth of Micrococcus pyrogenes. The plant is rated 8th amongst 250 potential antifertility
plants in China. The plant is used in the treatment of cervical cancer

Self-Heal (Prunella vulgaris) All above-ground parts of the plant are useful. It can be used
fresh, or dried for later use. Make it into a tincture, an infusion, or an ointment for topical use.
Internally, selfheal has been used in Western medicine for hemorrhage and to decrease
excessive menstruation. Externally in Western medicine, used for minor injuries, sores, burns,
bruises, sore throat, mouth inflammations, and hemorrhoids (whole plant). The juice of a
crushed stem or two will soothe nettle stings, minor bouts with poison ivy, insect bites and
stings. Because it contains the compound rosmarinic acid, it is used for treatment of Graves
Disease as it helps suppress thyroid hormone production. Self-heal contains substances that
are diuretic and act against tumors. Lab tests indicate it may also be antibiotic, hypotensive
and antimutagenic in action. In making an oil infusion let the plants wilt for a full day to
increase the shelf life of the oil. Research: A 1993 Canadian study regarding HIV-1 found
that a purified extract of Selfheal was able to significantly inhibit HIV-1 replication with very
low toxicity. The extract was able to inhibit HIV-1 in both lymph and blood. Although prunellin
was unable to prevent HIV-1 infection when cells were pretreated with the purified herbal
extract, the virus‘ ability to cause infection was dramatically decreased when it was saturated
with prunellin. The purified extract was also able to block cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1.
Moreover, the extract was also able to interfere with the ability of HIV-1 to bind to CD4 cells.
The researchers suggest that the purified extract antagonizes HIV-1 infection of susceptible
cells by preventing viral attachment to the CD4 receptor.

TCM: Indications: jaundice: sore and swollen eyeballs; over-sensitivity to light; headache and
dizziness; gout; scrofula; high blood pressure. In Chinese medicine it is often combined with
Dendranthema x grandiflorum for headaches, high blood pressure, mumps, mastitis,
conjunctivitis and hyperactivity in children related to liver energy problems (flowers). Chinese
research shows the herb to have a moderately strong antibiotic actions against a broad range
of pathogens, including the Shigella species and e. coli strains of which can cause enteritis
and urinary infections. Studies also indicate that self-heal has a mildly dilating effect on the
blood vessels, helping to lower blood pressure. In China, self-heal is taken on its own or with
Chrysanthemum for fevers, headaches, dizziness, and vertigo, and to soothe and calm
inflamed and sore eyes. It is thought to cool ―liver fire‖ resulting from liver weakness, and is
prescribed for infected and enlarged glands, especially the lymph nodes of the neck.

Seneca Snakeroot (Polygala senega) It has excellent expectorant effects which may be
utilized in the treatment of bronchial asthma, especially where there is some difficulty with
expectoration. The root has a stimulant action on the bronchial mucous membranes,
promoting the coughing up of mucus from the chest and thereby easing wheezing. It has a
general power of stimulating secretion, including saliva. It may be used as a mouthwash and
gargle in the treatment of pharyngitis and laryngitis. A tea made from the bark has been
drunk in order to bring about a miscarriage.

Senna (Cassia senna (Senna alexandrina) Also c. acutifolia (Alexandrian and
Khartoum), C. angustifolia (Indian or Tintoum), C. marilandica (American)) Senna has
always been specifically used for constipation. It is particularly appropriate when a soft stool
is required, for example, in cases of anal fissure.        The sennosides irritate the lining of the
large intestine, causing the muscles to contract strongly, resulting in a bowel movement about
10 hours after the dose is taken. They also stop fluid from being absorbed from the large
bowel, helping to keep the stool soft. As a cathartic, senna can cause griping and colic, and
is therefore normally taken with aromatic, carminative herbs that relax the intestinal muscles.
Leaves are stronger in action than the pods and are not as commonly used. Senna pods, or
the dried, ripe fruits, are milder in their effects than the leaflets, as the griping is largely due to
the resin, and the pods contain none, but have about 25 per cent more cathartie acid and
emodin than the leaves, without volatile oil. From 6 to 12 pods for the adult, or from 3 to 6 for
the young or very aged, infused in a claret-glass of cold water, act mildly but thoroughly upon
the whole intestine. Similar in action to cascara sagrada, their slightly differenct chemistry
does produce a few differences in action. Whereas cascara is not activated until it reaches
the intestines, senna glycosides are readily released by microflora of the stomach and it is
about two thirds more active a laxative than cascara. The pods are made into tablets and
other preparations. Senna is very unpleasant tasting and it is best to combine senna pods
with aromatic, carminative herbs to increase palatability and reduce griping, e.g. cardamom,
ginger                                             or                                           fennel.
TCM: Indicated for Wind or bilious colics; a laxative for non-inflammatory conditions of the
intestinal tract. To clear heat in the liver and brighten the eyes; to moisten the intestines and
move feces.
Serpentwood (Rauvolfia serpentina)          The root is the source of the drug reserpine, which
is widely prescribed for high blood pressure and as a tranquilizer. Although reserpine has
been successfully synthesized, natural versions are less expensive and therefore more
desirable. As a result, high-volume collection of R. serpentina is depleting the plant as a
natural resource. The root has a pronounced sedative and depressant effect on the
sympathetic nervous system. It is also used for insomnia, hyperglycemia, hypochondria,
mental disorders like anxiety and certain forms of insanity. It does not have to be
administered in critical dosages, there are rare side effects, it‘s non-habit-forming, without
withdrawal symptoms. It is a slow-acting remedy, and it takes some time for its effect to
become fully established. The West African species R. vomitoria is used as a sedative,
aphrodisiac, and anticonvulsant in traditional African medicine.

Serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) Saskatoon was quite widely employed as a medicinal
herb by the North American Indians, who used it to treat a wide range of minor
complaints. An infusion of the inner bark is used as a treatment for snow-blindness. A
decoction of the fruit juice is mildly laxative. It has been used in the treatment of upset
stomachs, to restore the appetite in children, it is also applied externally as ear and eye
drops. A decoction of the roots has been used in the treatment of colds. It has also been
used as a treatment for too frequent menstruation. A decoction of the stems, combined with
the stems of snowberry (Symphoricarpos spp) is diaphoretic. It has been used to induce
sweating in the treatment of fevers, flu etc and also in the treatment of chest pains and lung
infections. A decoction of the plant, together with bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata) has been
used as a contraceptive. Other recipes involving this plant have also been used as
contraceptives including a decoction of the ashes of the plant combined with the ashes of
pine branches or buds. A strong decoction of the bark was taken immediately after childbirth
to hasten the dropping of the placenta. It was said to help clean out and help heal the
woman's insides and also to stop her menstrual periods after the birth, thus acting as a form
of birth control.

Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Sesame is principally used as food and flavoring agent in
China, but it is also taken to redress ―states of deficiency,‖ especially those affecting the liver
and kidneys. The seeds are prescribed for problems such as dizziness, tinnitus, and blurred
vision (when due to anemia). Because of their lubricating effect within the digestive tract, the
seeds are also considered a remedy for ―dry‖ constipation. The seeds have a marked ability
to stimulate breast-milk production. Sesame seed oil benefits the skin and is used as a base
for cosmetics. A decoction of the root is used in various traditions to treat coughs and asthma.
In experiments undertaken using laboratory animals, sesame seeds have been shown to
lower blood sugar levels and also to raise the levels of stored carbohydrates (glycogen). The
presence of various principles (sesamin and sesamol) gives the oil, rich in unsaturated oils,
an anti-oxidant property. The leaves are used in bladder and kidney troubles and in Africa
are administered to children for a variety of upsets including dysentery, diarrhoea and wind.
Eye and skin lotions are also prepared from the leaves, which are believed detoxicant.

Shan Zhu Yu (Cornus officinalis ) Shan Zhu Yu has been used for at least 2,000 years in
Chinese herbal medicine. An herb that ―stabilizes and binds,‖ shan zhu yu is used principally
to reduce heavy menstrual bleeding and unusually active secretions, including copious
sweating, excessive urine, spermatorrhea (involuntary discharge of semen), and premature
ejaculation. Shan zhu yu is astringent, and like all herbs that suppress bodily fluids, it will
simply prolong or lead to a worsening of symptoms if used without tonic or detoxifying herbs It
is, therefore, normally used in combination with herbs such as Rehmannia glutinosa and is an
ingredient of the "Pill of eight ingredients" which is used in China to "warm up and invigorate
the yang of the loins". The fruit, without the seed, is decocted for the treatment of arthritis,
fever and a wide range of other ailments. It is used in the treatment of senile lumbago,
diabetes, cystitis, tinnitus etc. The fruit has an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of
Bacillus dysenteriae and staphococci. The bark is reputed to be an effective remedy for
malarial fevers.

TCM: tonifies kidney and liver energy; nourishes semen-essence. Indicated for empty kidney-
energy; deficient liver-energy
Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) The premier herb for women in Ayurveda, shatavari is
similar to dong quai in its action and effects, but is not a ―connoisseur herb‖ like dong quai, so
it‘s not as expensive.         Internally for infertility, loss of libido, threatened miscarriage,
menopausal problems, hyperacidity, stomach ulcers, dysentery, and bronchial infections. It
increases milk, semen and nurtures the mucous membranes. It both nourishes and cleanses
the blood and the female reproductive organs. It is a good food for menopause or for those
who have had hysterectomies, as it supplies many female hormones. It nourishes the ovum
and increases fertility, yet its quality is sattvic and aids in love and devotion. Three grams of
the powder can be taken in one cup of warm milk sweetened with raw sugar. It‘s especially
good for pitta types. Externally for stiffness in joints and neck. The most important herb in
Ayurvedic medicine for women. Used internally by Australian Aborigines for digestive upsets
and externally for sores.

Sheep Laurel (Kalmia angustifolia syn K. angustifolium, K. intermedia) Sheep laurel is
a very poisonous narcotic plant the leaves of which were at one time used by some native
North American Indian tribes in order to commit suicide. The leaves are usually used
externally as a poultice and wash in herbal medicine and are a good remedy for many skin
diseases, sprains and inflammation. They can also be applied as a poultice to the head to
treat headaches. The singed, crushed leaves can be used as a snuff in the treatment of
colds. Used internally, the leaves have a splendid effect in the treatment of active
hemorrhages, headaches, diarrhea and flux. Used in syphilitic diseases, scalp scabs,
cutaneous affections, hemorrhages, diarrhea, flux, and neuralgia. When stewed with lard, it is
serviceable as a ointment for various skin irritations. This species is said to be the best for
medicinal use in the genus. The plant should be used with great caution because of the

Sheepberry (Viburnum lentago) The bark is antispasmodic. A decoction of the roots has
been used to treat irregular menstruation and the spitting of blood. An infusion of the leaves
has been used in the treatment of measles. An infusion of the leaves has been drunk, or a
poultice of leaves applied, in the treatment of dysuria. Often used interchangeably with cramp

Sheep's Bit (Jasione montana) From Culpeper: a bitter, light, astringent quality, excellent
against disorders of the breast, such as coughs, asthmatic affections, difficulty of breathing,
for which purpose an infusion of the flowers is the best preparation. The juice applied
externally heals foulness and discolorings of the skin.

Sheep’s Sorrel (Rumex acetosella): Leaf tea of this common European alien traditionally
used for fevers, inflammation, scurvy. Sheep‘s sorrel is a detoxifying herb, the fresh juice
having a pronounced diuretic effect. It has been used as a liver stimulant and blood alterative
that is useful in treating skin disorders and various other metabolic imbalances. Fresh leaves
considered cooling. The leaves poulticed (after roasting) are used for tumors, wens, folk
cancer remedy. Root tea used for diarrhea, excessive menstrual bleeding. The leaves are
mildly laxative and holds out potential as a long-term treatment for chronic disease, in
particular that of the gastrointestinal tract.

Shepherd's Rod (Dipsacus pilosus) The root is bitter and, given in strong infusion, it
strengthens the stomach and creates an appetite. It is also a liver tonic. It is not much used
because it is not often found, growing only in scattered areas. The Common Teasel has
similar virtues.

Shepherd’s Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris or Thlaspi bursa-pastoris) When dried and
infused, it yields a tea as a specific for stopping hemorrhages of the stomach, lungs, and
especially of the kidneys. Its antiscorbutic, stimulant and diuretic action caused it to be much
used in kidney complaints and dropsy. Used to stop heavy menstruation. A tincture made
from the fresh herb and taken every hour or two is one of the most effective hemostatics. To
make a styptic solution, boil 3 oz of herb in two pints of hot water. Internal dose is 2 tsp every
four hours. To make a healing ointment, simmer for a half hour one heaping Tbsp of ground
plaintain and shepherd‘s purse leaves in 4 oz of lard or suet. Strain into containers. An
astringent herb, it disinfects the urinary tract in cases of cystitis, and is taken for diarrhea.
Because of its reputed stimulant, diuretic, and antiscorbutic action, the weed has been much
used in the treatment of numerous kidney complaints. Also for hypertension and postpartum
bleeding. Research suggests that the plant is anti-inflammatory and reduces fever. The
secret of Capsella‘s blood-clotting ability is its content of vitamin K. For an almost instant
arrest of nosebleed, many people simply soak a cotton swab with the freshly expressed juice
of shepherd‘s purse and insert it into the affected nostril. Many people take an infusion as a
refreshing spring tonic, in the belief that it relieves such circulatory disturbances as
hypertension, varicose veins, arteriosclerosis and hemorrhoids.        European herbalists have
found that a sitz bath infused with shepherd‘s purse is particularly soothing for hemorrhoid
sufferers. Shepherd‘s purse also plays an important role in a mixture recommended for bed-

Shih Hu (Dendrobium hancockii): Shih hu is the Chinese dendrobium orchid, a famous chi
tonic of the sages. It is cooling and mildly sweet and salty, restoring bodily fluids and
alleviating fatigue. Large golden stems are dried and simmered with licorice or ginger to
restore sexual vigor. This Chinese kidney yin tonic affects the lower back, knees and sexual
vigor. To the Chinese, the kidneys rule the bone, bone marrow, memory, hearing and brain
function. The kidneys store ancestral chi and heredity, as well as having both yin and yang
properties, restoring fluids and enhancing vitality. The stem is used to treats fever, cough,

Shoo Fly (Nicandra physaloides) The seeds are used in Tibetan medicine, they are said to
have an acrid taste and a cooling, very poisonous potency. Regular use increases bodily
vigor. They are used in the treatment of contagious disorders, toothache, intestinal pain from
worms and impotence. In Mexico, the leaves are smoked as a remedy for asthma. An
infusion of the leaves is sometimes used to ease the pains of childbirth. Has reputed
aphrodisiac qualities.

Shooting Star (Dodecatheon spp D hendersonii, D meadia) The leaf tea was employed
by some northwestern Indian tribes as a treatment for cold sores.

Showy Milkweed (Asclepias speciosa ) The milky latex has been used as an antiseptic
for treating ringworm, cuts, and sores and to remove corns and calluses. The latex is used as
a cure for warts. The latex needs to be applied at least once a day of a period of some weeks
for it to be effective. After the seeds have been boiled in water, the victim of a rattlesnake bite
bathes in the water. A tea made of boiled roots has been used to treat measles, coughs, and
tuberculosis, and has been applied warm to rheumatic joints. The mashed roots have been
used as a poultice to reduce swellings. The root is either chewed when fresh, or dried, ground
into a powder then boiled, and used in the treatment of stomach ache. A decoction of the
roots has been used in small doses to treat venereal diseases and also to treat coughs,
especially from TB. Indian women used an infusion of the entire plant to treat sore breasts. A
decoction of the plant tops can be strained and used to treat blindness and snow-blindness.
Some caution should be employed when using the root since there is a report that it can be
poisonous in large quantities.

Shrubby Seablite (Suaeda fruticosa syn Suaeda vera) The leaves are used as a poultice
in the treatment of ophthalmia. When infused in water, they have been used as an emetic.

Shungiku (Chrysanthemum coronarium) The leaves are expectorant and stomachic. In
conjunction with black pepper it is used in the treatment of gonorrhea. The flowers are
aromatic, bitter and stomachic. They are used as a substitute for camomile (Chamaemelum
nobile). The bark is purgative, it is used in the treatment of syphilis.

Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) There has been much research into
Siberian ginseng in Russia since the 1950s, although the exact method by which it stimulates
stamina and resistance to stress is not yet understood. Siberian ginseng seems to have a
general tonic effect on the body, in particular on the adrenal glands, helping the body to
withstand heat, cold, infection, other physical stresses and radiation. It has even been given
to astronauts to counter the effects of weightlessness. Athletes have experienced as much
as a 9% improvement in stamina when taking Siberian ginseng. Siberian ginseng is given to
improve mental resilience, for example, during exams, and to reduce the effects of physical
stress, for example during athletic training. Siberian ginseng is most effective in the treatment
of prolonged exhaustion and debility, resulting from overwork and long-term stress. The herb
also stimulates immune resistance and can be taken in convalescence to aid recovery from
chronic illness. As a general tonic, Siberian ginseng helps both to prevent infection and to
maintain well-being. It is also used in treatments for impotence. Eleuthero root happens to
be anti-yeast and immune supportive.

Siberian Pine, Dwarf (Pinus pumila): An aromatic, stimulant, antiseptic herb that is
expectorant, relieves bronchial and nasal congestion and improves blood flow locally. The oil
is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is
used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is
also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the
mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB.
Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores,
burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and

Siberian Tea (Bergenia crassifolia): It possess local vasoconstrictive action, capillary-
restorative. It has depressant action on dysenteric and typhoid bacillus. It is combined with
sulfanilamide and antibiotics for treatment of these diseases. It is also used for infectious
colitis, excessive menstruation, bleeding after abortions, for treatment of erosion cervix of the
uterus (outwardly), a fibroma of a uterus, in stomatology, at stomatitises and gingivitis, at a
headache and for sprinkling wounds. Internally it is used as a tea chiefly for inflammations of
the genitourinary tract (cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis, pyelonephritis), and also gastrointenstinal
tract (diarrhea, also when minor hemorrhages are present, but on professional‘s advice). To
enhance the effects, urine should be slightly alkaline (this can be done by consuming a diet
rich in vegetables and/or taking about a teaspoonful a day of baking soda) and the fluid intake
should be more than 2 liters per day.

Sichuan Oxknee (Cyathula officinalis): This is an alternate source material for the herb Niu
Xi, for which the name means ox knee, the original material Achyranthes bidentata has nodes
that are reminiscent of ox knees; comparatively, Chuan Niu Xi is thought to be better at
transforming static blood, while Niu Xi is better at nourishing the liver and kidney). Chinese
root used to treat pain due to ―wind-dampness‖ to clear atrophy and spasm of the lower
extremities, much like the previous species. Do not use during pregnancy

Silk Tree (Albizia julibrissin ) The flower heads are used internally in the treatment of
insomnia, irritability, breathlessness and poor memory. The stembark is used internally in the
treatment of insomnia, irritability, boils and carbuncles. Externally, it is applied to injuries and
swellings. A gummy extract obtained from the plant is used as a plaster for abscesses, boils
etc and also as a retentive in fractures and sprains. It is gaining a reputation among western
herbalists as a fast and highly effective treatment for depression, anxiety, insomnia, poor
memory and irritability.

Silver Birch (Betula pendula (B. verrucosa, B. alba)) An infusion made with silver birch
leaves hastens the removal of waste products in the urine, and is beneficial for kidney stones
and bladder stones, rheumatic conditions, and gout. To obtain the full diuretic effect herbalists
add a pinch of baking soda to the infusion which promotes the extraction of the diuretic
hyperoside. The leaves are also used, in combination with diuretic herbs, to reduce fluid
retention and swelling. Silver birch sap is a mild diuretic. Preserved with cloves and
cinnamon, the sap was once taken to treat skin diseases like acne as well as rheumatism and
gout. A decoction of silver birch bark can be used as a lotion for chronic skin problems. The
bark can also be macerated in oil and applied to rheumatic joints. A decoction of the bark has
been used to allay intermittent fevers. Dry distillation of fresh birch wood yields birch tar,
which is used in soothing ointments for skin ailments.
Silver Fir (Abies alba (A. pectinata) ) Both the leaves and the resin are common
ingredients in remedies for colds and coughs, either taken internally or used as an inhalant.
The resin is also used externally in bath extracts, rubbing oils etc for treating rheumatic pains
and neuralgia.

Silver Sagebrush (Artemisia cana) Used by the Montana Indians as a general tonic, to
restore hair, and as a dermatological aid.

Silverberry (Elaeagnus commutata): A strong decoction of the bark, mixed with oil, has
been used as a salve for children with frostbite. A decoction of the roots, combined with
sumac roots (Rhus spp.), has been used in the treatment of syphilis. This medicine was
considered to be very poisonous and, if you survived it, you were likely to become sterile. The
fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially
in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good
source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a
food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or
reversing the growth of cancers.

Silverweed (Potentilla anserine) The dried flowering stems are used medicinally. The
drugs contain chiefly flavonoid compounds and catechol tannins as well as constipating, anti-
inflammatory and anti-spasmodic properties, which also determine their use in the treatment
of chronic nonspecific diarrheas, especially when accompanied by indigestion. They are used
primarily for those who do not tolerate sulfa drugs. It used to be found in formulas for uterine
and stomach spasms and was added to douche formulas. Their occasional recommended
use to relieve menstrual pains is, however, ineffective. The dried flowering stems are
prepared in the form of a briefly steeped infusion—one teaspoon of the crumbled drug to one
cup boiling water. The alcohol extract from the roots of both species (20-30 drops in a glass
of water) is used externally with success for gargling to relieve sore throats or for swabbing
inflamed gums and to tighten spongy gums and loose teeth and where there is inflammations
of the mouth such as gingivitis or apthous ulcers. Both hemorrhoids and poison oak can be
treated topically with the tea.

Silvery Spleenwort (Diplazium pycnocarpon syn Asplenium angustifolium) Used in
pectoral and lung diseases and to cure an enlarged spleen.

Simaruba (Simaruba amara (syn Simarouba officinalis) ) Simaruba is one of the best
tonics for persons suffering from debility and loss of appetite. It restores the lost tone of the
intestines, promotes the secretions, and disposes the patient to sleep. It is only successful in
the latter stage of dysentery, when the stomach is not affected. In large doses it produces
sickness and vomiting. On account of its difficult pulverization, it is seldom given in substance,
the infusion being preferred, but like many bitter tonics, it is now seldom used. From its use, it
has been called 'dysentery bark.'

Single Delight (Moneses uniflora): An infusion of the dried plant has been used in the
treatment of coughs and colds. The plant has been chewed, and the juice swallowed, as a
treatment for sore throat. A poultice of the leaves has been used to draw out the pus from
boils and abscesses, to draw blisters, to help reduce swellings and also to relieve pain.

Skirret (Sium sisarum) Fresh young shoots are said by Culpeper to be a ―wholesome food,
of a cleansing nature, and easy digestion, provoking urine.‖ May also help relieve chest
complaints. The root is diuretic and cleansing, and useful for removing obstructions from the
bladder. It is serviceable against dropsy by causing plenty of urine and helps liver disorders
and the jaundice. The young shoots are a pleasant and wholesome food of easy digestion.

Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus (Spathyema foetida)) The roots are a traditional
folk remedy for tight coughs, bronchitis and catarrh. It acts as a mild sedative and has been
employed to treat nervous disorders. As employed in respiratory and nervous disorders,
rheumatism, and dropsy, the rootstock was official in the US Pharmacopoeia from 1820 to
1882. Skunk cabbage may be used whenever there is a tense or spasmodic condition in the
lungs. It will act to relax and ease irritable coughs. It may be used in asthma, bronchitis and
whooping cough. As a diaphoretic it will aid the body during fevers. Less commonly, skunk
cabbage is used as a treatment for epilepsy, headaches, vertigo, and rheumatic problems
and as a means to stop bleeding. The leaves can be used fresh as a vulnerary.

Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) A tea of the moist inner bark was taken for digestive problems,
particularly diarrhea, since it is rich in a soothing mucilage. It will soothe and astringe at the
same time. After the inner bark has been soaked in warm water, it produces a mucilage that
has been used to soften the skin and protect it from chapping and to hasten the healing of
skin wounds. It makes a soothing and nourishing food and herbalists consider it one of the
best remedies for healing inflammations of the gastro-intestinal tract. It may be used in
gastritis, gastric or duodenal ulcer, enteritis, colitis and the like. It is a useful remedy for
urinary problems such as chronic cystitis. Slippery elm has been used to treat all manner of
chest conditions and has a soothing effect on everything from coughs and bronchitis to
pleurisy and tuberculosis. The powdered bark, commonly known as slippery elm food, may
be sold commercially as a nourishing drink for convalescents and those recovering from
gastro-intestinal illnesses. Externally the bark makes an excellent poultice for use in cases of
burns, boils, abscesses or ulcers. It works very well as a ―drawing‖ poultice for boils and
splinters. Native Americans used the bark, beaten to a pulp, to treat gunshot wounds and
help remove bullets. They also used it to treat fever, diarrhea, and respiratory infections, and
made a tea from boiled roots to assist women in childbirth.

Smartweed (Polygonum hydropiper) Water pepper is a vasoconstrictor. The flowering
heads and leaves are mostly used but occasionally the fresh roots too. Principally it is used
as an infusion to stem bleeding and relieve menstrual pain. A cold water infusion used to be
prescribed for gravel, dysentery, coughs, sore throats, colds, and gout. A fomentation is good
for chronic ulcers and bleeding tumors. Some of the old herbalists thought it effective in
nervous diseases like vertigo, lethargy, apoplexy and palsy. Dried leaves and tops were
boiled in water to make a wash used for sore mouth in nursing mothers. The plant was also
used for internal bleeding and uterine disorders and to promote menstrual flow. In
combination with tonics and gum myrrh, it is said to have cured epilepsy - probably dependent
on some uterine derangement. The infusion in cold water, which may be readily prepared
from the fluid extract, has been found serviceable in gravel, dysentery, gout, sore mouths,
colds and coughs, and mixed with wheat bran, in bowel complaints. Antiseptic and desiccant
virtues are also claimed for it. The fresh leaves, bruised with those of the Mayweed (Anthemis
cotula), and moistened with a few drops of oil of turpentine, make a speedy vesicant.
Simmered in water and vinegar, it has proved useful in gangrenous, or mortified conditions.
The extract, in the form of infusion or fomentation, has been beneficially applied in chronic
ulcers and hemorrhoidal tumors, also as a wash in chronic erysipetalous inflammations, and
as a fomentation in flatulent colic. A hot decoction made from the whole plant has been used
in America as a remedy for cholera, a sheet being soaked in it and wrapped round the patient
immediately the symptoms start.

Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus ) The leaves are considered useful for reducing
tissue swelling, and have a cleansing effect. The plant has been used to treat dysentery,
diarrhea, excessive menstrual flow, ulcers and intestinal hemorrhaging. A tea made from the
leaves is used in the treatment of intestinal bleeding, diarrhea, excessive menstruation etc.

Snake Grape (Ampelopsis brevipedunculata): The fresh fruits, roots and leaves resolve
clots. It is used externally in the treatment of boils, abscesses and ulcers, traumatic bruises
and aches.

Snake Needle Grass (Hedyotis diffusa): A pleasant-tasting, cooling, alterative herb that
lowers fever, reduces inflammation, relieves pain, and is diuretic and antibacterial. It acts
mainly on the liver and stimulates the immune system. Internally used for fever, coughs,
asthma, jaundice, urinary tract infections and cancers of the digestive tract. Externally for
snakebites, boils, abscesses and severe bruising. An herb used in traditional Chinese
medicine to treat certain medical problems. It has been used to boost the immune system and
may have anticancer effects. Juice from plant (excluding roots): treats intestinal diseases;
Whole plant: treats disorders of the stomach. The herb has an antimicrobial effect in vitro on
such bacteria as staphylococcus aureus and has shown an effect on activating the
reticuloendothelial system and increase phagocytosis by lymphocytes. Antineoplastic effect
has shown an inhibitory effect in vitro on cells from acute lymphocytic and acute granulocytic
leukemia. Hedyotis diffusa herb extract has also been noted in the treatment of appendicitis
and snakebite. Inhibits leukemia cells, Yoshida's sarcoma, and Ehrlich's ascites sarcoma in
vitro; also inhibits sarcoma-180, ascitic lymphosarcoma, and uterine cancer-14 in mice. Used
to treat stomach and rectal cancer by combining with coix and solanum.

Snakeroot, Black (Sanicula marylandica): Considered a ―cure all‖ by John Kloss ―because
it possesses powerful cleansing and healing virtues, both internally and externally.‖ It heals,
stops bleeding, diminishes tumors. The properties when administered seem to seek the
ailment most in distress. A tea made from the thick root has been used to treat menstrual
irregularities, pain, kidney ailments, rheumatism and fevers. A decoction of the root has been
used to cause vomiting in order to counteract a poison. It makes a useful gargle for treating
sore mouths and throats. The powdered root has also been popularly used to treat
intermittent fever and chorea (St. Vitus' Dance). The root is also poulticed and applied to
snakebites. Pharmacological studies reveal that black snakeroot contains some tannin, which
causes an astringent action that may account for the use of snakeroot preparations as
gargles for sore throat. The action on the system resembles valerian.

Sneezeweed (Helenium amarum (syn Helenium tenuifolium) ) The plant has been used
to cause sneezing and thus clear the nasal passages of mucus. A decoction of the entire
plant can be used in a sweat bath to treat dropsy and swellings. It is also a strong fish poison

Snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus): Snowberry was commonly employed
medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who valued it especially for the
saponins it contains. These saponins can be toxic, but when applied externally they have a
gentle cleansing and healing effect upon the skin, killing body parasites and helping in the
healing of wounds. The Native Americans used it to treat a variety of complaints but
especially as an external wash on the skin. Any internal use of this plant should be carried out
with care, and preferably under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. An infusion of the
stems has been drunk to treat stomach problems and menstrual disorders. A decoction of the
leaves has been used in the treatment of colds. A poultice of the chewed leaves has been
applied, or an infusion of the leaves has been used as a wash, in the treatment of external
injuries. A weak solution of the stems and leaves has been used as a wash for children whilst
a stronger solution is applied to sores. The fruit has been eaten, or used as an infusion, in the
treatment of diarrhea. An infusion of the fruit has been used as an eye wash for sore eyes.
The berries have been rubbed on the skin as a treatment for burns, rashes, itches and sores.
The berries have also been rubbed on warts in order to get rid of them. A poultice of the
crushed leaves, fruit and bark has been used in the treatment of burns, sores, cuts, chapped
and injured skin. An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of fevers (including
childhood fevers), stomach aches and colds. A decoction of the root bark has been used in
the treatment of venereal disease and to restore the flow of urine. An infusion of the root has
been used as an eyewash for sore eyes. An infusion of the whole plant has been drunk and
also applied externally in the treatment of skin rashes. A decoction of the roots and stems has
been used in the treatment of the inability to urinate, venereal disease, tuberculosis and the
fevers associated with teething sickness

Soap Tree (Quillaja saponaria ) Soap bark tree has a long history of medicinal use with the
Andean people who used it especially as a treatment for various chest problems. Its strong
expectorant effect is reliable for soothing and relieving chronic bronchitis, especially in the
early stages. Also one of the strongest known sternutatories—it produces sneezing. Like
other plants that contain saponins, soap tree stimulates the production of a more fluid mucus
in the airways, facilitating the clearing of phlegm through coughing. It is useful for treating any
condition featuring congested mucus within the chest, but should not be used for dry, irritable
coughs. It is one of the best aids to hair growth, when applied as an infusion to the scalp and
appears in the formulations of dandruff shampoos. Soap bark tree is used as a source of
compounds for the pharmaceutical industry.

Soapberry, Western (Sapindus drummondii): Use dried leaves and stems that have been
gathered in late summer or early fall. A cold infusion can be made from the dried herb. This
is used for dry coughs, fevers, some kidney disorders, inflammation, and acute arthritis pain.
The fruit is used in the treatment of kidney diseases and to suppress fevers.. A poultice of the
sap has been used to treat wounds.

Soapwort (Saponaria officinalis) Soapwort‘s main internal use is as an expectorant. Its
strongly irritant action within the gut is thought to stimulate the cough reflex and increase the
production of a more fluid mucus within the respiratory passages. Consequently, the plant is
prescribed for the treatment of bronchitis, coughs and some cases of asthma. Soapwort may
be taken for other problems including rheumatic and arthritic pain. A decoction of the root
and, to a lesser extent, an infusion of the aerial parts of the herb make soothing washes for
eczema and other itchy skin conditions. It is also effective when applied to poison ivy and
poison oak, especially in combination with other herbs, such as mugwort. It was once taken
internally to help eliminate toxins from the liver, and in India, a specially prepared root is used
to increase mother‘s milk. It is reported to have an effect upon gallstones

Solomon Seal (Polygonatum multiflorum also P. odoratum (syn P. officinale))
Combined with other remedies, Solomon's Seal is given in pulmonary consumption and
bleeding of the lungs. It is also useful for menstrual irregularities, cramps, leucorrhea and
many of the other ailments classified by most early herbals under the broad heading of
―female complaints.‖ The infusion of 1 oz. to a pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful
doses and is also used as an injection. It is a mucilaginous tonic, very healing and restorative,
and is good in inflammations of the stomach and bowels, piles, and chronic dysentery. A
strong decoction given every two or three hours has been found to cure erysipelas, if at the
same time applied externally to the affected parts. The powdered roots make a poultice for
bruises, piles, inflammations and tumors. Like arnica, it is believed to prevent excessive
bruising and to stimulate tissue repair. The bruised roots were used as a popular cure for
black eyes, mixed with cream. The bruised leaves made into a stiff ointment with lard served
the same purpose. A decoction of the root in wine was considered a suitable beverage for
persons with broken bones, 'as it disposes the bones to knit.' The flowers and roots used as
snuff are celebrated for their power of inducing sneezing and thereby relieving head affections.
They also had a wide vogue as aphrodisiacs, for love philtres and potions. A tea made from
the crushed leaves was used as a contraceptive.              In Chinese herbal medicine, it is
considered a yin tonic and is thought to be particularly applicable to problems affecting the
respiratory system—sore throats, dry and irritable coughs, bronchial congestion and chest
pain. Also for heart disease, tuberculosis, and to encourage the secretion of body fluids. In
Ayurvedic medicine, internally it is used as a rejuvenative and aphrodisiac: one of eight root
herbs known as ashtavarga, used for infertility, insufficient lactation, chronic wasting diseases,
and bleeding disorders related to kidney weakness. Given with warm milk and ghee as a

Sorrel (Rumex acetosa) High in Vitamin C--- ½ cup chopped fresh sorrel leaves provides
54% of the daily requirement for a healthy adult. The dark green leaves of Rumex are a good
source of the yellow carotenoid pigment, beta-carotene, the vitamin A precursor in deep
yellow fruits and vegetables. Vitamin A also protects your eyes. ½ cup chopped fresh
Rumex leaves provides 67% of the vitamin A a healthy woman needs each day and 54% of
the requirements for a healthy man.
Sorrel leaves act as a diuretic. Research has shown them to be a mild antiseptic and a light
laxative. Sorrel was also once a popular ―spring cure,‖ usually in form of sorrel soup. Raw,
the     leaves    are     a     cooling    agent    for    fevers     and    relieve    thirst.
          A tea made from sorrel root was long recommended by herbalists as a diuretic, but is
use is inadvisable because of the plant‘s potential toxicity. A leaf tea has also figured in
herbal medicine as an appetite stimulant, a scurvy preventive, and an antiseptic; it is also
somewhat laxative. A tea of leaves also appears in herbal literature as a coolant for fever.
Infuse as a tea to treat kidney and liver ailments. Apply to mouth ulcers, boils and infected

Sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum ) Indians boiled the leaves and gave feverish patients
the liquid to drink; they also used this tea to treat the urinary ailments of older men. A poultice
of leaves mixed with bark was used to reduce swellings. The leaves have also been
considered a tonic. A tea made from the leaves has been used in the treatment of asthma,
diarrhea, indigestion and to check excessive menstrual bleeding. The bark has been chewed
in the treatment of mouth ulcers.

Southern Hackberry (Celtis australis ) Due to their astringent properties, both the leaves
and fruit may be used as a remedy. Although the fruit is considered more effective,
particularly before it has fully ripened, a decoction of both it has fully ripened, a decoction of
both is taken to reduce heavy menstrual and intermenstrual uterine bleeding. The fruit and
leaves may be used to astringe the mucous membranes in peptic ulcers, diarrhea, and

Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) Southernwood encourages menstruation, is
antiseptic and kills intestinal worms. It was used to treat liver, spleen and stomach problems.
It is seldom used medicinally today, except in Germany, where poultices are placed on
wounds, splinters and skin conditions and it is employed occasionally to treat frostbite. Its
constituents have been shown to stimulate the gallbladder and bile, which improves digestion
and liver functions. The leaves are mixed with other herbs in aromatic baths and is said to
counter sleepiness.

Sow Thistle (Sonchus oleraceus ) The plant is emmenagogue and hepatic. An infusion has
been used to bring on a tardy menstruation and to treat diarrhea. The latex in the sap is used
in the treatment of warts. It is also said to have anticancer activity. The stem juice is a
powerful hydrogogue and cathartic, it should be used with great caution since it can cause
cholic and tenesmus. The gum has been used as a cure for the opium habit. The leaves are
applied as a poultice to inflammatory swellings. An infusion of the leaves and roots is
febrifuge and tonic.

Soy (Glycine max ) Although the soy bean has only a mild medicinal action, it is helpful in
stimulating the circulation and acting as a general detoxicant. In Chinese medicine, the
sprouts are thought to help relieve ―summer heat‖ and fever. The fermented seed is weakly
diaphoretic and stomachic. It is used in the treatment of colds, fevers and headaches,
insomnia, irritability and a stuffy sensation in the chest. The bruised leaves are applied to
snakebite. The flowers are used in the treatment of blindness and opacity of the cornea. The
ashes of the stems are applied to granular hemorrhoids or fungus growths on the anus. The
immature seedpods are chewed to a pulp and applied to corneal and smallpox ulcers. The
seed is antidote. It is considered to be specific for the healthy functioning of bowels, heart,
kidney, liver and stomach. The seed sprouts are constructive, laxative and resolvent. They
are used in the treatment of edema, dysuria, chest fullness, decreased perspiration, the initial
stages of flu and arthralgia. A decoction of the bark is astringent. Soy is an ideal food for
diabetics as its sugars are hardly assimilated.

Spanish Salsify (Scolymus hispanicus): In ancient medicine the plant was used as a

Spearmint (Mentha spicata ) Spearmint is a commonly used domestic herbal remedy. A
tea made from the leaves has traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches,
digestive disorders and various minor ailments. The leaves should be harvested when the
plant is just coming into flower, and can be dried for later use. The stems are macerated and
used as a poultice on bruises. Both the essential oil and the stems are used in folk remedies
for cancer. A poultice prepared from the leaves is said to remedy tumors. Spearmint is still
listed in the Hungarian Pharmacopoeia as a medicine.
Speedwell, American (Veronica americana ) American speedwell is primarily used as an
expectorant tea, which is said to help move bronchial congestion and make coughing more
productive. It also has astringent and diuretic qualities.

Speedwell, Common (Veronica officinalis ) A tea made from the leaves is used to relieve
complaints of the respiratory tract and in cases of obstinate skin diseases. The leaves have
been employed in the treatment of pectoral and nephritic complaints, hemorrhages, skin
diseases and the treatment of wounds. Externally, it is used to wash boils and to treat acne.

Spiderwort (Tradescantia virginiana) Traditionally, the root of spiderwort was used by the
Cherokees as a folk cancer remedy. A tea of the root was considered laxative. It was also
mashed, and applied as a poultice on insect bites. A tea of the leaves was drunk by the
Cherokees for stomachache from overeating. The root of T. occidentalis served the
Meskwaki as a diuretic. Insanity was treated with spiderwort. A gum exudes from the root.
The treatment consisted of making an incision on the head, then inserting a piece of the gum
into the wound as a remedy for craziness.

Spikenard, American (Aralia racemosa) Spikenard is considered a tonic, like sarsaparilla.
Spikenard‘s roots have treated a long list of complaints including indigestion, dysentery, blood
diseases, syphilis, various skin conditions (including ringworm), as well as gout, rheumatism,
local pains, and some heart problems. It was an important blood purifying tea, particularly
during pregnancy. Herbalists still use it to balance women‘s cycles, including helping with
premenstrual syndrome. Its actions are similar to those attributed to sarsaparilla‘s
progesteronelike constituents, although hormonal activity in spikenard has not been proven.
A pleasant-tasting syrup was made with spikenard and elecampane for lung conditions like
whooping cough, asthma, and general coughs. A root poultice was chewed and applied to
wounds, and a solution mixed with wild ginger was placed on fractured limbs. The berry juice
was dropped into the ear canal to ease earache. The herb encourages sweating and is a
stimulant and detoxifying.

Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi syn N. grandiflora) Internally used for nervous
indigestion, insomnia, depression, and tension headaches. Externally for rashes and as a
Traditional Ayurvedic Uses: Jatamansi helps enhance and balance all aspects of mental
functioning, including: comprehension (Dhi), memory (Dhriti) and recollection (Smriti). It has a
particular effect of calming the emotions, nerves and brain cells to aid with excessive worries.
Jatamansi works as an indirect aid to natural nerve regeneration. It helps balance and
coordinate Prana Vata (which governs the mind) and Sadhaka Pitta (which governs the
emotions). It also has a longterm effect on Tarpaka Kapha -- coordination of the laws of
nature that govern health of the sinus cavities, head and cerebral-spinal fluids. This acts to
stabilize the emotions.

Spindle Tree, Japanese (Euonymus japonica): The bark is used as a tonic and to aid in
difficult childbirth; treats rheumatism, night sweating. The leaf is also used in cases of difficult

Spirit Plant (Lachnanthes tinctoria syn Lachnanthes carolina, Gyrotheca capitata.
Gyrotheca tinctoria) A hypnotic and a stimulant of peculiar value to the aged. The drug
Lachnanthes is prepared from the entire plant, but especially from the rhizome and roots.
Lachnanthes has been more particularly recommended in pneumonia, nervous and typhus
fevers, some diseases of the brain, in the delirium of fever, in morbid conditions of the brain
and nervous system, especially when in these several maladies redness of the cheeks and
brilliancy of the eyes are accompanying symptoms. It has also been efficient in rheumatic wry
neck, hoarseness, laryngeal cough, tinnitus aurium, and in nervous headache. It is also used
in the treatment of bowel complaints, coughs, pneumonia and the spitting of blood. A strong
decoction has been used as a wash for cancer.

Spotted Chatelain (Corallorhiza maculata ) The dried stalks have been used to make a tea
for strengthening patients suffering form pneumonia. The roots have been used as a sedative,
to kill worms, and to increase perspiration. A tablespoon of the chopped plant is steeped in
tea and drunk as needed. Coral Root is one of the best treatments for nervous disorders and
nervous fevers, a scant teaspoon boiled for ten minutes. It will reduce a fever reliably and
has a strong, sensible sedative effect particularly useful or angry or frustrated states. It is
especially good as a first aid for sudden high fevers in the first week or two after childbirth,
usually caused by dehydration or a uterine infection. This is NOT a condition for home
treatment, but Coral Root will relax the mother and lower the temperature until a physician
can apply more appropriate therapies. It should be made available if needed for any rural-
type home delivery.

Spotted Spurge (Euphorbia maculata ) The milky sap, when taken orally, causes vomiting
and acts as a strong laxative. An alcoholic extract of the plant has been given to control
dysentery. The Indians rubbed the sap on their skin to treat warts, sores, eruptions, and sore
nipples. They also drank a root infusion as a laxative.

Spotted Wintergreen (Chimaphila maculata ) The leaves and fruit have been used to
increase urine flow, as a tonic, and for treating diarrhea, syphilis, nervous disorders, and
ulcers. The plant has an antiseptic influence on the urinary system and is sometimes used in
the treatment of cystitis. An infusion of the plant has been drunk in the treatment of
rheumatism and colds. A poultice of the root has been used to treat pain while the plant has
also been used as a wash on ulcers, scrofula and cancers. All parts of the plant can be used,
though only the leaves are officinal.

Squawbush (Rhus trilobata): Skunk bush was employed medicinally by several native North
American Indian tribes, who valued it especially for its astringent qualities and used it to treat
a range of complaints. Bark: An infusion of the bark has been used as a douche after
childbirth. The bark has been chewed, and the juice swallowed, as a treatment for colds and
sore gums. Bark has also been used for: Cold remedy, in which the bark is chewed and the
juice     is    swallowed;     Oral    aid,    in     which     the     bark     is   chewed;
       Fruit: The fruit has been eaten as a treatment for stomach problems and grippe. The
fruit has been chewed as a treatment for toothache and also used as a mouthwash. A
decoction of the fruit has been used as a wash to prevent the hair falling out. The dried
berries have been ground into a powder and dusted onto smallpox pustules. Veterinary aid.
       Leaves: An infusion of the leaves has been used in the treatment of head colds. A
decoction of the leaves has been drunk to induce impotency as a method of contraception. A
poultice of leaves has been used to treat itches. Leaves are a gastrointestinal aid, in which
the leaves are boiled; Diuretic aid, in which the leaves are boiled.
       Roots: A decoction of the root bark has been taken to facilitate easy delivery of the
placenta. The roots have been used as a deodorant. The buds have been used on the body
as a medicinal deodorant and perfume. Tuberculosis Aid, in which the roots are consumed

Squill (Urginea maritime (a) (syn Drimia maritime) ) Squill is a powerful expectorant used
in chronic bronchitis, especially where there is little sputum production, which causes a dry
irritable cough. A more fluid mucus secretion is produced with squill, which in turn facilitates
an easier expectoration. The mucilage content eases and relaxes the bronchiole passages,
thereby balancing the stimulation of the glycosides. It may be used in bronchial asthma and
whooping cough. It has a stimulating action on the heart and has been used for aiding cases
of heart failure and water retention when there is heart involvement.
          Sea squill contains cardiac glycosides which are strongly diuretic and relatively quick-
acting. They do not have the same cumulative effect as those present in foxglove. The bulb
has been widely used by herbalists, mainly for its effect upon the heart and for its stimulating,
expectorant and diuretic properties. The fresh bulb is slightly more active medicinally than the
dried bulb, but it also contains a viscid acrid juice that can cause skin inflammations. This is a
very poisonous plant and it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified
          The dried bulb is cardiotonic, strongly diuretic, emetic when taken in large doses and
expectorant. The bulb can weigh up to 2 kilos. It is used internally in the treatment of
bronchitis, bronchitic asthma, whooping cough and edema and is a potential substitute for
foxglove in aiding a failing heart. Externally, the bulb has been used in the treatment of
dandruff                                    and                                     seborrhea.
        There are two main forms of this species, one has a white bulb and the other has a
red one. The red bulb is the form that is used as a rat poison whilst the white bulb is used as
a cardiotonic. Another report says that herbalists do not distinguish between the two forms.
Only the red form contains the rat poison 'scilliroside', though both forms can be used

Squinancy Root (Asperula cynanchica): An infusion of the plant was used as a gargle for
quinsy, but the plant has become rare and is not now used by herbalists.

Squirting Cucumber (Ecballium elaterium (syn Momordica elateria) ) The squirting
cucumber has been used as a medicinal plant for over 2,000 years, though it has a very
violent effect upon the body and has little use in modern herbalism. The plant is a very
powerful purgative that causes evacuation of water from the bowels. It is used internally in the
treatment of edema associated with kidney complaints, heart problems, rheumatism, paralysis
and shingles. Externally, it has been used to treat sinusitis and painful joints. Ecballine, a
compound derived from the fruits, is used in treating baldness as well as a cure against scalp

St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum ) It‘s been used for centuries for depression,
melancholy and hysteria. Paracelsus was one that prescribed it for these afflictions. One
study by Dittmann, Hermann and Palleske showed that Hyperforat, a preparation based on a
total extract, gave a well-reproducible specific inhibition of anaerobic glycolysis in secretions
of brain tumors. An infusion of leaves and flowers in olive oil is excellent for skin burns. The
herb/flowers are the parts used for lung problems, bladder complaints, diarrhea, dysentery,
depression, hemorrhages and jaundice. Steep two teaspoonsful of the herb per cup of water
for twenty minute. Take one-half cup in the morning and one-half cup at bed time.
Bedwetting is helped by a nightly cup of the tea or 5-10 drops of the tincture. The oil and
fomentation are applied externally to injuries, especially when nerve endings are involved and
to soften tumors and caked breasts.
The research on St. John‘s Wort has been substantiated on its effects on mild to moderate
depression. In a series of studies that were presented in 1992 at the Fourth International
Congress on Phytotherapy in Munich, German it helped well over half of those in the study. In
less than a month of taking this herb, the depression and accompanying disturbed sleep and
fatigue experienced by participants in these studies generally improved. In another study in
Germany in 1984, depressed women were given a tincture of St John‘s Wort. These women‘s
symptoms, including anxiety, anorexia, lack of interest in life and psychomotor problems, all
changed for the better. Research was also conducted in Russia where it was combined with
psychotherapy to treat alcoholics suffering from depression. A suggested tincture is 1 tsp
tincture of St. John‘s Wort leaf, ½ tsp tinctures of licorice root, ginseng rot, lemon balm leaf
and ashwaganda leaf. Combine ingredients. Take 1 dropperful 3 times a day. The mood-
lightening effect does not develop quickly—it is necessary to take it for up to 2-3 months. The
first          effects        will        be        felt        within        2-3         weeks.
         To help regulate disturbed sleep patterns try St. John‘s Wort. It adjusts brain
chemistry, helping to increase the availability of the neurotransmitter serotonin. It‘s also a
nervous system relaxant that helps you recover when your nerves are damaged, inflamed or
strained. To use it as such take 1 tsp each tinctures of St. John‘s Wort flowers, skullcap
leaves, fresh oats and licorice root; ½ dropperful each tinctures of ginger root and vervain
leaves. Combine ingredients and take 1 dropperful every half hour, as needed during an
emergency.             To   relieve    chronic    pain,    take   2-4    dropperfuls    a    day.
          A cream made of the flowering tops is used for localized nerve pains, such as
sciatica, sprains and cramps, or to help relieve breast engorgement during lactation. Can
also be used as an antiseptic and styptic on scrapes, sores and ulcers. The infused oil is
used in several European varicose vein ointments and in suppositories for hemorrhoids, to
reduce inflammation, pain and broken veins. If varicose veins break, you can cover them with
a combination of St John‘s Wort with essential oils. This will decrease the swelling and pain
and       will      deliver    healing     factors      that    help     repair    the     veins.
         For bruises try steeping one to two teaspoons of dried herb in vegetable oil for a few
days. Then use the oil to treat bruises.
The aerial parts taken internally can lighten the mood and lift the spirits. They make a
restorative nerve tonic, ideal for anxiety and irritability, especially during menopause. They
are also good for chronic, longstanding conditions where nervous exhaustion is a factor.
They can relieve a variety of nerve pains such as sciatica and neuralgia. It is also a valuable
tonic for the liver and gallbladder.
It has been recently marketed as an ingredient in ―Herbal Phen-Fen‖ and similar products.
There is no scientific evidence about helping with weight loss. The rationale is that depressed
people are more sedentary and this will help them become more active.
         In regards to Parkinson‘s it may have a potential to help based on the following.
Smokers have an unusually low risk of the disease because nicotine increases the release of
dopamine in the brain. The enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) depresses dopamine, so it
would make sense that medications that inhibit MAO would boost dopamine and decrease
Parkinson‘s risk, as nicotine does. Ethnobotanist Jim Duke‘s suggestion is to try a tincture
standardized to 0.1 percent hypericin and take 20-30 drops three times a day if you have

Star Anise (Illicium verun) Star anise is used in the East to relieve colic and rheumatism
and to flavor cough medicines. It warms the abdomen, dispels gas, regulates energy, treats
belching, vomiting, abdominal pains and hernia

Star of Bethlehem (Hippobroma longiflora (syn. Isotoma longiflora) ) The leaves have
been used as a counter-irritant

Star Thistle (Centaurea calcitrapa) Star thistle has had medicinal use, most notably for
reducing fevers. In the 19 century, one botanist noted that Americans were employing the
plant for kidney complaints such as nephritis and gravel. A modern European herbal lists the
seeds as a diuretic and suggests a palatable prescription made by crushing them in white
wine. It also recommends an infusion of the leaves and flowers for fevers and general
debility. For a more potent remedy, the herbal mentions brewing the leaves with angelica,
wormwood, or white willow bark. The powdered root is said to be a cure for fistula and gravel.

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana)            Stevia has been used by the native South Americans to treat
diabetes, because of its ability to lower the blood sugar level. They also use it to treat high
blood pressure. Paraguayan Matto Grosso Indian tribes use stevia as an oral contraceptive.
The women drink a daily decoction in water of powdered leaves and stems to achieve this
purpose. This activity of the plant remains a controversial issue. The suggestion is that the
antifertility effect is due to certain flavonoids and their monoglycosides, and not to stevioside.

Stink Currant (Ribes bracteosum): The fruits can be eaten in quantity as a laxative. An
infusion of the stems has been given to children as a treatment for colds.

Stinking Clover (Cleome serrulata) A poultice made of the crushed leaves has been used
to reduce swellings. The flowers have been boiled with rusty iron and the liquid drunk as a
treatment for anemia. An infusion of the plant is drunk in the treatment of fevers and stomach
disorders. A poultice made from the pounded, soaked leaves has been applied to sore eyes.

Stinking Toe (Senna grandis): Dark juice of pod is taken as a tonic drink for anemia,
tiredness, malaise—remove seeds from pods, strain juice and mix with 50% water or milk;
drink 1 cup daily. Juice of fresh leaves is applied to ringworm, fungus, or other skin
problems. For kidney complaints, water retention, backache, or biliousness, boil 3 small
branches with leaves in 3 cups water for 10 minutes and drink in sips all day in place of
water. One half cup of fresh leaves infused in 3 cups water and consumed will serve as a
diuretic and eliminate toxins from the body tissue. An infusion of young leaves is used for
diabetes. For a mild laxative and blood tonic, boil ½ cup fresh leaves in 1 cup water for 2
minutes and drink.

Stone Orchid, Japanese (Dendrobium moniliforme) It is used as anhydrotic for night-
sweats, as an anodyne and sedative in arthritis, and as a peptic tonic for convalescents and
weak patients. Also used to treats impotence.
Stone Root (Collinsonia Canadensis) : Usually combined with other herbs, the root of stone
root is used to strengthen weak veins, such as varicose veins by reducing back pressure in
the veins. . It also tones and improves the functioning of mucous membranes throughout the
body, but particularly in the pelvic region. It is suggested for use when there is insufficient
circulation in the pelvic region and a sense of ―heaviness.‖ It has a tonic action upon the
bowels and is nearly specific for hemorrhoids caused by constipation with vascular blockage.
It is known to have a near specific affinity for problems of the rectum and anus. It is given for
rectal pains and inflammation; and for dysentery with accompanying rectal problems. It treats
anal fistulae, rectal ulcers and pockets and nervous conditions affecting the rectum. Diuretic
and tonic, stone root is employed in the treatment of kidney stones. It is also prescribed to
counteract fluid retention. A syrup was once advised for inflammation or constriction of the
throat., especially in cases of laryngitis and chronic coughs and also for middle ear disorders.
Indigestion, especially when accompanied by constipation, is often remedied by stone root. A
sedative, it relieves muscle spasms, especially those in the digestive tract. The root has
occasionally been used as a remedy for headaches caused by digestive sluggishness. An
external poultice of the fresh leaves or roots is placed on wounds, sores, bruises,
inflammation as well as for the relief of poison oak and ivy dermatitis.

Storax (Liquidamber orientalis ) Storax balsam has an irritant expectorant effect on the
respiratory tract and it is an ingredient of Friar‘s Balsam, an expectorant mixture that is
inhaled to stimulate a productive cough. Levant storax, in the form of balsam, is also applied
externally to encourage the healing of skin diseases and problems such as scabies, wounds
and ulcers. Mixed with witch hazel and rosewater, it makes an astringent face lotion. In
China, storax balsam is used to clear mucus congestion and to relieve pain and constriction in
the chest. The resin has been used to loosen a cough, treat diphtheria and gonorrhea, flavor
tobacco, candy and chewing gum and as an ingredient of perfumes. It is also a powerful
stimulant of peculiar value for its aphrodisiac qualities.

Stork's Bill (Erodium cicutarium) A mild uterine hemostatic and a diuretic for water
retention, rheumatism, or gout. Not a potent plant, a fair amount is needed for effect
depending on the use. The entire plant may be put into a warm-water bath for a person
suffering the pains of rheumatism. The leaves have been made into a hot tea used to
increase urine flow, to treat uterine hemorrhage and water retention, and to increase
perspiration. Storksbill is a traditional afterbirth remedy in northern Mexico and New Mexico,
said to reliably decrease bleeding and help prevent infection. A tablespoon of the root and
leaves are brewed into tea and drunk three or four times a day. A tablespoon of the plant with
an equal part of comfrey leaves or borage steeped in a pint of water and used for douching is
considered a reliable treatment for cervicitis, especially if it has been preceded by vaginal
inflammation and no uterine infection is involved. For joint inflammations a fair amount of the
tea is consumed and the wet leaves used for a poultice for several days, the swellings
subsiding by the third or fourth day. Little adverse effect on the kidneys when used as a
diuretic and is an older herbal treatment in China for hematuria, particularly from kidney
trauma. One of the many reliable herbs for heavy, painful menstruation. The root and leaves
have been eaten by nursing mothers to increase the flow of milk. Externally, the plant has
been used as a wash on animal bites, skin infections etc. A poultice of the chewed root has
been applied to sores and rashes. An infusion has been used in the treatment of typhoid fever.
The seeds contain vitamin K, a poultice of them is applied to gouty tophus.

Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo ) Strawberry tree is valued as an astringent and antiseptic
herb. The antiseptic action of the leaves within the urinary tract makes it a useful remedy for
treating cystitis and urethritis. Its astringent effect has been put to use in the treatment of
diarrhea and dysentery. Like many other astringent plants, it makes a gargle that is helpful
for sore and irritated throats.

Strophanthus (Strophanthus gratus ) One of the strongest cardiac tonics known.
Internally usually by injection, used for heart failure, angina, hypertension, pulmonary edema,
and hypotension during anesthesia and surgery. It may be prescribed like foxglove, but the
active constituents are less well absorbed. Ouabain has been used in the treatment of
cardiac arrest since it acts very rapidly when given by injection. S. gratus has been used in
Nigeria to treat snake bite. It has been shown to delay blood clotting. The seeds are used.

Strychnos (Strychnos nux-vomica ) The properties of Nux Vomica are substantially those
of the alkaloid Strychnine. The powdered seeds are employed in atonic dyspepsia. The
tincture of Nux Vomica is often used in mixtures - for its stimulant action on the gastro-
intestinal tract. In the mouth it acts as a bitter, increasing appetite; it stimulates peristalsis, in
chronic constipation due to atony of the bowel it is often combined with cascara and other
laxatives with good effects. Strychnine, the chief alkaloid constituent of the seeds, also acts
as a bitter, increasing the flow of gastric juice; it is rapidly absorbed as it reaches the
intestines, after which it exerts its characteristic effects upon the central nervous system, the
movements of respiration are deepened and quickened and the heart slowed through
excitation of the vagal center. The senses of smell, touch, hearing and vision are rendered
more acute, it improves the pulse and raises blood pressure and is of great value as a tonic to
the circulatory system in cardiac failure. Strychnine is excreted very slowly and its action is
cumulative in any but small doses; it is much used as a gastric tonic in dyspepsia. The most
direct symptom caused by strychnine is violent convulsions due to a simultaneous stimulation
of the motor or sensory ganglia of the spinal cord; during the convulsion there is great rise in
blood pressure; in some types of chronic lead poisoning it is of great value. In cases of
surgical shock and cardiac failure large doses are given up to 1/10 grain by hypodermic
injection; also used as an antidote in poisoning by chloral or chloroform. Brucine closely
resembles strychnine in its action, but is slightly less poisonous, it paralyses the peripheral
motor nerves. It is said that the convulsive action characteristic of strychnine is absent in
brucine almost entirely. It is used in pruritis and as a local anodyne in inflammations of the
external ear. Internally, in minute amounts, for nervous exhaustion, debility, and poor
appetite (especially in the elderly and children). It is also used as a central nervous system
stimulant in chloroform or chloral poisoning, surgical shock, and cardiac arrest.

Suma (Pfaffia paniculata ) It increases energy, strengthens the immune system, fortified
hormones (especially estrogen), reduces tumors and cancers, regulates blood sugar. It is
considered a near panacea in Brazil, which it is called ―Brazilian ginseng.‖ In herbal medicine
in Ecuador today, Suma is considered a tonic for the cardiovascular system, the central
nervous system, the reproductive system, and the digestive system and is used to treat
hormonal disorders, sexual dysfunction and sterility, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, circulatory and
digestive disorders, rheumatism, and bronchitis. In European herbal medicine Suma is used
as to restore nerve and glandular functions, to balance the endocrine system, to strengthen
the immune system, for infertility, menopausal and menstrual symptoms, to minimize the side-
effect of birth control medications, for high cholesterol, to neutralize toxins and as a general
restorative tonic after illness. In North and South American herbal medicine Suma root is used
as an adaptogenic and regenerative tonic regulating many systems of the body, as an
immunostimulant, and is used to treat exhaustion resulting from Epstein-Barr disease and
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, hypoglycemia, impotency, arthritis, anemia, diabetes, cancer,
tumors, mononucleosis, high blood pressure, PMS, menopause and hormonal disorders and
many types of stress. Suma has also been called "The Russian Secret" because it is taken by
Russian Olympic athletes to increase muscle-building and endurance without the side effects
associated with steroids. This action is attributed to the anabolic agent, beta-ecdysterone as
well as three novel ecdysteroid glycosides which are found in high amounts in Suma. Suma is
such a rich source of beta-ecdysterone, that it is the subject of a Japanese patent for the
extraction methods employed to obtain it from this root. Two other plant hormones found in
Suma, sitosterol and stigmasterol, are believed to encourage estrogen production and may
account for it's use for menopausal symptoms.

Sumac (Rhus coriaria)         In the Middle East, a sour drink is made from the fruit to relieve
stomach upsets.

Sumac, Dwarf (Rhus copallina): A decoction of the root has been used in the treatment of
dysentery. An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of VD. A poultice of the
root has been applied to sores and skin eruptions. A tea made from the bark has been drunk
to stimulate milk flow in nursing mothers. A decoction of the bark has been used as a wash
for blisters and sunburn blisters. An infusion of the leaves has been used to cleanse and
purify skin eruptions. The berries were chewed in the treatment of bed-wetting and mouth

Sumac, Smooth (Rhus glabra) 19 century American physicians frequently prescribed
preparations made from Sumac. The berries have refrigerant and diuretic properties, and are
used in bowel complaints and febrile disorders. A drug made from the dried ripe fruit is a
component of gargles. The bark also has healing properties. A dose of 1 teaspoonful of the
bark decocted in boiling water and taken a mouthful at a time relieves throat irritations. The
bark may be boiled in milk and used as a healing wash for minor burns in the absence of
more potent remedies. The bark of the roots was simmered with lard and the resulting salve
was used to heal burns without leaving scars. Spirituous infusions of Sumac were rubbed on
the limbs to relieve rheumatism and aching muscles, and small balls of the gummy sap
inserted into tooth cavities relieved the pain of toothache. Decoctions in large doses are said
to be cathartic in effect. The seeds are used as a styptic. All parts of the plant yield tannin
which is medicinally valuable and dyes which are used in the leather industry.

Sumach (Cotinus coggygria): The yellow wood is used as a cholagogue, febrifuge and for
eye ailments. Recent research shows that the Cotinus coggygria syrup has the effect of
protecting the liver from chemical damages, reducing tension of the choledochal sphincter,
increasing the bile flow and raising the body immunity. The anti-hepatitis effect may be carried
out through decreasing transaminase, normalizing functioning of the gallbladder, reducing
icterus and enhancing the immunity of the body.

Sumbul (Ferula sumbul (syn Ferula suaveolens) ) A very effective nerve stimulant and
tonic. The medicinal action resembles that of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and the plant is
used in the treatment of various hysterical conditions. It is also believed to have a specific
action on the pelvic organs and is used in treating dysmenorrhea and a wide range of other
feminine disorders. The root is also a stimulant to mucous membranes and is used in treating
chronic dysenteries, diarrhea, bronchitis and even pneumonia.

Sundew (Drosera rotundifolia) The sundew has a long history of herbal use, having been
popular for its fortifying and aphrodisiac effects. Sundew may be used with great benefit in
bronchitis and whooping cough. The presence of plumbagin helps to explain this, as it has
been shown to be active against streptoccous, staphylococcus and pneumococcus bacteria.
Sundew will also help with the infections in other parts of the respiratory tract. The plant is
used with advantage in the treatment of whooping cough, exerting a peculiar action on the
respiratory organs. It is also used in the treatment of incipient phthisis and chronic bronchitis.
Its relaxing effect upon involuntary muscles helps in the relief of asthma. In addition to the
pulmonary conditions it has a long history in the treatment of stomach ulcers. Commonly
mixed with thyme in a syrup, sundew is a helpful remedy for coughs in children. The herb is
also prescribed for gastric problems. It has pigments that are active against a wide range of
pathogens. Externally, the fresh juice is directly applied to warts and corns to stimulate their

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Russian folk healers chop the head of a sunflower, soak
the pieces in vodka and soap chips in a sunny place for nine days, and then rub the mixture
on the joints of rheumatic patients as a potent liniment. In medical clinics, Russian doctors
prepare decoctions of the seeds for jaundice, malaria, heart conditions, diarrhea, and other
ailments. The seeds, browned in the oven, and made into an infusion, make a widely used
remedy for whooping cough.

Sunflower, Woodland (Helianthus strumosus ) The sunflower has many common uses.
Indians applied the crushed root to bruises. The seeds have been used to increase urine flow
and to clear phlegm. A decoction of the roots has been used to get rid of worms in both
adults and children. An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of lung problems.

Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata ) The tea made from the roots is said to remove
tapeworms from the body in one hour. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma,
rheumatism, syphilis, worms and as a heart tonic. An infusion of the roots is used as a
strengthening bath for children and adults. It is a cathartic and is beneficial in the treatment of
arthritis and stomach disorders. Can also be used as an emetic.

Sweet Annie (Artemisia annua ) Qing Ho, better known in the West as sweet wormwood, is
a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. An aromatic anti-bacterial plant, recent research has
shown that it destroys malarial parasites, lowers fevers and checks bleeding. Also used for
heat stroke. Used as an infusion. Externally the leaves are poulticed for nose bleeds,
bleeding rashes, and sores. Research in Thailand and the US shows that A. annua, in the
preparation Artesunate, is an effective antimalarial against drug-resistant strains of the
disease. Clinical trials have shown it to be 90% effective and more successful than standard
drugs. In a trial of 2000 patients, all were cured of the disease. The seeds are used in the
treatment       of       flatulence,    indigestion     and     night     sweats.           .
Indications: summer colds, sweatless fevers, malaria, nocturnal sweats, heat excess. An
excellent refrigerant remedy in ailments of ―empty-hot‖ excess.

Sweet Birch (Betula lenta) The cambium (the layer directly under the bark) is eaten in the
spring, cut into strips like vermicelli. The bark, in the form of an infusion is used as a general
stimulant and to promote sweating. As a decoction or syrup, it is used as a tonic for
dysentery and is said to be useful in genito-urinary irritation. The flavor of wintergreen and
birch bark, in the form of a tea, was popular with Native Americans and European settlers.
The juice of the leaves once made a gargle for mouth sores. Throughout the centuries, the
sap has been used in making medicinal wine and were made into a diuretic tea. Also an
ingredient in skin lotions.

Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium) In European herbal medicine, cherry stems have long been
used for their diuretic and astringent properties. They have been prescribed for cystitis,
nephritis, urinary retention, and for arthritic problems, notably gout. Cherries can be a helpful
part of an overall regimen treating arthritic problems. The high sugar content makes them
mildly laxative. An aromatic resin can be obtained by making small incisions in the trunk. This
has been used as an inhalant in the treatment of persistent coughs.

Sweet Cicely (Myrrhis odorata) Grieve says, Sweet Cicely was described by old herbalists
as 'so harmless, you cannot use it amiss'. It was recommended as a gentle stimulant for
digestive upsets and useful for coughs and consumption and was said to be particularly good
as a tonic for girls between 15 and 18. A decoction of the antiseptic roots was used for snake
and dog bites and an ointment was used to ease gout and soothe wounds and ulcers. The
roots have been used as a cough remedy and as a diuretic. The seeds and leaves possess
mild expectorant, carminative, stomachic and diuretic qualities. The essential oil contains
anethole. Sweet cicely is employed in folk medicine in some parts of the world, but its uses
have not been tested scientifically. It does seem to increase appetite and decrease flatulence,
and we know the roots are antiseptic. All parts of the plant were used in medicine and the
roots were boiled until tender and given to the elderly to eat, it was believed to strengthen the

Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata) A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of
fevers, coughs, sore throats, chafing and venereal infections. It is also used to stop vaginal
bleeding and to expel afterbirth. The stems can be soaked in water and used to treat
windburn and chapping and as an eyewash. Smoke from the burning leaves has been inhaled
in the treatment of colds.

Sweet Sumach (Rhus aromatica ) Sweet Sumach is a useful astringent that is especially
indicated in the treatment of urinary incontinence for both the young and old alike. It may
safely be used wherever an astringent is called for, such as in diarrhea or hemorrhage. It is a
strong diuretic and used to clear up vaginal discharges. The leaves were used in the
treatment of colds, stomach aches and bleeding. An infusion of the root bark can be used in
the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery. It is used as a gargle for sore throats. Its use is
contraindicated if inflammation is present. The fruits have been chewed in the treatment of
stomach aches, toothaches and gripe and used as a gargle to treat mouth and throat
complaints. They help reduce fevers and may be of help in treating late-onset diabetes by
reducing blood sugar..

Sweet Rocket (Eruca sativa (E vesicaria var sativa) ) The principal recorded medicinal
use of rocket is as a form of mild analgesic.

Sweet Tea Vine (Gynostemma pentaphyllum): Jiaogulan has such a long list of
rejuvenating properties that in China they call it the ‗immortality‘ herb. It is in a class of herbs
called ‗adaptogens‘ that help the body without causing any harm or imbalance. Jiaogulan is
especially helpful in building the body‘s natural resistance to stress. The amazing effect
jiaogulan has on cardio-vascular health has earned it the title of ―the herbal heart
defender‖. The plant was first described in traditional Chinese medicine during the Ming
dynasty (1368-1644) as a folk remedy for hepatitis, bronchitis and peptic ulcers. A better
understanding of its properties was gained in the 1980s, as part of a Japanese research
program into herbs with possible anticancer effects. It was rated among the ten most
important tonic herbs at the 1991 International Conference on Traditional Medicine, in Beijing,
China. This tonic herb improves the circulation, stimulates liver function, strengthens the
immune and nervous system, and reduces blood sugar and cholesterol levels. It also has
sedative effects, relaxing spasms and lowering blood pressure. Internally it is used for
nervous tension and exhaustion, peptic ulcer, asthma, bronchitis, diabetes, cardiovascular
disease, and cancer. According to medical understanding, the action that Jiaogulan has on
the body is two-fold. One, it directly nourishes the visceral functions by increasing blood
supply to various internal organs, through enhanced cardiac output. And two, it affects the
neuro-endocrine regulation to normalize the visceral functions that are adversely affected by
various stressors (for example, Jiaogulan‘s adaptogenic effect stabilizes and normalizes the
over-irritated brain and sympathetic nerves).

Sweet Vernal Grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum ) a tincture made from this grass with spirit
of wine is an effective and immediate cure for hay fever and as a nasal lotion. Externally
used for painful joints, chilblains, nervous exhaustion, and insomnia. Also a good scalp
cleanser and hair tonic

Sweet Woodruff Galium odoratum (Asperula odorata): One reason that woodruff leaves
were added to wines was because they aid the digestion and are helpful in treating liver
obstructions and hepatitis. At one time, woodruff leaves made a popular diuretic and remedy
to reduce bladder stones. Woodruff reduces inflammation and the asperuloside it contains
has been suggested as a starting point for manufacturing prostaglandin drugs. The herb also
provides coumarin, used to produce anticoagulant drugs. Considered a light sedative, it
comes in handy for treating nervous tension, especially in the elderly and children. Woodruff
was much used as a medicine in the Middle Ages. The fresh leaves, bruised and applied to
cuts and wounds, were said to have a healing effect, and formerly a strong decoction of the
fresh herb was used as a cordial and stomachic.

Sweetbay Magnolia (Magnolia virginiana (M glauca) ) Indians drank a warm infusion of
the bark, cones and seeds for rheumatism. In colonial times, the root bark was used in place
of quinine bark to treat malaria. A drink made of an infusion of bark and brandy was used to
treat lung and chest diseases, dysentery, and fever. A tea made of young branches boiled in
water was a treatment for colds. The bark and fruit are aromatic and have been used as a
tonic. A tincture of the fresh leaves has been used to treat rheumatism and gout, and as a
laxative. A tea made from the bark is taken internally in the treatment of colds, bronchial
diseases, upper respiratory tract infections, rheumatism and gout. The bark has been chewed
by people trying to break the tobacco habit. A tea made from the fruit is a tonic, used in the
treatment of general debility and was formerly esteemed in the treatment of stomach ailments.
The leaves or bark have been placed in cupped hands over the nose and inhaled as a mild

Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua ) In Appalachia, water- or whiskey-soaked twigs are
chewed to clean the teeth, Native Americans used the resin to treat fevers and wounds. The
gum was used by early settlers to treat herpes and skin inflammations. It has also been
applied to the cheek to ease toothache. The bark and leaves, boiled in milk or water, have
been used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. The boiled leaves have been applied to cuts and
used for treating sore feet. The aromatic drug resin storax, an expectorant and a weak
antiseptic used for treating scabies, comes from this tree. It forms in cavities of the bark and
also exudes naturally. It is harvested in autumn. Production can be stimulated by beating the
trunk in the spring. The resin has a wide range of uses including medicinal, incense,
perfumery, soap and as an adhesive. It is also chewed and used as a tooth cleaner and to
sweeten the breath. It is also chewed in the treatment of sore throats, coughs, asthma,
cystitis, dysentery etc. Externally, it is applied to sores, wounds, piles, ringworm, scabies etc.
The resin is an ingredient of 'Friar's Balsam', a commercial preparation based on Styrax
benzoin that is used to treat colds and skin problems. The mildly astringent inner bark is used
in the treatment of diarrhea and childhood cholera.

Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala) The seeds of which can be taken internally in minute
doses, providing a valuable Ayurvedic remedy against depression. They have also been
taken to treat eye disorders and to stimulate breast-milk production. In central Asia, harmala
root is a popular medicinal remedy, used in the treatment of rheumatism and nervous

Szechuan Pepper (Zanthoxylum piperitum (Xanthoxylum piperitum)) The berries of
Zanthoxylum species are carminative and anti-spasmodic. The ground bark of a related
species (Z americanum) is an old-fashioned remedy for toothache. Both bark and berries are
stimulants and they are used in traditional medicines and herbal cures to purify the blood,
promote digestion and as an anti-rheumatic.

                                           -T- HERBS

Tain Nan Xing (Arisaema consanguineum ) In Chinese herbal medicine, tian nan xing is
thought to encourage the coughing up of phlegm. It is also used for tumors, cervical cancer,
epilepsy, tetanus and complaints involving convulsions and spasmodic twitching. The dried
root is used internally in the treatment of coughs with profuse phlegm, tumors, cervical cancer,
epilepsy, tetanus and complaints involving muscular spasms. When prescribed internally it is
always combined with fresh ginger root. The fresh rhizome is only ever used externally, for
ulcers and other skin conditions. In traditional Chinese medicine three different preparations
are made from the corms: tian non xing (sun-dried); shi nan xing (cooked with raw ginger);
and dan nan xing (processed with ox bile). In China the term nan xing refers to the corms of
several species.

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica (T. officinalis)) Tamarind is a wholesale and cleansing fruit
that improves digestion, relieves gas, soothes sore throats and acts mildly laxative because of
its acids and potassium bitartrate content. In Ayurvedic medicine, it is given to improve the
appetite and to strengthen the stomach. It is also used to relieve constipation, however,
mixed with cumin and sugar tamarind is also prescribed as a treatment for dysentery. In the
West Indies it is used for urinary troubles. In southern India, tamarind soup is taken to treat
colds and other ailments that cause the production of excessive mucus. In Chinese medicine,
tamarind is considered a cooling herb, appropriate for treating the condition known as
―summer heat.‖       The Ananga Ranga mentions the use of tamarind for enhancing sexual
enjoyment by the female. Its antiseptic properties are well recognized in the East, where a
tamarind preparation is used as an eyewash and ulcer treatment. A tamarind paste is said to
relieve rheumatism. It is used in many regions of Africa in similar ways. In Nigeria and the
Ivory Coast it is included in leprosy remedies. In the U.K. an extract is utilized as a binding
agent for tablets. In Latin America, tamarind juice is the chaser of choice when you‘re
drinking alcoholic beverages. That‘s because it has a reputation for preventing hangover. A
study showed that extracts of tamarind prevented liver damage in experimental animals that
were given liver-damaging chemicals. The fruit is also given for loss of appetite and vomiting
in pregnancy.
Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Flowers are used. In the past tansy was a great cure-all, and
was often used in gypsy medicine. It was said that its juice aided conception. The
constituent thujone kills intestinal roundworms and threadworms, scabies and heals other
infected skin conditions. Very small doses have been used to treat epilepsy and to
encourage menstruation. It is a strong remedy to promote delayed or stopped menstruation.
The oil is externally applied to treat injuries, bruises and rheumatic complaints. In Scotland,
an infusion of the dried flowers and seeds (1/2 to 1 teaspoonful, two or three times a day) is
given for gout. The roots when preserved with honey or sugar, have also been reputed to be
of special service against gout, if eaten fasting every day for a certain time. From 1 to 4 drops
of the essential oil may be safely given in cases of epilepsy, but excessive doses have
produced seizures. Tansy has been used externally with benefit for some eruptive diseases
of the skin, and the green leaves, pounded and applied, will relieve sprains and allay the
swelling. A hot infusion, as a fomentation to sprained and rheumatic parts, will give relief.
Certain populations of tansy contain some of the same anti-migraine compounds as feverfew
(parthenolide). Chemical analysis is necessary to determine its presence.

Tare (Vicia hirsuta): It is rarely used in medicine, but was given in a decoction made of milk,
to drive out the small-pox and measles. Culpeper said: ‗Tares are rarely used in medicines,
though the vulgar boil them in milk, and give the decoction to drive out the small-pox and

Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) Pliny thought tarragon prevented fatigue and during the
Middle Ages the faithful put it in their shoes before setting out on pilgrimages. Leaves have
been used to stimulate appetite (especially when it has been lost because of illness), settle an
upset stomach, promote the menses and as a diuretic. Chewed to numb a toothache and
before eating bitter medicine Taking the tea before going to bed could help with insomnia. In
warmer climes it is used to treat threadworms in children

Tatarian Aster (Aster tataricus ) This species has been used for at least 2,000 years in
traditional Chinese medicine. It has an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of
Staphococcus aureus, E. coli, Bacillus dysenteriae, B. typhi, Pseudomonas and Vibrio
proteus. The root is taken internally in the treatment of chronic bronchitis and tuberculosis and
is often used raw with honey in order to increase the expectorant effect. The plant has shown
anticancer activity and is a folk cure for cancer.

Tea (Camellia sinensis (Thea sinensis) )          The tea plant is commonly used in Chinese
herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs. Modern research
has shown that there are many health benefits to drinking tea, including its ability to protect
the drinker from certain heart diseases. It has also been shown that drinking tea can protect
the teeth from decay, because of the fluoride naturally occurring in the tea. The leaves exert a
decided influence over the nervous system, giving a feeling of comfort and exhilaration, but
also producing an unnatural wakefulness when taken in large doses. They are used internally
in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Excessive use can lead
to dizziness, constipation, constipation, indigestion, palpitations and insomnia. Externally,
they are used as a poultice or wash to treat cuts, burns, bruises, insect bites, ophthalmia,
swellings etc. Only the very young leaves and leaf buds are used, these can be harvested
throughout the growing season from plants over three years old and are dried for later use. In
Ayurveda, tea is considered astringent, sweat-inducing, and a nerve tonic, and is used for eye
problems, hemorrhoids, tiredness, and fever. Tea leaves may be used externally to soothe
insect bites and sunburn. Research in China suggests that green tea can help hepatitis.
Research in Japan in 1990 showed that tea contains constituents that inhibit tooth decay.

Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) Tea tree is a traditional Aboriginal remedy. The leaves are
crushed, and either inhaled or used in infusions for coughs, colds, and skin infections. Tea
tree oil or cream can be applied to skin infections such as athlete‘s foot and ringworm, as well
as to corns, warts, acne and boils, infected burns, scrapes, wounds, insect bites and stings
and other skin conditions. It very efficacious in the treatment of urinary tract disorders. It‘s
anti-fungal action works well on athlete's foot, ringworm, warts, corns, abscesses. Use in
cream or 5% vegetable oil, or applied undiluted. Also effective and soothing on cold sores.
Applied diluted in vegetable oil at 5%. Use gargle for mouth ulcers, toothache, and bad gums.
        Tea tree is also used for aphthous stomatitis, candidiasis (daily douche with 1 quart of
water and 0.4% concentration of the oil); Other uses are for Acne, Bromhidrosis;
Onychomycosis, in conjunction with debridement; Pharyngitis; Sinusitis; Tinea pedis
(massaged into the feet daily); Trichomonas vaginalis

Teasel ( Dipsacus fullonum (syn Dipsacus sylvestris) ) Teasel root is not much used
medicinally today, and its therapeutic applications are disputed. It is thought to have diuretic,
sweat-inducing, and stomach-soothing properties, cleansing the system and improving
digestion. Due to its apparent astringency, teasel is considered helpful in diarrhea. It is also
thought to increase appetite, to tone the stomach, and to act on the liver, helping with
jaundice and gallbladder problems. An infusion of the leaves has been used as a wash to
treat acne. The plant has a folk history of use in the treatment of cancer, an ointment made
from the roots is used to treat warts, wens and whitlows. There is no clear picture of teasel‘s
actions, but its closeness to the thistle family means it might well reward careful investigation.

Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus syn Rubus nutkanus) An infusion of the leaves is used
internally in the treatment of stomach complaints, diarrhea and dysentery, anemia, the spitting
up of blood and to treat vomiting. An infusion has been taken by women when their periods
are unusually long. A poultice of the dried powdered leaves has been used to treat wounds
and burns. The leaves have been crushed and rubbed over the skin to treat pimples and
blackheads. A poultice of the leaf ashes, mixed with oil, has been used to treat swellings. An
infusion of the root has been used by thin people to help them gain weight. An infusion has
also been used in the treatment of stomach disorders, diarrhea and dysentery. A decoction of
the roots has been taken in the treatment of pimples and blackheads.

Thistle, Creeping (Cirsium arvense): The root has been chewed as a remedy for toothache.
A decoction of the roots has been used to treat worms in children. The roots are slightly
demulcent, with stimulating and mildly astringing properties. An ounce simmered in a pint of
milk is a family remedy for low forms of diarrhea and dysentery, after the acute symptoms
have subsided.. Two fluid ounces of such a decoction may be taken every two or three hours.
An infusion is said to expedite labor very effectually, when the nervous system has become
fatigued-also anticipating after-pains and flooding. A syrup of this root has been used in long-
standing coughs, where the expectoration was free and the lungs feeble. The leaves made
into a decoction and used somewhat freely, are said to increase the flow of milk, and gently to
overcome hepatic obstructions; and the juice makes a rather soothing wash (or ointment) for
irritable sores, tender eyes, and piles. The plant contains a volatile alkaloid and a glycoside
called cnicin, which has emetic and emmenagogue properties.

Thrift (Armeria maritime (syn Armeria elongata, Armeria vulgaria, Statice armeria,
Statice maritima) ) An infusion of fresh or dried flowers was formerly used as an antiseptic
and to treat nervous disorders but now thought to cause allergic reactions such as dermatitis.

Thuja (Thuja occidentalis) Thuja has an established antiviral activity. It is most often used
to treat warts and polyps, being prescribed both internally and externally for these conditions.
It is also used as part of a regime for treating cancer—especially cancer of the uterus.
Thuja‘s active principle, a volatile oil called thujone, acts on the muscles of the uterus and
Native Americans drank a tea of the inner bark to promote menstruation. Thuja also tones
the bronchial passages and herbalists may prescribe it for bronchitis and catarrh because it
combines expectoration with a systemic stimulation, which is beneficial if there is also heart
weakness. Where urinary incontinence occurs due to loss of muscle tone, thuja may be used.
It is used to treat acute cystitis and bed-wetting in children. It has a role in the treatment of
psoriasis and rheumatism as a counter-irritant, improving local blood supply and easing pain
and stiffness. A quantity of leaves boiled in lard makes a salve which serves as a local
application. It cools the blood, stops bleeding and may be used for heated blood syndrome,
or with warm herbs for cold and stagnant blood circulation. Topically it can be applied in
powder form to promote the healing of burns. The young twigs of thuja may be made into an
infusion and taken as a tea for bronchial catarrh and for dry irritable coughs. It also is
beneficial for heart weakness. Thuja twig tea may be used to treat delayed menstruation.
Thyme (Thymus spp) Thyme‘s main medicinal role is in treating coughs (including
whooping cough) and clearing congestion. It makes an excellent gargle or mouthwash for
sore throats and infected gums. Many pharmaceutical gargles, cough drops, mouthwashes,
and vapor rubs contain thyme‘s constituent thymol, which destroys bacteria, some fungus,
and the shingles virus (herpes zoster). Participants in a study who rinse twice daily with
Listerine™, containing thymol (with eucalyptol and menthol), found they developed 34% less
gum inflammation and new plaque formation. Thyme improves digestion, relaxing smooth
muscels. It reduces the prostaglandins responsible for many menstrual cramps. Thyme also
helps destroy intestinal parasites (especially hookworms and roundworms). Used externally
for infected wounds. Soothing sedative action on nerves. Expectorant, reduces spasms.
Induces perspiration to break fever and aid in beginning of colds. Strengthens lungs. Good
for headache. Used for uterine problems. Will help bring on delayed or suppressed
menstruation. Eases difficult or painful menstruation. Good for stomach weakness and
cramps, indigestion, gas,

Thymes, Azores (Thymus caespititius): The leaves and especially the essential oil
contained in them are strongly antiseptic deodorant and disinfectant. The plant can be used
fresh at any time of the year or it can be harvested as it comes into flower and either be
distilled for the oil or dried for later use.

Tirphal (Zanthoxylum rhetsa): a decoction of tirphal is a good cure for dysentery. The spice
is known for its antiflatulent properties. Anti-rheumatic and improves the blood flow to painful
and stiff joints, so promoting the supply of oxygen and nutrients while removing waste
products. Used for arthritis, detoxifying, fibrosis, poor circulation, rheumatism, thread veins,
ulcers, varicose veins. The essential oil is for external use only and should always be diluted
with a suitable carrier oil before applying to the skin. Non-toxic and non-irritant with some
sensitization in some individuals.

Toad Herb (Franseria tenuifolia (syn Ambrosia tenuifolia) ) A ground-up root has been
placed in tooth cavities to relieve toothache. A tea made of the leaves—either green or dried
and ground—has been used for stomach distress.

Toadshade (Trillium sessile) A poultice of the bruised leaves and crushed roots has been
applied as a treatment for boils. A decoction of the plant has been used to treat any kind of
sickness. American Indians used this plant as an effective eye medicine. They either
squeezed the juice directly onto their eyes or soaked the root and made an eye wash out of
it. Indians also used the roots to ease the pain of childbirth.

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum ) Tobacco has a long history of use by medical herbalists as
a relaxant, though since it is a highly additive drug it is seldom employed internally or
externally at present. The leaves are used externally in the treatment of rheumatic swelling,
skin diseases and scorpion stings. The plant should be used with great caution, when taken
internally it is an addictive narcotic. The active ingredients can also be absorbed through the
skin. Wet tobacco leaves can be applied to stings in order to relieve the pain. They are also a
certain cure for painful piles. A homeopathic remedy is made from the dried leaves. It is used
in the treatment of nausea and travel sickness.

Tobacco, Flowering (Nicotiana alata): Occasionally used as stimulant for nervous system

Tolu Balsam (Myroxylon balsamum var. balsamum) The balsam works primarily on the
respiratory mucous membranes and is good for chronic catarrh and non-inflammatory chest
complaints, laryngitis and croup. It is used as a flavor and mild expectorant in cough syrups
and lozenges. As an ingredient in compound benzoin tincture and similar formulations, it is
helpful in the treatment of cracked nipples, lips, cuts, bedsores, etc.
         The leaves and fruits of M. pereirae have been used by indigenous tribes of Mexico
and Central America and the bitter resin employed for asthma, catarrh, rheumatism, and
external wounds and the Choco Indian use the powdered bark as an underarm deodorant.
The sap of M. balsamum has had indigenous uses for colds, and lung ailments, and the
Amazon rainforest tribes have employed it for abscesses, asthma, bronchitis, catarrh,
headache, rheumatism, sores, sprains, tuberculosis, venereal diseases, and wounds. The
indigenous use of Balsam of Peru led to its export to Europe in the 17 century where it was
first documented in the German pharmacopeia and to its use as a bactericide, fungicide and
parasiticide in cases of scabies, ringworm, pediculosis, granulations, superficial ulcerations,
wounds, bed sores, diaper rash and chilblains. The vapor from the balsam dissolved in ether
when inhaled, is beneficial in chronic catarrh and other noninflammatory chest complaints.
The best form is that of an emulsion, made by titurating the balsam with mucilage and loaf
sugar, and adding water.
          Balsam of Tolu was included in the US Pharmacopeia in 1820 as well and used
similarly in addition to an antitussive and respiratory used for lozenges for coughs and sore
throats, in cough syrups and as a vapor inhalant for respiratory ailments with documented
antiseptic and expectorant properties.

Tonka Bean (Dipteryx odorata) Coumarin is cardiac, tonic and narcotic and the fluid extract
is used in whooping cough, but large doses cause paralysis of the heart. Coumarin
derivatives are used as anti-coagulants. Also Carminative, Diaphoretic, Febrifuge, Stimulant,
Stomachic. Classified by FDA as Class 3 herb (To be used only under the supervision of an
expert qualified in the appropriate use of this substance). Allowed in alcoholic beverages in
Canada if coumarin-free.

Tormentil (Potentilla erecta, Potentilla tormentilla, Tormentilla erecta) Internally used for
diarrhea, enteritis, Crohn‘s disease, mucous colitis, ulcerative colitis, gastritis, diverticulitis,
peptic ulcer, and inflammation of the colon. Externally for hemorrhoids, vaginal discharge,
sore throat, mouth ulcers, cuts, sores, ulcers, burns, sunburn, frostbite, and shingles. Care is
needed in topical application of strong tannins, which can cause scarring.

Trailing Eclipta (Eclipta prostrata (syn E. alba) ) Trailing eclipta has remarkably similar
uses in Ayurveda and in Chinese herbal medicine. In both of these traditions, a decoction is
used to invigorate the liver, to prevent premature graying of the hair, and to staunch bleeding,
especially from the uterus. In the Chinese tradition, the herb is considered a yin tonic; in
Ayurvedic medicine it is thought to prevent aging. In the Caribbean, the juice is sometimes
taken for asthma and bronchitis. Trailing eclipta is also used there as a treatment for
enlarged glands, as well s for dizziness, vertigo and blurred vision. The plant is employed
externally      for     various      skin      problems     and       as      a     wound      healer.
        Its chemistry may explain why Ayurveda has effectively used medicines extracted from
the this plant in the treatment of jaundice. The traditional belief in India is tat extracts from the
leaf can cure jaundice in a week and Indian liver tonics always contain this herb. Powder
made from its roots are used against enlargement of the liver and spleen. A combination of
the root powder and oil are rubbed on the forehead for headaches, and the plant‘s pain-killing
property is also recognized in the leaf poultice used for scorpion stings, while a vapor bath
from      its   leaves     is     considered      the   time-tested      cure     for    hemorrhoids.
        It is used internally in the treatment of dropsy and liver complaints, anemia, diphtheria
etc, tinnitus, and tooth loss. Externally, it is used as an oil to treat hair loss and is also applied
to athlete's foot, eczema, dermatitis, wounds etc. The plant juice, mixed with an aromatic is
used in the treatment of catarrhal problems and jaundice. The roots are emetic and purgative.
They are applied externally as an antiseptic to ulcers and wounds, especially in cattle.

Traveler's Joy (Clematis vitalba ) The leaves of traveler‘s joy irritate the skin, causing it to
redden and blister, but they are also strongly analgesic. Applied to arthritic joints, they help
relieve pain and encourage the removal of waste products. The plant is also diuretic, and has
been taken internally in the past to counter urinary problems. However, the mature plant is
now known to be toxic and should not be ingested. The juice is reputed to relieve headaches
and migraine, if sniffed, but, since this might destroy the mucus lining of the nose, it is not
advised. The boiled roots and stems are used as a cure for the itch.

Tree Lungwort (Lobaria pulmonaria )      A beneficial but under-used remedy, tree lungwort
has expectorant and tonic properties. It